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Sample records for avian type sialic

  1. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the up......Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... acts as a mixing vessel between human and avian influenza viruses. Furthermore, it was shown that AIV prefers to infect alveolar type II epithelial cells in pigs. This corresponds with findings in humans emphasising the resemblance between the two species....

  2. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N6 Viruses Exhibit Enhanced Affinity for Human Type Sialic Acid Receptor and In-Contact Transmission in Model Ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Wei, Yandi; Sun, Yipeng; Hu, Jiao; Liu, Litao; Xu, Guanlong; Gao, Weihua; Li, Chong; Zhang, Xuxiao; Huang, Yinhua; Chang, Kin-Chow; Liu, Xiufan; Liu, Jinhua

    2016-07-15

    Since May 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus has been reported to cause six severe human infections three of which were fatal. The biological properties of this subtype, in particular its relative pathogenicity and transmissibility in mammals, are not known. We characterized the virus receptor-binding affinity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility in mice and ferrets of four H5N6 isolates derived from waterfowl in China from 2013-2014. All four H5N6 viruses have acquired a binding affinity for human-like SAα2,6Gal-linked receptor to be able to attach to human tracheal epithelial and alveolar cells. The emergent H5N6 viruses, which share high sequence similarity with the human isolate A/Guangzhou/39715/2014 (H5N6), were fully infective and highly transmissible by direct contact in ferrets but showed less-severe pathogenicity than the parental H5N1 virus. The present results highlight the threat of emergent H5N6 viruses to poultry and human health and the need to closely track their continual adaptation in humans. Extended epizootics and panzootics of H5N1 viruses have led to the emergence of the novel 2.3.4.4 clade of H5 virus subtypes, including H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 reassortants. Avian H5N6 viruses from this clade have caused three fatalities out of six severe human infections in China since the first case in 2014. However, the biological properties of this subtype, especially the pathogenicity and transmission in mammals, are not known. Here, we found that natural avian H5N6 viruses have acquired a high affinity for human-type virus receptor. Compared to the parental clade 2.3.4 H5N1 virus, emergent H5N6 isolates showed less severe pathogenicity in mice and ferrets but acquired efficient in-contact transmission in ferrets. These findings suggest that the threat of avian H5N6 viruses to humans should not be ignored. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Replication of avian, human and swine influenza viruses in porcine respiratory explants and association with sialic acid distribution

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    Nauwynck Hans J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the history of human influenza pandemics, pigs have been considered the most likely "mixing vessel" for reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses (AIVs. However, the replication efficiencies of influenza viruses from various hosts, as well as the expression of sialic acid (Sia receptor variants in the entire porcine respiratory tract have never been studied in detail. Therefore, we established porcine nasal, tracheal, bronchial and lung explants, which cover the entire porcine respiratory tract with maximal similarity to the in vivo situation. Subsequently, we assessed virus yields of three porcine, two human and six AIVs in these explants. Since our results on virus replication were in disagreement with the previously reported presence of putative avian virus receptors in the trachea, we additionally studied the distribution of sialic acid receptors by means of lectin histochemistry. Human (Siaα2-6Gal and avian virus receptors (Siaα2-3Gal were identified with Sambucus Nigra and Maackia amurensis lectins respectively. Results Compared to swine and human influenza viruses, replication of the AIVs was limited in all cultures but most strikingly in nasal and tracheal explants. Results of virus titrations were confirmed by quantification of infected cells using immunohistochemistry. By lectin histochemistry we found moderate to abundant expression of the human-like virus receptors in all explant systems but minimal binding of the lectins that identify avian-like receptors, especially in the nasal, tracheal and bronchial epithelium. Conclusions The species barrier that restricts the transmission of influenza viruses from one host to another remains preserved in our porcine respiratory explants. Therefore this system offers a valuable alternative to study virus and/or host properties required for adaptation or reassortment of influenza viruses. Our results indicate that, based on the expression of Sia

  4. Relationship between Sialic acid and metabolic variables in Indian type 2 diabetic patients

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    Nayak B Shivananda

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma sialic acid is a marker of the acute phase response. Objective is to study the relationship between sialic acid relationship with metabolic variables in Indian type 2 diabetes with and without microvascular complications. Research design and Methods Fasting Venous blood samples were taken from 200 subjects of which 50 were of diabetes mellitus (DM and nephropathy patients, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes and retinopathy, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes without any complications and 50 healthy individuals without diabetes. The Indian subject's aged 15–60 years with type 2 diabetes were recruited for the study. Simultaneously urine samples were also collected from each of the subjects. All the blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, fasting and postprandial glucose on fully automated analyzer. Serum and urine sialic acid along with microalbumin levels were also estimated. Results There was a significantly increasing trend of plasma and urine sialic acid with severity of nephropathy (P 1c, serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, waist-to-hip ratio and hypertension. Significant correlations were found between sialic acid concentration and cardiovascular risk factors like LDL and TG in the diabetic subjects. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that elevated serum and urinary sialic acid and microalbumin concentrations were strongly related to the presence of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian type 2 diabetic subjects. Further study of acute-phase response markers and mediators as indicators or predictors of diabetic microvascular complications is therefore justified.

  5. Mutations during the Adaptation of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus to the Respiratory Epithelium of Pigs Enhance Sialic Acid Binding Activity and Virulence in Mice.

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    Yang, W; Punyadarsaniya, D; Lambertz, R L O; Lee, D C C; Liang, C H; Höper, D; Leist, S R; Hernández-Cáceres, A; Stech, J; Beer, M; Wu, C Y; Wong, C H; Schughart, K; Meng, F; Herrler, G

    2017-04-15

    The natural reservoir for influenza viruses is waterfowl, and from there they succeeded in crossing the barrier to different mammalian species. We analyzed the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to a mammalian host by passaging an H9N2 strain three times in differentiated swine airway epithelial cells. Using precision-cut slices from the porcine lung to passage the parental virus, isolates from each of the three passages (P1 to P3) were characterized by assessing growth curves and ciliostatic effects. The only difference noted was an increased growth kinetics of the P3 virus. Sequence analysis revealed four mutations: one each in the PB2 and NS1 proteins and two in the HA protein. The HA mutations, A190V and T212I, were characterized by generating recombinant viruses containing either one or both amino acid exchanges. Whereas the parental virus recognized α2,3-linked sialic acids preferentially, the HA190 mutant bound to a broad spectrum of glycans with α2,6/8/9-linked sialic acids. The HA212 mutant alone differed only slightly from the parental virus; however, the combination of both mutations (HA190+HA212) increased the binding affinity to those glycans recognized by the HA190 mutant. Remarkably, only the HA double mutant showed a significantly increased pathogenicity in mice. In contrast, none of those mutations affected the ciliary activity of the epithelial cells which is characteristic for virulent swine influenza viruses. Taken together, our results indicate that shifts in the HA receptor affinity are just an early adaptation step of avian H9N2 strains; further mutational changes may be required to become virulent for pigs. IMPORTANCE Swine play an important role in the interspecies transmission of influenza viruses. Avian influenza A viruses (IAV) of the H9N2 subtype have successfully infected hosts from different species but have not established a stable lineage. We have analyzed the adaptation of IAV-H9N2 virus to target cells of a new host by

  6. Recent H3N2 Viruses Have Evolved Specificity for Extended, Branched Human-type Receptors, Conferring Potential for Increased Avidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Wenjie; de Vries, Robert P; Grant, Oliver C; Thompson, Andrew J; McBride, Ryan; Tsogtbaatar, Buyankhishig; Lee, Peter S; Razi, Nahid; Wilson, Ian A; Woods, Robert J; Paulson, James C

    2017-01-01

    Human and avian influenza viruses recognize different sialic acid-containing receptors, referred to as human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal) and avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal), respectively. This presents a species barrier for aerosol droplet transmission of avian viruses in humans and ferrets. Recent reports have

  7. Evaluation of ion mobility for the separation of glycoconjugate isomers due to different types of sialic acid linkage, at the intact glycoprotein, glycopeptide and glycan level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Albert; Giménez, Estela; Konijnenberg, Albert; Sancho, Jaime; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria; Sobott, Frank

    2018-02-20

    The study of protein glycosylation can be regarded as an intricate but very important task, making glycomics one of the most challenging and interesting, albeit under-researched, type of "omics" science. Complexity escalates remarkably when considering that carbohydrates can form severely branched structures with many different constituents, which often leads to the formation of multiple isomers. In this regard, ion mobility (IM) spectrometry has recently demonstrated its power for the separation of isomeric compounds. In the present work, the potential of traveling wave IM (TWIMS) for the separation of isomeric glycoconjugates was evaluated, using mouse transferrin (mTf) as model glycoprotein. Particularly, we aim to assess the performance of this platform for the separation of isomeric glycoconjugates due to the type of sialic acid linkage, at the intact glycoprotein, glycopeptide and glycan level. Straightforward separation of isomers was achieved with the analysis of released glycans, as opposed to the glycopeptides which showed a more complex pattern. Finally, the developed methodology was applied to serum samples of mice, to investigate its robustness when analyzing real complex samples. Ion mobility mass spectrometry is a promising analytical technique for the separation of glycoconjugate isomers due to type of sialic acid linkage. The impact of such a small modification in the glycan structure is more evident in smaller analytes, reason why the analysis of free glycans was easier compared to the intact protein or the glycopeptides. The established methodology could be regarded as starting point in the separation of highly decorated glycoconjugates. This is an important topic nowadays, as differences in the abundance of some glycan isomers could be the key for the early diagnosis, control or differentiation of certain diseases, such as inflammation or cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Isolate, Type 3. 113.118 Section 113.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Isolate, Type 3. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3, shall be prepared from culture of Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 3 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated...

  9. 9 CFR 113.117 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Isolate, Type 1. 113.117 Section 113.117 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Isolate, Type 1. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 1, shall be prepared from cultures of Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 1 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated...

  10. 9 CFR 113.116 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Isolate, Type 4. 113.116 Section 113.116 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Isolate, Type 4. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 4 shall be prepared from cultures of Pasteurella multocida, avian isolate, Type 4 (Little and Lyons classification), which have been inactivated...

  11. Molecular prophage typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Seong, Won-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2013-03-23

    Escherichia coli prophages confer virulence and resistance to physico-chemical, nutritional, and antibiotic stresses on their hosts, and they enhance the evolution of E. coli. Thus, studies on profiles of E. coli prophages are valuable to understand the population structure and evolution of E. coli pathogenicity. Large terminase genes participate in phage genome packaging and are one of the cornerstones for the identification of prophages. Thus, we designed primers to detect 16 types of large terminase genes and analyzed the genomes of 48 E. coli and Shigella reference strains for the prophage markers. We also investigated the distribution of the 16 prophage markers among 92 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains. APEC strains were classified into 61 prophage types (PPTs). Each strain was different from the reference strains as measured by the PPTs and from the frequency of each prophage marker. Investigation of the distribution of prophage-related serum resistance (bor), toxin (stx1 and cdtI), and T3SS effector (lom, espK, sopE, nleB, and ospG) genes revealed the presence of bor (44.1%), lom (95.5%) and cdtI (9.1%) in APEC strains with related prophages. Therefore, the molecular prophage typing method may be useful to understand population structure and evolution of E. coli pathogenicity, and further studies on the mobility of the prophages and the roles of virulence genes in APEC pathogenicity may be valuable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Avian and Swine Influenza Viruses Infections of Well Differentiated Lung Epithelial Cells of Turkey

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    Sahar Abd El Rahman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses initiate infection by binding of the viral hemagglutinin to the cellular sialic acid residues. The precision-cut lung slice, as a valuable cultural tool of differentiated respiratory epithelial cells, is characterized by its ability to be viable for at least six days in-vitro, mimic in-vivo original cells and simply monitored by an inverted microscope. The aims of the study were to analyse the distribution of different sialic acid types in bronchus and parabronchial tissues of Turkey Precision Lung Slices (TPCLS, investigate the infection susceptibility of TPCLS by avian influenza (H9N2 and H7N7 and swine influenza (H3N2 viruses and evaluate the infection expression of TPCLS by different influenza viruses in correlation to the cellular sialic acids distribution after infection. The lectin stains and monoclonal antibodies prepared against nucleoprotein of influenza virus were used for analysing sialic acids distributions and viral antigen detection of TPCLS by immunoflourescent technique. The viral infective particles released from infected TPCLS by different avian and swine influenza viruses were titrated at different time intervals after infection. Both α2,3-linked and α2,6-linked sialic acids were expressed in the bronchus of TPCLS, while only α2,6-linked sialic acid was expressed in the parabronchial tissues. The indirect immunoflourescent technique showed variation of infection susceptibility of TPCLS parts by avian and swine influenza viruses. Infection was expressed in the bronchial epithelium by H9N2, H7N7 and H3N2, while in the parabronchial tissue by H9N2 and H3N2. Titration of the released infective viruses in the supernatant of infected TPCLS revealed that H9N2 could replicate faster than the other influenza viruses. TPCLS is a promising in-vitro model for viral infection study of turkey.

  13. Avian anemia's

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    Raukar Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with avian anemia's classified by MCHC/MCV and with types of anemia's. Father hematological and immunological research is needed to secure information on hematological parameters in different avian species at their earliest age. Anemia is a common clinical finding in birds because the avian erythrocyte half - life is much shorter than the mammalian. Therefore anemia should be determined as soon as possible. Researchers should standardize hematological parameters for every single avian species.

  14. Two types of antibodies are induced by vaccination with A/California/2009 pdm virus: binding near the sialic acid-binding pocket and neutralizing both H1N1 and H5N1 viruses.

