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Sample records for avian uropygial gland

  1. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salibian

    Full Text Available This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms.

  2. The Possible Role of the Uropygial Gland on Mate Choice in Domestic Chicken

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    Atsushi Hirao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In avian mating systems, male domestic fowls are polygamous and mate with a number of selected members of the opposite sex. The factors that influence mating preference are considered to be visual cues. However, several studies have indicated that chemosensory cues also affect socio-sexual behavior, including mate choice and individual recognition. The female uropygial gland appears to provide odor for mate choice, as uropygial gland secretions are specific to individual body odor. Chicken olfactory bulbs possess efferent projections to the nucleus taeniae that are involved in copulatory behavior. From various reports, it appears that the uropygial gland has the potential to act as the source of social odor cues that dictate mate choice. In this review, evidence for the possible role of the uropygial gland on mate choice in domestic chickens is presented. However, it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between the uropygial gland and major histocompatibility complex-dependent mate choice.

  3. The evolution of size of the uropygial gland: mutualistic feather mites and uropygial secretion reduce bacterial loads of eggshells and hatching failures of European birds.

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    Soler, J J; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Martín-Platero, A M; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Møller, A P

    2012-09-01

    Potentially, pathogenic bacteria are one of the main infective agents against which a battery of chemical and physical barriers has evolved in animals. Among these are the secretions by the exocrine uropygial gland in birds. The antimicrobial properties of uropygial secretions may prevent colonization and growth of microorganisms on feathers, skin and eggshells. However, uropygial gland secretions also favour the proliferation of feather mites that feed on secretions and microorganisms living on feathers that would otherwise reach eggshells during incubation if not consumed by feather mites. Therefore, at the interspecific level, uropygial gland size (as an index of volume of uropygial secretion) should be positively related to eggshell bacterial load (i.e. the risk of egg infection), whereas eggshell bacterial loads may be negatively related to abundance of feather mites eating bacteria. Here, we explore these previously untested predictions in a comparative framework using information on eggshell bacterial loads, uropygial gland size, diversity and abundance of feather mites and hatching success of 22 species of birds. The size of the uropygial gland was positively related to eggshell bacterial loads (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae), and bird species with higher diversity and abundance of feather mites harboured lower bacterial density on their eggshells (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus), in accordance with the hypothesis. Importantly, eggshell bacterial loads of mesophilic bacteria, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae were negatively associated with hatching success, allowing us to interpret these interspecific relationships in a functional scenario, where both uropygial glands and mutualistic feather mites independently reduce the negative effects of pathogenic bacteria on avian fitness. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Embryogenesis of the Uropygial Glands in the Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis (Rothschild, 1893): Procellariiformes).

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    Rehorek, S J; Wu, J L; Smith, T D; Beeching, S C

    2017-08-01

    An avian uropygial gland is located on the mid-dorsum of the tail, and is the only external gland found in birds. Most studies have focused on the function, gross anatomy and chemical nature of this gland, with little research on its ontogeny. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of this gland in a series of Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) embryos. Specimens were examined anatomically and histologically. It was found that grooves preceded glandular development by many stages. The embryogenesis of the uropygial gland was divided into 6 phases: preinception, groove inception, mesodermal separation, migrating mesodermal cells, oval shaped "depressions", constriction and finally glandular inception. No other gland is known to develop similarly, though there may be parallels with femoral gland development. In comparison to other bird species, the length of the development period in the Albatross, as well as other compounding factors, make it difficult to determine the significance of these observations. The development of a mesodermal band, soon to be a connective tissue capsule, is more complex than originally described in ducks. Thus, the unique nature of this gland is established, but the significance of the observations required further studies into uropygial gland development. Anat Rec, 300:1420-1428, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Songbird chemical signals reflect uropygial gland androgen sensitivity and predict aggression: implications for the role of the periphery in chemosignaling.

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    Whittaker, Danielle J; Rosvall, Kimberly A; Slowinski, Samuel P; Soini, Helena A; Novotny, Milos V; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2018-01-01

    Chemical signals can provide useful information to potential mates and rivals. The production mechanisms of these signals are poorly understood in birds, despite emerging evidence that volatile compounds from preen oil may serve as chemosignals. Steroid hormones, including testosterone (T), may influence the production of these signals, yet variation in circulating T only partly accounts for this variation. We hypothesized that odor is a T-mediated signal of an individual's phenotype, regulated in part by androgen sensitivity in the uropygial gland. We quantified natural variation in chemosignals, T, uropygial gland androgen sensitivity, and aggressive behavior in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). The interaction between circulating T and androgen receptor transcript abundance significantly correlated with volatile concentrations in male, but not female, preen oil. In both sexes, odorant variables correlated with aggressive response to an intruder. Our results suggest that preen oil volatiles could function as signals of aggressive intent, and, at least in males, may be regulated by local androgen receptor signaling in the uropygial gland. Because these behavioral and chemical traits have been linked with reproductive success, local regulation of androgen sensitivity in the periphery has the potential to be a target of selection in the evolution of avian olfactory signaling.

  6. The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird.

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    Sonia M Rodríguez-Ruano

    Full Text Available Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia. The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host.

  7. Histologic structure of the uropygial gland of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus).

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    Harem, Ismail S; Kocak-Harem, Melek; Turan-Kozlu, Tolunay; Akaydin-Bozkurt, Yesim; Karadag-Sari, Ebru; Altunay, Hikmet

    2010-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the histologic structure of the uropygial gland in an osprey. The gland was composed of two elongated lobes which were enclosed in a capsule of connective tissue. Each lobe of the gland had a large central cavity with one excretory duct. The secretory tubules consisted of four cell types: basal, intermediate, secretory, and degenerative. The intermediate cells in the osprey were few in number and did not form a layer, while secretory and degenerative cells consist of 2-3 strata, indicating a high level of lipogenesis. The membranes and peripheral cytoplasm of degenerative cells located in the base of the lobes revealed calcium (Ca2+) deposition and an intense acidophilic reaction.

  8. The impact of uropygial gland secretions on mechanically induced wearing of barn owl and pigeon body feathers

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    Ott, Benjamin; Müsse, Annika; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Bird feathers are remarkable structures light but yet durable providing insulation and the ability of flight. Owls are highly specialized birds of prey, widely known for their ability to y silently which is enabled by (micro-) structural specializations of the feathers. The barn owl replaces feathers less frequently in comparison to other same sized birds like pigeons, indicating a much better resistance against material fatigue of these delicate microstructures. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) of water drop contact angles as a non-destructive method of characterizing wearing processes in feathers. We hypothesized that feathers become more wettable when worn. We also investigated the impact of ethanol treatment in order to remove fatty residues of the uropygial gland secretions, barn owls and pigeons use for preening, on ageing processes. Ethanol treatment resulted in a slight, but significant increase of water repellency in barn owl but not in pigeon flight feathers. Our preliminary data also suggest that the uropygial gland secretions decelerate the wearing process of the feather keratin. We observed this effect in both species, however, it was more distinct for barn owl uropygial gland secretions. The results of this study, obtained by contact angle measurements used as a non-destructive evaluation method of material fatigue, yield insights into the material fatigue of feathers and the decelerating effect of uropygial gland secretions on wear on the other hand.

  9. Bacteriocins with a broader antimicrobial spectrum prevail in enterococcal symbionts isolated from the hoopoe's uropygial gland.

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    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Soler, Juan J

    2013-09-01

    The use of compounds produced by symbiotic bacteria against pathogens in animals is one of the most exciting discoveries in ecological immunology. The study of those antibiotic metabolites will enable an understanding of the defensive strategies against pathogenic infections. Here, we explore the role of bacteriocins explaining the antimicrobial properties of symbiotic bacteria isolated from the uropygial gland of the hoopoe (Upupa epops). The antagonistic activity of 187 strains was assayed against eight indicator bacteria, and the presence of six bacteriocin genes was detected in the genomic DNA. The presence of bacteriocin genes correlated with the antimicrobial activity of isolates. The most frequently detected bacteriocin genes were those encoding for the MR10 and AS-48 enterocins, which confer the highest inhibition capacity. All the isolates belonged to the genus Enterococcus, with E. faecalis as the most abundant species, with the broadest antimicrobial spectrum and the highest antagonistic activity. The vast majority of E. faecalis strains carried the genes of MR10 and AS-48 in their genome. Therefore, we suggest that fitness-related benefits for hoopoes associated with harbouring the most bactericidal symbionts cause the highest frequency of strains carrying MR10 and AS-48 genes. The study of mechanisms associated with the acquisition and selection of bacterial symbionts by hoopoes is necessary, however, to reach further conclusions. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions

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    Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  11. Uropygial gland volatiles may code for olfactory information about sex, individual, and species in Bengalese finches Lonchura striata

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    Jian-Xu ZHANG et al.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Over-shadowed by eye-catching vocal and visual signals, chemical communication has long been overlooked in birds. This study aimed at exploring whether volatile composition of the uropygial gland secretion (UGS of birds was associated with the information about sex, individual and species. By using dichloromethane extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, we analyzed the UGS volatiles of domesticated Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata, Estrildiea which is also known as white-rumped munias. We characterized 16 volatile molecules from the UGS, including eight n-alkanols, five diesters, an ester, an aldehyde and a fatty acid, and quantified them in terms of GC peak area percentages (relative abundances. Among these compounds, hexadecanol and octadecanol were major components in both sexes. The former was richer in males than females and the latter richer in females than males, suggesting that they might be male and female pheromone candidates, respectively. The high inter-individual variations, in relative abundance, of the UGS volatiles implied that they might carry information about individuality. The similarity between GC profiles of the UGS and wing feather from same individuals indicates that the birds might preen the secretion to their feathers to transmit chemical cues. Additionally, by comparing with three sympatric passerine species,i.e., zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, yellow-bowed buntings Emberiza chrysophrys and rooks Corvus frugilegus, we found that the composition of C13-C18 alkanols in the UGS might contain information about species. Our study also show that quantitative differences (degree of same UGS volatiles might be the key for the Bengalese finch to code for information about sex and individuality whereas both the kind and degree of UGS constituents could be utilized to code for information about species [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  12. Harvey, Mark S. (2003): Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae

    OpenAIRE

    Blick, Theo

    2010-01-01

    book review: Harvey Mark S. (2003): Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae. Includes checklists for Europe of: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Solifugae.

  13. Harvey, Mark S. (2003: Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blick, Theo

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available book review: Harvey Mark S. (2003: Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae. Includes checklists for Europe of: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Solifugae.

  14. Analýza karyotypu u vybraných bičovců řádů Amblypygi a Uropygi

    OpenAIRE

    Sember, Alexandr

    2010-01-01

    Karyotype analysis of selected species from arachnid orders Amblypygi and Uropygi Whip spiders (Amblypygi) and whip scorpions (Uropygi) represent relict arachnid orders which has been found already at Upper Carboniferous strata. Although cytogenetic data from amblypygids and uropygids might be important to reconstruct karyotype evolution of arachnids, cytogenetics of these orders is almost unknown. Presented study is aimed in analysis of karyotype and meiosis in 16 species of Amblypygi and 4 ...

  15. Comparative morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in Uropygi and Amblypygi (Arachnida): Complex correspondences support Arachnopulmonata.

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    Klußmann-Fricke, B-J; Wirkner, C S

    2016-08-01

    Although the circulatory system of arthropods has long been considered as rather simple, recent studies have demonstrated that in certain arthropod taxa, such as Malacostraca, some Chilopoda and also many Chelicerata, the vascular systems in particular are rather complex. Furthermore, a recent study has revealed that the prosomal ganglion of scorpions and spiders is supplied by an intricate network of arteries, the complexity of which bears a close resemblance to that of vertebrate capillary systems. In this study, we analyzed the hemolymph vascular systems of various species of Pedipalpi (i.e., Amblypygi and Uropygi). By combining modern techniques, such as MicroCT and cLSM, with computer-based 3D-reconstruction, we were able to produce comprehensive visualizations and descriptions of the vascular systems. Despite the lack of well-corroborated phylogenetic hypotheses on arachnid relationships and the controversial assertion of relationships between the pulmonate arachnids, we aim to elucidate the evolution of complex vascular systems in Arachnida. By comparing these highly complex vascular systems not only with each other, but also with other pulmonate arachnids, we found numerous detailed correspondences in the general branching pattern as well as in the supply patterns of the prosomal ganglion. We argue that these numerous and detailed correspondences by their absence in other arachnids i.e. aplumonates, support Arachnopulmonata. J. Morphol. 277:1084-1103, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Avian anemia's

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    Raukar Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with avian anemia's classified by MCHC/MCV and with types of anemia's. Father hematological and immunological research is needed to secure information on hematological parameters in different avian species at their earliest age. Anemia is a common clinical finding in birds because the avian erythrocyte half - life is much shorter than the mammalian. Therefore anemia should be determined as soon as possible. Researchers should standardize hematological parameters for every single avian species.

  17. Avian anemia's

    OpenAIRE

    Raukar Jelena

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with avian anemia's classified by MCHC/MCV and with types of anemia's. Father hematological and immunological research is needed to secure information on hematological parameters in different avian species at their earliest age. Anemia is a common clinical finding in birds because the avian erythrocyte half - life is much shorter than the mammalian. Therefore anemia should be determined as soon as possible. Researchers should standardize hematologica...

  18. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  19. Avian Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate new individuals through differentiation, maturation and fertilization. This means that the manipulation of PGCs is directly linked to the manipulation of individuals, making PGCs attractive target cells in the animal biotechnology field. A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. Following the development of a technique for transplantation, PGCs have become central to avian biotechnology, in contrast to the use of embryo manipulation and subsequent transfer to foster mothers, as in mammalian biotechnology. Today, avian PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced manipulation techniques, including cell purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture in vitro, have enabled the establishment of genetically modified poultry lines and ex-situ conservation of poultry genetic resources. This chapter introduces the principles, history, and procedures of producing avian germline chimeras by transplantation of PGCs, and the current status of avian germline modification as well as germplasm cryopreservation. Other fundamental avian reproductive technologies are described, including artificial insemination and embryo culture, and perspectives of industrial applications in agriculture and pharmacy are considered, including poultry productivity improvement, egg modification, disease resistance impairment and poultry gene "pharming" as well as gene banking.

  20. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop flu-like symptoms within 10 days of handling infected birds or being in an area with ... your provider if you become sick after you return from your trip. Current information regarding avian flu ...

  1. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  2. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become...... infected. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) may reach similar maximum prevalence levels in wild bird populations to HPAIV but the risk of LPAIV infection of a poultry holding was estimated to be lower than that of HPAIV. Only few non-wild bird pathways were identified having a non...

  3. Avian Influenza.

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    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  4. Avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera is a contagious disease resulting from infection by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Several subspecies of bacteria have been proposed for P. multocida, and at least 16 different P. multocida serotypes or characteristics of antigens in bacterial cells that differentiate bacterial variants from each other have been recognized. The serotypes are further differentiated by other methods, including DNA fingerprinting. These evaluations are useful for studying the ecology of avian cholera (Fig. 7.1), because different serotypes are generally found in poultry and free-ranging migratory birds. These evaluations also show that different P. multocida serotypes are found in wild birds in the eastern United States than those that are found in the birds in the rest of the Nation (Fig. 7.2).

  5. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck glands References National Cancer Institute. PDQ salivary gland cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Last modified ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Salivary Gland Cancer Read more Salivary Gland Disorders Read more NIH ...

  6. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  7. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  8. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Subtypes Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Related Links Research Glossary of Influenza (Flu) Terms ...

  9. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Top of Page Avian Influenza in Wild Birds Avian influenza A viruses have ... hours. Some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Avian influenza outbreaks are of concern in domesticated birds for ...

  10. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  11. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  12. Adrenal Gland Disorders

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    ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough ... born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors including pheochromocytomas Infections A ...

  13. Aquaporins and Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes. This book chapter will focus on summarizing the current knowledge on AQPs expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract , including salivary glands, gastric glands, Duodenal Brunner's gland, liver and gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, exocrine and endocrine pancreas, as well as few other secretory glands including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands and eccrine sweat glands.

  14. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...

  15. Avian Circadian Organization: A Chorus of Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Vincent M

    2013-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to maintain stable phase relationships and then influence downstream rhythms through entrainment of peripheral oscillators in the brain controlling behavior and peripheral tissues. Birds represent an excellent model for the role played by biological clocks in human neurobiology; unlike most rodent models, they are diurnal, they exhibit cognitively complex social interactions, and their circadian clocks are more sensitive to the hormone melatonin than are those of nocturnal rodents. PMID:24157655

  16. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View / ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus ...

  17. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  18. Mammary gland stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers.

  19. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries. Other avian influenza A( ... outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries. Other avian influenza A( ...

  20. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections will return. Complications are not common. Possible Complications Complications may include: Abscess of salivary gland Infection returns ... cases, salivary gland infections cannot be prevented. Good oral hygiene may prevent some cases of bacterial infection. ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  1. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy is a common form of treatment for head-and-neck malignancies. One of the most prominent complaints after radiotherapy is a dry mouth, which is caused by irradiation of the salivary glands. The main contributors of saliva during stimulation are the parotid glands, which are

  2. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  3. Vulvar sweat gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, M R; Goellner, J R; Wolfe, J T; Su, W P

    1985-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas constitute less than 10% of all malignant tumors of the vulva, including those associated with extramammary Paget's disease (EPD). The histopathologic diagnosis of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas is difficult because of their rarity; their resemblance to metastatic carcinomas of the internal female genitalia, kidneys, and other sites; and their diversity of microscopic appearances. We report five examples of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas, two of which were associated with EPD. The other tumors included one example each of ductal eccrine adenocarcinoma, eccrine porocarcinoma, and clear cell hidradenocarcinoma. The clinical behavior of these neoplasms is correlated with their histologic types; we also discuss differential diagnosis and treatment recommendations.

  4. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  5. Salivary gland biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy References Miloro M, Kolokythas A. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  6. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Takavar A

    1994-01-01

    Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Usin...

  7. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  8. Mammary Gland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  9. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  10. Mycobacterium genavense and avian polyomavirus co-infection in a European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarolla, G; Liandris, E; Pisoni, G; Moroni, P; Piccinini, R; Rampin, T

    2007-10-01

    Systemic mycobacteriosis associated with avian polyomavirus infection was diagnosed histologically in an 8-year-old, captive European goldfinch with a history of nervous signs. Severe mycobacterial lesions were observed in the central nervous system, lungs, cervical air sacs and adrenal glands, without involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to mycobacteriosis, intranuclear inclusions, typical of polyomavirus, were identified in the adrenal glands. Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to identify Mycobacterium genavense and finch polyomavirus as the causative agents. The absence of involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and the severity of the lesions in the respiratory tract suggested that inhalation may have been the primary route of infection with M. genavense.

  11. Submandibular gland excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sanfurgo de Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the value of fine needle aspiration and the rates of postoperative complications in patients undergoing resection of the submandibular gland. METHODS: we analyzed the records of patients treated with resection of the gland from January 1995 to December 2008. The data collected included age, gender, findings on clinical history, surgical procedure, results of fine needle aspiration (FNA, pathological diagnosis and complications. RESULTS: 117 patients were studied, aged 12-89 years (mean 48, 70 women and 47 men. Thirty-nine patients (33.3% were affected by inflammatory diseases (28 patients with lithiasis, 70 had benign tumors, and malignant tumors, eight. Regarding FNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 100%, respectively. Nine patients (7.7% had temporary paralysis of the marginal mandibular nerve and one had permanent paralysis. CONCLUSION: resection of the submandibular gland is a safe procedure, with low complication rates.

  12. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  13. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  14. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  15. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Aakalu

    Full Text Available The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development.We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium.The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described.Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas.

  16. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mycobacterium genavense and Avian Polyomavirus co-infection in a European Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Systemic mycobacteriosis associated with avian polyomavirus infection was diagnosed histologically in an 8-year-old, captive European goldfinch with a history of nervous signs. Severe mycobacterial lesions were observed in central nervous system, lungs, cervical air sacs and adrenal glands, without involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to mycobacteriosis, intranuclear inclusions, typical of polyomavirus, were identified in the adrenal glands. Polymerase ch...

  18. Sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichkov, Igor; Daskalakis, Theodoros; Rankin, Linda; Divino, Celia

    2004-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the skin adnexa that can occur in a variety of locations. It is a slow-growing tumor that metastasizes early and often. The rarity of this tumor has led to a relative lack of adequate evidence with regard to treating this entity. Recent advances in immunohistochemical staining have better defined this tumor and have aided in diagnosing its subtypes though histologic grade and presence of regional lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis. These are the best indicators for prognosis and management currently available. Indications for sentinel node biopsy are currently not well defined. Because of the poor prognosis of high-grade sweat gland carcinoma, clinicians should be aware of this entity and be prepared to treat aggressively. Management of sweat gland carcinoma is difficult because extensive study into both surgical and nonsurgical treatment has not been done. We present a case of sweat gland carcinoma of the lower extremity and a review of the clinicopathologic literature of these rare neoplasms, including diagnosis and surgical management.

  19. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taste in your mouth Difficulty opening your mouth Dry mouth Pain in your face or mouth Swelling of your face or neck Causes of salivary gland problems include infections, obstruction, or cancer. Problems can also be due to other disorders, such as mumps or Sjogren's syndrome.

  20. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of...... at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004...

  1. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  2. Avian Primordial Germ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Takahiro; Miyahara, Daichi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Germ cells transmit genetic information to the next generation through gametogenesis. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first germ-cell population established during development, and are the common origins of both oocytes and spermatogonia. Unlike in other species, PGCs in birds undergo blood circulation to migrate toward the genital ridge, and are one of the major biological properties of avian PGCs. Germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth. In chicken, gonadal sex differentiation occurs as early as embryonic day 6, but meiotic initiation of female germ cells starts from a relatively late stage (embryonic day 15.5). Retinoic acid controls meiotic entry in developing chicken gonads through the expressions of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2, a major retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme, and cytochrome P450 family 26, subfamily B member 1, a major retinoic acid-degrading enzyme. The other major biological property of avian PGCs is that they can be propagated in vitro for the long term, and this technique is useful for investigating proliferation mechanisms. The main factor involved in chicken PGC proliferation is fibroblast growth factor 2, which activates the signaling of MEK/ERK and thus promotes the cell cycle and anti-apoptosis. Furthermore, the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling is indispensable for the proliferation and survival of chicken PGCs.

  3. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consultations Fact sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Influenza (Avian and other zoonotic) Fact sheet ... respiratory tract infection (fever and cough), early sputum production and rapid progression to severe pneumonia, sepsis with ...

  4. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  5. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xia Wang; Hai-Yan Wang; Jun-Nian Zheng; Jian-Chao Sui

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and ...