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    Nobuko Ohshima

    Full Text Available Many people have a history of catching the flu several times during childhood but no additional flu in adulthood, even without vaccination. We analyzed the total repertoire of antibodies (Abs against influenza A group 1 viruses induced in such a flu-resistant person after vaccination with 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. They were classified into two types, with no exceptions. The first type, the products of B cells newly induced through vaccination, binds near the sialic acid-binding pocket. The second type, the products of long-lived memory B cells established before vaccination, utilizes the 1-69 VH gene, binds to the stem of HA, and neutralizes both H1N1 and H5N1 viruses with few exceptions. These observations indicate that the sialic acid-binding pocket and its surrounding region are immunogenically very potent and majority of the B cells whose growth is newly induced by vaccination produce Abs that recognize these regions. However, they play a role in protection against influenza virus infection for a short period since variant viruses that have acquired resistance to these Abs become dominant. On the other hand, although the stem of HA is immunogenically not potent, the second type of B cells eventually becomes dominant. Thus, a selection system should function in forming the repertoire of long-lived memory B cells and the stability of the epitope would greatly affect the fate of the memory cells. Acquisition of the ability to produce Abs that bind to the stable epitope could be a major factor of flu resistance.

  15. Two types of antibodies are induced by vaccination with A/California/2009 pdm virus: binding near the sialic acid-binding pocket and neutralizing both H1N1 and H5N1 viruses.

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    Ohshima, Nobuko; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Iba, Yoshitaka; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Many people have a history of catching the flu several times during childhood but no additional flu in adulthood, even without vaccination. We analyzed the total repertoire of antibodies (Abs) against influenza A group 1 viruses induced in such a flu-resistant person after vaccination with 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. They were classified into two types, with no exceptions. The first type, the products of B cells newly induced through vaccination, binds near the sialic acid-binding pocket. The second type, the products of long-lived memory B cells established before vaccination, utilizes the 1-69 VH gene, binds to the stem of HA, and neutralizes both H1N1 and H5N1 viruses with few exceptions. These observations indicate that the sialic acid-binding pocket and its surrounding region are immunogenically very potent and majority of the B cells whose growth is newly induced by vaccination produce Abs that recognize these regions. However, they play a role in protection against influenza virus infection for a short period since variant viruses that have acquired resistance to these Abs become dominant. On the other hand, although the stem of HA is immunogenically not potent, the second type of B cells eventually becomes dominant. Thus, a selection system should function in forming the repertoire of long-lived memory B cells and the stability of the epitope would greatly affect the fate of the memory cells. Acquisition of the ability to produce Abs that bind to the stable epitope could be a major factor of flu resistance.

  16. Avian anemia's

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    Raukar Jelena

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with avian anemia's classified by MCHC/MCV and with types of anemia's. Father hematological and immunological research is needed to secure information on hematological parameters in different avian species at their earliest age. Anemia is a common clinical finding in birds because the avian erythrocyte half - life is much shorter than the mammalian. Therefore anemia should be determined as soon as possible. Researchers should standardize hematologica...

  17. The sialic acid binding activity of the S protein facilitates infection by porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

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    Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Bauer, Sandra; Winter, Christine; Enjuanes, Luis; Laude, Hubert; Herrler, Georg

    2011-09-12

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) has a sialic acid binding activity that is believed to be important for enteropathogenicity, but that has so far appeared to be dispensable for infection of cultured cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of sialic acid binding for the infection of cultured cells under unfavorable conditions, and comparison of TGEV strains and mutants, as well as the avian coronavirus IBV concerning their dependence on the sialic acid binding activity. The infectivity of different viruses was analyzed by a plaque assay after adsorption times of 5, 20, and 60 min. Prior to infection, cultured cells were either treated with neuraminidase to deplete sialic acids from the cell surface, or mock-treated. In a second approach, pre-treatment of the virus with porcine intestinal mucin was performed, followed by the plaque assay after a 5 min adsorption time. A student's t-test was used to verify the significance of the results. Desialylation of cells only had a minor effect on the infection by TGEV strain Purdue 46 when an adsorption period of 60 min was allowed for initiation of infection. However, when the adsorption time was reduced to 5 min the infectivity on desialylated cells decreased by more than 60%. A TGEV PUR46 mutant (HAD3) deficient in sialic acid binding showed a 77% lower titer than the parental virus after a 5 min adsorption time. After an adsorption time of 60 min the titer of HAD3 was 58% lower than that of TGEV PUR46. Another TGEV strain, TGEV Miller, and IBV Beaudette showed a reduction in infectivity after neuraminidase treatment of the cultured cells irrespective of the virion adsorption time. Our results suggest that the sialic acid binding activity facilitates the infection by TGEV under unfavorable environmental conditions. The dependence on the sialic acid binding activity for an efficient infection differs in the analyzed TGEV strains.

  18. The sialic acid binding activity of the S protein facilitates infection by porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus

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    Enjuanes Luis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV has a sialic acid binding activity that is believed to be important for enteropathogenicity, but that has so far appeared to be dispensable for infection of cultured cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of sialic acid binding for the infection of cultured cells under unfavorable conditions, and comparison of TGEV strains and mutants, as well as the avian coronavirus IBV concerning their dependence on the sialic acid binding activity. Methods The infectivity of different viruses was analyzed by a plaque assay after adsorption times of 5, 20, and 60 min. Prior to infection, cultured cells were either treated with neuraminidase to deplete sialic acids from the cell surface, or mock-treated. In a second approach, pre-treatment of the virus with porcine intestinal mucin was performed, followed by the plaque assay after a 5 min adsorption time. A student's t-test was used to verify the significance of the results. Results Desialylation of cells only had a minor effect on the infection by TGEV strain Purdue 46 when an adsorption period of 60 min was allowed for initiation of infection. However, when the adsorption time was reduced to 5 min the infectivity on desialylated cells decreased by more than 60%. A TGEV PUR46 mutant (HAD3 deficient in sialic acid binding showed a 77% lower titer than the parental virus after a 5 min adsorption time. After an adsorption time of 60 min the titer of HAD3 was 58% lower than that of TGEV PUR46. Another TGEV strain, TGEV Miller, and IBV Beaudette showed a reduction in infectivity after neuraminidase treatment of the cultured cells irrespective of the virion adsorption time. Conclusions Our results suggest that the sialic acid binding activity facilitates the infection by TGEV under unfavorable environmental conditions. The dependence on the sialic acid binding activity for an efficient infection differs in the analyzed TGEV strains.

  19. IMPORTANCE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM SIALIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. IMPORTANCE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM SIALIC ACID AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE DETERMINATION IN CERVICAL CANCER PATIENTS. Farouk H. Saber, Essam F. Hammouda, Mohamed Khaled M, Essam A. Afifi. Abstract.

  20. Sialic acids in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

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    Izabela Bronikowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Altered glycosylation is a universal characteristic of cancer cells, and various types of glycan structures are well‑known markers of tumor progression and invasion. The present article discusses this aspect of the role of sialic acid, biosynthesis of sialylglycoconjugates and the genetic basis of its disorder, as well as the effects and the correlation between altered sialylation and clinical prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC.Only a few studies concerning the level of sialic acid in head and neck tumors have been conducted so far. The conclusions of the published reports dedicated to that problem confirm the presence of elevated levels of total sialic acid in these tumors. The authors do not always agree with the level of free or associated form of sialic acid correlated with tumor size, severity of the condition, and lymph nodes. Comparing the progress that has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of other cancers thanks to extensive work on the role of sialic acids, we come to the conclusion that only further detailed studies of this subject in relation to HNSCC are able to answer the question whether the extent of glycoforms of sialic acid may act as a tumor marker or target of immunotherapy.

  1. Strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 of low pathogenicity for chickens isolated from poultry and wild birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt; Ahrens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 of low virulence for chickens were isolated in Denmark between 1996 and the beginning of 2003. The low virulence of the strains was demonstrated by sequencing the fusion (F) gene at the cleavage site motif and in some cases by determining the intra......Twenty-one strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 of low virulence for chickens were isolated in Denmark between 1996 and the beginning of 2003. The low virulence of the strains was demonstrated by sequencing the fusion (F) gene at the cleavage site motif and in some cases by determining...

  2. Avian influenza virus

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    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  3. Determination of sialic acids in immune system cells (coelomocytes) of sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, using capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzzetoğlu, Savaş; Şahar, Umut; Şener, Ecem; Deveci, Remziye

    2014-01-01

    Coelomocytes are considered to be immune effectors of sea urchins. Coelomocytes are the freely circulating cells in the body fluid contained in echinoderm coelom and mediate the cellular defence responses to immune challenges by phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity and the production of antimicrobial agents. Coelomocytes have the ability to recognize self from non-self. Considering that sialic acids play important roles in immunity, we determined the presence of sialic acid types in coelomocytes of Paracentrotus lividus. Homogenized coelomocytes were kept in 2 M aqueous acetic acid at 80 °C for 3 h to liberate sialic acids. Sialic acids were determined by derivatization with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenediaoxy-benzene dihydrochloride (DMB) followed by capillary liquid-chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (CapLC-ESI-MS/MS). Standard sialic acids; Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc, KDN and bovine submaxillary mucin showing a variety of sialic acids were used to confirm sialic acids types. We found ten different types of sialic acids (Neu5Gc, Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc9Ac, Neu5Gc8Ac, Neu5,9Ac2, Neu5,7Ac2, Neu5,8Ac2, Neu5,7,9Ac3, Neu5Gc7,9Ac2, Neu5Gc7Ac) isolated in limited amounts from total coelomocyte population. Neu5Gc type of sialic acids in coelomocytes was the most abundant type sialic acid when compared with other types. This is the first report on the presence of sialic acid types in coelomocytes of P. lividus using CapLC-ESI-MS/MS-Ion Trap system (Capillary Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization/Tandem Mass Spectrometry). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Siglecs facilitate HIV-1 infection of macrophages through adhesion with viral sialic acids.

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    Zhongcheng Zou

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infects macrophages effectively, despite relatively low levels of cell surface-expressed CD4. Although HIV-1 infections are defined by viral tropisms according to chemokine receptor usage (R5 and X4, variations in infection are common within both R5- and X4-tropic viruses, indicating additional factors may contribute to viral tropism.Using both solution and cell surface binding experiments, we showed that R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 gp120 proteins recognized a family of I-type lectin receptors, the Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglec. The recognition was through envelope-associated sialic acids that promoted viral adhesion to macrophages. The sialic acid-mediated viral-host interaction facilitated both R5-tropic pseudovirus and HIV-1(BaL infection of macrophages. The high affinity Siglec-1 contributed the most to HIV-1 infection and the variation in Siglec-1 expression on primary macrophages from different donors was associated statistically with sialic acid-facilitated viral infection. Furthermore, envelope-associated sialoglycan variations on various strains of R5-tropic viruses also affected infection.Our study showed that sialic acids on the viral envelope facilitated HIV-1 infection of macrophages through interacting with Siglec receptors, and the expression of Siglec-1 correlated with viral sialic acid-mediated host attachment. This glycan-mediated viral adhesion underscores the importance of viral sialic acids in HIV infection and pathogenesis, and suggests a novel class of antiviral compounds targeting Siglec receptors.

  5. Avian influenza A virus PB2 promotes interferon type I inducing properties of a swine strain in porcine dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana-Macchi, Manuela; Ricklin, Meret E.; Python, Sylvie; Monika, Gsell-Albert [Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhaeusern (Switzerland); Stech, Juergen; Stech, Olga [Friedrich-Loeffler Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems (Germany); Summerfield, Artur, E-mail: artur.summerfield@ivi.admin.ch [Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhaeusern (Switzerland)

    2012-05-25

    The 2009 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic resulted from reassortment of avian, human and swine strains probably in pigs. To elucidate the role of viral genes in host adaptation regarding innate immune responses, we focussed on the effect of genes from an avian H5N1 and a porcine H1N1 IAV on infectivity and activation of porcine GM-CSF-induced dendritic cells (DC). The highest interferon type I responses were achieved by the porcine virus reassortant containing the avian polymerase gene PB2. This finding was not due to differential tropism since all viruses infected DC equally. All viruses equally induced MHC class II, but porcine H1N1 expressing the avian viral PB2 induced more prominent nuclear NF-{kappa}B translocation compared to its parent IAV. The enhanced activation of DC may be detrimental or beneficial. An over-stimulation of innate responses could result in either pronounced tissue damage or increased resistance against IAV reassortants carrying avian PB2.

  6. Avian influenza A virus PB2 promotes interferon type I inducing properties of a swine strain in porcine dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocaña-Macchi, Manuela; Ricklin, Meret E.; Python, Sylvie; Monika, Gsell-Albert; Stech, Jürgen; Stech, Olga; Summerfield, Artur

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic resulted from reassortment of avian, human and swine strains probably in pigs. To elucidate the role of viral genes in host adaptation regarding innate immune responses, we focussed on the effect of genes from an avian H5N1 and a porcine H1N1 IAV on infectivity and activation of porcine GM-CSF-induced dendritic cells (DC). The highest interferon type I responses were achieved by the porcine virus reassortant containing the avian polymerase gene PB2. This finding was not due to differential tropism since all viruses infected DC equally. All viruses equally induced MHC class II, but porcine H1N1 expressing the avian viral PB2 induced more prominent nuclear NF-κB translocation compared to its parent IAV. The enhanced activation of DC may be detrimental or beneficial. An over-stimulation of innate responses could result in either pronounced tissue damage or increased resistance against IAV reassortants carrying avian PB2.

  7. Role of sialic acids in the midguts of Trypanosoma congolense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free and total sialic acid concentrations were determined in the midgut extract of Culex pipiense pipiense mosquitoes infected with Trypanosoma congolense. The mean total sialic acid concentrations were found to be 1.5 to 2 fold higher than the mean free sialic acid concentrations in the midgut extracts of all the groups of ...

  8. Bat lung epithelial cells show greater host species-specific innate resistance than MDCK cells to human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tessa; Eckerle, Isabella; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2018-04-10

    With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the extent bats are susceptible to conventional avian and human influenza A viruses. To this end, three bat species (Eidolon helvum, Carollia perspicillata and Tadarida brasiliensis) of lung epithelial cells were separately infected with two avian and two human influenza viruses to determine their relative host innate immune resistance to infection. All three species of bat cells were more resistant than positive control Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to all four influenza viruses. TB1-Lu cells lacked sialic acid α2,6-Gal receptors and were most resistant among the three bat species. Interestingly, avian viruses were relatively more replication permissive in all three bat species of cells than with the use of human viruses which suggest that bats could potentially play a role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Chemical inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway in bat cells had no effect on virus production suggesting that type I interferon signalling is not a major factor in resisting influenza virus infection. Although all three species of bat cells are relatively more resistant to influenza virus infection than control MDCK cells, they are more permissive to avian than human viruses which suggest that bats could have a contributory role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses.

  9. Sialic acid-triggered macroscopic properties switching on a smart polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuting; Li, Minmin; Wang, Hongxi; Qing, Guangyan; Sun, Taolei

    2018-01-01

    Constructing smart surfaces with responsive polymers capable of dynamically and reversibly changing their chemical and physical properties by responding to the recognition of biomolecules remains a challenging task. And, the key to achieving this purpose relies on the design of polymers to precisely interact with the target molecule and successfully transform the interaction signal into tunable macroscopic properties, further achieve special bio-functions. Herein, inspired by carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI) in life system, we developed a three-component copolymer poly(NIPAAm-co-PT-co-Glc) bearing a binding unit glucose (Glc) capable of recognizing sialic acid, a type of important molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy, and reported the sialic acid triggered macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed mechanism studies indicated that multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between Glc unit and Neu5Ac destroyed the initial hydrogen bond network of the copolymer, leading to a reversible ;contraction-to-swelling; conformational transition of the copolymer chains, accompanied with distinct macroscopic property switching (i.e., surface wettability, morphology, stiffness) of the copolymer film. And these features enabled this copolymer to selectively capture sialic acid-containing glycopeptides from complex protein samples. This work provides an inspiration for the design of novel smart polymeric materials with sensitive responsiveness to sialic acid, which would promote the development of sialic acid-specific bio-devices and drug delivery systems.

  10. Receptor specificity and erythrocyte binding preferences of avian influenza viruses isolated from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Shailesh D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assays are conventionally used for detection and identification of influenza viruses. HI assay is also used for detection of antibodies against influenza viruses. Primarily turkey or chicken erythrocytes [red blood cells (RBCs] are used in these assays, as they are large, nucleated, and sediment fast, which makes it easy to determine the titer. Human influenza viruses agglutinate RBCs from chicken, human, and guinea pig, but not from horse. Human influenza viruses bind preferentially to sialic acid (SA linked to galactose (Gal by α 2, 6 linkage (SA α 2, 6-Gal, whereas avian influenza (AI viruses bind preferentially to SA α 2, 3-Gal linkages. With this background, the present study was undertaken to study erythrocyte binding preferences and receptor specificities of AI viruses isolated from India. Materials and methods A total of nine AI virus isolates (four subtypes from India and three reference AI strains (three subtypes were tested in HA and HI assays against mammalian and avian erythrocytes. The erythrocytes from turkey, chicken, goose, guinea pig and horse were used in the study. The receptor specificity determination assays were performed using goose and turkey RBCs. The amino acids present at 190 helix, 130 and 220 loops of the receptor-binding domain of the hemagglutinin protein were analyzed to correlate amino acid changes with the receptor specificity. Results All tested highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses reacted with all five types of RBCs in the HA assay; AI H9N2 and H5N2 viruses did not react with horse RBCs. For H5N1 viruses guinea pig and goose RBCs were best for both HA and HI assays. For H9N2 viruses, guinea pig, fowl and turkey RBCs were suitable. For other tested AI subtypes, avian and guinea pig RBCs were better. Eight isolates of H5N1, one H4N6 and one H7N1 virus showed preference to avian sialic acid receptors. Importantly

  11. Potential for Low-Pathogenic Avian H7 Influenza A Viruses To Replicate and Cause Disease in a Mammalian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Mark; Koçer, Zeynep A; Poulson, Rebecca L; Gabbard, Jon D; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Jones, Cheryl A; Friedman, Kimberly; Seiler, Jon; Danner, Angela; Kercher, Lisa; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; Wentworth, David E; Krauss, Scott; Tompkins, Stephen M; Stallknecht, David E; Webster, Robert G

    2017-02-01

    H7 subtype influenza A viruses are widely distributed and have been responsible for human infections and numerous outbreaks in poultry with significant impact. Despite this, the disease-causing potential of the precursor low-pathogenic (LP) H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. Our objective was to assess the disease-causing potential of 30 LP H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the United States and Canada using the DBA/2J mouse model. Without prior mammalian adaptation, the majority of viruses, 27 (90%), caused mortality in mice. Of these, 17 (56.7%) caused 100% mortality and 24 were of pathogenicity similar to that of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), which is highly pathogenic in mice. Viruses of duck origin were more pathogenic than those of shorebird origin, as 13 of 18 (72.2%) duck origin viruses caused 100% mortality while 4 of 12 (33.3%) shorebird origin viruses caused 100% mortality, despite there being no difference in mean lung viral titers between the groups. Replication beyond the respiratory tract was also evident, particularly in the heart and brain. Of the 16 viruses studied for fecal shedding, 11 were detected in fecal samples. These viruses exhibited a strong preference for avian-type α2,3-linked sialic acids; however, binding to mammalian-type α2,6-linked sialic acids was also detected. These findings indicate that LP avian H7 influenza A viruses are able to infect and cause disease in mammals without prior adaptation and therefore pose a potential public health risk. Low-pathogenic (LP) avian H7 influenza A viruses are widely distributed in the avian reservoir and are the precursors of numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in commercial poultry farms. However, unlike highly pathogenic H7 viruses, the disease-causing potential of LP H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. To address this, we studied 30 LP avian H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the

  12. Quantification of free sialic acid in urine by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: A tool for the diagnosis of sialic acid storage disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valianpour, Fredoen; Abeling, Nicolaas G. G. M.; Duran, Marinus; Huijmans, Jan G. M.; Kulik, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sialic acid storage diseases (SSDs) are severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders caused by a transport defect across the lysosomal membrane, which leads to accumulation of sialic acid in tissues, fibroblasts, and urine. Defective free sialic acid transport can be

  13. Impact of Mutations in the Hemagglutinin of H10N7 Viruses Isolated from Seals on Virus Replication in Avian and Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Anne; Scheibner, David; Salaheldin, Ahmed H; Veits, Jutta; Gischke, Marcel; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M

    2018-02-14

    Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA) of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro. Using reverse genetics, an avian H10N4 virus was cloned, and nine recombinant viruses carrying one of eight unique mutations or the complete HA from the seal virus were rescued. Receptor binding affinity, replication in avian and mammalian cell cultures, cell-to-cell spread, and HA cleavability of these recombinant viruses were studied. Results show that wild-type recombinant H10N4 virus has high affinity to avian-type sialic acid receptors and no affinity to mammalian-type receptors. The H10N7 virus exhibits dual receptor binding affinity. Interestingly, Q220L (H10 numbering) in the rim of the receptor binding pocket increased the affinity of the H10N4 virus to mammal-type receptors and completely abolished the affinity to avian-type receptors. No remarkable differences in cell-to-cell spread or HA cleavability were observed. All viruses, including the wild-type H10N7 virus, replicated at higher levels in chicken cells than in human cells. These results indicate that H10N7 acquired adaptive mutations (e.g., Q220L) to enhance replication in mammals and retained replication efficiency in the original avian host.

  14. Impact of Mutations in the Hemagglutinin of H10N7 Viruses Isolated from Seals on Virus Replication in Avian and Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dittrich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro. Using reverse genetics, an avian H10N4 virus was cloned, and nine recombinant viruses carrying one of eight unique mutations or the complete HA from the seal virus were rescued. Receptor binding affinity, replication in avian and mammalian cell cultures, cell-to-cell spread, and HA cleavability of these recombinant viruses were studied. Results show that wild-type recombinant H10N4 virus has high affinity to avian-type sialic acid receptors and no affinity to mammalian-type receptors. The H10N7 virus exhibits dual receptor binding affinity. Interestingly, Q220L (H10 numbering in the rim of the receptor binding pocket increased the affinity of the H10N4 virus to mammal-type receptors and completely abolished the affinity to avian-type receptors. No remarkable differences in cell-to-cell spread or HA cleavability were observed. All viruses, including the wild-type H10N7 virus, replicated at higher levels in chicken cells than in human cells. These results indicate that H10N7 acquired adaptive mutations (e.g., Q220L to enhance replication in mammals and retained replication efficiency in the original avian host.

  15. Avian leukosis virus type J (ALV-J) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, V.; Kulíková, L.; Halouzka, R.; Geryk, Josef; Svoboda, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2000), s. 143-145 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0866 Keywords : avian leukosis virus-J * myelocytomatosis * breeding chickens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2000

  16. New insight in the epidemiology of avian botulism outbreaks: necrophagous flies as vectors of Clostridium botulinum type C/D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anza, Ibone; Vidal, Dolors; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Avian botulism outbreaks spread through the bird carcass-maggot cycle, in which Clostridium botulinum and blowflies interact to ensure their reproduction in a mutualistic relationship where neurotoxin/spore-bearing maggot is one of the keystones. Here we investigated the hypothesis that adult blowflies may also play a significant role in botulism outbreaks by carrying C. botulinum cells between carcasses. We carried out a field experiment placing bird carcasses free of C. botulinum type C/D in containers only accessible to necrophagous flying insects in wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks were occurring and in control sites. Additionally, we performed laboratory trials to evaluate if blowflies may carry C. botulinum type C/D and for how long. Maggots bearing C. botulinum type C/D developed in 27.5% of carcasses placed in wetlands during botulism outbreaks. Calliphoridae flies in laboratory trials were able to transfer C. botulinum between two points and excreted it in their spots for up to 24 h after an infective feeding. Our results confirm that adult necrophagous flies play a role in the spreading of botulism outbreaks, which have implications in the epidemiology of this disease. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. In vitro detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E activity in avian blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Timothy M.; Blehert, David S.; Dunning, F. Mark; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Zeytin, Fusun N.; Samuel, Michael D.; Tucker, Ward C.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) outbreaks in the Great Lakes region cause large annual avian mortality events, with an estimated 17,000 bird deaths reported in 2007 alone. During an outbreak investigation, blood collected from bird carcasses is tested for the presence of BoNT/E using the mouse lethality assay. While sensitive, this method is labor-intensive and low throughput and can take up to 7 days to complete. We developed a rapid and sensitive in vitro assay, the BoTest Matrix E assay, that combines immunoprecipitation with high-affinity endopeptidase activity detection by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to rapidly quantify BoNT/E activity in avian blood with detection limits comparable to those of the mouse lethality assay. On the basis of the analysis of archived blood samples (n = 87) collected from bird carcasses during avian mortality investigations, BoTest Matrix E detected picomolar quantities of BoNT/E following a 2-h incubation and femtomolar quantities of BoNT/E following extended incubation (24 h) with 100% diagnostic specificity and 91% diagnostic sensitivity.

  18. Immunological relationships of OMC-1, an endogenous virus of owl monkeys, with mammalian and avian type C viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbacid, M; Daniel, M D; Aaronson, S A

    1980-01-01

    The relationships between OMC-1, an endogenous oncovirus of owl monkey, and representatives of the three oncoviral genera have been investigated by radioimmunological techniques. The major structural protein of OMC-1 was shown to share antigenic determinants with the corresponding proteins of certain type C viruses of rodent, feline, and cervine origin. It was not possible to demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity between OMC-1 and endogenous type C viruses of baboons. These findings argue that OMC-1 and baboon endogenous viruses do not represent direct descendants of an ancestor virus that became integrated within primates prior to the divergence of New and Old World species. A close antigenic relationship was established between the major structural proteins of OMC-1, an endogenous virus of deer (deer kidney virus), and avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses. These findings establish OMC-1 and deer kidney virus in the evolutionary lineage that may have led to the generation of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus, a group of oncogenic viruses capable of crossing the interclass barrier between mammals and birds. PMID:6154152

  19. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Expression in the Developing Avian Retina: Morphological and Functional Correlation With the Dopaminergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia da Silva Sampaio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The avian retina has been used as a model to study signaling by different neuro- and gliotransmitters. It is unclear how dopaminergic and cannabinoid systems are related in the retina. Here we studied the expression of type 1 and 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, as well as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, the enzyme that degrades 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, during retina development. Our data show that CB1 receptor is highly expressed from embryonic day 5 (E5 until post hatched day 7 (PE7, decreasing its levels throughout development. CB1 is densely found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and inner plexiform layer (IPL. CB2 receptor was also found from E5 until PE7 with a decrease in its contents from E9 afterwards. CB2 was mainly present in the lamination of the IPL at PE7. MAGL is expressed in all retinal layers, mainly in the IPL and OPL from E9 to PE7 retina. CB1 and CB2 were found both in neurons and glia cells, but MAGL was only expressed in Müller glia. Older retinas (PE7 show CB1 positive cells mainly in the INL and co-expression of CB1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH are shown in a few cells when both systems are mature. CB1 co-localized with TH and was heavily associated to D1 receptor labeling in primary cell cultures. Finally, cyclic AMP (cAMP was activated by the selective D1 agonist SKF38393, and inhibited when cultures were treated with WIN55, 212–2 (WIN in a CB1 dependent manner. The results suggest a correlation between the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems (DSs during the avian retina development. Activation of CB1 limits cAMP accumulation via D1 receptor activation and may influence embryological parameters during avian retina differentiation.