  6. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, Beata; Beck, Anita; Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Fabian, Gabor; Szabo, Geza; Nagy, Akos; Varga, Gabor

    2017-10-30

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion are primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  8. Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoji, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Suzuki, Y

    1998-11-01

    Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog are not connected morphologically with the lobules of the circumanal glands. However, an apparent functional association has been demonstrated and it is possible that the apocrine sweat glands might serve as excretory ducts for degenerated polyhedral cells of the circumanal glands. In this study, we examined the ultrastructure of the apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog in an effort to define more precisely the relationship between the apocrine sweat glands and the circumanal glands. Paraffin sections stained with azan and sections after immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against actin were examined by light microscopy. Samples fixed by aldehyde perfusion were examined with the electron microscope. Diameters of apocrine sweat glands and height of cells in the secretory epithelium varied considerably. Immunohistochemical staining for actin was weakly positive in the supranuclear regions of secretory cells and very intense in myoepithelial cells. In secretory cells, the endoplasmic reticulum was well-developed. Multivesicular bodies were abundant and were discharged into lumens. Apocrine secretion and exocytosis were observed at luminal surfaces of secretory cells. There were three types of large granule in the cytoplasm: giant mitochondria without cristae; membrane-enclosed globules with or without myelin-like contents; and electron-dense, homogeneous, globular structures. Luminal surfaces were always covered with microvilli, and extensive folding of the cell membrane was found in basal regions. Bundles of actin filaments were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. In the lumens of apocrine tubules, we observed shed secretory cells with well-preserved normal fine structures. We also noted the differentiation of secretory cells that was due to cell renewal. Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog appear to be more active than those on the general body surface in

  9. Salivary gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Schwarz-Furlan, Stephan; Gosau, Martin; Reichert, Torsten E

    2012-09-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas are rare tumours of heterogeneous morphology that require distinctive surgical and adjuvant therapy. Relevant studies were electronically searched in PubMed and reviewed for innovative and important information. Recent insights in genetic alterations like chromosomal aberrations, expression of receptor tyrosine kinases, malfunction of tumour suppressor genes or DNA promoter methylations increased the knowledge about aetiology and pathogenesis. New histological subtypes are recognised, and a three-tiered grading system seems reasonable. Ultrasound remains the basic diagnostic imaging procedure. New developments comprise the diffusion-weighed magnetic resonance imaging, while fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows good diagnostic accuracy in detecting distant metastases and local recurrence. Fine-needle aspiration cytology helps in differentiating a neoplasia from a non-neoplastic lesion while being unreliable in recognising malignancy. In contrast, additional core needle biopsy and/or intraoperative frozen section diagnosis increase the accuracy in diagnosing a malignant lesion. Conservative parotid surgery with nerve monitoring remains state-of-the-art. Free flaps or musculoaponeurotic flaps are proposed for prevention of Frey's syndrome. As parotid cancer often shows skip metastases, complete ipsilateral neck dissection (level I-V) is indicated particularly in high-grade lesions. Adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy increases local tumour control, whereas overall survival is not necessarily improved. Current results of systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy in advanced tumour stages are disappointing. Despite several developments, salivary gland carcinomas remain a heterogeneous group of tumours challenging both pathologists and clinicians.

  10. Avian influenza : a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalda

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1, that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO , world organization for animal health (OIE , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO information and recommendations and review of the published literature about avian influenza. Since December 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have swept through poultry populations across Asia and parts of Europe. The outbreaks are historically unprecedented in scale and geographical spread. Their economic impact on the agricultural sector of the affected countries has been large. Human cases, with an overall fatality rate around 50%, have also been reported and almost all human infections can be linked to contact with infected poultry. Influenza viruses are genetically unstable and their behaviour cannot be predicted so the risk of further human cases persists. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a re-assortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic.

  11. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  12. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  13. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of...

  14. Sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-10-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement.

  15. Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma of Scalp

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-01-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement.

  16. Bilateral Primary Lacrimal Gland Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşad Ramazan Zor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma involving the lacrimal gland is rare. Most of the cases are unilateral at presentation. In this case, we present the diagnostic evaluation of a patient with bilateral lacrimal gland lymphoma. At presentation, the patient had inferomedial eccentric proptosis of the right eye. The patient also had limitation in the upper and lateral gaze in this eye. On magnetic resonance imaging, a mass was detected not only in the right but also in the left eye corresponding to the area of the lacrimal gland. Excisional biopsy was performed in the right eye with lateral orbitotomy approach. Histopathological examination revealed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma involving the lacrimal gland. No concurrent systemic lymphoma was detected during systemic evaluation of the patient. The patient was directed to the oncology department for systemic treatment planning. In conclusion, bilateral involvement is rare in lacrimal gland diseases but it can show severe diseases like lymphoma.

  17. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  18. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  19. Chapter 13. Adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, H.; Paulin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of isotopic methods to the functional and morphological exploration of the adrenal glands is shown, with emphasis on the fact that althought the cortico-adrenal responds to these methods the same does not apply to the medullo-adrenal, which expresses its morphological changes by producing deformations on the cortical image. Funtional tests, mainly directed at the cortico-adrenal, are described first: study of exchangeable sodium and potassium; determination of the plasma concentration and metabolic clearance of some steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone); evaluation of the renin activity. These tests are based on competitive analysis and radioimmunological methods. Morphological tests are examined next. Adrenal scintigraphy uses a simple technique (intraveinous administration of 131 I 19-iodocholesterol with no special preliminary preparation) which gives good images and is only limited now by the need to avoid over exposure of the gonads to ionising radiations [fr

  20. Organizing the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  1. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  2. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon A. Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  3. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  4. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  5. Control strategies against avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1959, 40 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI...

  6. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  7. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  8. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  9. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Jun-Nian; Sui, Jian-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and diagnosed as a low-grade hidradenocarcinoma. We presented a very good result of chemotherapy in the treatment of this rare malignant disease. It demonstrates that adjunct chemotherapy is effective to control the condition of malignant sweat-gland carcinomas patient.

  10. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and diagnosed as a low-grade hidradenocarcinoma. We presented a very good result of chemotherapy in the treatment of this rare malignant disease. It demonstrates that adjunct chemotherapy is effective to control the condition of malignant sweat-gland carcinomas patient.

  11. Streaming submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajicek, G.; Yagil, C.; Michaeli, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine ( 3 HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells in relationship to tubuli and acini was recorded. The different tubular and acinar cross sections could be distinguished by their cell number. Narrow tubuli had fewer nuclei than the wider ones. The nuclear number of a cross section was defined as its class and the location of a labelled epithelial cell was expressed in relationship to the class where it was found. The location of a labelled stromal cell was determined by the class of its neighboring tubular or acinar cross sections. The mean cell numbers of intercalated, granular, and striated duct cross sections were, respectively, 4.7, 10.5, and 10.2, while the average cell content of acini was 4.7 cells. One hour after labelling most labelled tubular epithelial and stromal cells were found in tubular cross sections (or low tubular classes), while in the acini, labelled epithelial and stromal cells were found mainly in wider cross sections (or higher acinar classes). Within the next 23 days labelled tubular cells and stroma proceeded into higher classes, while labelled acinar epithelium and stroma cells were displaced into narrower cross sections (or lower classes). The displaced tubular epithelium and stroma covered daily 0.26 classes. At this velocity the cell will reach the highest tubular class in 62 days and the estimated maximal tubular cell life span is 62 days

  12. Evidence-Based Advances in Avian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-09-01

    This article presents relevant advances in avian medicine and surgery over the past 5 years. New information has been published to improve clinical diagnosis in avian diseases. This article also describes new pharmacokinetic studies. Advances in the understanding and treatment of common avian disorders are presented in this article, as well. Although important progress has been made over the past years, there is still much research that needs to be done regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of avian diseases and evidence-based information is still sparse in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  14. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  15. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Keith A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Atkinson, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  16. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellenbrand Janine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birds clean and lubricate their feathers with waxes that are produced in the uropygial gland, a holocrine gland located on their back above the tail. The type and the composition of the secreted wax esters are dependent on the bird species, for instance the wax ester secretion of goose contains branched-chain fatty acids and unbranched fatty alcohols, whereas that of barn owl contains fatty acids and alcohols both of which are branched. Alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR catalyze the reduction of activated acyl groups to fatty alcohols that can be esterified with acyl-CoA thioesters forming wax esters. Results cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl-CoA reductases were cloned from the uropygial glands of barn owl (Tyto alba, domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that they encode membrane associated enzymes which catalyze a NADPH dependent reduction of acyl-CoA thioesters to fatty alcohols. By feeding studies of transgenic yeast cultures and in vitro enzyme assays with membrane fractions of transgenic yeast cells two groups of isozymes with different properties were identified, termed FAR1 and FAR2. The FAR1 group mainly synthesized 1-hexadecanol and accepted substrates in the range between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, whereas the FAR2 group preferred stearoyl-CoA and accepted substrates between 16 and 20 carbon atoms. Expression studies with tissues of domestic chicken indicated that FAR transcripts were not restricted to the uropygial gland. Conclusion The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis.

  17. Submandibular Gland Transfer: A Potential Imaging Pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Yom, S S; Ha, P K; Heaton, C M; Glastonbury, C M

    2018-03-29

    The Seikaly and Jha submandibular gland transfer surgery is performed to facilitate gland shielding during radiation therapy for head and neck tumors to circumvent radiation-induced xerostomia. It results in an asymmetric postsurgical appearance of the submandibular and submental spaces. Our purpose was to characterize the morphologic and enhancement characteristics of the transferred submandibular gland and identify potential pitfalls in postoperative radiologic interpretation. This retrospective study identified patients with head and neck cancer who had undergone the submandibular gland transfer procedure at our institution. Chart reviews were performed to identify relevant oncologic histories and therapies. CT and MR neck imaging was reviewed to characterize morphologic and enhancement characteristics of the pre- and postoperative submandibular glands, as well as interpretive accuracy. Eleven patients with oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas who underwent submandibular gland transfer were identified. The transferred glands were significantly lengthened in the anteroposterior dimension compared with contralateral glands ( P submandibular and submental spaces. Enhancement patterns of the transferred submandibular glands varied, depending on the time of imaging relative to the operation and radiation therapy. Submandibular gland transfer was acknowledged in the postoperative report in 7/11 cases. Errors in interpretation were present in 2/11 reports. After the submandibular gland transfer procedure, the submandibular and submental spaces lose their symmetric appearances as the transferred submandibular glands become lengthened and located more anteriorly and inferiorly, with variable enhancement characteristics. Familiarity with the postsurgical appearance of the transferred submandibular glands is key to accurate imaging interpretation. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Batsakis, J G

    1977-06-01

    In an attempt to explain the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors, a bicellular theory of origin has been presented. This theory is supported by indirect evidence from light and electron microscopy. Two cells, the excretory duct reserve cell and the intercalated duct reserve cell, are presented as the hypothetical cells of origin for salivary gland neoplasms. It is argued that the excretory duct reserve cell gives rise to squamous cell carcinomas and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and that the intercalated duct reserve cell gives rise to all others. It It is also shown that myoepithelial cells are responsible in part for the wide histologic variation of these neoplasms.

  20. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    (ACC). Patient demography was similar to salivary gland tumors in other locations. All fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNACs) interpreted as benign were from ACCs. Metastatic disease was found in 12.5 % of ACCs at diagnosis with one third of all ACC patients having metastases at the end of follow...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  1. Seasonality, distribution and taxonomic status of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of a new species is based upon morphology of gametocyte development in the peripheral blood of the avian host. This does not distinguish between morphologically identical gametocytes from different avian host families, nor is species or family level a valid taxonomic character. Thus, Haemoproteus and ...

  2. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    The avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is a specialized structure located rather inaccessibly in an air sac close to the heart where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi. The syrinx of different avian taxa varies so much in position and morphology that it has been used for taxonomy. It...

  3. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  4. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governments in Southeast Asia have adopted a range of policies aimed at controlling the disease in animals, preventing its spread to humans and strengthening national preparedness for an avian influenza pandemic. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together national research agencies ...

  5. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  6. The earliest evidence for a supraorbital salt gland in dinosaurs in new Early Cretaceous ornithurines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Huang, Jiandong; Hu, Yuanchao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Peteya, Jennifer; Clarke, Julia A

    2018-03-05

    Supraorbital fossae occur when salt glands are well developed, a condition most pronounced in marine and desert-dwelling taxa in which salt regulation is key. Here, we report the first specimens from lacustrine environments of the Jehol Biota that preserve a distinct fossa above the orbit, where the salt gland fossa is positioned in living birds. The Early Cretaceous ornithurine bird specimens reported here are about 40 million years older than previously reported Late Cretaceous marine birds and represent the earliest described occurrence of the fossa. We find no evidence of avian salt gland fossae in phylogenetically earlier stem birds or non-avialan dinosaurs, even in those argued to be predominantly marine or desert dwelling. The apparent absence of this feature in more basal dinosaurs may indicate that it is only after miniaturization close to the origin of flight that excretory mechanisms were favored over exclusively renal mechanisms of salt regulation resulting in an increase in gland size leaving a bony trace. The ecology of ornithurine birds is more diverse than in other stem birds and may have included seasonal shifts in foraging range, or, the environments of some of the Jehol lakes may have included more pronounced periods of high salinity.

  7. The ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... Case report. An 8-year-old boy presented to paediatric endo- crinology with short stature, delayed bone age and biochemical features suggestive of hypo pituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated a flattened anterior pituitary gland within the sella, associated with absence of.

  8. Parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesink, Judith Maria

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to

  9. The reptilian thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Sam; Lock, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The field of reptilian clinical endocrinology is still in its infancy. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are intimately involved with many basic metabolic functions. These glands have been the subject of extensive research studies in reptilian species; however, the effects of abnormal gland function have been poorly documented in clinical cases. These glands play a major role in maintaining physiologic homeostasis in all vertebrates. With the advent of more sensitive assays, it should be possible to measure the small amounts of hormones found in reptilian species. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding clinical endocrinology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in reptiles.

  10. Blood sampling from adrenal gland vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yong; Ni Caifang

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal gland vein sampling is an interventional method to get the blood samples from the adrenal gland vein. The blood is obtained via a catheter which is selectively inserted in the adrenal gland vein. This technique is mainly used to be diagnostic for primary hyperaldosteronism. A full knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the adrenal gland vein, serious preoperative preparation and skilled catheterization manipulation are necessary for obtaining sufficient blood sample and for reducing the occurrence of complications. Providing the physicians with definite diagnostic evidence and being technically feasible, adrenal gland vein sampling should become one of the routine examinations for clarifying the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. (authors)

  11. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  12. Surgery for Malignant Submandibular Gland Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Natalie L; Chinn, Steven B; Bradley, Patrick J; Weber, Randal S

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, surgery has been the primary treatment for malignant submandibular gland neoplasms. Nonetheless, due to the heterogeneity and rarity of submandibular gland malignant tumors and the high frequency of chronic benign processes in this region, management can be complex. Preoperative investigations, such as fine-needle aspiration and imaging, are critical to achieve the correct diagnosis so that appropriate surgery can be planned. In general, for malignant submandibular gland neoplasms, the minimal treatment necessary is excision of the submandibular gland with level I lymph node dissection. Salivary gland cancer in the submandibular gland is generally more aggressive than the same histologic type in the parotid gland. Neck dissection may be required and primarily depends on the stage and histological grade. Adjuvant therapy most frequently consists of radiation and can improve overall survival. Some factors that influence prognosis after surgical treatment include the histologic grade, stage at presentation, and positive surgical margins. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Genetic applications in avian conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  14. Avian Respiratory Coinfection and Impact on Avian Influenza Pathogenicity in Domestic Poultry: Field and Experimental Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ahmed; Naguib, Mahmoud M

    2018-02-24

    The avian respiratory system hosts a wide range of commensal and potential pathogenic bacteria and/or viruses that interact with each other. Such interactions could be either synergistic or antagonistic, which subsequently determines the severity of the disease complex. The intensive rearing methods of poultry are responsible for the marked increase in avian respiratory diseases worldwide. The interaction between avian influenza with other pathogens can guarantee the continuous existence of other avian pathogens, which represents a global concern. A better understanding of the impact of the interaction between avian influenza virus and other avian respiratory pathogens provides a better insight into the respiratory disease complex in poultry and can lead to improved intervention strategies aimed at controlling virus spread.

  15. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  16. Submandibular gland function and parotid gland function in Bell's palsy, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kato, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1986-01-01

    With the use of sup(99m)Tc, we attempted to measure simultaneously submandibular gland function and parotid gland function, which is thought not to be controlled by the facial nerve, in patients with unilateral Bell's palsy. For comparison, the lachrymal gland function of some patients was measured by the thread method. We found that facial palsy sometimes affects parotid gland function as well as submandibular gland function. In 60 % of the patients the function of the two glands tended to be affected in the same way. Lachrymal gland function tended to be affected in a similar way to parotid gland function. We conclude that the chorda tympani and the greater petrosal nerve may influence parotid gland function. (author)

  17. Development of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Fagman, Henrik

    2017-06-15

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for organismal development and homeostasis. In humans, untreated congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis inevitably leads to cretinism, which comprises irreversible brain dysfunction and dwarfism. Elucidating how the thyroid gland - the only source of thyroid hormones in the body - develops is thus key for understanding and treating thyroid dysgenesis, and for generating thyroid cells in vitro that might be used for cell-based therapies. Here, we review the principal mechanisms involved in thyroid organogenesis and functional differentiation, highlighting how the thyroid forerunner evolved from the endostyle in protochordates to the endocrine gland found in vertebrates. New findings on the specification and fate decisions of thyroid progenitors, and the morphogenesis of precursor cells into hormone-producing follicular units, are also discussed. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Cancers of major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Aru; Kozel, Jessica A; Lydiatt, William M

    2015-07-01

    Major salivary gland malignancies are a rare but histologically diverse group of entities. Establishing the diagnosis of a malignant salivary neoplasm may be challenging because of the often minimally symptomatic nature of the disease, and limitations of imaging modalities and cytology. Treatment is centered on surgical therapy and adjuvant radiation in selected scenarios. Systemic therapy with chemotherapeutic agents and monoclonal antibodies lacks evidence in support of its routine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognosis and submandibular gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Hanaoka, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1984-01-01

    Submandibular gland function was tested with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan 10 days and 3-4 weeks after the onset Bell's palsy, and the results and prognoses were correlated. In the first report we divided the cases into groups A, B and C, and this time group D classified in S.S.R. was poor. Groups A and D can be differentiated by submandibular gland scan within 10 days after the onset; that is to say, the prognosis of more than half the cases can be determined in this early phase. Especially, it is noticeable that group D showing the poor prognosis is differentiated within 10 days after the onset. This method was compared with other tests of facial palsy. Four to five weeks after the onset all tests were of equal accuracy in predicting the prognosis of each group. Within 10 days after the onset, however, submandibular gland scan seems to be more useful than the other tests. (author)

  20. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  1. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  2. Effect of restricted preen-gland access on maternal self maintenance and reproductive investment in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Giraudeau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As egg production and offspring care are costly, females should invest resources adaptively into their eggs to optimize current offspring quality and their own lifetime reproductive success. Parasite infections can influence maternal investment decisions due to their multiple negative physiological effects. The act of preening--applying oils with anti-microbial properties to feathers--is thought to be a means by which birds combat pathogens and parasites, but little is known of how preening during the reproductive period (and its expected disease-protecting effects influences maternal investment decisions at the level of the egg.Here, we experimentally prevented female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos from accessing their preen gland during breeding and monitored female immunoresponsiveness (e.g., plasma lysozyme concentration as well as some egg traits linked to offspring quality (e.g., egg mass, yolk carotenoid content, and albumen lysozyme levels. Females with no access to their preen gland showed an increase in plasma lysozyme level compared to control, normally preening females. In addition, preen-gland-restricted females laid significantly lighter eggs and deposited higher carotenoid concentrations in the yolk compared to control females. Albumen lysozyme activity did not differ significantly between eggs laid by females with or without preen gland access.Our results establish a new link between an important avian self-maintenance behaviour and aspects of maternal health and reproduction. We suggest that higher yolk carotenoid levels in eggs laid by preen-gland-restricted females may serve to boost health of offspring that would hatch in a comparatively microbe-rich environment.

  3. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  4. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  5. Morphological study of the infraorbital gland of the male barking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology of the infraorbital gland of the barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) was examined using lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The glands consisted of sebaceous and apocrine glands, with proportion of apocrine glands was larger than the sebaceous gland.

  6. Morphological study of the infraorbital gland of the male barking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-17

    Nov 17, 2011 ... Seba- ceous gland was composed of polyhedral cells and necrotic cells were secreted through the opening of the gland. The apocrine gland was simple tubular gland. Scanning elec- tron microscopic examination revealed that the apocrine glands consisted of tubules that were lined with secretory cells.

  7. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality o...

  8. Breast carcinoma metastasis to the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Marie N.; Von Holstein, Sarah; Hansen, Alastair B.

    2015-01-01

    tomography scans revealed irregular lacrimal gland tumours in the two patients. The two patients had history of breast cancer. The first breast cancer metastasis in the lacrimal gland demonstrated a cribriform growth pattern containing ductal elements. The epithelial tumour cells stained positive...... study aimed to describe two such cases and draw attention to breast carcinomas as a differential diagnosis and the most frequent cause of lacrimal gland metastasis....

  9. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epitheli...

  10. Hemangioblastoma arising from the submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Marco A; Morawiecki, Peter A; Yencha, Myron W

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to document and describe the clinical features of a hemangioblastoma arising from a submandibular gland. A case report of a 63-year-old man with a right submandibular gland hemangioblastoma. Submandibular gland excision and histological examination revealed a hemangioblastoma. Subsequent evaluation with imaging studies found no association with von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report the first presentation of a hemangioblastoma arising in a salivary gland. Further evaluation of patients with a hemangioblastoma is recommended given the neoplasms' association with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

  11. Lacrimal Gland Pathologies from an Anatomical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Sinan Abit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients in our daily practice have one or more ocular surface disorders including conjucntivitis, keratitis, dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact lens related symptoms, refractive errors,computer vision syndrome. Lacrimal gland has an important role in all above mentioned pathologies due to its major secretory product. An anatomical and physiological knowledge about lacrimal gland is a must in understanding basic and common ophthalmological cases. İn this paper it is aimed to explain the lacrimal gland diseases from an anatomical perspective.

  12. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  13. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  14. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor of the pituitary gland (this is called Cushing's disease) Tumor of the adrenal gland (as explained above) ... the adrenal glands to produce too much cortisol. Cushing's disease refers to pituitary tumors that cause Cushing's syndrome . ...

  15. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland: Report of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi HM

    2001-01-01

    A case of pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland is reported here. The histopathologic report confirmed the diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most common in salivary glands but very rare in sweat glands. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland and the similar tumors of eccring sweat gland are described that bear a striking resemblance to pleomorphic adenomas of salivary gland. Upon closer examination, the tumor contained areas of apocrine decapitation secretory activity , and primitive hair follicles ...

  16. Pineal Gland Agenesis: Review and Case Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Marcus A; Davis, Michele; Voin, Vlad; Shoja, Mohammadali; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Agenesis of the pineal gland has rarely been reported in the medical literature. Herein, we report a cadaveric specimen found to have agenesis of the pineal gland. The remaining gross examination of the brain was normal. A review of the literature was performed on this unusual finding.

  17. Ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, H E; Greisen, O; Hastrup, N

    1987-06-01

    A case of ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland is described. The medical literature contains only 13 previous reports on this kind of adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumour is characterized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinomas of the breast and prostate. The course of previously described cases suggests that this tumour has a highly aggressive biological behaviour.

  18. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  19. Retention of lipiodol after parotid gland sialography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J.; Pijpe, J.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Vissink, A.

    There is limited information about the retention of lipiodol in the parotid gland after parotid gland sialography. This study assesses the prevalence of lipiodol retention after parotid sialography and determines if retention of lipiodol is related to the sialography technique or the underlying

  20. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WARM COMPRESSES Heating the eyelid margin will increase oil production and melt the “crusty” oil that has solidified in the glands. Use a ... remove oil, bacteria and debris which block the oil gland openings. Use a Q-tip, your ... Use a mild soap like cetaphil or CeraVe or dilute baby shampoo ( ...

  1. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overall recurrcnce rate of 4.48%. Conclusion: Minor salivaiy gland tumours are rare. Follow-up in this environment is. 13001'. There is a need to educate the patients about the importance of early presentation and recall visits. Key worclsz Salivary glands, minor, tumour, treatment liitroduction. U f-;;i|i\\ar§, land tumours are ...

  2. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland represent a large spectrum of lesions with similarities in clinical signs and symptoms but with different biological behaviour and prognosis. They are rare, but with aggressive malignant potential. Tumours of the lacrimal gland may present with swelling of...

  3. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David L

    2012-12-01

    Vaccination for both low pathogenicity avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used by countries that have become endemic for avian influenza virus, but stamping-out policies are still common for countries with recently introduced disease. Stamping-out policies of euthanatizing infected and at-risk flocks has been an effective control tool, but it comes at a high social and economic cost. Efforts to identify alternative ways to respond to outbreaks without widespread stamping out has become a goal for organizations like the World Organisation for Animal Health. A major issue with vaccination for avian influenza is trade considerations because countries that vaccinate are often considered to be endemic for the disease and they typically lose their export markets. Primarily as a tool to promote trade, the concept of DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) has been considered for avian influenza, but the goal for trade is to differentiate vaccinated and not-infected from vaccinated and infected animals because trading partners are unwilling to accept infected birds. Several different strategies have been investigated for a DIVA strategy, but each has advantages and disadvantages. A review of current knowledge on the research and implementation of the DIVA strategy will be discussed with possible ways to implement this strategy in the field. The increased desire for a workable DIVA strategy may lead to one of these ideas moving from the experimental to the practical.

  4. Avian Flu Epidemic 2003: Public health consequences. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman A; Mulder YM; Leeuw JRJ de; Meijer A; Du Ry van Beest Holle M; Kamst RA; Velden PG van der; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Koopmans MPG; Ruijten MWMM; Instituut voor Psychotrauma; CIE; MGO; LIS

    2004-01-01

    Executive summary Avian flu epidemic 2003: public health consequences.Risk factors, health, well-being, health care needs and preventive measures during the H7N7 avian flu outbreak control in the Netherlands.An estimated thousand people, possibly more have been infected with avian flu during the

  5. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  6. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  7. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  8. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  9. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  10. Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Strianese

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods: This was a retrospective case report. Results: We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge.

  11. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  12. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years

  13. Origin and evolution of avian microchromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, D W

    2002-01-01

    The origin of avian microchromosomes has long been the subject of much speculation and debate. Microchromosomes are a universal characteristic of all avian species and many reptilian karyotypes. The typical avian karyotype contains about 40 pairs of chromosomes and usually 30 pairs of small to tiny microchromosomes. This characteristic karyotype probably evolved 100-250 million years ago. Once the microchromosomes were thought to be a non-essential component of the avian genome. Recent work has shown that even though these chromosomes represent only 25% of the genome; they encode 50% of the genes. Contrary to popular belief, microchromosomes are present in a wide range of vertebrate classes, spanning 400-450 million years of evolutionary history. In this paper, comparative gene mapping between the genomes of chicken, human, mouse and zebrafish, has been used to investigate the origin and evolution of avian microchromosomes during this period. This analysis reveals evidence for four ancient syntenies conserved in fish, birds and mammals for over 400 million years. More than half, if not all, microchromosomes may represent ancestral syntenies and at least ten avian microchromosomes are the product of chromosome fission. Birds have one of the smallest genomes of any terrestrial vertebrate. This is likely to be the product of an evolutionary process that minimizes the DNA content (mostly through the number of repeats) and maximizes the recombination rate of microchromosomes. Through this process the properties (GC content, DNA and repeat content, gene density and recombination rate) of microchromosomes and macrochromosomes have diverged to create distinct chromosome types. An ancestral genome for birds likely had a small genome, low in repeats and a karyotype with microchromosomes. A "Fission-Fusion Model" of microchromosome evolution based on chromosome rearrangement and minimization of repeat content is discussed. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. The metapleural gland of ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-01-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions......-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG...... is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional...

  15. Ribosomal RNA gene functioning in avian oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, Elena; Galkina, Svetlana; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Dyomin, Alexandr; Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gaginskaya, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Despite long-term exploration into ribosomal RNA gene functioning during the oogenesis of various organisms, many intriguing problems remain unsolved. In this review, we describe nucleolus organizer region (NOR) activity in avian oocytes. Whereas oocytes from an adult avian ovary never reveal the formation of the nucleolus in the germinal vesicle (GV), an ovary from juvenile birds possesses both nucleolus-containing and non-nucleolus-containing oocytes. The evolutionary diversity of oocyte NOR functioning and the potential non-rRNA-related functions of the nucleolus in oocytes are also discussed.

  16. [Tissue engineering of parathyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, F; Armano, G; Auriemma, P P; Sergio, R; De Sena, G; Capuozzo, V; Rosso, F; Marino, G; Papale, F; Grimaldi, A; Barbarisi, A

    2010-01-01

    The postoperative hypoparathyroidism is a not rare complication after total thyroidectomy and/or total parathyroidectomy. Attempts to transplant parathyroid tissue began in 1975 with the work of Wells, but still today results are disappointing. However, with the development of tissue engineering techniques, some experimental approaches to build artificial parathyroid are been made. Bioengineered device, actively secreting PTH, for transplant in patients with iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism is unavailable. Parathyroid cells were obtained from three chronic uremic patients in hemodialysis, operated for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Cell cultures in RPMI medium were subsequently seeded on collagen scaffold (three-dimensional matrix with slow biodegradation). Collagen is the major component of the extracellular matrix and thus is a good substrate for cell adhesion and growth. Culture media, with a low calcium concentration, were optimised to physiologically stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion. Cell cultures were morphologically observed in optical and electron (ESEM) microscopy and metabolically assayed by MTT method until the tenth week. Besides, concentration of parathyroid hormone in the culture medium has been measured for several weeks. After 24 hours of culture in RPMI, cells extracted from human parathyroid glands were nearly all adherent and organised in clusters to resemble the glandular organization. The cellular population consisted predominantly of parathyroid cells (90-95%). On collagen scaffolds, cells maintains an epithelial-like morphology also after 10 weeks, colonizing the scaffold surface and keeping a good proliferative rate with a discrete production of parathyroid hormone. The use of parathyroid cells extracted from patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was certainly an appropriate choice that enabled us to achieve these results, that albeit partial bode well for the experimental in vivo animal model. The bioengineered scaffolds when

  17. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokić, Edita; Kljajić, Vladimir; Idjuški, Stevan; Benc, Damir; Popović, Djordje; Protić, Mladjan; Crnobrnja, Veljko

    2014-01-01

    Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  18. Primary parotid gland lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Katsaronis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. The benign lymphoepithelial lesion is also a lymphoproliferative disease that develops in the parotid gland. In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian female smoker was referred to our clinic with a non-tender left facial swelling that had been present for approximately three years. The patient underwent resection of the left parotid gland with preservation of the left facial nerve through a preauricular incision. The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland. Conclusions Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic or bilateral salivary gland lesions. Parotidectomy is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure histological diagnosis for further follow-up planning. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in association with surgery in disseminated forms or after removal.

  19. Imaging of Submandibular and Sublingual Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit K; Kanekar, Sangam G

    2018-05-01

    The submandibular and sublingual salivary glands are major salivary glands with a wide spectrum of pathologic conditions. The corresponding spaces along the floor of mouth have complex anatomy, best evaluated with cross-sectional imaging. The spectrum of diseases in these regions varies from simple infection to advanced malignancy, not just from the gland itself but also from the surrounding structures. The most common abnormalities in these spaces are inflammatory and infectious, and computed tomography is currently the most common imaging modality used. The anatomy of these spaces is much better depicted with MR; however, all the modalities have their unique roles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Neirai, Carlos; Gonzalez Gomez, Juan Manuel; Arredondo Lopez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  1. [Salivary gland drainage into the thyroglossal duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siem, G; Natvig, K; Kolbenstvedt, A; Lømo, J

    2001-01-20

    Failure in regression of the thyroglossal duct is one of the most common reasons for midline swellings in the neck. Several authors have described recurrent thyroglossal duct remnants with persisting draining sinuses. However, few have described accessory salivary glands that drain into the thyroglossal duct. In this article we report two such cases with midline salivary glands in the floor of the mouth. These two patients were subsequently successfully treated with radical tissue resection in the area between the hyoid bone and foramen cecum. Preoperative fistulography or sinography was useful to demonstrate the ductal ramification of the salivary glands, and use of methylene blue during surgery proved of significant value for the result.

  2. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bee; electron microscopy; larval salivary gland; light microscopy; polarized light microscopy; silk gland. Abstract. The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well ...

  3. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  4. [Anogenital mammary-like glands and related diseases. Part 2. Malignant tumors of the anogenital glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, A M; Belousova, I E; Kacerovska, D; Michal, M; Shelekhova, K V; Kazakov, D V

    Mammary-like glands are a normal anatomical component of the anogenital region and can give rise to many benign and malignant tumors that morphologically mimic the similar diseases of the breast. The literature review is complemented by a description of 199 cases of malignant tumors of mammary-like glands. The paper presents the clinical and morphological characteristics of various malignant tumors of mammary-like glands, including extramammary Paget's disease, ductal, tubulolobular, adenoid cystic adenocarcinoma, low-grade phyllodes tumor, etc.

  5. Effects of drought on avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Brian D. Wardlow; Volker C. Radeloff

    2010-01-01

    Droughts are expected to become more frequent under global climate change. Avifauna depend on precipitation for hydration, cover, and food. While there are indications that avian communities respond negatively to drought, little is known about the response of birds with differing functional and behavioural traits, what time periods and indicators of drought are most...

  6. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  7. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  8. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  9. Viral vectors for avian influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to 2003, vaccines against avian influenza (AI) had limited, individual country or regional use in poultry. In late 2003, H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AI spread from China to multiple Southeast Asian countries, and to Europe during 2005 and Africa during 2006, challenging governments and all p...

  10. the Avian Park Service Learning Centre story

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health (UCRH) opened in 2001, followed 10 years later by the establishment of the Ukwanda Rural Clinical School in one of the rural health districts of the Western Cape. This paper relates the journey of the Faculty with the underserviced community of Avian Park through the provision of ...

  11. Presumptive diagnosis of Avian encephalomyelitis in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A report of Avian encephalomyelitis outbreak in two flocks of adult Japanese quail is presented. High mortalities, tremor, ataxia and lateral recumbency were the prominent clinical signs observed. Absence of gross pathology and microscopic lesions of gliosis, neuronal degeneration, meningitis, congested blood vessel with ...

  12. The genetics and evolution of avian migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulido, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the characteristics of avian migration is its variability within and among species. Variation in migratory behavior, and in physiological and morphological adaptations to migration, is to a large extent due to genetic differences. Comparative studies suggest that migratory behavior has

  13. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Sanz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar

  14. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  15. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  16. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  17. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  18. Morphology and diversity of exocrine glands in lepidopteran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegliante, Francesca; Hasenfuss, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of 21 exocrine glands and 13 supposedly exocrine structures recorded for lepidopteran larvae is reviewed. The epitracheal glands, for which a double role (exocrine and endocrine) has been demonstrated, are examined as well. Function is well known for at least 8 glands but completely unknown for 6 glands, for 10 putative glandular structures, and for the exocrine component of the epitracheal glands. Functional studies on the remaining structures are insufficient; in some cases (mandibular gland and adenosma) homologous glands may play a different role depending on the species, and only a few taxa have been examined. The secretions of 13 glandular types have been analyzed chemically. The histology of 11 glands is known at the ultrastructural level, whereas that of 6 glands and 7 putative glandular structures is completely unknown. Comparative anatomical studies of the osmeterium, adenosma, and Verson's glands may yield useful information for phylogenetic reconstructions. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  19. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saneem Ahamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial cysts are benign, slowly growing unilocular or multilocular lesions that appear in the head and neck. They are also called Branchial cyst. The head and neck sites are the salivary glands(more commonly parotid and rarely submandibular gland and the oral cavity (usually the floor of the mouth. there are various methods of investigation available today, of which Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC can be used to provide an immediate diagnosis of a lymphoepithelial cyst. The other investigations include, Ultrasonogram,and Computed tomography.It usually occurs due to the process of lymphocyte-induced cystic ductular dilatation and the confirmatory diagnosis is always made postoperatively by histopathological examination. The mainstay in the treatment of a lymphoepithelial cyst remains the surgical approach, which includes complete enucleation of the cyst along with total excision of the involved salivary gland. This is a report of a lymphoepithelial cyst involving the submandibular salivary gland and its management.

  1. [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelein, S; Feldkamp, J; Schott, M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Graves' disease is characterized by the appearance of stimulating TSH receptor antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism. Endocrine ophthalmopathy may also occur. Ablative therapy with radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy is administered to patients with Graves' disease without remission after at least 1 year of antithyroid drug therapy.

  2. Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, M.I.; Vilas, I.; Menargues, M.A.; Hernandez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

  3. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are different methods for the assessment of salivary gland hypofunction; however, none of them are considered to be standard procedure. This article reviews the value of common methods in the assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands. PMID:21511748

  4. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... a review of literature from 1991 to 2010 was performed. RESULTS: Six Danish patients with a malignant salivary gland tumor in the larynx were identified resulting in an incidence of 0.001/100,000 inhabitants/year. Four had adenoid cystic carcinoma and two a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. All patients were male....... female ratio was 2:1, the most common location was the supraglottic region (52%) and the most predominant histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (46%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (35%) and adenocarcinoma NOS (12%). CONCLUSION: Laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma is a rare disease with a male...

  5. The labral gland on termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palma-Onetto, V.; Hošková, K.; Křížková, B.; Krejčířová, R.; Pflegerová, Jitka; Bubeníčková, F.; Plarre, R.; Dahlsjö, C. A. L.; Synek, J.; Bourguignon, T.; Sillam-Dusses, D.; Šobotník, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 3 (2018), s. 535-544 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : exocrine gland * hypopharynx * labrum Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Entomology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  6. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Kato, Kazuo; Wada, Takuro; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  7. Papillary cystadenocarcinoma of submandibular salivary gland: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mardi Kavita; Sharma Sudarshan; Gupta Neelam

    2010-01-01

    Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm characterized by cysts and papillary endophytic projections. It was first defined in 1991 by World Health organization as a separate entity. Major locations of this neoplasm are the parotid gland, the sublingual gland, and minor salivary glands, while occurrence in the submandibular gland is extremely rare. We present a case of papillary cystadenocarinoma arising from the submandibular gland in a 67-year-old male patient. Fu...

  8. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI......), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease....

  9. Sweat gland carcinoma with lung metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Bahl Amit; Sharma D; Julka P; Das Anup; Rath G

    2006-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor. The tumor has propensity to spread to lymph nodes and distant metastases has been reported. Their exact incidence in the Indian setting is not known. Aspects related to treatment are also not clearly defined. Though surgery forms the initial treatment approach, adjuvant treatment has not been properly explored. We report here a case of sweat gland carcinoma with bilateral lung metastases.

  10. Sweat gland carcinoma with lung metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Amit; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Das, Anup; Rath, G K

    2006-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor. The tumor has propensity to spread to lymph nodes and distant metastases has been reported. Their exact incidence in the Indian setting is not known. Aspects related to treatment are also not clearly defined. Though surgery forms the initial treatment approach, adjuvant treatment has not been properly explored. We report here a case of sweat gland carcinoma with bilateral lung metastases.

  11. Sweat gland carcinoma with lung metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Amit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor. The tumor has propensity to spread to lymph nodes and distant metastases has been reported. Their exact incidence in the Indian setting is not known. Aspects related to treatment are also not clearly defined. Though surgery forms the initial treatment approach, adjuvant treatment has not been properly explored. We report here a case of sweat gland carcinoma with bilateral lung metastases.

  12. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta

    2013-01-01

    To investigate genetic alterations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) with emphasis on the MYB-NFIB fusion oncogene and its downstream targets, MYB rearrangements, and copy number alterations in relation to clinical data and survival.......To investigate genetic alterations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) with emphasis on the MYB-NFIB fusion oncogene and its downstream targets, MYB rearrangements, and copy number alterations in relation to clinical data and survival....

  13. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are differen...

  14. [Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands: diagnostic considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagán Sebastián, J V; Silvestre Donat, F J

    1990-09-01

    We present 3 cases of Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands, one male and two females, who presented associated systemic pathology (liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus), detected following clinically suspect syaloadenosis (the patients were unaware of their systemic disease). In all three cases definitive diagnosis was established by needle aspiration of the gland. Which revealed great acinar dilatation. Finally, differential diagnosis was established between sialoadenosis and those conditions with clinical presentations similar to those described for sialoadenosis.

  15. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  16. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification of the submandibular gland transfer procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Hani Z; Elkhalidy, Youness; Jha, Naresh; Scrimger, Rufus; Debenham, Brock J; Harris, Jeffrey R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    The treatment for most advanced head and neck cancers (stage III and IV) usually includes radiation, and the most common side effect of this treatment modality is a permanent decrease in salivary production. Xerostomia is a devastating complication that significantly affects patients' quality of life by interfering with functions of taste, mastication, deglutition, and speech production. Treatment of xerostomia is varied, but one of the strategies developed by our group was to preserve one submandibular gland by surgically transferring it to the submental space and shielding it from the full dose of radiation. This procedure is proven to reduce the rate of radiation-induced xerostomia, but its main disadvantage is that it is contraindicated in oral cavity cancer. This study describes and evaluates a modification of the submandibular gland transfer (SGT) procedure, where the submandibular gland contralateral to the disease process is relocated to the parotid region. This modification has the potential of expanding the benefits of submandibular gland transfer procedures to patients with oral cavity cancers. Prospective feasibility study. This study involved nine patients with a new diagnosis of advanced head and neck cancer undergoing major head and neck cancer resection with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. The new modified salivary gland transfer procedure was performed on all nine patients, and the glands total dose received with radiation therapy was assessed. All the modified SGT procedures were successful with no post-operative complications. The radiation oncology team has been able to successfully localize the transferred submandibular glands and shield them from the radiation beam postoperatively. We have successfully demonstrated that surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the parotid region is feasible, surgically viable, oncologically sound, and does not interfere with radiation therapy. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2492-2496, 2016.

  18. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  19. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Partial irradiation of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisbruch, A; Ship, J A; Kim, H M; Ten Haken, R K

    2001-07-01

    Recent efforts to reduce xerostomia associated with irradiation (RT) of head and neck cancer include the use of conformal and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) to partly spare the major salivary glands, notably the parotid glands, from a high radiation dose while treating adequately all the targets at risk of disease. Knowledge of the dose-volume-response relationships in the salivary glands would determine treatment planning goals and facilitate optimization of the RT plans. Recent prospective studies of salivary flows following inhomogeneous irradiation of the parotid glands have utilized dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and various models to assess these relationships. These studies found that the mean dose to the gland is correlated with the reduction of the salivary output. This is consistent with a pure parallel architecture of the functional subunits (FSUs) of the salivary glands. The range of the mean doses, which have been found in these studies to cause significant salivary flow reduction is 26 to 39 Gy. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  1. The metapleural gland of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-11-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Recurrent Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert Lee; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The most important causes of recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma are enucleation with intraoperative spillage and incomplete tumor excision in association with characteristic histologic findings for the lesion (incomplete pseudocapsule and the presence of pseudopodia). Most recurrent pleomorphic adenomas (RPAs) are multinodular. MRI is the imaging method of choice for their assessment. Nerve integrity monitoring may reduce morbidity of RPA surgery. Although treatment of RPA must be individualized, total parotidectomy is generally recommended given the multicentricity of the lesions. However, surgery alone may be inadequate for controlling RPA over the long term. There is growing evidence from retrospective series that postoperative radiotherapy results in significantly better local control. A high percentage of RPAs are incurable. All patients should therefore be informed about the possibility of needing multiple treatment procedures, with possible impairment of facial nerve function, and radiation therapy for RPA. Reappearance of Warthin tumor is a metachronous occurrence of a new focus or residual incomplete excision of all primary multicentric foci of Warthin tumor. Selected cases can be observed. Conservative surgical management can include partial superficial parotidectomy or extracapsular dissection. Not uncommonly, other major and minor salivary gland neoplasms, including myoepithelioma, basal cell adenoma, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, cystadenoma, and ductal papilloma, follow an indolent course after surgical resection, with rare cases of recurrence. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  4. Eggshell Biliverdin and Protoporphyrin Pigments in a Songbird: Are They Derived from Erythrocytes, Blood Plasma, or the Shell Gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Boross, Nóra; Hámori, Susanne; Neuberger, Eszter; Nyiri, Zoltán

    Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments. We found no significant effects of hematocrit level or experimentally elevated anemia on intensity of eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations; therefore, we consider it less likely that eggshell pigments are derived from erythrocytes. In addition, we found no significant associations between female feces biliverdin concentration during egg laying and intensity of eggshell blue-green pigmentation, suggesting that eggshell biliverdin may not originate from the spleen or liver. We found a negative association between plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations during egg laying and eggshell brown chroma. This result suggests that an increased production of protoporphyrin in the liver, which could have elevated plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations, could inhibit eggshell protoporphyrin pigmentation, probably through affecting enzymatic activities. We suggest that both pigments are produced de novo in the shell gland in the canary, but circulating pigment levels may influence shell gland pigment synthesis, thus connecting the physiological status of the female to eggshell coloration.

  5. Avian WNT4 in the female reproductive tracts: potential role of oviduct development and ovarian carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Hong Lim

    Full Text Available The wingless-type MMTV integration site family of proteins (WNTs is highly conserved secreted lipid-modified signaling molecules that play a variety of pivotal roles in developmental events such as embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and cell polarity. Although, of these proteins, WNT4 is known to be involved in genital development in fetuses of mammalian species, its role is unknown in avian species. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression profiles, as well as hormonal and post-transcriptional regulation of WNT4 expression in the reproductive tract of female chickens. Results of this study demonstrated that WNT4 is most abundant in the stromal and luminal epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct, respectively. WNT4 is also most abundant in the glandular epithelium of the shell gland of the oviduct of laying hens at 3 h post-ovulation during the laying cycle. In addition, treatment of young chicks with diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen agonist stimulated WNT4 only in the glandular epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct. Moreover, results of our study demonstrated that miR-1786 influences WNT4 expression via specific binding sites in its 3'-UTR. On the other hand, our results also indicate that WNT4 is expressed predominantly in the glandular epithelium of cancerous ovaries, but not in normal ovaries of hens. Collectively, these results indicate cell-specific expression of WNT4 in the reproductive tract of chickens and that it likely has crucial roles in development and function of oviduct as well as initiation of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens.

  6. Avian WNT4 in the female reproductive tracts: potential role of oviduct development and ovarian carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chul-Hong; Lim, Whasun; Jeong, Wooyoung; Lee, Jin-Young; Bae, Seung-Min; Kim, Jinyoung; Han, Jae Yong; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2013-01-01

    The wingless-type MMTV integration site family of proteins (WNTs) is highly conserved secreted lipid-modified signaling molecules that play a variety of pivotal roles in developmental events such as embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and cell polarity. Although, of these proteins, WNT4 is known to be involved in genital development in fetuses of mammalian species, its role is unknown in avian species. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression profiles, as well as hormonal and post-transcriptional regulation of WNT4 expression in the reproductive tract of female chickens. Results of this study demonstrated that WNT4 is most abundant in the stromal and luminal epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct, respectively. WNT4 is also most abundant in the glandular epithelium of the shell gland of the oviduct of laying hens at 3 h post-ovulation during the laying cycle. In addition, treatment of young chicks with diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen agonist) stimulated WNT4 only in the glandular epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct. Moreover, results of our study demonstrated that miR-1786 influences WNT4 expression via specific binding sites in its 3'-UTR. On the other hand, our results also indicate that WNT4 is expressed predominantly in the glandular epithelium of cancerous ovaries, but not in normal ovaries of hens. Collectively, these results indicate cell-specific expression of WNT4 in the reproductive tract of chickens and that it likely has crucial roles in development and function of oviduct as well as initiation of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens.