  20. Quantification of free and total sialic acid excretion by LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, Maria; Prinsen, Berthil H. C. M. T.; Huijmans, Jan G. M.; Abeling, Nicolaas G. G. M.; Dorland, Bert; Berger, Ruud; de Koning, Tom J.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose for measuring urinary free sialic acid (FSA) is to diagnose sialic acid (SA) storage diseases. Elevated amounts of conjugated sialic acid (CSA) are observed in several diseases indicating the need to quantify CSA as well. A LC-MS/MS method for quantification of FSA and total sialic

  1. Role of sialic acids in the midguts of Trypanosoma congolense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of all the groups of the T. congolense infected C.p. pipiense. Infusion of 10 mg/ml galactose and 10 mg/ml lactose did not change the pattern of this difference but resulted to 1.3 to 1.4 fold decrease in the total sialic acid concentration. The relevance of these findings to the role of sialic acids in the midgut of. T. congolense ...

  2. Role of sialic acid in synaptosomal transport of amino acid transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleska, M.M.; Erecinska, M.

    1987-01-01

    Active, high-affinity, sodium-dependent uptake of [ 14 C]-aminobutyric acid and of the acidic amino acid D-[ 3 H]-aspartate was inhibited by pretreatment of synaptosomes with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae. Inhibition was of a noncompetitive type and was related to the amount of sialic acid released. The maximum accumulation ratios of both amino acids (intracellular [amino acid]/extracellular [amino acid]) remained largely unaltered. Treatment with neuraminidase affected neither the synaptosomal energy levels nor the concentration of internal potassium. It is suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid and acidic amino acid transporters are glycosylated and that sialic acid is involved in the operation of the carrier proteins directly and not through modification of driving forces responsible for amino acid uptake

  3. Advances in the Biology and Chemistry of Sialic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Sialic acids are a subset of nonulosonic acids, which are nine-carbon alpha-keto aldonic acids. Natural existing sialic acid-containing structures are presented in different sialic acid forms, various sialyl linkages, and on diverse underlying glycans. They play important roles in biological, pathological, and immunological processes. Sialobiology has been a challenging and yet attractive research area. Recent advances in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis as well as large-scale E. coli cell-based production have provided a large library of sialoside standards and derivatives in amounts sufficient for structure-activity relationship studies. Sialoglycan microarrays provide an efficient platform for quick identification of preferred ligands for sialic acid-binding proteins. Future research on sialic acid will continue to be at the interface of chemistry and biology. Research efforts will not only lead to a better understanding of the biological and pathological importance of sialic acids and their diversity, but could also lead to the development of therapeutics. PMID:20020717

  4. Molecular epidemiology of J-subgroup avian leukosis virus isolated from meat-type chickens in South China between 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) caused high mortality rate associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, which resulted in major economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. To assess the status of ALV-J infection in meat-type chickens in south China, molecular epidemiology of A...

  5. Detection of Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus type QX infection in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Brigitte; Tobler, Kurt; Schybli, Martina; Konrad, Leonie; Stöckli, René; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lüschow, Dörte; Hafez, Hafez M; Britton, Paul; Hoop, Richard K; Vögtlin, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis, a disease of chickens caused by Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), leads to severe economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. Various attempts to control the virus based on vaccination strategies are performed. However, due to the emergence of novel genotypes, an effective control of the virus is hindered. In 1996, a novel viral genotype named IBV-QX was reported for the first time in Qingdao, Shandong province, China. The first appearance of an IBV-QX isolate in Europe was reported between 2003 and 2004 in The Netherlands. Subsequently, infections with this genotype were found in several other European countries such as France, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Slovenia, and Sweden. The present report describes the use of a new set of degenerate primers that amplify a 636-bp fragment within the S1 gene by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect the occurrence of IBV-QX infection in Switzerland.

  6. Determination of the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1 in Zambian backyard chicken flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimuka Musako

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces and 11 districts of Zambia to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks. Of the chickens sampled, 73.9% tested positive for avian paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence varied amongst the five provinces sampled, ranging from 82.6% in the Eastern Province to 48.3% in Luapula Province. Seroprevalence also varied amongst the 11 districts sampled, ranging from 91.3% in Monze district of Southern Province to 22.8% in Mufulira district of the Copperbelt province. Overall, the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks has increased since the previous study conducted in 1994.

  7. Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 regulator EtrA promotes virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Xu, Xuan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Dong; Liang, Hua; Wu, Xiaojun; Tian, Mingxing; Ding, Chan; Wang, Guijun; Yu, Shengqing

    2017-10-01

    The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is found in most E. coli strains, including pathogenic and commensal strains. Although many ETT2 gene clusters carry multiple genetic mutations or deletions, ETT2 is known to be involved in bacterial virulence. In enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), ETT2 affects adhesion through the regulator EtrA, which regulates transcription and secretion of the type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). To date, no studies have been conducted on the role of EtrA in the virulence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), which harbours only ETT2. Thus, we constructed etrA mutant and complemented strains of APEC and evaluated their phenotypes and pathogenicities. We found that the etrA gene deletion significantly reduced bacterial survival in macrophages, and proliferation and virulence in ducks. In addition, the etrA gene deletion reduced expression of the APEC fimbriae genes. Upregulation of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 was also observed in HD-11 macrophages infected with the etrA gene mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the altered capacities of the mutant strain were restored by genetic complementation. Our observations demonstrate that the ETT2 regulator EtrA contributes to the virulence of APEC.

  8. Expanding the diversity of unnatural cell surface sialic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchansky, Sarah J.; Goon, Scarlett; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2003-10-30

    Novel chemical reactivity can be introduced onto cell surfaces through metabolic oligosaccharide engineering. This technique exploits the substrate promiscuity of cellular biosynthetic enzymes to deliver unnatural monosaccharides bearing bioorthogonal functional groups into cellular glycans. For example, derivatives of N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) are converted by the cellular biosynthetic machinery into the corresponding sialic acids and subsequently delivered to the cell surface in the form of sialoglycoconjugates. Analogs of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) are also metabolized and incorporated into cell surface glycans, likely through the sialic acid and GalNAc salvage pathways, respectively. Furthermore, GlcNAc analogs can be incorporated into nucleocytoplasmic proteins in place of {beta}-O-GlcNAc residues. These pathways have been exploited to integrate unique electrophiles such as ketones and azides into the target glycoconjugate class. These functional groups can be further elaborated in a chemoselective fashion by condensation with hydrazides and by Staudinger ligation, respectively, thereby introducing detectable probes onto the cell. In conclusion, sialic acid derivatives are efficient vehicles for delivery of bulky functional groups to cell surfaces and masking of their hydroxyl groups improves their cellular uptake and utilization. Furthermore, the successful introduction of photoactivatable aryl azides into cell surface glycans opens up new avenues for studying sialic acid-binding proteins and elucidating the role of sialic acid in essential processes such as signaling and cell adhesion.

  9. Emergence of a virulent type C avian metapneumovirus in turkeys in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T; McComb, Brian; Bennett, Richard S; Lopes, Vanessa C; Shaw, Daniel; Halvorson, David A; Nagaraja, Kakambi V

    2005-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the pathogenesis of a recent isolate of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) in turkeys and to evaluate the quantitative distribution of the virus in various tissues during the course of infection. Seventy 2-week-old turkey poults were divided equally into two groups. One group was inoculated with aMPV (MN 19) with a titer of 10(5.5) TCID50 oculonasally. Birds in the second group were maintained as sham-inoculated controls. Birds showed severe clinical signs in the form of copious nasal discharge, swollen sinus, conjunctivitis, and depression from 4 days postinoculation (PI) to 12 days PI. Samples from nasal turbinates, trachea, conjunctiva, Harderian gland, infraorbital sinus, lungs, liver, and spleen were collected at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 days PI. Histopathologic lesions such as a multifocal loss of cilia were prominent in nasal turbinate and were seen from 3 to 11 days PI. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of aMPV from 3 to 9 days PI in nasal turbinate and trachea. Viral RNA could be detected for 14 days PI from nasal turbinate and for 9 days from trachea. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of aMPV from 1 to 11 days PI in nasal turbinates and from 3 to 9 days PI in the trachea. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data showed the presence of a maximum amount of virus at 3 days PI in nasal turbinate and trachea. Clinically and histopathologically, the new isolate appears to be more virulent compared to the early isolates of aMPV in the United States.

  10. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of...

  11. Characterization of influenza virus sialic acid receptors in minor poultry species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Gloria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is commonly accepted that avian influenza viruses (AIVs bind to terminal α2,3 sialic acid (SA residues whereas human influenza viruses bind to α2,6 SA residues. By a series of amino acid changes on the HA surface protein, AIVs can switch receptor specificity and recognize α2,6 SA positive cells, including human respiratory epithelial cells. Animal species, like pigs and Japanese quail, that contain both α2,3 and α2,6 SA become ideal environments for receptor switching. Here, we describe the SA patterns and distributions in 6 common minor domestic poultry species: Peking duck, Toulouse geese, Chinese ring-neck pheasant, white midget turkey, bobwhite quail, and pearl guinea fowl. Lectins specific to α2,3 and α2,6 SA (Maakia amurensis agglutinin and Sambuca nigra agglutinin, respectively were used to detect SA by an alkaline phosphotase-based method and a fluorescent-based method. Differences in SA moieties and their ability to bind influenza viruses were visualized by fluorescent labeling of 4 different H3N2 influenza viruses known to be specific for one receptor or the other. The geese and ducks showed α2,3 SA throughout the respiratory tract and marginal α2,6 SA only in the colon. The four other avian species showed both α2,3 and α2,6 SA in the respiratory tract and the intestines. Furthermore, the turkey respiratory tract showed a positive correlation between age and α2,6 SA levels. The fact that these birds have both avian and human flu receptors, combined with their common presence in backyard farms and live bird markets worldwide, mark them as potential mixing bowl species and necessitates improved surveillance and additional research about the role of these birds in influenza host switching.

  12. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  13. In vitro antiviral activity of Brazilian plants (Maytenus ilicifolia and Aniba rosaeodora) against bovine herpesvirus type 5 and avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, L K; Queiroga, C L; Martini, M C; Barata, L E; Porto, P S S; Souza, L; Arns, C W

    2012-10-01

    Medicinal plants are well known for their use in traditional folk medicine as treatments for many diseases including infectious diseases. Six Brazilian medicinal plant species were subjected to an antiviral screening bioassay to investigate and evaluate their biological activities against five viruses: bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), murine hepatitis virus type 3, porcine parvovirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. The antiviral activity was determined by a titration technique that depends on the ability of plant extract dilutions (25 or 2.5 µg/mL) to inhibit the viral induced cytopathic effect and the extracts' inhibition percentage (IP). Two medicinal plant species showed potential antiviral activity. The Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (Lauraceae) extract had the best results, with 90% inhibition of viral growth at 2.5 µg/mL when the extract was added during the replication period of the aMPV infection cycle. The Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad.) Planch. (Celastraceae) extracts at a concentration of 2.5 µg/mL exhibited antiviral activity during the attachment phase of BHV-5 (IP = 100%). The biomonitored fractionation of the active extracts from M. ilicifolia and A. rosaeodora could be a potential tool for identifying their active compounds and determining the exact mechanism of action.

  14. Membrane sialic acid influences basophil histamine release by interfering with calcium dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Skov, P S

    1987-01-01

    by insertion of sialic acid containing gangliosides into the membrane inhibited the mediator release. The reduction in membrane sialic acid content abolished the inhibitory capacity of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine, whereas the inhibition produced by verapamil and lanthanum was not affected....... This difference, together with the previous finding that alterations in membrane sialic acid content is reflected in the cell sensitivity to extracellular calcium, suggest an interaction between membrane sialic acid and the calcium channels involved in basophil histamine release....

  15. DNA microarrays immobilized on unmodified plastics in a microfluidic biochip for rapid typing of Avian Influenza Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Dufva, Martin

    2011-01-01

    , a portable cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microarray device containing eight individually addressable microfluidic channels was developed for fast identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) by DNA hybridization. This plastic biochip offers benefits of low fabrication cost and parallel processing...

  16. Single assay for simultaneous detection and differential identification of human and avian influenza virus types, subtypes, and emergent variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metzgar

    Full Text Available For more than four decades the cause of most type A influenza virus infections of humans has been attributed to only two viral subtypes, A/H1N1 or A/H3N2. In contrast, avian and other vertebrate species are a reservoir of type A influenza virus genome diversity, hosting strains representing at least 120 of 144 combinations of 16 viral hemagglutinin and 9 viral neuraminidase subtypes. Viral genome segment reassortments and mutations emerging within this reservoir may spawn new influenza virus strains as imminent epidemic or pandemic threats to human health and poultry production. Traditional methods to detect and differentiate influenza virus subtypes are either time-consuming and labor-intensive (culture-based or remarkably insensitive (antibody-based. Molecular diagnostic assays based upon reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR have short assay cycle time, and high analytical sensitivity and specificity. However, none of these diagnostic tests determine viral gene nucleotide sequences to distinguish strains and variants of a detected pathogen from one specimen to the next. Decision-quality, strain- and variant-specific pathogen gene sequence information may be critical for public health, infection control, surveillance, epidemiology, or medical/veterinary treatment planning. The Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM-Flu is a robust, highly multiplexed and target gene sequencing-based alternative to both traditional culture- or biomarker-based diagnostic tests. RPM-Flu is a single, simultaneous differential diagnostic assay for all subtype combinations of type A influenza viruses and for 30 other viral and bacterial pathogens that may cause influenza-like illness. These other pathogen targets of RPM-Flu may co-infect and compound the morbidity and/or mortality of patients with influenza. The informative specificity of a single RPM-Flu test represents specimen-specific viral gene sequences as determinants of virus type, A

  17. Targeted delivery of a sialic acid-blocking glycomimetic to cancer cells inhibits metastatic spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, C.; Boltje, T.J.; Dinther, E.A.W. van; Peters, T.; Graaf, A.M.A. de; Leusen, J.H.W.; Kreutz, M.; Figdor, C.G.; Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Adema, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acid sugars are overexpressed by cancer cells and contribute to the metastatic cascade at multiple levels. Therapeutic interference of sialic acids, however, has been difficult to pursue because of the absence of dedicated tools. Here we show that a rationally designed sialic acid-blocking

  18. Metabolic sialic acid blockade lowers the activation threshold of moDCs for TLR stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, C.; Collado-Camps, E.; Kers-Rebel, E.D.; Heise, T.; Sondergaard, J.N.; Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Schulte, B.M.; Boltje, T.J.; Adema, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Sialic acid sugars cover the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) and have been suggested to impact several aspects of DC biology. Research into the role of sialic acids in DCs, however, is complicated by the limited number of tools available to modulate sialic acid expression. Here we report on a

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Paramyxovirus Type 4 Strain Isolated from Domestic Duck at a Live Bird Market in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseren-Ochir, Erdene-Ochir; Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Kyu-Jik; Lee, Ji-Ho; Kim, Jun-Beom; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-05-18

    We report here the first full-genome sequence of an avian paramyxovirus type 4 (APMV-4) strain isolated from a domestic mallard duck at a live bird market in South Korea. Phylogenetic analyses provide genetic information on a new genetic clade, APMV-4, isolated from a domestic duck and evidence of APMV-4 exchange between poultry and wild birds. Copyright © 2017 Tseren-Ochir et al.

  20. Avian Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate new individuals through differentiation, maturation and fertilization. This means that the manipulation of PGCs is directly linked to the manipulation of individuals, making PGCs attractive target cells in the animal biotechnology field. A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. Following the development of a technique for transplantation, PGCs have become central to avian biotechnology, in contrast to the use of embryo manipulation and subsequent transfer to foster mothers, as in mammalian biotechnology. Today, avian PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced manipulation techniques, including cell purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture in vitro, have enabled the establishment of genetically modified poultry lines and ex-situ conservation of poultry genetic resources. This chapter introduces the principles, history, and procedures of producing avian germline chimeras by transplantation of PGCs, and the current status of avian germline modification as well as germplasm cryopreservation. Other fundamental avian reproductive technologies are described, including artificial insemination and embryo culture, and perspectives of industrial applications in agriculture and pharmacy are considered, including poultry productivity improvement, egg modification, disease resistance impairment and poultry gene "pharming" as well as gene banking.

  1. A molecular epidemiological investigation of avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses isolated from game birds of the order Galliformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, E W; Mynn, J K; Irvine, R M; Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

    2010-12-01

    The partial (370 nucleotides) fusion gene sequences of 55 avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) isolates were obtained. Included were 41 published sequences, of which 16 were from strains of APMV-1 of previously determined lineages included as markers for the data analysed and 25 were from APMV-1 viruses isolated from game birds of the order Galliformes. In addition, we sequenced a further 14 game bird isolates obtained from the repository at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency. The game bird isolates had been obtained from 17 countries, and spanned four decades. Earlier studies have shown that class II APMV-1 viruses can be divided into at least 15 lineages and sub-lineages. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 39 game bird isolates were distributed across 12 of these sub-lineages. We conclude that no single lineage of Newcastle disease viruses appears to be prevalent in game birds, and the isolates obtained from these hosts reflected the prevailing, both geographically and temporally, viruses in poultry, pigeons or wild birds.

  2. Titanium dioxide enrichment of sialic acid-containing glycopeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Lendal, Sara E; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2011-01-01

    the glycosylation site of N-linked sialylated glycoproteins. The method relies on the specificity of titanium dioxide affinity chromatography to isolate sialic acid-containing glycopeptides. After enzymatic release of the glycans, the enriched sialylated glycopeptides are analyzed by mass spectrometry...

  3. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop flu-like symptoms within 10 days of handling infected birds or being in an area with ... your provider if you become sick after you return from your trip. Current information regarding avian flu ...

  4. Immuno-localization of type-IV collagen in the blood-gas barrier and the epithelial-epithelial cell connections of the avian lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimoh, S A; Maina, J N

    2013-02-23

    The terminal respiratory units of the gas exchange tissue of the avian lung, the air capillaries (ACs) and the blood capillaries (BCs), are small and rigid: the basis of this mechanical feature has been highly contentious. Because the strength of the blood-gas barrier (BGB) of the mammalian lung has been attributed to the presence of type-IV collagen (T-IVc), localization of T-IVc in the basement membranes (BM) of the BGB and the epithelial-epithelial cell connections (E-ECCs) of the exchange tissue of the lung of the avian (chicken) lung was performed in order to determine whether it may likewise contribute to the strength of the BGB. T-IVc was localized in both the BM and the E-ECCs. As part of an integrated fibroskeletal scaffold on the lung, T-IVc may directly contribute to the strengths of the ACs and the BCs.

  5. Immuno-localization of type-IV collagen in the blood-gas barrier and the epithelial–epithelial cell connections of the avian lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimoh, S. A.; Maina, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    The terminal respiratory units of the gas exchange tissue of the avian lung, the air capillaries (ACs) and the blood capillaries (BCs), are small and rigid: the basis of this mechanical feature has been highly contentious. Because the strength of the blood-gas barrier (BGB) of the mammalian lung has been attributed to the presence of type-IV collagen (T-IVc), localization of T-IVc in the basement membranes (BM) of the BGB and the epithelial–epithelial cell connections (E-ECCs) of the exchange tissue of the lung of the avian (chicken) lung was performed in order to determine whether it may likewise contribute to the strength of the BGB. T-IVc was localized in both the BM and the E-ECCs. As part of an integrated fibroskeletal scaffold on the lung, T-IVc may directly contribute to the strengths of the ACs and the BCs. PMID:23193049

  6. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  7. Land use types influenced avian assemblage structure in a forest-agriculture landscape in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus Precious; Kwafo, Richard; Konadu, Vida Asieduwaa

    2017-11-01

    The conservation of biodiversity within tropical forest regions does not lie only in the maintenance of natural forest areas, but on conservation strategies directed toward agricultural land types within which they are embedded. This study investigated variations in bird assemblages of different functional groups of forest-dependent birds in three agricultural land types, relative to distance from the interior of 34 tropical forest patches of varying sizes. Point counts were used to sample birds at each study site visited. Data from counts were used to estimate species richness, species evenness, and Simpson's diversity of birds. Mean species richness, evenness, and diversity were modeled as responses and as a function of agricultural land type, distance from the forest interior and three site-scale vegetation covariates (density of large trees, fruiting trees, and patch size) using generalized linear mixed-effect models. Mean observed species richness of birds varied significantly within habitat types. Mean observed species richness was highest in forest interior sites while sites located in farm centers recorded the lowest mean species richness. Species richness of forest specialists was strongly influenced by the type of agricultural land use. Fallow lands, density of large trees, and patch size strongly positively influenced forest specialists. Insectivorous and frugivorous birds were more species-rich in fallow lands while monoculture plantations favored nectarivorous birds. Our results suggest that poor agricultural practices can lead to population declines of forest-dependent birds particularly specialist species. Conservation actions should include proper land use management that ensures heterogeneity through retention of native tree species on farms in tropical forest-agriculture landscapes.

  8. Expression of sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids in Leptospira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricaldi N Jessica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acids are negatively charged nine carbon backbone sugars expressed on mammalian cell surfaces. Sialic acids are part of a larger family of nonulosonic acid (NulO molecules that includes pseudaminic and legionaminic acids. Microbial expression of sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids has been shown to contribute to host-microbe interactions in a variety of contexts, including participation in colonization, immune subversion, and behaviors such as biofilm formation, autoagglutination and motility. Previous research has suggested that some spirochetes may also express these molecules. Results Here we use a combination of molecular tools to investigate the presence of NulO biosynthetic gene clusters among clinical and saprophytic isolates of the genus Leptospira. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting suggested that a variety of leptospires encoded NulO biosynthetic pathways. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses provided biochemical evidence that di-N-acetylated NulO molecules are expressed at relatively high levels by L. interrogans serovar Lai strain 55601, and at lower levels by L. alexanderi serovar Manhao and L. fainei serovar Hurstbridge. Endogenous expression of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, the most common sialic acid was documented in L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain L1-130. Neu5Ac biosynthesis is also supported by a unique gene fusion event resulting in an enzyme with an N-terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase domain and a C-terminal phosphatase domain. This gene fusion suggests that L. interrogans uses a Neu5Ac biosynthetic pathway more similar to animals than to other bacteria. Analysis of the composition and phylogeny of putative NulO biosynthetic gene clusters in L. interrogans serovar Lai and serovar Copenhageni revealed that both strains have complete biosynthetic pathways for legionamimic acid synthesis, a molecule with the same stereochemistry

  9. Insights into the evolution of sialic acid catabolism among bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro-Moreno Salvador

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon amino sugars that are prevalent in mucus rich environments. Sialic acids from the human host are used by a number of pathogens as an energy source. Here we explore the evolution of the genes involved in the catabolism of sialic acid. Results The cluster of genes encoding the enzymes N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NanA, epimerase (NanE, and kinase (NanK, necessary for the catabolism of sialic acid (the Nan cluster, are confined 46 bacterial species, 42 of which colonize mammals, 33 as pathogens and 9 as gut commensals. We found a putative sialic acid transporter associated with the Nan cluster in most species. We reconstructed the phylogenetic history of the NanA, NanE, and NanK proteins from the 46 species and compared them to the species tree based on 16S rRNA. Within the NanA phylogeny, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria do not form distinct clades. NanA from Yersinia and Vibrio species was most closely related to the NanA clade from eukaryotes. To examine this further, we reconstructed the phylogeny of all NanA homologues in the databases. In this analysis of 83 NanA sequences, Bacteroidetes, a human commensal group formed a distinct clade with Verrucomicrobia, and branched with the Eukaryotes and the Yersinia/Vibrio clades. We speculate that pathogens such as V. cholerae may have acquired NanA from a commensal aiding their colonization of the human gut. Both the NanE and NanK phylogenies more closely represented the species tree but numerous incidences of incongruence are noted. We confirmed the predicted function of the sialic acid catabolism cluster in members the major intestinal pathogens Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis. Conclusion The Nan cluster among bacteria is confined to human pathogens and commensals conferring them the ability to utilize a ubiquitous carbon source in mucus rich surfaces of the human body

  10. Inhibitory effects of α-cyperone on adherence and invasion of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Yan; Lv, Shuang; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Guo, Xun; Xia, Fang; Hu, Xi-Rou; Song, Zhou; Zhang, Cui; Qin, Qian-Qian; Fu, Ben-Dong; Yi, Peng-Fei; Shen, Hai-Qing; Wei, Xu-Bin

    2014-05-15

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli, and usually cause avian septicemia through breaching the blood-gas barrier. Type II pneumocytes play an important role of maintaining the function of the blood-gas barrier. However, the mechanism of APEC injuring type II pneumocytes remains unclear. α-cyperone can inhibit lung cell injury induced by Staphylococcus aureus. In order to explore whether α-cyperone regulates the adherence and invasion of APEC-O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes, we successfully cultured chicken type II pneumocytes. The results showed that α-cyperone significantly decreased the adherence of APEC-O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes. In addition, α-cyperone inhibited actin cytoskeleton polymerization induced by APEC-O78 through down regulating the expression of Nck-2, Cdc42 and Rac1. These results provide new evidence for the prevention of colibacillosis in chicken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sialic Acid Replacement Therapy for Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Nishino, Ichizo

    2015-09-01

    Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles or GNE myopathy, is an early adult-onset myopathy with slow progression that preferentially affects the tibialis anterior muscle. Severely affected patients show marked limb muscle atrophy together with respiratory dysfunction. The disease is caused by a mutation in the GNE gene that catalyzes two rate-limiting reactions in cytosolic sialic acid synthesis. Oral treatment with sialic acid metabolite prevents muscle atrophy and weakness in a mouse GNE myopathy model and a global Phase III study is currently underway. In addition, a global patient registry of neuromuscular cases is widely accepted as a useful tool to obtain epidemiological data and bolster patient recruitment for further development of this treatment strategy.

  12. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become...... infected. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) may reach similar maximum prevalence levels in wild bird populations to HPAIV but the risk of LPAIV infection of a poultry holding was estimated to be lower than that of HPAIV. Only few non-wild bird pathways were identified having a non...