  7. Rescue of salivary gland function after stem cell transplantation in irradiated glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M A Lombaert

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome. In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit(+ cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency.

  8. An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 45-46. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation induced cell loss in rat submandibular gland and its relation to gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP

    Purpose: To understand early and late radiation-induced loss of function of the submandibular gland, changes in cell number were documented and correlated with data on gland function. Modulation of the radiation effect by sialogogues was used to investigate possible mechanisms of action. Materials

  11. A retrospective evaluation of submandibular gland involvement in oral cavity cancers: a case for gland preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoturo, E M; Trivedi, N P; Kekatpure, V; Gangoli, A; Shetkar, G S; Mohan, M; Kuriakose, M A

    2012-11-01

    The key factor mitigating against prognosis in head and neck cancer is nodal metastasis and its management. Neck dissection has been known to play an integral part in this type of cancer management. Submandibular gland preservation during neck dissection and post radiotherapy, have been known to improve subjective symptoms of xerostomia. The authors retrospectively surveyed the involvement of submandibular gland involvement in oral cancer with a view to confirm oncologic safety of submandibular gland preservation, as a first step in a quest to manage radiation induced xerostomia by submandibular gland transfer. The medical and pathological records of oral cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment at the authors' centre were reviewed retrospectively. 194 patients were included in the study. 229 submandibular glands were excised from the same number of neck dissections. 3 (1.3%) submandibular glands were involved with malignancies microscopically. The mode of involvement was by direct infiltration. In conclusion, no metastasis to submandibular gland was observed. This may suggest the oncologic safety of submandibular gland preservation and transfer. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Identification of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in chicken pineal gland using (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylund, D.B.; Rudeen, P.K.; Petterborg, L.J.; Ray-Prenger, C.

    1988-07-01

    The norepinephrine-induced inhibition of avian pineal N-acetyltransferase activity appears to be mediated by alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. In this study, alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the chicken pineal gland were directly identified by radioligand binding. Membrane preparations of pineal glands from chickens from 1 to 6 weeks of age were examined using (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, to characterize the binding sites. The results indicate no ontological change in either the affinity (KD) or density of receptor binding sites (Bmax) during the time span examined. The binding was saturable and of high affinity with a mean KD of 0.27 +/- 0.01 nM and a mean Bmax of 242 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein. Further characterization of these binding sites indicated that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor is of the alpha 2A subtype, since prazosin and ARC-239 bound with low affinities and oxymetazoline bound with high affinity.

  13. Histopathological Pattern of Salivary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrestha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tumors of the salivary glands are uncommon head and neck neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative frequencies, types, site distribution and the histopathological features of salivary gland tumors. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 176 cases of salivary gland tumors collected from medical record section and department of pathology at B.P.Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2010. Tumors were analyzed based on demographics, anatomic location and histopathological type. Results: Out of 176 cases, 66 (37.5 % were benign and 110 (62.5 % were malignant with M:F ratio of 1.7:1. The mean age observed was 44.76 years with age range of 12 to 75 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was found to be the commonest benign tumor (72.7 %, followed by Warthin tumor (15.1%, monomorphic adenoma (3.0 % and basal cell adenoma (3.0 %. The mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor (38.1 %, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.4%, acinic cell carcinoma (10.9%, adenocarcinoma NOS (6.3%, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (5.4% and unclassified malignant tumor (4.5 %. Parotid was the most common site for the location of tumors (70.4% followed by submandibular (19.3% and minor salivary glands (10.2 %. Conclusion: Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest salivary gland tumor observed in both sexes. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant salivary gland tumor. The parotid gland was the most common site of origin in both benign and malignant tumors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i7.10291 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2014 Vol. 4, 520-524

  14. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic/Recurrent ACC of All Sites and Non-ACC Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  15. Impact of submandibular gland excision on salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaguar, G C; Lima, E N P; Kowalski, L P; Pellizon, A C; Carvalho, A L; Alves, F A

    2010-05-01

    Head and neck cancer surgery is often associated with neck dissection and usually includes the submandibular glands. Literature data related to remaining salivary gland function after surgery is scarce and controversial. A reduction in salivary output and increase in complaints of xerostomia have been suggested. However, a compensatory salivary mechanism has also been reported. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of neck dissection (with submandibular excision) on salivary gland function measured by salivary flow rate and salivary gland scintigraphy. A total of 80 patients with head and neck tumors were evaluated. The surgery group was composed of 37 patients, who underwent submandibular gland resection, and the non-surgery group of 43 patients evaluated prior to radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment. Whole unstimulated and stimulated saliva collection and salivary gland scintigraphy were performed in all patients. Twenty-one percent of patients in the surgery group reported xerostomia, whereas 7% in the non-surgery group. The mean unstimulated salivary flow was 0.60 and 0.94 m/min for the surgery and non-surgery groups, respectively (p=0.008). Nevertheless, no statistical difference in the stimulated salivary flow was observed between the groups (p=0.26). In addition, the mean uptake and excretion rates for parotid and remaining submandibular glands also showed no statistical difference. The data of the present study support the contention that submandibular gland resection causes a decrease in unstimulated salivary volume. However, the residual submandibular glands in the surgery group showed similar function to that of submandibular glands in the non-surgery group. Consequently, the compensatory salivary mechanism seems not to be a possibility. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Avian brains: Insights from development, behaviors and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tadashi; Izawa, Ei-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  17. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  18. Avian Radar - Is It Worth the Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    DC: The Federal Aviation Administration, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service , Wildlife...Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services. York, D. L., Engeman, R. M., Cummings, J. L., Rossi, C. L., & Sinnett, D. R... Health Inspection Service , Wildlife Services. DOT/FAA/AR-09/61. (2010). Deployments of Avian Radars at Civil Airports. Springfield: National

  19. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  20. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan D S Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue' has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  1. Avian influenza in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng; Sandrock, Christian E; Davis, Cristina E

    2009-07-01

    The disease syndromes caused by avian influenza viruses are highly variable depending on the host species infected, its susceptibility and response to infection and the virulence of the infecting viral strain. Although avian influenza viruses have a broad host range in general, it is rare for an individual strain or subtype to infect more than one species. The H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) lineages of viruses that descended from A/goose/Guandong/96 (H5N1 HPAIV) are unusual in the diversity of species they have infected worldwide. Although the species affected by H5N1 HPAI in the field and those that have been experimentally studied are diverse, their associated disease syndromes are remarkably similar across species. In some species, multi-organ failure and death are rapid and no signs of the disease are observed. Most prominently in this category are chickens and other avian species of the order Galliformes. In other species, neurologic signs develop resulting in the death of the host. This is what has been reported in domestic cats (Carnivora), geese (Anseriformes), ratites (Struthioniformes), pigeons inoculated with high doses (Columbiformes) and ducks infected with H5N1 HPAIV isolated since 2002 (Anseriformes). In some other species, the disease is more prolonged and although multi-organ failure and death are the eventual outcomes, the signs of disease are more extensive. Predominantly, these species include humans (Primates) and the laboratory models of human disease, the ferret (Carnivora), mouse (Rodentia) and cynamologous macaques (Primates). Finally, some species are more resistant to infection with H5N1 HPAIV and show few or no signs of disease. These species include pigeons in some studies (Columbiformes), ducks inoculated with pre-2002 isolates (Anseriformes), and pigs (Artiodactyla).

  2. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ewan D S; Salisbury, Steven W; Horner, John R; Varricchio, David J

    2009-09-30

    Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue') has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  3. The Avian Transcriptome Response to Malaria Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used hig...

  4. Integration and Validation of Avian Radars (IVAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    shape, density, gender ) is problematic; • Not suited to high-clutter environments (e.g., in forests, near buildings); • Health & safety issues...Fuca and the Saratoga Passage and within the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains, NAS Whidbey Island offers high quality year round training...was to demonstrate that the digital avian radars being evaluated by the IVAR project can automatically discriminate the echoes of moving targets

  5. Applications of thermal imaging in avian science

    OpenAIRE

    McCafferty, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal imaging, or infrared thermography, has been used in avian science since the 1960s. More than 30 species of birds, ranging in size from passerines to ratites, have been studied using this technology. The main strength of this technique is that it is a non-invasive and non-contact method of measuring surface temperature. Its limitations and measurement errors are well understood and suitable protocols have been developed for a variety of experimental settings. Thermal imaging has been u...

  6. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  7. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland: Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi HM

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland is reported here. The histopathologic report confirmed the diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most common in salivary glands but very rare in sweat glands. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland and the similar tumors of eccring sweat gland are described that bear a striking resemblance to pleomorphic adenomas of salivary gland. Upon closer examination, the tumor contained areas of apocrine decapitation secretory activity , and primitive hair follicles indicating cutaneous rather than mucosal origin. One year follow-up examination has revealed no evidence of recurrence.

  8. Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Lorraine M; Streicher, Katie L

    2002-04-01

    Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating mammals, but is especially problematic for dairy cattle. The most recent estimates from the National Mastitis Council suggest that mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and will cost the dairy industry over 2 billion dollars annually in the United States in lost profits (National Mastitis Council (1996) Current Concepts in Bovine Mastitis, National Mastitis Council, Madison, WI). The overall impact of mastitis on the quality and quantity of milk produced for human consumption has provided the impetus to better understand the pathophysiology of the mammary gland and develop ways to enhance disease resistance through immunoregulation. As such, the bovine species has played a critical and prominent role in our current understanding of mammary gland immunobiology. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity and how the stage of lactation can impact important host defenses While this review emphasizes the bovine system, comparisons to humans and other domestic mammals will be addressed as well.

  9. Management of the thyroid gland during laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S X; Polacco, M A; Gosselin, B J; Harrington, L X; Titus, A J; Paydarfar, J A

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to: describe the incidence of thyroid gland involvement in advanced laryngeal cancer, analyse patterns of spread to the thyroid and elucidate predictors of thyroid involvement. A retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent laryngectomy from 1991 to 2015 as a primary or salvage treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, hypopharynx or base of tongue. The incidence of thyroidectomy during total laryngectomy, type of thyroidectomy, incidence of gland involvement, route of spread, and positive predictors of spread were analysed and reported. A total of 188 patients fit the inclusion criteria. Of these, 125 (66 per cent) underwent thyroidectomy. The thyroid was involved in 10 of the 125 patients (8 per cent), 9 by direct extension and 1 by metastasis. Cartilage invasion was a predictor of thyroid gland involvement, with a positive predictive value of 26 per cent. There is a low incidence of thyroid gland involvement in laryngeal carcinoma. Most cases of gland involvement occurred by direct extension. Thyroidectomy during laryngectomy should be considered for advanced stage tumours with cartilage invasion.

  10. Computer tomographic imaging of rabbit bulbourethral glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to utilize the obtained data for differentiation of normal and pathologically altered bulbourethral glands in rabbits with regard to using this animal species as a model for studying diseases in this organ in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten sexually mature healthy male white New Zealand rabbits, 12 months old, weighed 2.8−3.2 kg were investigated. The animals were anesthetized. Scans were done at 2 mm intervals and the image reconstruction was three-dimensional. RESULTS: Rabbit bulbourethral glands were observed as a transversely oval homogeneous, relatively hyperdense structure against the surrounding soft tissues. They are visualized in the transverse cut of the pelvic outlet in the plane through the cranial part of cg2, the body of ischium, cranially to tuber ischiadicum and dorsally to the caudal part of symphysis pubis –sciatic arch. The glandular margins are adequately distinguished from the adjacent soft tissue structures. The density of the rabbit bulbourethral glands was similar to this of the soft tissues. CONCLUSION: The data obtained by the computed tomographic imaging of the rabbit bulbourethral glands could be used as an anatomical reference in the diagnosis and interpretation of imaging findings of various pathological states of the gland in this species, as well as in utilization of the rabbit as an animal model for studying diseases of this organ in humans, particularly diverticula, stenosis, lithiasis and valves

  11. Tracing the evolution of avian wing digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Mackem, Susan

    2013-06-17

    It is widely accepted that birds are a subgroup of dinosaurs, but there is an apparent conflict: modern birds have been thought to possess only the middle three fingers (digits II-III-IV) of an idealized five-digit tetrapod hand based on embryological data, but their Mesozoic tetanuran dinosaur ancestors are considered to have the first three digits (I-II-III) based on fossil evidence. How could such an evolutionary quirk arise? Various hypotheses have been proposed to resolve this paradox. Adding to the confusion, some recent developmental studies support a I-II-III designation for avian wing digits whereas some recent paleontological data are consistent with a II-III-IV identification of the Mesozoic tetanuran digits. A comprehensive analysis of both paleontological and developmental data suggests that the evolution of the avian wing digits may have been driven by homeotic transformations of digit identity, which are more likely to have occurred in a partial and piecemeal manner. Additionally, recent genetic studies in mouse models showing plausible mechanisms for central digit loss invite consideration of new alternative possibilities (I-II-IV or I-III-IV) for the homologies of avian wing digits. While much progress has been made, some advances point to the complexity of the problem and a final resolution to this ongoing debate demands additional work from both paleontological and developmental perspectives, which will surely yield new insights on mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  13. Global phylogeographic limits of Hawaii's avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadell, J.S.; Ishtiaq, F.; Covas, R.; Melo, M.; Warren, B.H.; Atkinson, C.T.; Bensch, S.; Graves, G.R.; Jhala, Y.V.; Peirce, M.A.; Rahmani, A.R.; Fonseca, D.M.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) to Hawaii has provided a model system for studying the influence of exotic disease on naive host populations. Little is known, however, about the origin or the genetic variation of Hawaii's malaria and traditional classification methods have confounded attempts to place the parasite within a global ecological and evolutionary context. Using fragments of the parasite mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the nuclear gene dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase obtained from a global survey of greater than 13 000 avian samples, we show that Hawaii's avian malaria, which can cause high mortality and is a major limiting factor for many species of native passerines, represents just one of the numerous lineages composing the morphological parasite species. The single parasite lineage detected in Hawaii exhibits a broad host distribution worldwide and is dominant on several other remote oceanic islands, including Bermuda and Moorea, French Polynesia. The rarity of this lineage in the continental New World and the restriction of closely related lineages to the Old World suggest limitations to the transmission of reproductively isolated parasite groups within the morphological species. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  14. Social environment has a primary influence on the microbial and odor profiles of a chemically signaling songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle June Whittaker

    2016-08-01

    relationship is confounded by the fact that, unlike glands exclusively dedicated to chemical communication, uropygial glands have multiple functions, and symbiotic bacteria are hypothesized to contribute to each of these. Therefore, different bacteria may contribute to different phenotypes of the avian holobiont. Future work will include cultivation, metabolomic, genomic, and behavioral assay approaches to tease these scenarios apart.

  15. Mosquito blood-meal analysis for avian malaria study in wild bird communities: laboratory verification and application to Culex sasai (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2009-10-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to verify molecular techniques of avian malaria parasite detection distinguishing between an infected mosquito (oocysts on midgut wall) and infective mosquito (sporozoites in salivary glands) in parallel with blood-meal identification from individual blood-fed mosquitoes prior to application to field survey for avian malaria. Domestic fowl infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum was exposed to a vector and non-vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens, respectively, to compare the time course of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection for parasite between competent and refractory mosquitoes. DNA of the domestic fowl was detectable for at least 3 days after blood feeding. The PCR-based detection of P. gallinaceum from the abdomen and thorax of A. aegypti corresponded to the microscopic observation of oocysts and sporozoites. Therefore, this PCR-based method was considered useful as one of the criteria to assess developmental stages of Plasmodium spp. in mosquito species collected in the field. We applied the same PCR-based method to 21 blood-fed C. sasai mosquitoes collected in Rinshi-no-mori Park in urban Tokyo, Japan. Of 15 blood meals of C. sasai successfully identified, 86.7% were avian-derived, 13.3% were bovine-derived. Plasmodium DNA was amplified from the abdomen of three C. sasai specimens having an avian blood meal from the Great Tit (Parus major), Pale Thrush (Turdus pallidus), and Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). This is the first field study on host-feeding habits of C. sasai in relation to the potential role as a vector for avian malaria parasites transmitted in the Japanese wild bird community.

  16. Experimental autotransplantation of the parathyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigouris, S; Lorentziadis, M; Stylogiannis, S; Nafas, R; Masouras, A; Poulantzas, I

    1996-03-01

    The lateral parathyroid gland of the rabbit was resected and autotransplanted under an ear skin flap. A skin flap at the opposite side was used as control. The success of autotransplantation was established by microangiography of the transplant and by measuring plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus. After 4 months the animals were killed and the transplant was studied histologically and by electron microscopy. Fourteen animals were included in the study. There was an increase in PTH derived from the transplanted gland after 4-6 postoperative days. All animals developed hypocalcaemia during the 3 days after transplantation. There were no significant changes in serum phosphorus. Transplantation did not alter the morphology of the distribution of the cells in the transplanted gland, which functioned normally after the fourth postoperative day.

  17. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  18. Malignant sweat gland tumors: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas represent an important and somewhat contentious group of tumors in diagnostic skin pathology. Although their overall incidence is rare, they show a wide range of histologic features, and reliable classification is often challenging. Awareness and recognition of these tumors is, however, important as they may be associated with significant morbidity and even disease-related mortality, especially if left untreated. According to their behavior, sweat gland carcinomas are traditionally separated into tumors with low-grade and high-grade malignant behavior. This article is aimed at increasing awareness and providing an overview of malignant sweat gland tumors with emphasis on recently reported and novel findings and diagnostically challenging and potentially underrecognized entities. It further aims to illustrate the wide morphologic range of these tumors and provides a discussion of the relevant immunohistochemistry, disease-specific behavior, and differential diagnosis.

  19. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.; Reiser, U.; Heuck, F.

    1982-01-01

    Whole body CT opens a third dimension - in addition with the advantage of being a non-invasive method with relatively negligible risk. Both, the normal CT findings of the adrenal gland and the normal variants in shape and position are described. With help of morphometry and image processing measurements of the size of the adrenal gland of 20 healthy patients were made and are listed; not only the respective normal variants but also hypo-hyperplasia are pointed out. Some examples are suitable for the illustration of pathologic conditions, such as inflammation and benign and malignant primary and secondary neoplasis. Finally, the value of adrenal gland CT is discussed with reference to the other radiologic methods. (orig.)

  1. The Role of Pineal Gland and Exogenous Melatonin on the Irradiation Stress Response of Suprarenal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aličelebić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group or shampinealectomy (control group, adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatoninintraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  2. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  3. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J. Białek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related, similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  4. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Michinao; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Uematsu, Minoru; Kusano, Shoichi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10 -3 , n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  5. Metastasis to submandibular glands in oral cavity cancers: Can we preserve the gland safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Naresh K; Patro, Sourabha K; Bakshi, Jaimanti; Verma, Roshan K; Das, Ashim; Chatterjee, Debajyoti

    2015-08-01

    To analyze submandibular gland (SMG) involvement in cases of oral cavity cancers and decide whether to remove submandibular glands while performing neck dissections for oral cavity cancers to decrease the incidence of xerostomia, a common issue post-operatively. Retrospective analysis of 157 neck dissections out of 204 neck dissections performed for oral cavity carcinomas in the Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery from 2008 to 2013 was done. SMG was bilaterally removed in 6 dissections, hence a total of 163 glands were analyzed. Those involved by tumor in histopathology were further studied for the pattern of involvement. 3.68% (6/163) glands showed involvement by the tumor. 9.20% (15/163) showed chronic sialo-adenitic changes. Four of the six involved glands showed direct contiguous spread from primary lesion, one showed extra-capsular spread from level IB lymph nodes and evidence of both modes of spread was seen in one. Evidence of metastasis was not seen in any of the glands (0%). Literature review showed a metastasis rate of 0.096% (2/2074). Metastatic involvement of submandibular gland is extremely rare. Submandibular gland preservation, in the absence of evidence of gross contiguous involvement, does not affect survival. Hence, SMG can be safely spared during neck dissections for oral cavity squamous cell cancers except in certain situations such as close proximity of the primary lesion to gland, presence of intra-capsular lymph nodes in radiology, gross intraoperative evidence of invasion of the SMG and in salvage surgeries performed in post-irradiated and recurrent cases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  7. Disorders of the equine thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuhaus, Babetta A

    2011-04-01

    Regulatory control of the thyroid gland in horses is similar to other species. Clinical signs of hypothyroidism in adult horses are minimal. Several drugs and physiologic and pathophysiological states can cause circulating thyroid hormone concentrations to be low without actual pathology of the thyroid gland. Thus, nonthyroidal factors must be ruled out before a diagnosis of hypothyroidism can be made. Thyroid hormone supplementation seems to be well tolerated, even in euthyroid horses. Neonatal foals have very high circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, and deficiencies result in significant clinical signs. Unlike in adults, two syndromes of hypothyroidism are well described in foals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How do health care providers diagnose adrenal gland disorders? Methods for diagnosing ... Tumors To diagnose an adrenal gland tumor, a health care provider may order one or more tests. 3 ...

  9. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, C.; Benezery, K.; Bensadoun, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Xerostomia is one of the most a common complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, affecting quality of life. Parotid glands produce approximately 60% of saliva and submandibular glands 20% of saliva while the rest is secreted by sublingual and accessory salivary glands. Methods of measuring the salivary output are collection of unstimulated or stimulated saliva or 99m Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy. Several studies demonstrated that late salivary dysfunction after radiotherapy has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia could be avoided if at one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than approximately 25-30 Gy. Clinical benefit of submandibular gland sparing is more controversial. A mean dose less than 39 Gy could preserve submandibular gland function. This paper aims to review main studies evaluating tolerance dose of salivary glands. (authors)

  10. Histological and histochemical studies of parathyroid gland in one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group B), and old ages (Group C), were used for the study. The camel parathyroid gland tissues were obtained from camels slaughtered at the Kano Metropolitan abattoir. The glands were prepared for standard histological study using ...

  11. Surgical anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy, Tanya; Gallagher, Daniel; Hornig, Joshua D

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, discussing how the anatomy affects function and dysfunction of the glands. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection surgical treatment and its results in children's thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.G.; Lebedev, V.I.; Belkina, B.M.; Shishkov, R.V.; Makarova, I.S.; Durnov, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    208 patients with thyroid gland cancer were observed in 1975-1993 . The morphological investigations point to an absolute prevalence of highly differentiated forms of thyroid gland cancer in children. The radiation diagnostic techniques included ultrasound investigations of neck organs, chest roentgenography, thyroid gland scintigraphy. It is shown that the surgical method is the basic technique of treating thyroid gland cancer in children. 5-year survival rate of patients depending on the stage of disease development and scope of surgical treatment is analysed

  13. 2 original article non-attenuation of highly pathogenic avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Ularamu, H. G1., Ponman, S1 and Nwagbo, I2., 1 FAO Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle. Disease (West and Central ... Avian influenza H5N1 represents one of the most researched viruses in laboratories world-wide in recent times with regards ..... Cayouette B. Kinetics of ultra- violet light inactivation of.

  14. High prevalence of avian malaria infection to avifauna at Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was undertaken during January and February 2004, to determine the epidemiological risk of avian malaria infection to seabirds at the proposed marine animal rehabilitation complex, to be sited at Cape Receife. Despite low numbers of mosquitoes trapped, the incidence of avian malaria infections was ...

  15. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  16. Avian fossils from the Early Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian remains from the Early Miocene (~17 Ma) Moghra Formation of Egypt include new records of 'waterbirds' (storks, herons, pelicans and allies) and a ratite. Only a single avian fossil has been previously reported from Wadi Moghra and, thus, additional knowledge of the avifauna complements previously documented ...

  17. Avian influenza, Newcastle and Gumboro disease antibodies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on avian influenza and Newcastle disease focus on waterfowls, considered natural reservoirs of these viruses. This study surveyed avian influenza (AI), Gumboro and Newcastle disease antibodies and antigens in birds in live wild bird markets (LWBMs), live poultry markets (LPMs) and free flying in Kaduna State ...

  18. Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial breeders and layers, southwest Nigeria. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Background: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the ...

  19. Avian nestling predation by endangered Mount Graham red squirrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2007-01-01

    Studies using artificial nests or remote cameras have documented avian predation by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although several direct observations of avian predation events are known in the northern range of the red squirrel distribution, no accounts have been reported in the southern portion. We observed predation upon a hermit thrush...

  20. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  1. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  2. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  3. Avian research in the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice Van Horne

    2005-01-01

    Avian research in the Federal Government is in a crisis. Yes, there is a strong interest in avian research, as evidenced by the size and level of interest in this conference. But political parties increasingly see wildlife research as expendable. At the same time, the reaction to environment-friendly legislation of the 1970s and 1980s has been strong from both sides....

  4. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  5. Socioeconomic Impacts of Avian Influenza on Small and Backyard ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    and compensation schemes are more difficult to enforce than in large commercial poultry farms. Moreover, small and backyard farmers have fewer reserves to cope with the financial impact of avian influenza and, possibly, greater motivation to circumvent government control measures. The Asian Partnership for Avian ...

  6. Ontogeny of avian thermoregulation from a neural point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2007-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation differs among (avian) species, but in all species both neural and endocrinological processes are involved. In this review the neural processes in ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal and early postnatal phase are discussed. Only in a few avian species

  7. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Isolate. 113.70 Section 113.70 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or modified...

  8. Detection of avian nephritis virus and chicken astrovirus in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian nephritis virus (ANV) and chicken astrovirus (CAstV) are widely distributed in poultry flocks worldwide, causing growth retardation. However, these avian astroviruses have not been previously diagnosed in poultry species in Nigeria. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRTPCR) and reverse ...

  9. Nanostructures for the development of vaccines against avian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... Photo: IDRC / Sven Torfinn. The impact of avian influenza. The livelihoods of smallholder farmers, who most frequently own poultry have been severely impacted by recent outbreaks of avian influenza (AI). The severity of the disease can range from mild to extremely severe cases with up to a 100% mortality ...

  10. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  11. An Unusually Large Submandibular Gland Stone. A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latter was incised and drained, while excision of the right submandibular gland and calculus was carried out three weeks later. 5.0cm - sized stone was excised. This turned out to be the second largest salivary gland stone recorded in literature. Conclusion Giant salivary gland stone which ( greater than 1.5cm) is rare.

  12. Pathology of head and neck tumors: salivary glands. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batsakis, J.G.; Regezi, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The authors present a concept of histogenesis and classification as well as an analysis of (1) salivary-gland tumors in children, (2) the relationship between breast carcinoma and salivary-gland carcinoma, (3) the status of radiation induction of salivary-gland tumors, and (4) the clinicopathologic aspects of tumors of the salivary oncocyte.

  13. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During mating male and female Breviceps become 'glued' together. The distribution of multicellular dermal glands varies between the sexes. The mate has a large number of holocrine glands on the ventrum, while the female has similar glands on the dorsum of the back. II thus appears that both sexes contribute to the ...

  14. Histology Of The Exocrine Glands Of The Canine Perianal Skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A histopathological study of the perianal skin of indigenous breeds of dogs in Nigeria was carried out in Zaria. The skin in this area had three types of glands: sebaceous, sweat, and hepatoid circumanal glands. Sebaceous glands in this area release their product by holocrine mode in which the whole cell is secreted with its ...

  15. The Micromorphology Of Hepatoid Circumanal Gland In Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoid circumanal glands (HCGs) were found in dogs of all age group, in both sexes and appeared to be ductless. There were usually two glands separated by a hair follicle. A lobe of a gland was made of 20 lobules or more. Each lobule consisted of polygonal or polyhedral non-vacuolated cells with one or more ...

  16. Infiltrative Oncocytoma arising from minor salivary glands of palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncocytoma of salivary gland origin is an uncommon tumor found mainly in the parotid gland. On rare occasions, oncocytoma arise in the intra-oral minor salivary glands; having a greater tendency for locally aggressive behavior and infiltrating the adjacent tissues due to incomplete encapsulation. The current case is of ...

  17. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without... accordance with the provisions of part 311 of this subchapter. (c) Lactating mammary glands of cattle, sheep... as “Brucellosis reactors” or as “Mastitis elimination cows” shall be condemned. ...

  18. Avian mycobacteriosis in companion birds: 20-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarolla, Giovanni; Liandris, Emmanouil; Pisoni, Giuliano; Sassera, Davide; Grilli, Guido; Gallazzi, Daniele; Sironi, Giuseppe; Moroni, Paolo; Piccinini, Renata; Rampin, Tiziana

    2009-02-02

    The causative agents of avian mycobacteriosis in pet birds are rarely identified. The aim of this study is to add information about the etiology of avian mycobacteriosis. The identification of mycobacterium species in 27 cases of avian mycobacteriosis in pet birds was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of a rRNA hypervariable region. Avian mycobacteriosis appeared to be an infrequent diagnosis. Interestingly, a few cases of avian mycobacteriosis were recorded in very young birds. The most commonly affected species were the canary (Serinus canarius), the Eurasian goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) and the red siskin (Spinus cucullatus). All but one bird were infected with Mycobacterium genavense. Mycobacterium avium was identified only in one case.

  19. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to

  20. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. E. Lyah; V. G. Guryanov; E. A. Yakobson

    2016-01-01

    Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT) and malignant thermograms (MT).

  1. [Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Ferariu, D; Boişteanu, Otilia; Haba, Danisia

    2011-01-01

    Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity. Definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult to determine preoperatively because of the lack of pathognomonic features. The most frequent location of a parotid dermoid cyst is a triangular area lying above the pinna. Imaging studies do not definitely diagnose a parotid dermoid cyst. Although parotid dermoid cyst is (generally) well-encapsulated, complete removal of the cyst wall is not sufficient to cure it, so it is mandatory to perform careful excision of the cyst by parotidectomy, in terms of preserving facial nerve integrity. Histopathology of the parotid gland tumor removed by parotidectomy makes a diagnosis of certainty, by revealing a cyst wall with keratinization of the squamous epithelium and the presence of skin annexes (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). We present a rare case of parotid dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old male patient with symptoms and imaging rather suggestive of arch I branchial cyst and a brief review of data in the medical literature of the last 20 years.

  2. p53 mutations in sweat gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, W; Peraud, A; Wozniak, L; Ohgaki, H

    1998-05-04

    Sweat gland carcinomas are rare skin tumours and little is known about their etiology and molecular basis. In this study, we analyzed p53 mutations in 16 sweat gland carcinomas with different histologic types, including 2 spiradenocarcinomas, 1 composed adnexal carcinoma, 5 porocarcinomas, 2 eccrine hidradenocarcinomas, 2 syringocystadenocarcinomas, 1 sclerosing sweat gland carcinoma, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 1 cylindrocarcinoma and 1 apocrine adenocarcinoma. Single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses followed by direct DNA sequencing revealed that 5 carcinomas (31%) contained a p53 mutation, 4 of which were G:C-->A:T transition mutations and 1 of which was a deletion. Three G:C-->A:T mutations were located at dipyrimidine sequences on the antisense strand (2 spiradenocarcinomas, 1 eccrine hidradenocarcinoma), suggesting that UV light may play a role in the development of sweat gland carcinomas. In 2 spiradenocarcinomas, p53 mutations were present in the carcinoma but not in the adenoma portions, suggesting that p53 mutations may be associated with malignant progression in these rare adnexal tumours.

  3. [Sweat gland carcinomas of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, A; Requena, L

    2008-02-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas are rare malignant tumors of the skin. The well-defined entities porocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma, mucinous eccrine carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma are described. The article summarizes essential clinical, prognostic and histopathological findings of these tumors and takes in focus special recommendations for dermatologists and surgeons to plan biopsies and operations.

  4. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  5. Adenome pleomorphe des glandes salivaires accessoires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution was good for the first patient after secondary excision of the tumor. The patient presenting a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma developed quickly pulmonary and cerebral metastases. Conclusion : Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland is generally known to be a slow-growing tumour. They must be ...

  6. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4 resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  7. investigation of the chest gland secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submitted 6 February 1979; accepted 29 April 1980. Ga/ago crassicaudatus is a favourable animal for study- ing chemical communication since, as a nocturnal animal, it is highly dependent on olfaction for com- munication and has the most prominent scent gland of all the African galagines (Clark 1975 & 1978a). Recent.

  8. Imaging for salivary gland sparing radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major side effects of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck area is a reduced saliva production due to the high radiation-sensitivity of the salivary glands. The reduced salivary flow induces difficulties in swallowing, eating, speaking, and often induces dental caries. This thesis addresses

  9. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    :  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  10. assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2006-01-22

    Jan 22, 2006 ... KEYWORDS: Assessment, Economic, Social Implications, Avian Flu, Nigerian Poultry. INTRODUCTION. Avian flu is a highly infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease of man, poultry and other birds caused by the avian influenza type A virus, Emmanuel et.al. (2006). The avian influenza virus belongs to ...

  11. New USDA licensed avian influenza vaccine (rHVT-AI) for protection against H5 avian influenza and usage discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, a new avian influenza vaccine was licensed by USDA for use in the United States for protection of commercial poultry. The vaccine is a recombinant herpes virus of turkeys expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5 subtype avian influenza virus belonging to the 2.2 clade of the H5N1 highly ...

  12. [Epidemiological perspectives on SARS and avian influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    SARS is a respiratory infection caused by Coronavirus (Nidoviruses, RNA) from which 3 groups are known. Group 1 affects dogs, cats, pigs, and the human agent is 229 E. Group 2 affects bovines or rodents, and the human agent is OC43. And group 3 corresponds to the avian pathology.... The epidemics emerged on February 2003 in Guangdong, South China, due to consumption of exotic animals (Civeta, etc.), and it spread through interperson contagion to other regions in Asia, America and Europe. Incubation period is about 2-7 days. Transmission Of the virus is person-to person, but also by excretions and residual water. Basic reproductive rate is 2 to 4, and it is considered that 2.7 persons are infected from the initial case. In June 2003, SARS affected over 8,000 people and 774 were killed. Mortality approaches to 10%, and it is higher among older people rising up to 50% in those aged over 65 years. It is important to quickly establish action protocols regarding clinical, epidemiological and prevention aspects. Avian influenza is an infection caused by type A Influenza Orthomixovirus, in which migration birds and wild ducks are the main reservoir. Avian viruses correspond to H5, H7, H9. In 1997 it was observed that type AH5N1 jumped interspecies barrier and affected 18 humans, and 6 of them died. At the end of 2003 and in 2004 this type of poultry flu was described in Asia. FAO has emphasized that sacrifice of chicken in affected farms is the most effective measure to fight against the disease. It has also been established suppression of imports from these countries. There is no evidence on interperson contagion from chicken contagion, nor on food-borne contagion to humans.

  13. The avian transcriptome response to malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-05-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 postinfection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). We found considerable differences in the transcriptomes of infected and uninfected individuals, with a large number of genes differentially expressed during both peak and decreasing parasitemia stages. These genes were overrepresented among functions involved in the immune system, stress response, cell death regulation, metabolism, and telomerase activity. Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse) revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. By using RNA-sequencing we gained a more complete view of the host response, and were able to pinpoint not only well-documented host genes but also unannotated genes with clear significance during infection, such as microRNAs. This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe that it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Transcriptional profiling reveals gland-specific differential expression in the three major salivary glands of the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Oei, Maria S; Ovitt, Catherine E; Sincan, Murat; Melvin, James E

    2018-04-01

    RNA-Seq was used to better understand the molecular nature of the biological differences among the three major exocrine salivary glands in mammals. Transcriptional profiling found that the adult murine parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands express greater than 14,300 protein-coding genes, and nearly 2,000 of these genes were differentially expressed. Principle component analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed three distinct clusters according to gland type. The three salivary gland transcriptomes were dominated by a relatively few number of highly expressed genes (6.3%) that accounted for more than 90% of transcriptional output. Of the 912 transcription factors expressed in the major salivary glands, greater than 90% of them were detected in all three glands, while expression for ~2% of them was enriched in an individual gland. Expression of these unique transcription factors correlated with sublingual and parotid specific subsets of both highly expressed and differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology analyses revealed that the highly expressed genes common to all glands were associated with global functions, while many of the genes expressed in a single gland play a major role in the function of that gland. In summary, transcriptional profiling of the three murine major salivary glands identified a limited number of highly expressed genes, differentially expressed genes, and unique transcription factors that represent the transcriptional signatures underlying gland-specific biological properties.

  15. Current treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck; Sa, Ho-Seok; Esmaeli, Bita

    2016-09-01

    The traditional treatment for lacrimal gland carcinoma is orbital exenteration followed by radiation therapy. However, orbital exenteration does not prevent distant relapse and death, and some patients experience local-regional recurrence after exenteration. More recently, eye-sparing surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy have gained popularity in the treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma. Preliminary studies show that these approaches are associated with reasonable local control rates and ocular toxicity profiles. In this review, we discuss recent studies of treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma, including studies of potential molecular treatment targets. Recent studies suggest promising results for neoadjuvant intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by orbital exenteration and adjuvant intravenous chemotherapy, but only in patients with an 'intact lacrimal artery'. Recent studies of globe-sparing surgery followed by adjuvant proton radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation suggest good local control, reasonable rates of eye preservation, and low risk of serious ocular toxic effects. Larger tumor size and predominant basaloid histology seem to be associated with higher risk of local-regional recurrence and distant metastasis. One study showed oncogenic mutations in more than half of cases of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, with KRAS mutations in 10 of 24 patients, suggesting potential benefit of treatments targeting the EGFR-RAS-RAF cascade. In selected patients with lacrimal gland carcinoma, eye-sparing surgery with eye-sparing radiation therapy offers preservation of visual function with good local control and minimal radiation-induced ocular toxic effects. In patients with recurrent or metastatic disease, a search for actionable cancer-associated mutations may be prudent.

  16. Deposition in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1979-01-01

    Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131 I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131 I concentration in cattle milk was 437 pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131 I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

  17. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 705 salivary glands neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Magdalena; Bień, Stanisław; Okła, Sławomir; Zyłka, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological data concerning the rare group of tumors derived from salivary glands recorded in the National Cancer Registry is insufficient because it records only malignant salivary glands tumors. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 699 patients with salivary glands tumors (n=705). The data were retrieved from ENT Department District Hospital in Kielce (01.09.1989-28.02.2001) and from Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Holy Cross Cancer Centre in Kielce (01.03.2001-31.12.2008). In the analyzed group of 699 patients with 705 salivary glands tumors women predominated, consisting 54,2% of all group. The average age in group of malignant tumors was higher than in nonmalignant group. The risk of malignant neoplasms development increased with patient age. In the analyzed group of 705 salivary glands tumors the nonmalignant neoplasms dominated-78,3%. Out of all cases, 547 (77,6%) were localized in the parotid gland, 80 (11,3%) in submandibular gland and 78 (11,1%) in minor salivary glands. Nonmalignant tumors were more frequent in the parotid gland (82,8%) and submandibular gland (71,3%), whereas in minor salivary glands nonmalignant and malignant neoplasms the occurrence was nearly the same. In general-the smaller the salivary gland, the risk of development malignant tumors was higher. In group of nonmalignant salivary gland tumors two histopathological types dominated - pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor, which comprised 91,8% of the whole group. In the group of 153 malignant salivary gland tumors the most common histopathology were - adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In the analyzed period of 20 years' time, the incidence of salivary glands tumors increased with high siginificance, both for nonmalignant, as well malignant tumors. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. The threshold of a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrong; Zhang, Xinhong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect in human population and saturation effect within avian population is investigated. This model describes the transmission of avian influenza among avian population and human population in random environments. For stochastic avian-only system, persistence in the mean and extinction of the infected avian population are studied. For the avian-human influenza epidemic system, sufficient conditions for the existence of an ergodic stationary distribution are obtained. Furthermore, a threshold of this stochastic model which determines the outcome of the disease is obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  19. Current genomic editing approaches in avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sub; Kang, Kyung Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    The chicken was domesticated from Red Jungle Fowl over 8000years ago and became one of the major food sources worldwide. At present, the poultry industry is one of the largest industrial animal stocks in the world, and its economic scale is expanding significantly with increasing consumption. Additionally, since Aristotle used chicken eggs as a model to provide remarkable insights into how life begins, chickens have been used as invaluable and powerful experimental materials for studying embryo development, immune systems, biomedical processes, and hormonal regulation. Combined with advancements in efficient transgenic technology, avian models have become even more important than would have been expected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  1. Avian influenza overview September–November 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian; Kuiken, Thijs; Mulatti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    the outbreaks, no transmission to humans has been identified in the EU. The report includes an update of the list of wild bird target species for passive surveillance activities that is based on reported AI-infected wild birds since 2006. The purpose of this list is to provide information on which bird species...... the continuing threat of this avian influenza virus to human health and possible introduction via migratory wild birds into Europe. Close monitoring is required of the situation in Africa with regards to HPAI of the subtypes A(H5N1) and A(H5N8), given the rapidity of the evolution and the uncertainty...

  2. Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teti, A.; Rizzoli, R.; Zambonin Zallone, A. (Univ. of Bari (Italy))

    1991-02-14

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with ({sup 125}I)--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated.

  3. Tissue interactions of avian viral attachment proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can infect a wide range of hosts; varying from bacteria and plants to animals and humans. While many viral infections may pass unnoticed, some are of major importance due to their implications on health and welfare of plants, animals and/or humans. In particular, viruses that can infect avian hosts have been studied intensively due the occurrence of the pandemics of highly pathogenic influenza A virus infection or “bird flu’’. Viral infections in domesticated birds can result in huge ...

  4. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  5. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Jackson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA. To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  6. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  7. Image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Keiko; Kozuka, Takahiro; Morimoto, Shizuo; Ikezoe, Junpei; Arisawa, Jun; Akira, Masanori; Koide, Takuo; Oka, Toshitsugu; Sone, Shusuke.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the neck were performed in 12 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-eight of 44 excised parathyroid glands were visualized by US preoperatively (64 %). By CT, 20 parathyroid glands were detected (45 %). US was superior to CT for demonstrating parathyroid glands weighing between 500 and 1500 mg. There was no difference between US and CT for demonstrating parathyroid glands weighing more than 1500 mg and less than 500 mg. For definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism and preoperative localization, US is modality of choice initially, and then CT can be employed to search for mediastinal parathyroid gland. (author)

  8. Papillary cystadenocarcinoma of submandibular salivary gland: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardi Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm characterized by cysts and papillary endophytic projections. It was first defined in 1991 by World Health organization as a separate entity. Major locations of this neoplasm are the parotid gland, the sublingual gland, and minor salivary glands, while occurrence in the submandibular gland is extremely rare. We present a case of papillary cystadenocarinoma arising from the submandibular gland in a 67-year-old male patient. Further, we have discussed the cytological and histopathological features of this rare entity and reviewed the current literature.

  9. Advanced Upper Eyelid Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma with Deep Orbital Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi SAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebaceous gland carcinomas (SGC are highly malignant lid tumors which originate from meibomian glands and rarely from the gland of Zeis, sebaceous gland of caruncle, eyebrows and periocular skin. In many cases correct diagnosis of SGC is delayed because of its ability to masquerade as a variety of other ocular conditions.A forty year old male presented with a left upper eyelid swelling with an ulcerated wound on its nasal aspect. A differential diagnosis of sebaceous gland carcinoma or preseptal cellulitis was made. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed an ill defined soft tissue density mass in the left orbit encasing the whole of the optic nerve. A total exentration was performed. A diagnosis of meibomian gland carcinoma was confirmed on histopathology.This is a report of an advanced sebaceous gland carcinoma with deep orbital extension. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may decrease the long term morbidity and extend the survival rate of such patients.

  10. Salt gland distribution in limonium bicolor at the individual level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, B. Y.; Yuan, F.; Dong, X. X.; Wang, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    Limonium bicolor is a typical exo-recretohalophyte with multi-cellular salt glands. A differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope were applied to investigate the pattern of salt gland distribution in L. bicolor at the individual level. For a single mature leaf, more salt glands are distributed in the leaf central and apical regions than leaf base. For the leaves in different developmental stages, firstly, the density of salt glands linearly decreased at the beginning of leaf expansion and kept a relatively constant value in the later periods, which was mainly due to the rapid expansion of epidermal cells. Secondly, the total number of glands per leaf showed a reversed trend compared to the density of salt glands. These results suggested that the salt gland density was adapted to the leaf age and area as more and more salt accumulated in the saline soils.

  11. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  12. [The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands in evolutionary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, O F

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands is considered based on the analysis of the literature and our own original data with the focus on the issues of gland polymorphism and specific features in postnatal development (from the case study of circumanal hepatoid glands of newborn domestic dogs), including the features reflecting the evolutionary relationships of various types of cutaneous glands. The hepatoid glands are a component of the glandular complex ofthe hair follicle, which also includes sebaceous and sweat glands; have a specific structure; and produce protein secretion by a merocrine pathway. Characteristic of these glands are wide polymorphism, sex- and age-related differences in the degree of development, occurrence in only a few phylogenetically related mammalian taxa (even-toed ungulates and carnivores); and a signaling type of their secretion. The data support the "generative concept," relying on the idea of a separate and independent origination of diverse derivatives of the external integuments.

  13. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F

    2008-01-22

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of 'avian' characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  14. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  15. Developmental studies of avian brain organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Avian brain organization or brain Bauplan is identical with that of vertebrates in general. This essay visits avian studies that contained advances or discussions about brain organization, trying to explain critically what they contributed. In order to start from a specific background, the new prevailing paradigm as regards brain organization, the prosomeric model, is presented first. Next a brief historic survey is made of how ideas on this topic evolved from the start of modern neuromorphology at the end of the 19th century. Longitudinal zonal organization with or without transverse segmentation (neuromeres) was the first overall concept applied to the brain. The idea of neuromeric structure later decayed in favour of a columnar model. This emphasized functional correlations rather than causal developmental content, assimilating forebrain functions to hindbrain ones. Though it became prevalent in the post-world-war period of neuroscience, in the last decades of the 20th century advances in molecular biology allowed developmental genes to be mapped, and it became evident that gene expression patterns support the old neuromeric model rather than the columnar one. This was also corroborated by modern experimental approaches (fate-mapping and analysis of patterning).

  16. Seasonal change in the avian hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF AVIAN CHLAMYDIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Šatrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian chlamydiosis is an infectious disease of birds caused by gram-negative bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci. However, this disease can occure among other mammals including humans. Chlamydiosis often presents as an inapparent infection, especially in older birds. During stressful conditions (deficient diet, transportation, great population density in small spaces, etc. and comorbidity, however, the birds usually begin to either present with the clinical signs of chlamydiosis, or secrete many causative agents to the environment. Depending on the serotype of the causative agent, and the type and age of the host, the disease usually causes systemic disorders, and is often fatal. The affected birds present with lethargy, fever, typical yellow-green discharge from the eyes and nose, diarrhea, anorexia and the weight lost. Bearing capacity is reduced. Autopsy findings show hepatomegaly with necrotic foci, splenomegaly and fibrinous inflammation of the pericardium, peritoneum and air sacs. Pathohistological findings reveal elementary bodies in the intercellular space dyed red to reddish purple using the Gimenez technique.Key words: avian chlamydiosis, pathomorphological changes, histopathological changes

  18. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Functional window of the avian compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Kondabagil, Kiran; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2017-05-01

    The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation. While these lend support to the radical-pair model, we find that in its simplest form-or even with minor augmentations-it cannot quantitatively explain the observed width of the functional window. This suggests deeper generalization of the model, possibly in terms of more nuclei or more subtle environmental interaction than has been considered hitherto. Finally, we examine a possible biological purpose for the functional window; even assuming evolutionary benefit from radical-pair magnetoreception, it seems likely that the functional window could be just a corollary thereof, imparting no additional advantage.