  13. Local and systemic immune responses following infection of broiler-type chickens with avian Metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenschlein, Silke; Aung, Ye Htut; Haase, Christine

    2011-03-15

    Infections with avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) are often associated with swollen head syndrome in meat type chickens. Previous studies in turkeys have demonstrated that local humoral and cell-mediated immunity plays a role in aMPV-infection. Previous experimental and field observations indicated that the susceptibility of broilers and their immune reactions to aMPV may differ from turkeys. In the presented study local and systemic immune reactions of broilers were investigated after experimental infections with subtypes A and B aMPV of turkey origin. Both virus subtypes induced a mild respiratory disease. The recovery from respiratory signs correlated with the induction of local and systemic aMPV virus-neutralizing antibodies, which began to rise at 6 days post infection (dpi), when the peak of clinical signs was observed. In a different manner to the virus neutralizing (VN) and IgG-ELISA serum antibody titres, which showed high levels until the end of the experiments between 24 and 28 dpi, the specific IgA-ELISA and VN-antibody levels in tracheal washes decreased by 10 and 14 dpi, respectively, which may explain the recurring aMPV-infections in the field. Ex vivo cultured spleen cells from aMPV-infected broilers released at 3 and 6 dpi higher levels of IFN-γ after stimulation with Concanavalin A as compared to virus-free birds. In agreement with studies in turkeys, aMPV-infected broilers showed a clear CD4+ T cell accumulation in the Harderian gland (HG) at 6 dpi (P<0.05). In contrast to other investigations in turkeys aMPV-infected broilers showed an increase in the number of CD8alpha+ cells at 6 dpi compared to virus-free birds (P<0.05). The numbers of local B cells in the Harderian gland were not affected by the infection. Both aMPV A and B induced up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA-expression in the nasal turbinates, while in the Harderian gland only aMPV-A induced enhanced IFN-γ expression at 3 dpi. The differences in systemic and local T cell and

  14. Pentavalent Bismuth-Mediated Glycosylation Methods to Activate Sialic and Uronic Acids and the Incorporation of Sialic Acids Into Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabotso, Daniel Elorm Kwame

    The negative charge at physiological pH of carboxylic acid-containing monosaccharides modulate the properties of many natural biomolecules such as oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. Unfortunately, these altered electronic properties also make the incorporation of such acidic sugars more challenging as compared to the more commonly studied neutral sugars. Herein are reported the first demonstration of glycosylation reactions mediated by triphenylbis(1,1,1-trifluoromethanesulfonato)-bismuth with thioglycosides containing carboxylic acid substituents protected as esters. Unlike with many neutral sugar substrates, the addition of 1-propanethiol to the reactions proved critical to obtaining good yields of the desired glycosylation products using sialic acid, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid. The protocol was demonstrated to be amenable to automation using a liquid-handling platform. The consequences of artificially incorporating carboxylic-acid-containing sugars into proteins were tested by the design of a linker containing 1 to 4 sialic acids--a sugar found in many human proteins and brain tissues--that was attached via reductive amination of trityl thiopropylaldehyde at the phenyl alanine terminal end of the protein insulin produced through solid-phase peptide synthesis. Removal of the trityl group with neat trifluoroacetic acid furnished the thiol-free modified insulin that was ligated via a disulfide bond to the peptide scaffold bearing acetyl protected sialic acids. A 14-15% ammonium hydroxide solution was found to be effective in deprotecting the acetyl groups without degradation of the disulfide bond. In addition to maintaining the potency and bioactivity of insulin, the sialic acid-containing linker rendered insulin more resistant to aggregation due to heat and mechanical agitation compared to the unmodified protein.

  15. The role of sialyl glycan recognition in host tissue tropism of the avian parasite Eimeria tenella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Lai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria spp. are a highly successful group of intracellular protozoan parasites that develop within intestinal epithelial cells of poultry, causing coccidiosis. As a result of resistance against anticoccidial drugs and the expense of manufacturing live vaccines, it is necessary to understand the relationship between Eimeria and its host more deeply, with a view to developing recombinant vaccines. Eimeria possesses a family of microneme lectins (MICs that contain microneme adhesive repeat regions (MARR. We show that the major MARR protein from Eimeria tenella, EtMIC3, is deployed at the parasite-host interface during the early stages of invasion. EtMIC3 consists of seven tandem MAR1-type domains, which possess a high specificity for sialylated glycans as shown by cell-based assays and carbohydrate microarray analyses. The restricted tissue staining pattern observed for EtMIC3 in the chicken caecal epithelium indicates that EtMIC3 contributes to guiding the parasite to the site of invasion in the chicken gut. The microarray analyses also reveal a lack of recognition of glycan sequences terminating in the N-glycolyl form of sialic acid by EtMIC3. Thus the parasite is well adapted to the avian host which lacks N-glycolyl neuraminic acid. We provide new structural insight into the MAR1 family of domains and reveal the atomic resolution basis for the sialic acid-based carbohydrate recognition. Finally, a preliminary chicken immunization trial provides evidence that recombinant EtMIC3 protein and EtMIC3 DNA are effective vaccine candidates.

  16. Phylogenetic typing and molecular detection of virulence factors of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from colibacillosis cases in Japanese quail

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Hesam; Ghanbarpour, Reza; Jajarami, Maziar; Askari, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Colibacillosis caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is an economic threat to the poultry industry throughout the world. Some of the virulence genes may enhance the ability of E. coli isolates to grow in the tissues of broilers. The APEC strains are assigned to a few distinct phylogenetic groups. The purpose of the present study was to detect the virulence genes and phylogenetic groups of E. coli isolates from colibacillosis cases in Japanese quail in 2014 in Kerman, Iran. In the...

  17. Bovine adenovirus serotype 3 utilizes sialic acid as a cellular receptor for virus entry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Sharma, Anurag; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2009-01-01

    Bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAd3) and porcine adenovirus serotype 3 (PAd3) entry into the host cells is independent of Coxsackievirus -adenovirus receptor and integrins. The role of sialic acid in BAd3 and PAd3 entry was investigated. Removal of sialic acid by neuraminidase, or blocking sialic acid by wheat germ agglutinin lectin significantly inhibited BAd3, but not PAd3, transduction of Madin Darby bovine kidney cells. Maackia amurensis agglutinin or Sambucus nigra (elder) agglutinin trea...

  18. Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  19. Avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera is a contagious disease resulting from infection by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Several subspecies of bacteria have been proposed for P. multocida, and at least 16 different P. multocida serotypes or characteristics of antigens in bacterial cells that differentiate bacterial variants from each other have been recognized. The serotypes are further differentiated by other methods, including DNA fingerprinting. These evaluations are useful for studying the ecology of avian cholera (Fig. 7.1), because different serotypes are generally found in poultry and free-ranging migratory birds. These evaluations also show that different P. multocida serotypes are found in wild birds in the eastern United States than those that are found in the birds in the rest of the Nation (Fig. 7.2).

  20. Overlapped sequence types (STs and serogroups of avian pathogenic (APEC and human extra-intestinal pathogenic (ExPEC Escherichia coli isolated in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pariz Maluta

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains belong to a category that is associated with colibacillosis, a serious illness in the poultry industry worldwide. Additionally, some APEC groups have recently been described as potential zoonotic agents. In this work, we compared APEC strains with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC strains isolated from clinical cases of humans with extra-intestinal diseases such as urinary tract infections (UTI and bacteremia. PCR results showed that genes usually found in the ColV plasmid (tsh, iucA, iss, and hlyF were associated with APEC strains while fyuA, irp-2, fepC sitDchrom, fimH, crl, csgA, afa, iha, sat, hlyA, hra, cnf1, kpsMTII, clpVSakai and malX were associated with human ExPEC. Both categories shared nine serogroups (O2, O6, O7, O8, O11, O19, O25, O73 and O153 and seven sequence types (ST10, ST88, ST93, ST117, ST131, ST155, ST359, ST648 and ST1011. Interestingly, ST95, which is associated with the zoonotic potential of APEC and is spread in avian E. coli of North America and Europe, was not detected among 76 APEC strains. When the strains were clustered based on the presence of virulence genes, most ExPEC strains (71.7% were contained in one cluster while most APEC strains (63.2% segregated to another. In general, the strains showed distinct genetic and fingerprint patterns, but avian and human strains of ST359, or ST23 clonal complex (CC, presented more than 70% of similarity by PFGE. The results demonstrate that some "zoonotic-related" STs (ST117, ST131, ST10CC, ST23CC are present in Brazil. Also, the presence of moderate fingerprint similarities between ST359 E. coli of avian and human origin indicates that strains of this ST are candidates for having zoonotic potential.

  1. Overlapped sequence types (STs) and serogroups of avian pathogenic (APEC) and human extra-intestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) Escherichia coli isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Logue, Catherine Mary; Casas, Monique Ribeiro Tiba; Meng, Ting; Guastalli, Elisabete Aparecida Lopes; Rojas, Thaís Cabrera Galvão; Montelli, Augusto Cezar; Sadatsune, Teruê; de Carvalho Ramos, Marcelo; Nolan, Lisa Kay; da Silveira, Wanderley Dias

    2014-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains belong to a category that is associated with colibacillosis, a serious illness in the poultry industry worldwide. Additionally, some APEC groups have recently been described as potential zoonotic agents. In this work, we compared APEC strains with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains isolated from clinical cases of humans with extra-intestinal diseases such as urinary tract infections (UTI) and bacteremia. PCR results showed that genes usually found in the ColV plasmid (tsh, iucA, iss, and hlyF) were associated with APEC strains while fyuA, irp-2, fepC sitDchrom, fimH, crl, csgA, afa, iha, sat, hlyA, hra, cnf1, kpsMTII, clpVSakai and malX were associated with human ExPEC. Both categories shared nine serogroups (O2, O6, O7, O8, O11, O19, O25, O73 and O153) and seven sequence types (ST10, ST88, ST93, ST117, ST131, ST155, ST359, ST648 and ST1011). Interestingly, ST95, which is associated with the zoonotic potential of APEC and is spread in avian E. coli of North America and Europe, was not detected among 76 APEC strains. When the strains were clustered based on the presence of virulence genes, most ExPEC strains (71.7%) were contained in one cluster while most APEC strains (63.2%) segregated to another. In general, the strains showed distinct genetic and fingerprint patterns, but avian and human strains of ST359, or ST23 clonal complex (CC), presented more than 70% of similarity by PFGE. The results demonstrate that some "zoonotic-related" STs (ST117, ST131, ST10CC, ST23CC) are present in Brazil. Also, the presence of moderate fingerprint similarities between ST359 E. coli of avian and human origin indicates that strains of this ST are candidates for having zoonotic potential.

  2. Effect of fluoride on salivary immunoglobulins and sialic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Görkem Ulu Güzel

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on salivary immunoglobulin and sialic acid levels in children with dental fluorosis and healthy teeth who live in places with high fluoride concentration in drinking water. Method: Fifty-one (51 healthy children between 6 and 12 years old with no caries were randomly selected from primary schools enrolled in the dental-care program operated by the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The children were divided into two groups: group I comprised 26 children with dental fluorosis [Thylstrup-Fejerskov Dental Fluorosis Index (TFI = 4] who lived in Isparta (2.7-2.8 ppm, and group II consisted of 25 children without dental fluorosis who were born in low-fluoride areas and had lived in Isparta for only the previous two years. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva were collected and analyzed for fluoride, salivary immunoglobulins and sialic acid levels. Results: Sialic acid level was correlated negatively with age. Levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA and secretory immunoglobulin G (sIgG were higher in children with dental fluorosis compared with those in group II, although these differences were not significant. Conclusion: Increased sIgA and sIgG levels may arrest the progression of caries in subjects with dental fluorosis. Given the risks of dental fluorosis, further studies of the effects of different fluoride levels in drinking water on salivary composition of children with mixed dentition are needed to confirm the results of our study and to provide data for comparison.

  3. Multi-locus sequence typing and plasmid profile characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli associated with increased mortality in free-range layer flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R H; Stockholm, N M; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Christensen, H; Bisgaard, M

    2011-10-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains originating from 10 free-range layer flocks were characterized by multi-locus sequence typing and plasmid profile analysis to investigate their phylogenetic relationship and diversity, respectively. In addition to colibacillosis, all flocks tested positive for antibodies against avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) during production, and six of the flocks were concurrently affected by histomonosis. Accumulated average mortality for flocks concurrently affected by colibacillosis and histomonosis made up 17.4%, while the average mortality for E. coli-infected flocks was 16.5%. A total of eight different sequence types (STs) and 47 different plasmid profiles were demonstrated among the E. coli isolates. Within each flock between one and four different STs and between three and 13 different plasmid profiles were demonstrated. A statistical significant difference in STs and plasmid profile diversity of the population of E. coli was not demonstrated between flocks affected by histomonosis compared with histomonosis-free flocks. Only minor clonal diversity was demonstrated for each flock, and in all but one flock colibacillosis started before antibodies against aMPV were detected. All isolates, except two, carried plasmids greater than 100 kb, but only a single plasmid replicon type, IncFIB, was demonstrated, suggesting plasmids representing this type might represent a common pathogenicity factor for the different STs of E. coli. Within each flock a clonal tendency was observed, indicating that only certain clones of E. coli possess a significant pathogenic potential. These clones act as primary rather than secondary pathogens, resulting in colibacillosis without predisposing factors, including histomonosis and aMPV.

  4. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  5. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  6. Relationship of total serum sialic acid to sialylglycoprotein acute-phase reactants in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, H. K.; Karim, K. A.; Salinas, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Reported elevations of total serum sialic acid may be a result of shed tumour-related membrane sialyglycoprotein and/or concurrent elevation of non-specific, acute-phase reactant sialoglycoprotein. To clarify further the specificity and sensitivity of serum sialic acid monitoring, analyses of sialic acid by the thiobarbituric acid method and acute-phase reactants by radial immunodiffusion were made using the same malignant melanoma patients' sera. Preliminary studies of IgG, IgA, IgM, ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein suggested that these would not be valuable monitors of tumour burden. Single serum samples from 59 melanoma patients and age- and sex-matched controls were further examined for sialic acid, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and alpha 2-macroglobulin. Patients were grouped according to tumour burden. In pairwise statistical tests, differences between groups tended to be greater for sialic acid than for acute-phase reactants. On discriminant analysis , sialic acid was clearly the most significant single discriminator between groups, with an F statistic of P < 0.00005. Although alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was quite strongly correlated with sialic acid, it was not such a good discriminator and did not add significantly to the predictive power of sialic acid alone. PMID:6158966

  7. The effect of CoQ 10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and some elements in rat administered doxorubicin (DXR). Cu levels were increased in the group treated with DXR + vitamin E in comparison with DXR (p<0.05) and CoQ10 groups (p ...