  20. Milestones in avian coccidiosis research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D

    2014-03-01

    This article describes some of the milestones in research concerned with protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria that infect birds and cause the disease coccidiosis. The time period covered is from 1891, when oocysts were first found in the ceca of diseased chickens, to the present. Progress in our understanding has lagged behind that of other protozoan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium despite the enormous importance of Eimeria to animal livestock production. Nevertheless, applied research by universities, government agencies, and private industry has resulted in the successful development of methods of control, research that continues today. The topics covered and the references provided are selective and include life cycles and biology, pathology, ultrastructure, biochemistry, immunity, genetics, host cell invasion, species identification, taxonomy, chemotherapy, vaccination, and literature concerned with avian coccidiosis. This review is primarily concerned with the avian species of Eimeria that infect poultry, but some important advances, principally in immunology, have been made using species that infect rodents and rabbits. These are included where appropriate.

  1. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  2. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R G; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  3. Data base on avian mortality on man-made structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computerized data base concerning avian mortality on man-made structures is available for searching at the Ecological Sciences Information Center of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This data base, which contains entries from the available literature, provides information on avian mortality from either collision into or electrocution on man-made structures. Primary emphasis has been placed on avian collision with obstacles such as television and radio towers, airport ceilometers, transmission lines, and cooling towers. Other structures included in the studies are fences, glass walls and windows, lighthouses, telegraph and telephone wires, buildings, monuments, smokestacks, and water towers.

  4. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size...... this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits....

  5. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  6. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ikue; Dufresne, Raymond; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare, low-grade, cutaneous neoplasm that may be associated with invasive mucinous carcinoma. Tumors typically present as slow-growing, flesh-colored, nonspecific papules or nodules that favor the eyelids in older individuals. Histologic examination usually reveals basaloid nodules composed of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, with focal mucin production and occasional glandular structures. Definitive diagnosis requires immunohistochemical staining. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinomas have been noted to stain positively with neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin and chromogranins as well as cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin CAM 5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Complete excision with close follow-up is important given EMPSGC's association with invasive mucinous carcinoma. Mohs micrographic surgery is an appropriate choice for treatment. We report 2 cases of EMPSGC presenting on the eyelids in a 72-year-old woman and a 74-year-old man.

  7. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  8. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  9. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. E. Lyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT and malignant thermograms (MT.

  10. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...... is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  11. Mycobacterium chelonae infection of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid S Shaaban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium chelonae can cause numerous infections, including lung disease, local cutaneous disease, osteomyelitis, joint infections and ocular disease. With the exception of lung disease, these syndromes commonly develop after direct inoculation. The most common clinical presentation in immunocompetent individuals is skin and soft tissue infection. We present a case of M. chelonae infection of the parotid gland that was successfully treated with clarithromycin monotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of M. chelonae parotitis in an adult.

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Di Palma, Silvana; Barrett, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis from basal cell carcinoma of the skin is very rare with cases being documented in the lymph nodes, lung, bone and parotid gland. The main histopathological differential diagnosis is the locally arising basal cell adenocarcinoma from which it is difficult to distinguish by morphology and routine immunohistochemistry. Approximately 85 % of all reported metastatic basal cell carcinomas arise in the head and neck region. Here we present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the...

  13. Paratiroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Carpio, Roberto; Jimenez Torres, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 62 year old woman with diagnose of parathyroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma admitted at the ION SOLCA in Quito by the surgery service. At her admission she was classified as a paraneoplasic syndrome associated witha a pulmonary mass + hypercalcemia. This case was presented because of the importance of the primary hyperparathyroidism as one of the principal endocrine pathologies, that in oncology are associated with the multiple neoplasia syndromes. (The author)

  14. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  15. The mystery of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daniel; Ellis, Harold

    2016-09-01

    The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago (Miller , Tissue Antigens 63:509-517). Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus (Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr 2:877-881). Until Miller (, Lancet 278:748-749) eventually proved its primarily immunological role, the history of this mysterious gland has closely mirrored the history of medicine itself, troubling the minds of pathologists such as Virchow (, Ueber die Chlorose und die damit zusammenhängenden Anomalien im Gefässapparate, insbesondere über "Endocarditis puerperalis," vorgetragen in der Sitzung der Berliner Geburtshülflichen Gesellschaft vom 12) and Grawitz (, Deut Med Wochenschr 22:429-431), surgeons such as Astley Cooper (, The Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) and Keynes (1953, Ann R Coll Surg 12:88), and eminent medical epidemiologists such as Greenwood and Woods [, J Hyg (Lond) 26:305-326]. This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike. Clin. Anat. 29:679-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Lacrimal Gland Fistula following Severe Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Demir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to present a unique case with discharging lacrimal gland fistula secondary to severe head trauma by an animal. A 9-year-old girl presented with serous fluid discharge from a cutaneous fistula in the left orbital region. The patient had history of surgery for traumatic frontal bone fracture and skin laceration in the superior orbital rim three weeks earlier. She underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and there was no anterior segment or fundus pathology. The orifice of the fistula was detected in mediolateral part of the left superior orbital rim and fluid secretion was increasing with irritation of the left eye. Neurosurgical complications were excluded and radiological assessment was nonremarkable. The patient’s legal representatives were informed and lacrimal gland fistulectomy was planned. However, the fistula was self-closed one week after initial ophthalmological examination, and the patient had no symptoms. In conclusion, traumatic injuries of superior orbital region should be carefully evaluated and wounds should be well closed to prevent consecutive lacrimal gland fistula.

  17. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Associated With Periocular Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Jun; Ko, JaeSang; Ji, Yong Woo; Kim, Tae-Im; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of periocular radiotherapy on meibomian glands. We evaluated 28 patients (40 eyes) who received radiotherapy (RT group) for conjunctival or orbital lymphoma and 30 age-matched control subjects (60 eyes). Subjects underwent slit-lamp examination of the eyelids, Schirmer test, meibography, and evaluation of tear film breakup time (TBUT), Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores, meibomian glands evaluation (meiboscore, meibum expressibility, and lid margin abnormality scores), and tear film lipid layer thickness using an ocular surface interferometer. These parameters were compared between subjects in the RT and control groups. Meiboscores as well as meibum expressibility and OSDI scores in the RT group were significantly higher compared with those in the control group (1.6 ± 0.9 vs. 0.4 ± 0.6, 1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4, and 48.1 ± 21.4 vs. 6.2 ± 4.4, respectively, P radiotherapy exhibited relatively high tear film instability induced by meibomian gland dysfunction, contributing to the high severity of dry eye symptoms.

  18. Vitamin D receptors and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Christine S; Ruppe, Mary D; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    To describe the function and metabolism of the vitamin D hormone and the role of the vitamin D receptor and the calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone. A review of the literature was undertaken regarding the function and metabolism of vitamin D; the role of the vitamin D receptor and calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone; and the contemporary research regarding the interaction of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in patients with vitamin D deficiency, primary hyperparathyroidism, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Over the last several years, great interest has been generated about the interaction of vitamin D and the parathyroid glands, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and bone in relation to calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Vitamin D has an important role in calcium and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Likewise, the vitamin D axis appears to be involved with the development of both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The specific mechanism by which vitamin D interacts with the parathyroid gland to bring about observed effects is not yet fully understood. Future studies investigating the relationship of the vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor, and parathyroid glands are needed to enhance our knowledge of vitamin D deficiency and primary and secondary vitamin D deficiency.

  19. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  20. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee

  1. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Artist conception of the Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  3. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  4. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    . It consists of a skeletal framework, flexible membranes or soft tissue masses, labia, stretched between elements of this framework, and the syringeal muscles. Until a decade ago most of our knowledge about syringeal mechanics was based on such indirect evidence as electromyography, emitted sound, and anatomy....... The use of thin, flexible endoscopes has made direct observation of the syrinx possible in situ. The effects of direct muscle stimulation on the syringeal aperture have identified adductor and abductor muscles, confirming results from electromyographic studies. Endoscopic observations have revealed......-filming during sound production has revealed that sound pulses coincide with short duration formation of slots between the soft tissue masses forming a pneumatic valve, which suggests that the avian sound generating mechanism is a similar to that in the human larynx. Lately studies have revealed surprising...

  5. Ontogeny of avian thermoregulation from a neural point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den, H.

    2007-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation differs among (avian) species, but in all species both neural and endocrinological processes are involved. In this review the neural processes in ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal and early postnatal phase are discussed. Only in a few avian species (chicken, ducklings) the ontogeny of some important neural structures are described. In the early post hatching phase, peripheral and deep-body thermoreceptors are present and functional, even in altr...

  6. Will Wallace's Line Save Australia from Avian Influenza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish I. McCallum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia is separated from the Asian faunal realm by Wallace's Line, across which there is relatively little avian migration. Although this does diminish the risk of high pathogenicity avian influenza of Asian origin arriving with migratory birds, the barrier is not complete. Migratory shorebirds, as well as a few landbirds, move through the region on annual migrations to and from Southeast Asia and destinations further north, although the frequency of infection of avian influenza in these groups is low. Nonetheless, high pathogenicity H5N1 has recently been recorded on the island of New Guinea in West Papua in domestic poultry. This event increases interest in the movements of birds between Wallacea in eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, and Australia, particularly by waterbirds. There are frequent but irregular movements of ducks, geese, and other waterbirds across Torres Strait between New Guinea and Australia, including movements to regions in which H5N1 has occurred in the recent past. Although the likelihood of avian influenza entering Australia via an avian vector is presumed to be low, the nature and extent of bird movements in this region is poorly known. There have been five recorded outbreaks of high pathogenicity avian influenza in Australian poultry flocks, all of the H7 subtype. To date, Australia is the only inhabited continent not to have recorded high pathogenicity avian influenza since 1997, and H5N1 has never been recorded. The ability to map risk from high pathogenicity avian influenza to Australia is hampered by the lack of quantitative data on the extent of bird movements between Australia and its northern neighbors. Recently developed techniques offer the promise to fill this knowledge gap.

  7. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian retrovirus, can infect primate cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, H M; Brown, A M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spleen necrosis virus (SNV) is an avian retrovirus that can infect some mammalian cells such as dog cells as well as all avian cells tested to date. We were interested in testing whether SNV could also infect primate cells. For these experiments, we used HeLa and COS-7 cells. Initially, we determined whether the SNV long terminal repeat promoter was functional in HeLa and COS-7 cells. In transient transfection assays, the SNV promoter efficiently directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gen...

  8. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P

    2002-05-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus.

  9. Impacts of climate change on avian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenouvrier, Stephanie

    2013-07-01

    This review focuses on the impacts of climate change on population dynamics. I introduce the MUP (Measuring, Understanding, and Predicting) approach, which provides a general framework where an enhanced understanding of climate-population processes, along with improved long-term data, are merged into coherent projections of future population responses to climate change. This approach can be applied to any species, but this review illustrates its benefit using birds as examples. Birds are one of the best-studied groups and a large number of studies have detected climate impacts on vital rates (i.e., life history traits, such as survival, maturation, or breeding, affecting changes in population size and composition) and population abundance. These studies reveal multifaceted effects of climate with direct, indirect, time-lagged, and nonlinear effects. However, few studies integrate these effects into a climate-dependent population model to understand the respective role of climate variables and their components (mean state, variability, extreme) on population dynamics. To quantify how populations cope with climate change impacts, I introduce a new universal variable: the 'population robustness to climate change.' The comparison of such robustness, along with prospective and retrospective analysis may help to identify the major climate threats and characteristics of threatened avian species. Finally, studies projecting avian population responses to future climate change predicted by IPCC-class climate models are rare. Population projections hinge on selecting a multiclimate model ensemble at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales and integrating both radiative forcing and internal variability in climate with fully specified uncertainties in both demographic and climate processes. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Lacrimal gland duct stones: misdiagnosed as chalazion in 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Lee, Kook; Lee, Sang Un

    2014-02-01

    To report 3 cases of lacrimal gland duct stones misdiagnosed as chalazion. Retrospective case series. Three patients with lacrimal gland duct stones misdiagnosed as chalazion at a local clinic between 2010 and 2012. A thorough review of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic manifestations. Clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland duct stones included conjunctival injection, lid swelling, tenderness, and ocular discharge, which are similar to chalazion symptoms. Computed tomography revealed a relatively well-defined, high-density mass near the lacrimal gland. Histopathologic examination of excised material revealed calcified amorphous stones. Intractable chalazion-like lesions at the lateral canthal area near the lacrimal gland should be carefully examined; imaging studies are required to confirm the presence of lacrimal gland duct stones, which require surgical removal. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Floral glands in asclepiads: structure, diversity and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Demarco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Species of Apocynaceae stand out among angiosperms in having very complex flowers, especially those of asclepiads, which belong to the most derived subfamily (Asclepiadoideae. These flowers are known to represent the highest degree of floral synorganization of the eudicots, and are comparable only to orchids. This morphological complexity may also be understood by observing their glands. Asclepiads have several protective and nuptial secretory structures. Their highly specific and specialized pollination systems are associated with the great diversity of glands found in their flowers. This review gathers data regarding all types of floral glands described for asclepiads and adds three new types (glandular trichome, secretory idioblast and obturator, for a total of 13 types of glands. Some of the species reported here may have dozens of glands of up to 11 types on a single flower, corresponding to the largest diversity of glands recorded to date for a single structure.

  12. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus......Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... in enlarged adrenal and pituitary glands and it is suggested that prospective studies should be conducted with scanning during successive depressive episodes and periods of remission....

  13. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  14. Nesfatin-1: Localization and expression in avian gonads and its modulation by temporal phase relation of neural oscillations in female Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Somanshu; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-12-01

    In a search for new appetite-controlling signals, the peptide nesfatin-1, expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues of rodents and humans has been reported to regulate feeding by reducing food intake. Recently it has also been reported that nesfatin-1 might be involved in regulating the reproductive axis in fishes and mammals, but its expression and physiological role if any, is not yet known in birds. In the present study, localization and expression of nesfatin-1 was observed in the testis, ovary and shell gland of poultry species Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Our earlier studies have reported that serotonin precursor 5-HTP and dopamine precursor l-DOPA given 8h apart induces gonadal suppression, when given 12h apart leads to gonadal stimulation while other relationships were found ineffective. In the present study intense ir-nesfatin-1 was observed in the regressed ovary (stromal cells) and shell gland (endometrium) of 8-h Japanese quail while in 12-h quail, weak and scarce immunostaining for nesfatin-1 was detected in the hyperactive ovary and shell gland compared to control. These findings led us to conclude that, an inverse relationship exists between ovarian activity (both in the control and simulated conditions) and nesfatin-1 expression. Present avian study, first of its kind, also suggests the role of nesfatin-1 in reproductive regulation possibly via appetite control and energy balance in female Japanese quail and needs to be investigated further in relation to food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A structural review of foliar glands in Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Renata Cristina Cassimiro de; da Costa Silva, Delmira; Flavia de Albuquerque Melo-de-Pinna, Gladys

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral glands in Passifloraceae species have aroused the interest of many researchers because of their wide morphological diversity. The present work analyzed the foliar glands on 34 species of Passiflora from samples containing glands in the petiole and foliar blade fixed in 50% solution of formaldehyde-ethanol-acetic acid and stored in a 70% ethanol solution. For anatomical analyses, part of the material was embedded in Paraplast, longitudinally sectioned and double stained with safranin and astra blue. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was also carried out. To analyze the presence of sugars in the secretion of foliar glands, a glucose strip test was used. Based on the results of morphological, anatomical and glucose strip tests, the foliar secretory glands in Passiflora can be grouped into two categories: Type I glands, defined as nectaries, can be elevated or flattened, and can have a sugar content high enough to be detected by the glucose strip test analysis. Type II glands are elevated and did not show a positive reaction to the glucose strip test. From an anatomical viewpoint, glands characterized as extrafloral nectaries show a multistratified secretory epidermis, typically followed by two flat layers of nectariferous parenchyma with dense content. Internal to these layers, vascular bundles are immersed in the subsecretory parenchyma and terminate in phloem cells. On the other hand, type II glands show a single layer of elongated secretory epidermal cells. Internal to this single layer, parenchyma and vascular tissue with both phloem and xylem elements can be observed. The analyzed species show a wide diversity of gland shape and distribution, and the combined analysis of morphology, anatomy and preliminary tests for the presence of glucose in the exudate in different Passiflora subgenera suggests the occurrence of two categories of glands: nectaries and resin glands.

  16. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion...... hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers...

  17. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Ičin Tijana; Bajkin Ivana; Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is r...

  18. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as sal...

  19. A Case of Primary Submandibular Gland Oncocytic Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tokashiki, Kunihiko; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki; Motohashi, Ray; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma is a rare pathology, with only 10 cases being reported to date. We encountered a case of primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma and report it herein. The patient was a 69-year-old man who came to our hospital with right submandibular cancer as the main complaint. Based on the results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, submandibular gland tumor was diagnosed. Preoperative cytodiagnosis suggested class III oncocytic ca...

  20. Concurrent pleomorphic adenoma in parapharyngeal space and submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunlewe M O

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleomorphic adenoma in the parapharyngeal space either occurs de novo or as an extension from the deep lobe of the parotid gland. Case presentation A rare synchronous occurrence of pleomorphic adenoma in the parapharyngeal space and submandibular gland of a 48-year-old Nigerian male is reported. Conclusion Pleomorphic adenoma concurrent in the parapharyngeal space and submandibular gland is very rare. A complete surgical excision of both tumors is the treatment of choice.

  1. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  2. Percutaneous Salivary Gland Ablation using Ethanol in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Burch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sialorrhea is a common health and psychosocial problem for children with neuromuscular dysfunction secondary to a variety of disorders such as cerebral palsy. Current accepted treatments include the injection of botulinum toxin into the submandibular glands for temporary symptom relief. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of percutaneous ethanol injection for longer lasting salivary gland ablation in an animal model. Material and Methods: Twenty rats were used in this study. In each rat, 98% ethanol was injected into the right submandibular gland under ultrasound guidance. No intervention was performed on the left gland, which served as the control. Ten rats were sacrificed and glands evaluated at three weeks, with the remaining 10 rats sacrificed and evaluated at three months. Unpaired, 1-tailed T-tests were used to analyse the data. Results: Ethanol injections induced a significant and sustained reduction in salivary gland size. Treated glands were 41% smaller by mass than untreated controls in the 10 rats sacrificed at three weeks (P < 0.001. Treated glands were 43% smaller by mass than untreated controls in the 10 rats sacrificed at three months (P < 0.001. Qualitative histologic analysis demonstrated extensive parenchymal damage, inflammation, and fibrosis at both three week and three month time points. Conclusions: Using a rat model, we demonstrated dramatic and sustained submandibular gland damage after percutaneous injection of ethanol.

  3. Gland system, especially for nuclear power plant circulation pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.; Vesely, M.

    1975-01-01

    The invention claims a gland system suitable especially for the circulation pumps of nuclear power plants. The system prevents the release of the radioactive high-pressure cooling liquid in the atmosphere. The gland system consists of at least two mechanical glands arranged in series and of the closed circuit of the cooling high-pressure medium. The respective mechanical glands are linked with by-pass branches and discharge piping. The by-pass branches accommodating control manometers and flowmeters are linked with the storage reservoir with drain pipes provided with stop fittings. (Oy)

  4. Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

  5. [Application scintigraphy in evaluation of salivary gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsak, Małgorzata Natalia; Rogowski, Franciszek

    2010-03-01

    The salivary glands belong to the exocrine glands. There are tree main pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Several modalities are used for salivary gland imaging, such as sonography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of these methods is mainly to present morphological impairment. Parenchymal function and excretion function of all salivary glands can be quantified by scintigraphy. After single intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate sequential images are acquired up to 25-40 minutes. Usually about fifteen minutes postinjection 3 ml of lemon juice are administered intraorally as sialogogue. Salivary scintigraphy can estimate the severity of salivary gland involvement and function disorders, which may not be accurately reflected by the morphological damage. The clinical impact of scintigraphy has been reported in multiple salivary glands diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sialolithiasis with or without parenchymal damage, iatrogenic irradiation of the salivary glands for therapy of head and neck tumors or radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer. No other method can give so much information about function of salivary glands. Scintigraphy is noninvasive examination, easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.

  6. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether...... between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion....... the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release...

  7. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandali, Danny; Heilingoetter, Ashley; Ghai, Ritu; Jeffe, Jill; Al-Khudari, Samer

    2018-01-01

    Lipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager. A 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence. This is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  8. Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential

  9. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A.; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J. H.; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P.

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG)

  10. Primary lymphocytic lymphoma of lacrimal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Caballero, M D; Lozano-García, I; Gómez-Molina, C; Gil-Liñán, A I; Arcas, I

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of primary small-cell lymphocytic lacrimal gland lymphoma in a male diagnosed with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. These rare lymphomas are usually presented in the clinic as disseminations secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and the primary site is rare in the orbit. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours. Although treatment in the IE stage is usually radiotherapy, due to its association with antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic treatment with rituximab was administered. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Update on Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Michiel P J; Brenn, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Malignant sweat gland tumors are rare cutaneous neoplasms, traditionally separated according to their behavior into low- and high-grade malignant. There is significant morphologic overlap, and outright malignant tumors may show relatively bland histologic features. They may, therefore, be mistaken easily for benign neoplasms. Recognition of these tumors and accurate diagnosis is important for early treatment to prevent aggressive behavior and adverse outcome. This article provides an overview of 4 important entities with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls, differential diagnosis and recent developments. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma, and spiradenocarcinoma are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Mucinous sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, P L; Herwig, M C; Holz, F G; Loeffler, K U

    2016-09-01

    A 52-year-old patient presented with a painless nodular tumor of the upper left eyelid, which was first noticed 6 months prior to the initial presentation. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the excised tumor revealed a mucinous sweat gland carcinoma. This very rare neoplasm (1/150,000 skin lesions) is located within the ocular adnexa in 40 % of cases. If completely excised the prognosis is usually good; however, due to the histological similarity to metastases of an adenocarcinoma, a hitherto unknown primary tumor at another site should be excluded.

  13. Renal mucus gland cystadenomas in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, Alan T; Bryant, Uneeda K; Williams, Neil M

    2008-07-01

    A 35-year-old horse was submitted to the necropsy service at the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center. At necropsy, multiple 1-4-cm-diameter cystic structures were incidentally identified unilaterally in the right renal medulla and the cortex. On histologic examination, the cystic structures compressed the normal renal architecture, were lined by tall columnar epithelium that formed occasional papillary projections, and contained large amounts of mucicarmine and periodic acid-Schiff-positive mucinous material. The masses were diagnosed as renal mucus-gland cystadenomas. This tumor should be considered as a differential diagnosis when cystic structures are identified in the equine kidney.

  14. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  15. Assessment of parotid salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmana, B.; Preethi, G.; Naveen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck region often causes salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Several reports suggest that the submandibular and sublingual glands may be less radiosensitive than the parotid glands. The effect of radiotherapy on parotid gland function was studied by salivary scintigraphy in patients irradiated with different doses of radiation in the head and neck region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differential dose of radiation effects on the parotid glands using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS). Methods: Thirty-five patients with head and neck tumours were enrolled in a prospective salivary function study using Scintigraphy. Twenty-seven of thirty-five patients received different doses of radiation and remaining 8 patients did not receive radiation and they were considered as control. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured in all the patients from scintigraphy of parotid glands. Results: Patients who received radiation dose of =50 Gy showed severe salivary dysfunction when compared to patients who received radiation dose <50 Gy. Overall, patients who received radiation showed significant dysfunction of parotid gland when compared to patients who did not receive radiotherapy. Conclusion: Dysfunction of the parotid salivary gland increases as the radiation dose increases . QSGS appears to be a useful toll in qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating the grade of dysfunction following radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of the salivary glands of an invasive whitefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly

  17. Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia masquerading as cancer nodal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipchandler, Taha Z; Lorenz, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    Five reports have examined unilateral submandibular gland aplasia. The purposes of this report are to demonstrate submandibular gland aplasia leading to contralateral gland hypertrophy in the setting of oral cavity cancer and to discuss the corresponding diagnostic and management challenges. This study is a case report of a 60-year-old male who presented with pain on the right side of the mobile tongue. This report uses literature review. A 60-year-old male presented with pain on the right side of the mobile tongue. Subsequent results of punch biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ with foci of microinvasion of the tongue. Head and neck examination revealed no abnormalities. The patient underwent a wide-local excision of the tongue lesion. Postoperative computed tomographic (CT) scan showed an asymmetric mass on the ipsilateral side of the cancer in the region of the submandibular gland. The gland was noted to be abnormally large. A diagnosis of contralateral submandibular gland aplasia was made. The patient is cancer-free at 2 years postlocal excision. Salivary gland aplasia is an extremely rare disorder and is often associated with various congenital syndromes. Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia is even rarer with ours representing the sixth reported case. Aplasia is believed to stem from a regional disturbance in early fetal development. Common symptoms can include dysphagia, dry mouth, decreased taste, and tooth decay. In the presence of a history of oral cavity cancer, unilateral submandibular gland aplasia poses a challenge during postoperative cancer follow-up. Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia in the setting of oral cavity cancer poses a unique challenge for cancer follow-up. Hypertrophy of the submandibular gland on the other side can masquerade as nodal metastasis. Head and neck examination as well as CT scan can be inconclusive. Regular confirmatory tests such as fine needle aspiration biopsy and positron emission tomography/CT for

  18. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in symptom particularly of (micro) PTC. In contrast follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  19. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  20. Antimicrobial Products Registered for Disinfection Use against Avian Influenza on Poultry Farms and Other Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA registers disinfectants against Avian Influenza A. Although there are no antimicrobial products registered for the H5N2 subtype of Avian Influenza A virus, based on available scientific information these products will work against other HPAI strains.

  1. Isolated bilateral congenital lacrimal gland agenesis – Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar Alwohaib

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lacrimal gland agenesis, also called congenital alacrima, is a rare cause of dry eye and is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of lacrimal glands. We present two 5-year old children with congenital lacrimal gland agenesis. The two cases had the final diagnosis of isolated bilateral congenital lacrimal gland agenesis and we document the clinical aspects, treatment and present a literature review related to this rare condition. Keywords: Alacrima, Lacrimal gland, Lacrimal gland agenesis, Punctal plugs

  2. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjith Parameswaran Nair

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed.

  3. p53 expression in sweat gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, W; Woźniak, L

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed the expression of p53 in 74 cutaneous adnexal tumors, with enhancement of the detection by incubation of the slides in the microwave. The immunostaining in benign tumors was almost uniformly negative as we found p53-positivity only in one poroma, one nodular hidradenoma, and one case of syringocystadenoma papilliferum (amongst 13 spiradenomas, 9 cylindromas, 12 nodular hidradenomas, 7 poromas, 6 syringomas, 7 syringocystadenomas papilliferum, 2 papillary tubular adenomas and 4 chondroid syringomas). These results contrasted with the widespread p53 overexpression, which was revealed in the sweat gland carcinomas. All spiradenocarcinomas (3), malignant nodular hidradenoma (1), apocrine hidradenocarcinoma (1), and malignant syringoadenoma (1) showed a strong reaction to anti-p53 antibody. Two of three eccrine hidradenocarcinomas, and two of three porocarcinomas presented p53 overexpression, whereas in one case of malignant cylindroma and adenoid cystic carcinoma we did not find p53-positivity. The results of the study indicate an important role, that p53 protein plays in the malignant sweat gland tumors in comparison to their benign counterparts, but reveal that its overexpression may also occur in the reactive and benign neoplastic processes.

  4. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-15

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  5. Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos: A ten-year retrospective study. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Objectives: This study is aimed at describing the histological pattern, age, sex and site distribution of benign salivary gland

  6. Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus arminius. J.M. Brand, L.V. Mabinya, E.D. Morgan. Abstract. Camponotus arminius is a large black carpenter ant that occurs in tropical and sub-tropical Africa and has extensive foraging trails both in trees and on the ground. Analysis of excised mandibular glands ...

  7. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  8. Observations on the oesophageal glands in some Tanzanian anurans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The occurrence and function of oesophageal glands in some anurans from Tanzania was investigated. The compound glands were present in the oesophageal submucosa of. Ptychadena oxyrhynchus Smith, Ptychadena ...

  9. The histology of the adrenal gland of the African elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histology, particularly the ultrastructural cytology, of the adrenal gland of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana, is virtually unknown. Tissue from 14 adult male and female elephants was processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. The gland is surrounded by a thick capsule composed of an outer layer ...

  10. Histochemistry of gland cells of Eurytrema pancreaticum cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdárská, Z

    1979-01-01

    The cercariae of Eurytrema pancreaticum (Janson, 1889) possess four types of gland cells - proper cystogenic, penetration, ventral and dorsal gland cells. The secretion of ventral and dorsal gland cells is released into the tegument. The proper cystogenic gland cells are the largest and their contents serve for the formation of the cyst wall of metacercariae in the second intermediate host. The secretion of proper cystogenic gland cells contains besides neutral mucosubstances also acid mucosubstances with both carboxyl- and sulphogroups digestible with beta-glucuronidase. The secretion of penetration gland cells contains neutral mucosubstances and proteins with tyrosine, tryptophan and SS groups. The ventral gland cells contain mostly acid mucosubstances with sulphogroups, which are digested with beta-glucuronidase, and proteins with tyrosine, tryptophan and SH groups. The rudimentary dorsal gland cells contain a small amount of acid mucosubstances. The whole tegument of cercariae and the two main collecting canals of the excretory system exhibit a high alkaline phosphatase activity. The nerve ring and the main nerve truncs contain proteins with SH groups and hydrophilic lipids and exhibit a cholinesterase activity. The suckers contain a larger amount of glycogen.

  11. Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cephalic salivary glands of some species of bees are exclusive and well developed only in Apinae. These glands were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy in workers, queens and males from the honey bee Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica in different life phases. The results ...

  12. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  13. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with ... MASC can be mistaken for acinic cell carcinoma; however, MASC does not have acinar cells with .... carcinoma of salivary glands: A report of 2 cases with expression of basal/myoepithelial markers (calponin, CD10 and p63 protein).

  14. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  15. Bilaterally Diffuse Lacrimal Gland Involvement: Initial Presentation of Systemic Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Orbital involvement in systemic sarcoidosis is a rare condition. We report a case of orbital sarcoidosis with bilaterally huge lacrimal gland involvement as the initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. A 20-year-old woman admitted the ophthalmology department with progressive bilateral upper eyelid swelling for 6 months. The only pathologic finding was the presence of bilateral, symmetrical, solid, lobular masses at the lateral upper eyelids at the location of lacrimal glands. On systemic examination, bilateral parotid and submandibular glands appeared swollen. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed bilateral symmetrical diffuse enlargement of the lacrimal glands with maximum and minimum thickness of 11 mm and 7 mm, respectively. The biopsy findings were compatible with sarcoidosis. Although lacrimal gland involvement has been reported in different studies, we for the first time report an unusual case with bilateral diffuse huge lacrimal gland involvement. Normal lacrimal gland thickness is approximately 4-5 mm in magnetic resonance imaging, while our case had bilateral diffuse enlargement of lacrimal glands, which showed maximum and minimum thickness of 11 mm and 7 mm, respectively. Although orbital involvement is uncommon in sarcoidosis, it should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of orbital masses.

  16. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  17. Morphology and morphometry of postnatal suprarenal glands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of morphology and morphometry of suprarenal gland facilitates diagnostic and treatment methods for various associated clinical conditions. In the present study 120 suprarenal glands obtained from 60 cadavers were observed for their morphological and morphometric parameters along with weight of the kidneys.

  18. Sonographic mammary gland density pattern in women in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are known to affect the mammary gland density. This study aims to determine mammary gland density pattern in selected population of women in Sothern Nigeria using the American College of Radiology Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BI-RADS) lexicon and to promote the use of ultrasound as a breast cancer ...

  19. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo

    1996-01-01

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  20. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th ...

  1. Hyperforin accumulates in the translucent glands of Hypericum perforatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jäger, Anna K

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypericum perforatum contains the therapeutically important compounds hypericin and hyperforin. Hypericin is known to accumulate in the dark glands. This investigation aimed to determine the accumulation site of hyperforin. METHODS: Dark and translucent glands as well as non-...

  2. MicroRNA expression profiling during upland cotton gland forming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This data may be useful in future studies associated with gland control involved in the terpenoid aldehyde biosynthesis pathway, genetic engineering and molecular breeding of cotton. Key words: MicroRNA, cotton, gland morphogenesis, microRNA microarray, quantitative real-time reversetranscription polymerase chain ...

  3. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was also determined. The morphology and anatomical structure of the salt gland varied according to the salinity degree. At low salinities, salt gland was small, thin and flat having many shallow canals, while ...

  4. Single and multiple gland disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjer, Jaap

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe scope of this thesis is: To review diagnostic procedures in primary hyperparathyroidism To review localization studies of parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism primary To assess the optima! surgical hyperparathyroidism by studying the recurrent hyperparathyroidism treatment of primary rates of persistent or To attempt to classify primary hyperparathyroidism by histopathology To determine DNA patterns in parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism

  5. Applications of and limitations to salivary gland scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, W.; Boerner, W.

    1987-04-01

    Salivary gland functional imaging is a simple, non-invasive procedure which requires little in terms of time and money to clarify disorders of saliva production and elimination. With relatively low levels of radiation exposure, there is no reason to expect side effects to the patient, provided that a physiological taste stimulant such as lemon juice is used to stimulate saliva production. From a dynamic study we derived functional curves for the parotides and the submandibular glands using the ROI-technique. Typical curves allow to differentiate between inflammatory, degenerative and obstructive diseases of the salivary glands. In cases of salivary gland tumours, additional information of pre- or posttherapeutic relevance may be expected e.g. concerning the saliva flow patterns. However, for primary diagnosis, other imaging procedures are more useful. In combination with sonography, swellings and pain of the salivary glands may be reliably clarified. Except for time activity curves for the salivary glands, quantitative analysis of pertechnetate uptake is only of secondary importance. This is due to methodological problems (e.g. definition of ROI) on the one hand and to a considerable inter- and intra-individual variability of the secretory gland outputs of the parotides and submandibular glands on the other hand.

  6. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; Bootsma, H.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Vissink, A.

    Background: Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the key manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Objectives: (1) To assess prospectively loss of function of individual salivary glands in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in relation to disease duration and use of immunomodulatory

  7. MRI study of normal pituitary glands in stage of puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guangwu; Zhang Tao; Yang Ning; Cai Feng; Shi Yifan; Deng Jieying; Zhang Luodong; Jiang Yayun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of shape, size and signal intensity of normal pituitary glands in adolescents and to correlate the size and shape of normal pituitary glands with the age, height and weight in stage of puberty. Methods: One hundred and fifty-five cases of MRI data of pituitary glands in normal adolescents range from 6.0 year to 18.9 year were used. Using high-field 1.5T MR scanner, the appearances of pituitary glands in 152 normal adolescents were analyzed on T 1 WI in standard median sagittal and coronal plane. Results: Three groups quantitative data of size, shape and single intensity changes of normal pituitary glands were obtained, which were divided into 6- m =0.74, t=3.624, P=0.004; r f =0.94, t=9.562, P=0.000), however, it was not markedly correlated with the height and weight (P>0.05). Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in health adolescents. The pituitary glands manifest physiologic hypertrophy with more convex of upper border when age increased in stage of puberty. The spherical appearance of the pituitary glands is a normal developmental feature and should not warrant clinical investigation for the presence of an underlying micro-adenoma in teenage females. (authors)

  8. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... were found. Two out of three studies found a statistically significant increase in adrenal volume in patients compared to controls. Four out of eight studies found a statistically significant increase in pituitary volume in patients compared to controls. Different methodological problems were...

  9. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren’s Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  10. Computed tomography diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veverková, Lucia; Bakaj-Zbrožková, Lenka; Hallamová, Lucie; Heřman, Miroslav

    2013-10-01

    Fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland is the most common interventional procedure used to diagnose thyroid diseases. Serious complications are rare in this procedure. They comprise an infection with abscess formation and hemorrhage. To date, only a few case reports have described an ultrasound diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland. We established such a diagnosis using computed tomography (CT). A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our hospital with complications after fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound revealed a large hematoma surrounding the gland. A subsequent CT scan confirmed the presence of hematoma and, moreover, showed active bleeding. This finding prompted rapid surgical intervention. CT has the capability to show active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

  11. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland

  12. Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma of Parotid Gland- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A. Badge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC is most commonly seen in the nasopharynx. Very rarely it is found in the salivary gland, preferably in parotid gland followed by submandibular gland where it accounts for 0.4% of all malignant salivary gland tumours. Most commonly it is seen in fifth decade with female predominance. Significant correlation has been reported between this tumour and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV.It has a racial predilection for Inuits,Chinese and Japanese. Very rarely it is found In Indians. So we present a case of LEC of parotid gland in a 23 year old male Indian patient. As this is a very radiosensitive tumour, surgery followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  13. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  14. Bilateral Warthin tumor of the parotid gland: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The Warthin tumor is a benign neoplasm that occurs mostly in the parotid gland. The tumor frequently occurs in the tail of the parotid gland. A 75-year-old man was referred to Wonkwang dental hospital with a chief complaint of swelling on the right submandibular area. Numerous salivary stones were observed in the right submandibular gland on computed tomography(CT). And the two tumorous lesions were incidentally found in the parotid gland bilaterally. The tumorous lesions showed homogeneous enhancement on the CT and intermediate signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. This tumorous lesions also showed contrast enhancement on fat suppressed T1 weighted MR images. We report common CT and MR features of this case of Warthin tumor in the parotid gland with literature review.

  15. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Nakanishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion.

  16. Community response to avian flu in Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmawati, Siwi; Nichter, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study suggests that it is more appropriate to think of avian flu as a bio-social and bio-political challenge for Indonesia than merely an epidemiological challenge involving a disease of zoonotic origin. Our examination of popular perceptions of avian flu in Central Java reveals important differences of opinion about which types of fowl are responsible for avian flu transmission and the degree of risk H5N1 poses to humans. The opinions of backyard farmers and commercial poultry farmers are motivated by different forms of practical logic and are differentially influenced by media accounts, government education programmes, foreign aid and rumours about who stands to profit from the disease. Rumours reflect collective anxieties about globalization, the agenda of big business and the trustworthiness of the national government. We also illustrate how a commodity chain analysis can assist in the identification of different stake-holders in the informal and formal poultry industries. The position of each stake-holder needs to be considered in any comprehensive investigation of avian flu. An economic analysis of the capital investment of stake-holders provides insight into how each responds to government directives about the reporting of dead chickens, vaccinating birds etc. Finally, we call for research on avian flu preparedness attentive to Indonesia's de-centralized form of political rule and the social organization of communities so that clear lines of communication and command can be established and mutual assistance mobilized.

  17. Persistence of Pasteurella multocida in wetlands following avian cholera outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, D.J.; Lehr, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by Pasteurella multocida, affects waterbirds across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Once an epizootic begins, contamination of the wetland environment likely facilitates the transmission of P. multocida to susceptible birds. To evaluate the ability of P. multocida serotype-1, the most common serotype associated with avian cholera in waterfowl in western and central North America, to persist in wetlands and to identify environmental factors associated with its persistence, we collected water and sediment samples from 23 wetlands during winters and springs of 1996a??99. These samples were collected during avian cholera outbreaks and for up to 13 wk following initial sampling. We recovered P. multocida from six wetlands that were sampled following the initial outbreaks, but no P. multocida was isolated later than 7 wk after the initial outbreak sampling. We found no significant relationship between the probability of recovery of P. multocida during resampling and the abundance of the bacterium recovered during initial sampling, the substrate from which isolates were collected, isolate virulence, or water quality conditions previously suggested to be related to the abundance or survival of P. multocida. Our results indicate that wetlands are unlikely to serve as a long-term reservoir for P. multocida because the bacterium does not persist in wetlands for long time periods following avian cholera outbreaks.

  18. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  19. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses.

  20. Genome Modification Technologies and Their Applications in Avian Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of genome modification technology has provided many great benefits in diverse areas of research and industry. Genome modification technologies have also been actively used in a variety of research areas and fields of industry in avian species. Transgenic technologies such as lentiviral systems and piggyBac transposition have been used to produce transgenic birds for diverse purposes. In recent years, newly developed programmable genome editing tools such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9 have also been successfully adopted in avian systems with primordial germ cell (PGC-mediated genome modification. These genome modification technologies are expected to be applied to practical uses beyond system development itself. The technologies could be used to enhance economic traits in poultry such as acquiring a disease resistance or producing functional proteins in eggs. Furthermore, novel avian models of human diseases or embryonic development could also be established for research purposes. In this review, we discuss diverse genome modification technologies used in avian species, and future applications of avian biotechnology.

  1. An Outbreak Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Hpai) In A Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Outbreak Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Hpai) In A Mixed Farm By The Introduction Of A Water Fowl. ... C A Meseko, A T Oladokun, B Shehu. Abstract. Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a range of Influenza type A viruses of high and low pathogenicity (Fauci, 2005). H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) ...

  2. The influence of vertical and horizontal habitat structure on nationwide patterns of avian biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff; Curtis H. Flather; Josef M. Kellndorfer; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Anna M. Pidgeon

    2013-01-01

    With limited resources for habitat conservation, the accurate identification of high-value avian habitat is crucial. Habitat structure affects avian biodiversity but is difficult to quantify over broad extents. Our goal was to identify which measures of vertical and horizontal habitat structure are most strongly related to patterns of avian biodiversity across the...

  3. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  4. Experimental induced avian E. coli salpingitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease manifesta......Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease...... manifestations or from the cloacae of a healthy chicken. The virulence potential of the strains were evaluated in an avian experimental model for ascending infections, and experiments were conducted in both layers and broiler breeders. The clinical outcome of infection was highly depending on the challenge......) had a distinct ability to cause disease. Results of the study shows major differences in virulence of different strains of E. coli in ascending infections; however, there was no indication of tissue-specific adaptation, since strains obtained from lesions unrelated to the reproductive system were...

  5. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, A.L.M.; Braune, B.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  6. Public health risk from avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Michael L; Swayne, David E

    2005-09-01

    Since 1997, avian influenza (AI) virus infections in poultry have taken on new significance, with increasing numbers of cases involving bird-to-human transmission and the resulting production of clinically severe and fatal human infections. Such human infections have been sporadic and are caused by H7N7 and H5N1 high-pathogenicity (HP) and H9N2 low-pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses in Europe and Asia. These infections have raised the level of concern by human health agencies for the potential reassortment of influenza virus genes and generation of the next human pandemic influenza A virus. The presence of endemic infections by H5N1 HPAI viruses in poultry in several Asian countries indicates that these viruses will continue to contaminate the environment and be an exposure risk with human transmission and infection. Furthermore, the reports of mammalian infections with H5N1 AI viruses and, in particular, mammal-to-mammal transmission in humans and tigers are unprecedented. However, the subsequent risk for generating a pandemic human strain is unknown. More international funding from both human and animal health agencies for diagnosis or detection and control of AI in Asia is needed. Additional funding for research is needed to understand why and how these AI viruses infect humans and what pandemic risks they pose.

  7. Avian Metapneumovirus circulation in Italian broiler farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Franzo, Giovanni; Lupini, Caterina; Alejo, Carolina Torres; Listorti, Valeria; Mescolini, Giulia; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Martini, Marco; Catelli, Elena; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2018-02-01

    With increasing frequency, avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) is reported to induce respiratory signs in chickens. An adequate knowledge of current aMPV prevalence among Italian broilers is lacking, with little information available on its economical and health impact on the poultry industry. In order to collect preliminary data on the epidemiological context of aMPV in broiler flocks, a survey was performed in areas of Northern Italy with high poultry density from 2014 to 2016. Upper respiratory tract swabs were collected and processed by A and B subtype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Samples were also screened for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by generic RT-PCR and sequencing. Productive data and respiratory signs were detailed where possible. The high prevalence of aMPV was confirmed in broilers older than 26 d and also attested in IBV-negative farms. All aMPV detections belonged to subtype B. Italian strain genetic variability was evaluated by the partial attachment (G) gene sequencing of selected strains and compared with contemporary turkey strains and previously published aMPV references, revealing no host specificity and the progressive evolution of this virus in Italy. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  9. Histoanatomical study of the Sublingual Salivary Gland in the Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.a Ebrahimi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The heads of ten adult camels were used in this study. Following skin removal, the length, width and thickness of the gland was measured by ruler and caliper. Dye injection was used to distinguish the sublingual duct papilla and 1cm sections from the gland were removed and fixed to prepare histologic sections stained with H & E for microscopic studies. The long, ribbon like and lobulated monostomatic part of the gland is situated underneath the tongue alongside the hypoglossus muscle. This part of the gland begins from the mandibular symphysis and is continued caudally to near the root of the tongue. The average length, width and thickness of this part were 15.2±0.02, 2.2±0.03 and 0.5±0.05 cm respectively. The polystomatic part was observed as scattered and lobulated near the submucosa and in front of the monostomatic part with decreasing concentration caudally. The average size of these fragments was approximately 0.5±0.02 cm. The overall appearance of the gland was lobulated with a pink colour. The monostomatic part has a single duct entering the sublingual caruncle. The minute polystomatic ducts open into the depressions alongside the tongue inside the oral cavity. These ducts are numerous. Histologically, the gland is surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue. Trabcules from the capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into lobules. Loose connective tissue makes up the framework of the gland and there are tubulo-acinus glands in the spaces of this framework. Approximately 95% of the secretory cells of this gland consist of mucous secreting cells. Myoepithelial cells are seen on the external surface of the secretory cells and also alongside the connecting ducts.

  10. Effect of Meibomian gland massage before phacoemulsification on ocular surface after surgery in patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Tao Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the changes of ocular surface in cataract patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDwho treated with Meibomian gland massage before surgery. METHODS: Totally 90 patients(93 eyeswith cataract and MGD were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in experimental group were treated with hot compress and Meibomian gland massage every day before surgery, while the patients in the control group were not taken. Two groups of patients received phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. Lid margin abnormalities, secretion characteristics, Schimer I test(SⅠtand tear film break-up time(BUTwere recorded and compared between two groups using slit lamp microscope inspection preoperatively and postoperatively 1wk. RESULTS: In the control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin and Meibomian gland secretion was increased significantly than preoperative, while the value of BUT and SⅠt was down significantly. Compared with control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin shape and Meibomian gland secretion in the experimental group was decreased significantly, while the value of BUT and SIT improved significantly(PCONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification can aggravate the Meibomian gland dysfunction and have some extent of effects on the ocular surface. Meibomian gland massage before surgery can significantly improve the function of Meibomian gland and the state of ocular surface in patients with MDG.