  8. Substrate specificity of the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Christina L.; Goon, Scarlett; Yarema, Kevin J.; Hinderlich, Stephan; Hang, Howard C.; Chai, Diana H.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2001-07-18

    Unnatural analogs of sialic acid can be delivered to mammalian cell surfaces through the metabolic transformation of unnatural N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) derivatives. In previous studies, mannosamine analogs bearing simple N-acyl groups up to five carbon atoms in length were recognized as substrates by the biosynthetic machinery and transformed into cell-surface sialoglycoconjugates [Keppler, O. T., et al. (2001) Glycobiology 11, 11R-18R]. Such structural alterations to cell surface glycans can be used to probe carbohydrate-dependent phenomena. This report describes our investigation into the extent of tolerance of the pathway toward additional structural alterations of the N-acyl substituent of ManNAc. A panel of analogs with ketone-containing N-acyl groups that varied in the lengthor steric bulk was chemically synthesized and tested for metabolic conversion to cell-surface glycans. We found that extension of the N-acyl chain to six, seven, or eight carbon atoms dramatically reduced utilization by the biosynthetic machinery. Likewise, branching from the linear chain reduced metabolic conversion. Quantitation of metabolic intermediates suggested that cellular metabolism is limited by the phosphorylation of the N-acylmannosamines by ManNAc 6-kinase in the first step of the pathway. This was confirmed by enzymatic assay of the partially purified enzyme with unnatural substrates. Identification of ManNAc 6-kinase as a bottleneck for unnatural sialic acid biosynthesis provides a target for expanding the metabolic promiscuity of mammalian cells.

  9. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  10. assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2006-01-22

    Jan 22, 2006 ... KEYWORDS: Assessment, Economic, Social Implications, Avian Flu, Nigerian Poultry. INTRODUCTION. Avian flu is a highly infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease of man, poultry and other birds caused by the avian influenza type A virus, Emmanuel et.al. (2006). The avian influenza virus belongs to ...

  11. Plasmonics-Based Detection of Virus Using Sialic Acid Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changwon; Wang, Peng; Gaston, Marsha A; Weiss, Alison A; Zhang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Biosensor for the detection of virus was developed by utilizing plasmonic peak shift phenomenon of the gold nanoparticles and viral infection mechanism of hemagglutinin on virus and sialic acid on animal cells. The plasmonic peak of the colloidal gold nanoparticles changes with the aggregation of the particles due to the plasmonic interaction between nearby particles and the color of the colloidal nanoparticle solution changes from wine red to purple. Sialic acid reduced and stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticle aggregation is induced by the addition of viral particles in the solution due to the hemagglutinin-sialic acid interaction. In this work, sialic acid reduced and stabilized gold nanoparticles (d = 20.1 ± 1.8 nm) were synthesized by a simple one-pot, green method without chemically modifying sialic acid. The gold nanoparticles showed target-specific aggregation with viral particles via hemagglutinin-sialic acid binding. A linear correlation was observed between the change in optical density and dilution of chemically inactivated influenza B virus species. The detection limit of the virus dilution (hemagglutinination assay titer, 512) was shown to be 0.156 vol% and the upper limit of the linearity can be extended with the use of more sialic acid-gold nanoparticles.

  12. Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice after cyclophosphamide and cisplatin treatment

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    Nicol B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma cells and other tissues of 10-12-week-old Swiss albino mice were investigated in relation to tumour growth in vivo and following cyclophosphamide (ip, 200 mg/kg body weight or cisplatin (ip, 8 mg/kg body weight treatment. Three to four animals of both sexes were used in each experimental group. The sialic acid level of tumour cells (0.88 µmol/g increased with tumour progression (1.44-1.59 µmol/g; P<=0.05 in mice. Sialic acid concentration in other tissues (liver, kidney, testes and brain also increased (~40, 10, 30 and 58%, respectively in the tumour-bearing hosts as compared with that in the respective tissues of normal mice. In vivo cyclophosphamide or cisplatin treatment resulted in an overall decrease of sialic acid contents in the tissues. Cyclophosphamide was more efficient in lowering tissue sialic acid than cisplatin (P<=0.01, ANOVA. It is suggested that sialic acid residues could be an important factor contributing to the manifestation of malignant properties in cancer cells in general and Dalton's lymphoma cells in particular. A significant decrease in the sialic acid content of Dalton's lymphoma cells after cisplatin or cyclophosphamide treatment may bring about specific changes in tumour cells which could be associated with tumour regression.

  13. Role of sialic acid in insulin action and the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhanick, A.I.; Amatruda, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Adipocytes treated with neuraminidase show markedly reduced responsiveness to insulin without any alteration in insulin binding. In addition, several studies have separately demonstrated both insulin resistance and decreases in membrane sialic acid content and associated biosynthetic enzymes in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the authors investigated the role that sialic acid residues may play in insulin action and in the hepatic insulin resistance associated with nonketotic diabetes. Primary cultures of hepatocytes from normal rats treated with neuraminidase demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. At a concentration of neuraminidase that decreases insulin action by 50%, 23% of total cellular sialic acid content was released. Neuraminidase-releasable sialic acid was significantly decreased in hepatocytes from diabetic rats and this was associated with significant insulin resistance. Treatment of hepatocytes from diabetic rats with cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA) enhanced insulin responsiveness 39%. The enhanced insulin responsiveness induced by CMP-NANA was blocked by cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) suggesting that the CMP-NANA effect was catalyzed by a cell surface sialyl-transferase. CMP reduced neuraminidase-releasable [ 14 C]sialic acid incorporation into hepatocytes by 43%. The data demonstrate a role for cell surface sialic acid residues in hepatic insulin action and support a role for decreased cell surface sialic acid residues in the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus

  14. Sialic Acid Catabolism Confers a Competitive Advantage to Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in the Mouse Intestine▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E. Fidelma

    2009-01-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae ΔnanA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment. PMID:19564383

  15. Sialic acid catabolism confers a competitive advantage to pathogenic vibrio cholerae in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2009-09-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae DeltananA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment.

  16. Sialic Acid Glycobiology Unveils Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigote Membrane Physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés B Lantos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan agent of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis, is unable to synthesize sialic acids de novo. Mucins and trans-sialidase (TS are substrate and enzyme, respectively, of the glycobiological system that scavenges sialic acid from the host in a crucial interplay for T. cruzi life cycle. The acquisition of the sialyl residue allows the parasite to avoid lysis by serum factors and to interact with the host cell. A major drawback to studying the sialylation kinetics and turnover of the trypomastigote glycoconjugates is the difficulty to identify and follow the recently acquired sialyl residues. To tackle this issue, we followed an unnatural sugar approach as bioorthogonal chemical reporters, where the use of azidosialyl residues allowed identifying the acquired sugar. Advanced microscopy techniques, together with biochemical methods, were used to study the trypomastigote membrane from its glycobiological perspective. Main sialyl acceptors were identified as mucins by biochemical procedures and protein markers. Together with determining their shedding and turnover rates, we also report that several membrane proteins, including TS and its substrates, both glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, are separately distributed on parasite surface and contained in different and highly stable membrane microdomains. Notably, labeling for α(1,3Galactosyl residues only partially colocalize with sialylated mucins, indicating that two species of glycosylated mucins do exist, which are segregated at the parasite surface. Moreover, sialylated mucins were included in lipid-raft-domains, whereas TS molecules are not. The location of the surface-anchored TS resulted too far off as to be capable to sialylate mucins, a role played by the shed TS instead. Phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase-C activity is actually not present in trypomastigotes. Therefore, shedding of TS occurs via microvesicles instead of as a fully

  17. Activation of type I and III interferon signalling pathways occurs in lung epithelial cells infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

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    Richard Sutejo

    Full Text Available The host response to the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H5N2, H5N3 and H9N2 viruses were examined in A549, MDCK, and CEF cells using a systems-based approach. The H5N2 and H5N3 viruses replicated efficiently in A549 and MDCK cells, while the H9N2 virus replicated least efficiently in these cell types. However, all LPAI viruses exhibited similar and higher replication efficiencies in CEF cells. A comparison of the host responses of these viruses and the H1N1/WSN virus and low passage pH1N1 clinical isolates was performed in A549 cells. The H9N2 and H5N2 virus subtypes exhibited a robust induction of Type I and Type III interferon (IFN expression, sustained STAT1 activation from between 3 and 6 hpi, which correlated with large increases in IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression by 10 hpi. In contrast, cells infected with the pH1N1 or H1N1/WSN virus showed only small increases in Type III IFN signalling, low levels of ISG expression, and down-regulated expression of the IFN type I receptor. JNK activation and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic XAF1 protein was observed in A549 cells infected with all viruses except the H1N1/WSN virus, while MAPK p38 activation was only observed in cells infected with the pH1N1 and the H5 virus subtypes. No IFN expression and low ISG expression levels were generally observed in CEF cells infected with either AIV, while increased IFN and ISG expression was observed in response to the H1N1/WSN infection. These data suggest differences in the replication characteristics and antivirus signalling responses both among the different LPAI viruses, and between these viruses and the H1N1 viruses examined. These virus-specific differences in host cell signalling highlight the importance of examining the host response to avian influenza viruses that have not been extensively adapted to mammalian tissue culture.

  18. New avian paramyxoviruses type I strains identified in Africa provide new outcomes for phylogeny reconstruction and genotype classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Renata Servan; Hammoumi, Saliha; Gil, Patricia; Briand, François-Xavier; Molia, Sophie; Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Chevalier, Véronique; Balança, Gilles; Traoré, Abdallah; Grillet, Colette; Maminiaina, Olivier Fridolin; Guendouz, Samia; Dakouo, Marthin; Samaké, Kassim; Bezeid, Ould El Mamy; Diarra, Abbas; Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Thompson, Peter; Martinez, Dominique; Jestin, Véronique; Albina, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most lethal diseases of poultry worldwide. It is caused by an avian paramyxovirus 1 that has high genomic diversity. In the framework of an international surveillance program launched in 2007, several thousand samples from domestic and wild birds in Africa were collected and analyzed. ND viruses (NDV) were detected and isolated in apparently healthy fowls and wild birds. However, two thirds of the isolates collected in this study were classified as virulent strains of NDV based on the molecular analysis of the fusion protein and experimental in vivo challenges with two representative isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F and HN genes showed that isolates recovered from poultry in Mali and Ethiopia form new groups, herein proposed as genotypes XIV and sub-genotype VIf with reference to the new nomenclature described by Diel's group. In Madagascar, the circulation of NDV strains of genotype XI, originally reported elsewhere, is also confirmed. Full genome sequencing of five African isolates was generated and an extensive phylogeny reconstruction was carried out based on the nucleotide sequences. The evolutionary distances between groups and the specific amino acid signatures of each cluster allowed us to refine the genotype nomenclature.

  19. New avian paramyxoviruses type I strains identified in Africa provide new outcomes for phylogeny reconstruction and genotype classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Servan de Almeida

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is one of the most lethal diseases of poultry worldwide. It is caused by an avian paramyxovirus 1 that has high genomic diversity. In the framework of an international surveillance program launched in 2007, several thousand samples from domestic and wild birds in Africa were collected and analyzed. ND viruses (NDV were detected and isolated in apparently healthy fowls and wild birds. However, two thirds of the isolates collected in this study were classified as virulent strains of NDV based on the molecular analysis of the fusion protein and experimental in vivo challenges with two representative isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F and HN genes showed that isolates recovered from poultry in Mali and Ethiopia form new groups, herein proposed as genotypes XIV and sub-genotype VIf with reference to the new nomenclature described by Diel's group. In Madagascar, the circulation of NDV strains of genotype XI, originally reported elsewhere, is also confirmed. Full genome sequencing of five African isolates was generated and an extensive phylogeny reconstruction was carried out based on the nucleotide sequences. The evolutionary distances between groups and the specific amino acid signatures of each cluster allowed us to refine the genotype nomenclature.

  20. Avian influenza : a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalda

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1, that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO , world organization for animal health (OIE , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO information and recommendations and review of the published literature about avian influenza. Since December 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have swept through poultry populations across Asia and parts of Europe. The outbreaks are historically unprecedented in scale and geographical spread. Their economic impact on the agricultural sector of the affected countries has been large. Human cases, with an overall fatality rate around 50%, have also been reported and almost all human infections can be linked to contact with infected poultry. Influenza viruses are genetically unstable and their behaviour cannot be predicted so the risk of further human cases persists. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a re-assortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic.

  1. Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System 2 ATPase EivC Is Involved in the Motility and Virulence of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Xin; Xu, Xuan; Yang, Denghui; Wang, Dong; Han, Xiangan; Shi, Yonghong; Tian, Mingxing; Ding, Chan; Peng, Daxin; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are crucial for bacterial infections because they deliver effector proteins into host cells. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is present in the majority of E. coli strains, and although it is degenerate, ETT2 regulates bacterial virulence. An ATPase is essential for T3SS secretion, but the function of the ETT2 ATPase has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that EivC is homologous to the β subunit of F0F1 ATPases and it possesses ATPase activity. To investigate the effects of ETT2 ATPase EivC on the phenotype and virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), eivC mutant and complemented strains were constructed and characterized. Inactivation of eivC led to impaired flagella production and augmented fimbriae on the bacterial surface, and, consequently, reduced bacterial motility. In addition, the eivC mutant strain exhibited attenuated virulence in ducks, diminished serum resistance, reduced survival in macrophage cells and in ducks, upregulated fimbrial gene expression, and downregulated flagellar and virulence gene expression. The expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 were increased in HD-11 macrophages infected with the eivC mutant strain, compared with the wild-type strain. These virulence-related phenotypes were restored by genetic complementation. These findings demonstrate that ETT2 ATPase EivC is involved in the motility and pathogenicity of APEC.