  11. The importance of background correction during calculation of the major salivary gland function in salivary gland scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Taşdemir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the parotid (P and submandibular (SM glands uptake and excretion ratios of 99mTc-pertechnetate, which were calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas. Methods: Ninety-eight P and 98 SM glands of totally 48 patients were included in the study. 99mTc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in all patients. Oral stimulation with lemon juice was made at 15th minute of the imaging. The 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands were calculated separately without using any background, and by using the backgrounds drawn on wide frontal, narrow frontal, temporal, cervical and shoulder regions. These values were statistically compared with each other in pairwise manner. Results: The radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated without using any background correction were statistically different from that calculated by using any background correction. In addition, the radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas were mostly found statistically different from each other (p<0.05. Conclusion: Background correction is important during the calculation of the uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands. This study demonstrates that calculated uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands may differ according to the used background area.

  12. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  13. Normal tissue complication probability for salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of radiotherapy is to make a profitable balance between the morbidity (due to side effects of radiation) and cure of malignancy. To achieve this, one needs to know the relation between NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) and various treatment variables of a schedule viz. daily dose, duration of treatment, total dose and fractionation along with tissue conditions. Prospective studies require that a large number of patients be treated with varied schedule parameters and a statistically acceptable number of patients develop complications so that a true relation between NTCP and a particular variable is established. In this study Salivary Glands Complications have been considered. The cases treated in 60 Co teletherapy machine during the period 1994 to 2002 were analyzed and the clinicians judgement in ascertaining the end points was the only means of observations. The only end points were early and late xerestomia which were considered for NTCP evaluations for a period of 5 years

  14. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  15. [Intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synoracki, S; Ting, S; Siebolts, U; Dralle, H; Koperek, O; Schmid, K W

    2015-07-01

    The goal of evaluation of intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland is to achieve a definitive diagnosis which determines the subsequent surgical management as fast as possible; however, due to the specific methodological situation of thyroid frozen sections evaluation a conclusive diagnosis can be made in only some of the cases. If no conclusive histological diagnosis is possible during the operation, subsequent privileged processing of the specimen allows a final diagnosis at the latest within 48 h in almost all remaining cases. Applying this strategy, both pathologists and surgeons require a high level of communication and knowledge regarding the specific diagnostic and therapeutic peculiarities of thyroid malignancies because different surgical strategies must be employed depending on the histological tumor subtype.

  16. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  17. New oligonucleotide microarray for rapid diagnosis of avian viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Kozhabergenov, Nurlan S; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Burashev, Yerbol D; Shorayeva, Kamshat A; Chervyakova, Olga V; Rametov, Nurkuisa M; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Orynbayev, Mukhit B

    2017-04-05

    We developed a new oligonucleotide microarray comprising 16 identical subarrays for simultaneous rapid detection of avian viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infection bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in single- and mixed-virus infections. The objective of the study was to develop an oligonucleotide microarray for rapid diagnosis of avian diseases that would be used in the course of mass analysis for routine epidemiological surveillance owing to its ability to test one specimen for several infections. The paper describes the technique for rapid and simultaneous diagnosis of avian diseases such as avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease with use of oligonucleotide microarray, conditions for hybridization of fluorescent-labelled viral cDNA on the microarray and its specificity tested with use of AIV, NDV, IBV, IBDV strains as well as biomaterials from poultry. Sensitivity and specificity of the developed microarray was evaluated with use of 122 specimens of biological material: 44 cloacal swabs from sick birds and 78 tissue specimens from dead wild and domestic birds, as well as with use of 15 AIV, NDV, IBV and IBDV strains, different in their origin, epidemiological and biological characteristics (RIBSP Microbial Collection). This microarray demonstrates high diagnostic sensitivity (99.16% within 95% CI limits 97.36-100%) and specificity (100%). Specificity of the developed technique was confirmed by direct sequencing of NP and M (AIV), VP2 (IBDV), S1 (IBV), NP (NDV) gene fragments. Diagnostic effectiveness of the developed DNA microarray is 99.18% and therefore it can be used in mass survey for specific detection of AIV, NDV, IBV and IBDV circulating in the region in the course of epidemiological surveillance. Rather simple method for rapid diagnosis of avian viral diseases that several times shortens duration of assay versus classical diagnostic

  18. Postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Keun Yong; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Park, Charn Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Chae Seo; Kim, In Ah

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy, and determine prognostic factors for locoregional control and survival. Between 1980 and 2002, 130 patients with parotid malignancy were registered in the database of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital. The subjects of this analysis were the 72 of these 130 patients who underwent postoperative irradiation. There were 42 males and 30 females, with a median age of 46.5 years. The most common histological type was a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. There were 6, 23, 23 and 20 patients in Stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. The median dose to the tumor bed was 60 Gy, with a median fraction size of 1.8 Gy. The overall 5 and 10 year survival rates were 85 and 76%, respectively. The five-year locoregional control rate was 85%, which reached a plateau phase after 6 years. Sex and histological type were found to be statistically significant for overall survival from a multivariate analysis. No other factors, including age, facial nerve palsy and stage, were related to overall survival. For locoregional control, nodal involvement and positive resection margin were associated with poor local control. Histological type, tumor size, perineural invasion and type of surgery were not significant for locoregional control. A high survival rate of parotid gland malignancies, with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, was confirmed. Sex and histological type were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Nodal involvement and a positive resection margin were associated with poor locoregional control

  19. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø.; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools...... to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy...

  20. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Pruett, Christin L.; Meier, Rose; Huettmann, Falk; Wege, Michael; Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; Perdue, Michael L.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird?origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998?2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infecti...

  1. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  2. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  3. Chloride secretion by cultures of pig tracheal gland cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwell, Rachel M.; Hajighasemi-Ossareh, Mohammad; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E.; Finkbeiner, W. E.; Stevens, Jeremy E.; Modlin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Malfunction of airway submucosal glands contributes to the pathology of cystic fibrosis (CF), and cell cultures of CF human airway glands show defects in Cl− and water transport. Recently, a transgenic pig model of CF (the CF pig) has been developed. Accordingly, we have developed cell cultures of pig airway gland epithelium for use in investigating alterations in gland function in CF. Our cultures form tight junctions (as evidenced by high transepithelial electrical resistance) and show high levels of active anion secretion (measured as amiloride-insensitive short-circuit current). In agreement with recent results on human airway glands, neurohumoral agents that elevate intracellular Ca2+ potently stimulated anion secretion, while elevation of cAMP was comparatively ineffective. Our cultures express lactoferrin and lysozyme (serous gland cell markers) and MUC5B (the main mucin of airway glands). They are, therefore, potentially useful in determining if CF-related alterations in anion transport result in altered secretion of serous cell antimicrobial agents or mucus. PMID:22367783

  4. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  5. Mammary gland stem cells: more puzzles than explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimala, Suneesh; Bisana, Swathi; Kumar, Satish

    2012-06-01

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers. At present, Lin (-) CD29 (i) CD49f (i) CD24 (+/mod) Sca- 1 (-) cells of the mammary gland have been reported to be enriched with MaSCs. We suggest that the inclusion of stem cell markers like Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the mammary gland differentiation marker BRCA-1 may further narrow down the search for MaSCs. In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary gland structures in this review. Nevertheless, it is the lack of identity for a MaSC that is curtailing the advances in some of the above and other related areas.

  6. Avian influenza: The tip of the iceberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkhy Hanan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For some years now, we have been living with the fear of an impending pandemic of avian influenza (AI. Despite the recognition, in 1996, of the global threat posed by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus found in farmed geese in Guangdong Province, China, planning for the anticipated epidemic remains woefully inadequate; this is especially true in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. These deficiencies became obvious in 1997, with the outbreak of AI in the live animal markets in Hong Kong that led to the transmission of infection to 18 humans with close contact with diseased birds; there were six reported deaths. [1] In 2003, with the reemergence of H5N1 (considered the most likely AI virus in the Republic of Korea and its subsequent spread to Thailand, Vietnam, Hong Kong and China. Many countries started aggressively making preparations to meet the threat. [2] The pressure for real action from governments has increased. Most developed countries have requested increased funding for the search for a more effective vaccine, for stockpiling possibly helpful antiviral drugs, and for intensifying domestic and global surveillance. [3] Most countries, however, continue to be inadequately prepared for such an epidemic, especially with regard to animal surveillance in the farm market and surveillance among migratory birds. Even now, most countries do not have the ability to detect disease among humans in the early stages of an outbreak nor do most hospitals comply with effective infection control measures that could curtail the spread of the virus in the early stages of an epidemic. In Saudi Arabia we are rapidly implementing many of these measures. [4

  7. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  8. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  9. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI.

  10. Mosquito age and avian malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, Romain; Nicot, Antoine; Gandon, Sylvain; Rivero, Ana

    2015-09-30

    The immune system of many insects wanes dramatically with age, leading to the general prediction that older insects should be more susceptible to infection than their younger counterparts. This prediction is however challenged by numerous studies showing that older insects are more resistant to a range of pathogens. The effect of age on susceptibility to infections is particularly relevant for mosquitoes given their role as vectors of malaria and other diseases. Despite this, the effect of mosquito age on Plasmodium susceptibility has been rarely explored, either experimentally or theoretically. Experiments were carried out using the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum and its natural vector in the field, the mosquito Culex pipiens. Both innate immune responses (number and type of circulating haemocytes) and Plasmodium susceptibility (prevalence and burden) were quantified in seven- and 17-day old females. Whether immunity or Plasmodium susceptibility are modulated by the previous blood feeding history of the mosquito was also investigated. To ensure repeatability, two different experimental blocks were carried out several weeks apart. Haemocyte numbers decrease drastically as the mosquitoes age. Despite this, older mosquitoes are significantly more resistant to a Plasmodium infection than their younger counterparts. Crucially, however, the age effect is entirely reversed when old mosquitoes have taken one previous non-infected blood meal. The results agree with previous studies showing that older insects are often more resistant to infections than younger ones. These results suggest that structural and functional alterations in mosquito physiology with age may be more important than immunity in determining the probability of a Plasmodium infection in old mosquitoes. Possible explanations for why the effect is reversed in blood-fed mosquitoes are discussed. The reversal of the age effect in blood fed mosquitoes implies that age is unlikely to have a

  11. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  12. [Characteristics of the pineal gland and thymus relationship in aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N

    2011-01-01

    The review presents the interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution. The research data of thymus peptides influence on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus are summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (Epithalamin, Epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (Thymalin, Thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  13. An Update on Tumors of the Lacrimal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Esmaeli, Bita; Holstein, Sarah Linéa von

    2017-01-01

    Lacrimal gland tumors are rare and constitute a wide spectrum of different entities ranging from benign epithelial and lymphoid lesions to high-grade carcinomas, lymphomas, and sarcomas with large differences in prognosis and clinical management. The symptoms and findings of a lacrimal gland lesion...... are a growing mass at the site of the lacrimal gland, including displacement of the eyeball, decreased motility, diplopia, and ptosis. Pain is the cardinal symptom of an adenoid cystic carcinoma. Radiological findings characteristically include an oval, well-demarcated mass for benign lesions whereas malignant...

  14. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a loss of stem cells that are no longer able to replenish saliva-producing acinar cells. Therefore, stem cell therapy could be utilized to prevent radiation-induced damage to the salivary gland. Bon...

  15. Aplasia of the parotid gland in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M M; Ponnambalam, Y

    2005-04-01

    Salivary gland aplasia has not to our knowledge been previously reported in association with Down syndrome. We present a case of bilateral parotid aplasia in a patient with Down syndrome. Clinically he had aplasia of the major salivary glands and symptoms of xerostomia. Thirteen other family members over three generations were examined, and all had functional parotid glands. We reviewed publications about Down syndrome and salivary aplasia, together with the data regarding his other clinical problems and family background. His oral problems were inadequate plaque control, dental caries, and erosion of the teeth.

  16. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    referred for (99m) Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy were studied. Dynamic imaging of the head in a fixed anterior projection was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of 150 MBq (99m) Tc-pertechnetate using a gamma scintillation camera. After 30 min, lemon juice was orally administered...... through a syringe. Time activity curves were generated for each of the four major salivary glands (i.e. the right and left submandibular and right and left parotid glands). Excretion fractions (the fraction of mobilizable radioactivity after administering lemon juice) and the gland activity...

  17. A Case of Primary Submandibular Gland Oncocytic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Tokashiki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma is a rare pathology, with only 10 cases being reported to date. We encountered a case of primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma and report it herein. The patient was a 69-year-old man who came to our hospital with right submandibular cancer as the main complaint. Based on the results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, submandibular gland tumor was diagnosed. Preoperative cytodiagnosis suggested class III oncocytic carcinoma. Resection of the right submandibular tumor was performed along with right neck dissection. Postoperative histopathological diagnosis was oncocytic carcinoma. As of 3 years following surgery, no recurrence has been identified.

  18. Cutaneous Metastases from Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Submandibular Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahida Chakari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive malignant neoplasm that frequently metastasises to other organs, but cutaneous metastasis is uncommon. There are only 6 cases reported in the literature with metastases to the skin and in all cases the tumour originates from the parotid gland. We present a case of skin metastases from the submandibular gland that was mistaken for basal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of salivary duct carcinoma arising from the submandibular gland with cutaneous metastases.

  19. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous) of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Buckley, Lisa G; McCrea, Richard T; Lockley, Martin G; Zhang, Jianping; Piñuela, Laura; Klein, Hendrik; Wang, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian) large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes) based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous.

  20. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Xing

    Full Text Available Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous.

  1. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  2. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.; Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A.

    2001-01-01

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  3. A comparison of the effects of estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunmeng Da

    Full Text Available This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups-a sham-operated group (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E, and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR. The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3 and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase. The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms.

  4. A comparison of the effects of estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Yunmeng; Niu, Kaiyu; Wang, Ke; Cui, Guangxia; Wang, Wenjuan; Jin, Biao; Sun, Yu; Jia, Jing; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups-a sham-operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX) group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E), and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR). The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase). The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms.

  5. Exocrine glands in the legs of the social wasp Vespula vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Catherine; Billen, Johan

    2015-09-01

    This study brings a survey of the exocrine glands in the legs of Vespula vulgaris wasps. We studied workers, males, virgin queens as well as mated queens. A variety of 17 glands is found in the different leg segments. Among these, five glands are novel exocrine structures for social insects (trochanter-femur gland, ventrodistal tibial gland, distal tibial sac gland, ventral tibial gland, and ventral tarsomere gland). Most leg glands are present in the three leg pairs of all castes. This may indicate a mechanical function. This is likely for the numerous glands that occur near the articulation between the various leg segments, where lubricant production may be expected. Other possible functions include antenna cleaning, acting as a hydraulic system, or pheromonal. Further research including leg-related behavioural observations and chemical analyses may help to clarify the functions of these glandular structures in the legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian influenza virus in post HPAI H5N1 outbreak area, Sunyani Municipality, Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Vitus Burimuah, W.K. Ampofo, B Awumbila, N Yebuah, B.O. Emikpe, W Tasiame, R.D. Folitse ...

  7. Avian and Human Influenza Pandemic, How Prepared is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How much the perennial flight patterns of wild bird had on its spread is another question for consideration? The avian influenza virus does not readily cross the species barrier, though there is a potential for genetic re-assortment and cross infection. The main finding of this review suggest a lack of historic epidemiological ...

  8. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... for a circulating and newer strain of avian influenza, and would aid in combating the disease in a pandemic situation, in which production time matters ... India; Indian Immunologicals Ltd, Hyderabad, India; Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India- ...

  9. Innate resistance to avian influenza: Of MHC's and Mx proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is an economically important virus of poultry that has significant impact on global trade. Recently, increased attention to animal genomics has been applied to enhance innate resistance to infectious diseases in poultry. Two known contributors to innate resistance are the host m...

  10. Avian influenza: An ecological and envolutionary perspective for waterbird scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Jones, I.L.

    2006-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) type A of the subtype H5N1 has recently spread widely and rapidly across Eurasia, and even to Africa, with deaths of both wild and domestic birds recorded. There are fears that it may soon spread to the Americas. Media accounts, communications from

  11. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 3. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A (H5N1) strain neuraminidase expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. Murugan Subathra Ponsekaran Santhakumar Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu Syed Sultan Beevi Sunil K Lal. Articles Volume 39 ...

  12. Ducks as sentinels for avian influenza in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globig, Anja; Baumer, Anette; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Beer, Martin; Wodak, Eveline; Fink, Maria; Greber, Norbert; Harder, Timm C; Wilking, Hendrik; Brunhart, Iris; Matthes, Doris; Kraatz, Ulf; Strunk, Peter; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J; Griot, Chris; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2009-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring.

  13. DETECTION OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA (H5N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kamani

    domestic poultry in Hong Kong. Different reassortant of this virus however continued to emerge from goose and duck containing the same H5 haemagglutinins glycoprotein but had various internal genes and spread to different regions (Guan et al., 2002). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza also caused respiratory disease ...

  14. First characterization of avian influenza viruses from Greenland 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Ravn Merkel, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild birds, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), were found dead at the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examinations in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2...

  15. A nine - year retrospective study of avian neoplastic diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian neoplastic diseases have been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and production losses in commercial chickens in Nigeria. Although available reports described the trend of Marek's disease in Zaria, Kaduna state, they did not take cognizance of other neoplastic diseases of poultry hence the need for ...

  16. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoye, B.J.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations

  17. Serological and Virological Study of Newcastle Disease and Avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...

  18. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-09-18

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee.

  19. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection. PMID:25417715

  20. Occurrence of avian Schistosomatidae (Trematoda) in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance, prevalence and distribution of avian Schistosomatidae in South African birds has been estimated by means of a survey for parasite eggs in faecal samples. Eight types of eggs were recovered, mostly from members of the Anatidae and Laridae and these have been assigned to the following schistosome ...

  1. EDITORIAL Avian Flu Pandemic Threat: Why is Ethiopia considered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    influenza virus spread among human population the effect could be devastating with high mortality rates. It is this situation that is threatening the world now. Epidemiological evidences in the last two years from around the world, particularly from Asia, suggest an imminent threat to another avian influenza pandemic that can ...

  2. Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza epidemcis: Lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Koch, G.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is based on a talk which was held in the course of the spring symposium „Impfen statt Keulen“ of the Akademie für Tiergesundheit (AfT) 2011 in Wiesbaden-Naurod. Experience with recent large-scale epidemics of Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza – among others in the

  3. Seroprevalence of Selected Avian Pathogens of Backyard Poultry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A serological survey for Newcastle (ND), avian influenza (AI), Gumboro (IBD) and Infectious bronchitis (IB) viruses was conducted in 310 serum samples in village chickens in Sinar State, Sudan. The studied chickens had no history of previous vaccination and showed no clinical signs. Results of indirect enzyme-linked ...

  4. Review of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in poultry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza cases that were diagnosed in Zaria at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, were reviewed in this study. The outbreaks occurred between the months of December, 2006 and March, 2007. The clinical signs and postmortem lesions ...

  5. The epizootiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza prior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epizootiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza prior to the anticipated pandemic of the early twenty first century. ... Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic fowls back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. This has grave consequences for the poultry ...

  6. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outbreaks may only occur after transmission from migratory species to domestic flocks through local amplification and secondary spread through the movement of poultry or people, as well as equipment or vehicles contaminated by sick birds. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together ...

  7. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Although the international spread of the disease is still poorly understood, scientists are increasingly convinced that at least some migratory waterfowl carry the H5N1 ...

  8. Optimizing factors influencing DNA extraction from fresh whole avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to optimize the efficient combination of lysis buffer, proteinase K, incubation time, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) volume, spinning rate (rpm), and precipitation agent on quantity and quality of DNA extracted from various volumes of avian blood. Blood samples were collected in EDTA and ...

  9. Perspectives on avian and bovine leukemia virus immunological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, T.; Souza, J.M.M. de; Nogueira, Z.M.; Ogata, H.

    1984-01-01

    The avian and bovine RNA virus are studied. The mechanism of replication, the genome, the ultrastructural composition, the immunogens reactivity, the class of determinants and affinity are presented. Purification techniques of viral proteins and immunoassay proceeding are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of avian Escherichia coli isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colibacillosis is a poultry disease of economic importance in Iran and all around the world. The aim of this study is to test the antibiotic sensitivity of Escherichia coli strains which were isolated in Tabriz. A total of 100 E. coli strains isolated from avian colibacillosis of 50 farms from 2008 to 2009 in Tabriz, were investigated for ...

  11. Asian Partnership for Avian Influenza Research : Effectiveness of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam for collaboration on research and research capacity building in avian influenza prevention and control. This grant will allow APAIR to investigate the effectiveness of the measures employed by China, Thailand and Viet Nam and evaluate the factors contributing to their success or failure.

  12. Aspects of the ontogenesis of the avian columella auris | Smit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations on embryological material from Spheniscus demersus, Acridotheres tristis, Geopelia cuneata and Gallus domesticus strongly suggest that the avian stapes represents part of an infrapharyngohyal while the rest of the pharyngohyal material (supra- plus infrapharyngohyal) together with the epihyal and a ...

  13. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-02

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Avian Mobbing of the Puerto Rican Boa (Epicrates inornatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAVIER E. MERCADO; ESTEBAN TERRANOVA; JR. WUNDERLE

    2002-01-01

    Mobbing, defined as an intense collective behavior in which birds of one or more species scold or even physically attack a predator, is known from a variety of bird species (Campbell and Lack, 1985; Gill, 1995). Targets commonly include hawks, owls, and snakes. In the West Indies, observations have documented avian mobbing towards various hawk species (e.g., Jeffrey-...

  15. Rumor surveillance and avian influenza H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, Gina; Patel, Mahomed; Olowokure, Babatunde; Roces, Maria C; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2005-03-01

    We describe the enhanced rumor surveillance during the avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in 2004. The World Health Organization's Western Pacific Regional Office identified 40 rumors; 9 were verified to be true. Rumor surveillance informed immediate public health action and prevented unnecessary and costly responses.

  16. Geographic variation in avian clutch size and nest predation risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographic variation in avian clutch size is thought to be related to the variation in nest predation rate and food availability. We studied predation on artificial ground nests along a large-scale geographic gradient in South Africa characterised by increasing productivity from the deserts in the west to humid savannas in the ...

  17. Fish on avian lampbrush chromosomes produces higher resolution gene mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galkina, S.A.; Deryusheva, S.; Fillon, V.; Vignal, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Rodionov, A.V.; Gaginskaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Giant lampbrush chromosomes, which are characteristic of the diplotene stage of prophase I during avian oogenesis, represent a very promising system for precise physical gene mapping. We applied 35 chicken BAC and 4 PAC clones to both mitotic metaphase chromosomes and meiotic lampbrush chromosomes

  18. Prevention And Control Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza In Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is a zoonotic trans-boundary disease. Its occurrence in a country constitutes a major constraint to profitable livestock operations and poses a high public health risk at regional and global levels. Since February 2006, HPAI has infected eleven African countries (Nigeria, Egypt, Niger, ...

  19. Detection of antibodies to avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of antibodies to avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease viruses in wild birds in three states of Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  20. Low frequency of paleoviral infiltration across the avian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    , although these have been purged in some cases. We also provide the first evidence for endogenous bornaviruses and circoviruses in avian genomes, although at very low copy numbers. A comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes revealed a simple linear relationship between endogenous viral element abundance...... are either less susceptible to viral invasions or purge them more effectively....