  2. Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System 2 ATPase EivC is Involved in the Motility and Virulence of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type III secretion systems (T3SSs are crucial for bacterial infections because they deliver effector proteins into host cells. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2 is present in the majority of E. coli strains, and although it is degenerate, ETT2 regulates bacterial virulence. An ATPase is essential for T3SS secretion, but the function of the ETT2 ATPase has not been demonstrated. Here we show that EivC is homologous to the β subunit of F0F1 ATPases and it possesses ATPase activity. To investigate the effects of ETT2 ATPase EivC on the phenotype and virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC, eivC mutant and complemented strains were constructed and characterized. Inactivation of eivC led to impaired flagella production and augmented fimbriae on the bacterial surface, and, consequently, reduced bacterial motility. In addition, the eivC mutant strain exhibited attenuated virulence in ducks, diminished serum resistance, reduced survival in macrophage cells and in ducks, upregulated fimbrial gene expression, and downregulated flagellar and virulence gene expression. The expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β and IL-8 were increased in HD-11 macrophages infected with the eivC mutant strain, compared with the wild-type strain. These virulence-related phenotypes were restored by genetic complementation. These findings demonstrate that ETT2 ATPase EivC is involved in the motility and pathogenicity of APEC.

  3. Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is widely distributed in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Liu, X; Xu, X; Zhao, Y; Yang, D; Han, X; Tian, M; Ding, C; Peng, D; Yu, S

    2016-10-01

    Pathogens utilize type III secretion systems to deliver effector proteins, which facilitate bacterial infections. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) which plays a crucial role in bacterial virulence, is present in the majority of E. coli strains, although ETT2 has undergone widespread mutational attrition. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of ETT2 in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) isolates and identified five different ETT2 isoforms, including intact ETT2, in 57·6% (141/245) of the isolates. The ETT2 locus was present in the predominant APEC serotypes O78, O2 and O1. All of the ETT2 loci in the serotype O78 isolates were degenerate, whereas an intact ETT2 locus was mostly present in O1 and O2 serotype strains, which belong to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Interestingly, a putative second type III secretion-associated locus (eip locus) was present only in the isolates with an intact ETT2. Moreover, ETT2 was more widely distributed in APEC isolates and exhibited more isoforms compared to ETT2 in human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, suggesting that APEC might be a potential risk to human health. However, there was no distinct correlation between ETT2 and other virulence factors in APEC.

  4. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  5. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Subtypes Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Related Links Research Glossary of Influenza (Flu) Terms ...

  6. Examination of Signatures of Recent Positive Selection on Genes Involved in Human Sialic Acid Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyun M; Aronoff, David M; Capra, John A; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2018-03-28

    Sialic acids are nine carbon sugars ubiquitously found on the surfaces of vertebrate cells and are involved in various immune response-related processes. In humans, at least 58 genes spanning diverse functions, from biosynthesis and activation to recycling and degradation, are involved in sialic acid biology. Because of their role in immunity, sialic acid biology genes have been hypothesized to exhibit elevated rates of evolutionary change. Consistent with this hypothesis, several genes involved in sialic acid biology have experienced higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions in the human lineage than their counterparts in other great apes, perhaps in response to ancient pathogens that infected hominins millions of years ago (paleopathogens). To test whether sialic acid biology genes have also experienced more recent positive selection during the evolution of the modern human lineage, reflecting adaptation to contemporary cosmopolitan or geographically-restricted pathogens, we examined whether their protein-coding regions showed evidence of recent hard and soft selective sweeps. This examination involved the calculation of four measures that quantify changes in allele frequency spectra, extent of population differentiation, and haplotype homozygosity caused by recent hard and soft selective sweeps for 55 sialic acid biology genes using publicly available whole genome sequencing data from 1,668 humans from three ethnic groups. To disentangle evidence for selection from confounding demographic effects, we compared the observed patterns in sialic acid biology genes to simulated sequences of the same length under a model of neutral evolution that takes into account human demographic history. We found that the patterns of genetic variation of most sialic acid biology genes did not significantly deviate from neutral expectations and were not significantly different among genes belonging to different functional categories. Those few sialic acid biology genes that

  7. Micronuclei and sialic acid as markers of genotoxic damage in tobacco-related oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dahal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carcinogens and co-carcinogens act in an additive, synergistic and antagonistic manner. Tobacco is the most common carcinogen related to oral cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tobacco on the oral epithelium by evaluating genotoxic damage to cells as quantitated by micronuclei and also the alterations to the cell membrane were correlated by the measurement of free sialic acid and protein-bound sialic acid in saliva and in serum. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 15 untreated oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, 15 patients with oral precancerous conditions, 15 tobacco chewers without clinically evident lesion and 15 non-tobacco chewers. Serum and salivary sialic acid levels both in free and bound form were measured spectrophotometrically. Smear was taken from the same patient from the suspicious site and assessment of micronuclei was done by acridine orange method. Results: Serum free sialic acid and micronuclei assessment showed greater level of signifi cance (P=?0.05 between all other groups. This implies it’s potential use as an indicator of oral cancer. Predictability of occurrence of oral Cancer = 0.561+ 0.005× serum protein-bound sialic acid+ 0.244 serum free sialic acid + 0.71 M, where M=mean of micronuclei in 500 exfoliated oral cells. Predictability of occurrence of oral Premalignancy = 0.13+ 0.909× serum free sialic acid+ 0.045 M, where M=mean of micronuclei in 500 exfoliated oral cells. Conclusion: Micronuclei, serum and salivary sialic acid levels may be a good marker for prediction of premalignancy and oral squamous cell carcinoma transformation. Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, No.1, Issue 5, 379-385 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i5.7862

  8. Association between salivary sialic acid and periodontal health status among smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jwan Ibrahim Jawzali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking is an environmental risk factor causing poor dental health. Sialic acid is a salivary marker of oxidative stress for research of periodontal diseases. Aims: To identify diagnostic sialic acid fraction and its scavenger effect for periodontal diseases among smokers and periodental health status. Subject and method: This study carried out in the Khanzad specialized dental center – Erbil city. The study population is composed of 62 convenient samples. A structured inter...

  9. Expression of endogenous ALV antigens and susceptibility to subgroup E ALV in three strains of chickens (Endogenous avian C. type virus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, H.L.; Lamoreux, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Cells from three strains of Kimber Farms chickens, K16, K18, and K28, have been characterized for the expression of endogenous avian C-type virus (ALV) antigens and for susceptibility to subgroup E ALV. In K16 the coordinate dominant expression of chick helper factor (chf ), the type specific antigen of endogenous subgroup E ALV, and the group specific (gs) antigen of ALV was observed. The expression of chf and gs antigen in K16 chf + gs + cells was similar to that observed in SPAFAS and H and N gs + cells. In K18 chf but not gs antigen was expressed. The expression of chf in K18 chf + gs + cells was distinct from that observed for the chf + gs + pedigrees but similar to that found in SPAFAS chf + gs - helper extremely high (h/sub E/) cells. Cells from K16 and K18 chickens were uniformly resistant to subgroup E ALV. In cells from K28 chickens, susceptibility to subgroup B virus correlated with susceptibility to subgroup E virus. The efficiency of plating of subgroup E virus on susceptible K28 cells with 10 3 --10 4 -fold lower on chf + cells than on chf - cells

  10. Detection and subtyping (H5 and H7) of avian type A influenza virus by reverse transcription-PCR and PCR-ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, M.; Nielsen, L.P.; Handberg, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Avian influenza virus infections are a major cause of morbidity and rapid identification of the virus has important clinical, economical and epidemiological implications. We have developed a one-tube Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the rapid diagnosis of avian influenza...... A. A panel of reference influenza strains from various hosts including avian species, human, swine and horse were evaluated in a one tube RT-PCR using primers designed for the amplification of a 218 bp fragment of the NP gene. The PCR products were detected by PCR-ELISA by use of an internal...

  11. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Top of Page Avian Influenza in Wild Birds Avian influenza A viruses have ... hours. Some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Avian influenza outbreaks are of concern in domesticated birds for ...

  12. The evaluation of serum total sialic acid and lipid-bound sialic acid levels in chronically exposed rats to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Uyar, Hasan; Ozdemir, Hulya; Yıldız, Damla; Karakuş, Yagmur

    2017-04-01

    In this study, changes in serum total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) levels were examined in chronically exposed rats to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and fluoride. This study demonstrated that the TSA, LSA levels increased more in DMBA-treated groups compared to the fluoride treated groups. The result obtained has shown that the harmful effect of DMBA which is also causing more cell membrane damage on human and animal health should be taken into consideration.

  13. Evaluation of some tumor markers, acute phase proteins, sialic acid and lipid bound sialic acid before and after chemotherapy in patients with stomach cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cebi, Aysegul; Mert, Handan; Mert, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Objective:  It was aimed to compare the some tumor markers, acute phase proteins, sialic acid and lipid bound sialic acid levels in patients with stomach cancer before and after chemotherapy to the healthy controls.Material and Methods:  Forty-eight patients with stomach adenocarcinoma and 20 healthy controls, totally 68 subjects were used. Blood samples were taken from all patients before and after chemotherapy and controls to analyse the levels of tumor markers (CA 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, CE...

  14. Molecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Peter L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world. All APMVs, except avian metapneumovirus, are classified in the genus Avulavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. At present, the APMVs of genus Avulavirus are divided into nine serological types (APMV 1–9. Newcastle disease virus represents APMV-1 and is the most characterized among all APMV types. Very little is known about the molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of APMV 2–9. Results As a first step towards understanding the molecular genetics and pathogenicity of APMV-4, we have sequenced the complete genome of APMV-4 strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75 and determined its pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs. The genome of APMV-4 is 15,054 nucleotides (nt in length, which is consistent with the "rule of six". The genome contains six non-overlapping genes in the order 3'-N-P/V-M-F-HN-L-5'. The genes are flanked on either side by highly conserved transcription start and stop signals and have intergenic sequences varying in length from 9 to 42 nt. The genome contains a 55 nt leader region at 3' end. The 5' trailer region is 17 nt, which is the shortest in the family Paramyxoviridae. Analysis of mRNAs transcribed from the P gene showed that 35% of the transcripts were edited by insertion of one non-templated G residue at an editing site leading to production of V mRNAs. No message was detected that contained insertion of two non-templated G residues, indicating that the W mRNAs are inefficiently produced in APMV-4 infected cells. The cleavage site of the F protein (DIPQR↓F does not conform to the preferred cleavage site of the ubiquitous intracellular protease furin. However, exogenous proteases were not required for the growth of APMV-4 in cell culture, indicating that the cleavage does not depend on a furin site. Conclusion Phylogenic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of viruses of all five genera of the family

  15. Association between salivary sialic acid and periodontal health status among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawzali, Jwan Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    Smoking is an environmental risk factor causing poor dental health. Sialic acid is a salivary marker of oxidative stress for research of periodontal diseases. To identify diagnostic sialic acid fraction and its scavenger effect for periodontal diseases among smokers and periodental health status. This study carried out in the Khanzad specialized dental center - Erbil city. The study population is composed of 62 convenient samples. A structured interview questionnaire form was used to collect data about socio-demographic properties and smoking history. Clinical measurements were carried out to measure periodontal health status. Un-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected for measuring sialic acid fractions. Statistical package for social science (SPSS, version 18), was used for analysis and odds ratio. Risk of smoking increased significantly in young to mid ages, which included most of the current smokers, with periodontal diseases, and high total free sialic acid. Risk of periodontitis and teeth missing increased significantly by long duration of smoking, bad tooth brushing, and poor eating habits. Risk of teeth mobility and loss decreased significantly by early smoking cessation and low income. High levels of free sialic acid correlated significantly in current smokers with medium and deep pocket depth. Salivary free sialic acid may be used as a diagnostic oxidative stress biomarker for periodontal diseases among young current smokers. Cumulative destructive effect of long duration of smoking on the periodontum can be controlled by smoking cessation, good oral hygiene and diet habit in early old ages.

  16. DC-SIGN mediates avian H5N1 influenza virus infection in cis and in trans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-F.; Huang, Jason C.; Lee, Y.-M.; Liu, S.-J.; Chan, Yu-Jiun; Chau, Y.-P.; Chong, P.; Chen, Y.-M.A.

    2008-01-01

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), has been identified as a receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, Ebola virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus, and the SARS coronavirus. We used H5N1 pseudotyped and reverse-genetics (RG) virus particles to study their ability to bind with DC-SIGN. Electronic microscopy and functional assay results indicate that pseudotyped viruses containing both HA and NA proteins express hemagglutination and are capable of infecting cells expressing α-2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Results from a capture assay show that DC-SIGN-expressing cells (including B-THP-1/DC-SIGN and T-THP-1/DC-SIGN) and peripheral blood dendritic cells are capable of transferring H5N1 pseudotyped and RG virus particles to target cells; this action can be blocked by anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies. In summary, (a) DC-SIGN acts as a capture or attachment molecule for avian H5N1 virus, and (b) DC-SIGN mediates infections in cis and in trans

  17. Harnessing cancer cell metabolism for theranostic applications using metabolic glycoengineering of sialic acid in breast cancer as a pioneering example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Haitham A; AlSadek, Dina M M; El-Houseini, Motawa E; Saeui, Christopher T; Mathew, Mohit P; Yarema, Kevin J; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal cell surface display of sialic acids - a family of unusual 9-carbon sugars - is widely recognized as distinguishing feature of many types of cancer. Sialoglycans, however, typically cannot be identified with sufficiently high reproducibility and sensitivity to serve as clinically accepted biomarkers and similarly, almost all efforts to exploit cancer-specific differences in sialylation signatures for therapy remain in early stage development. In this report we provide an overview of important facets of glycosylation that contribute to cancer in general with a focus on breast cancer as an example of malignant disease characterized by aberrant sialylation. We then describe how cancer cells experience nutrient deprivation during oncogenesis and discuss how the resulting metabolic reprogramming, which endows breast cancer cells with the ability to obtain nutrients during scarcity, constitutes an "Achilles' heel" that we believe can be exploited by metabolic glycoengineering (MGE) strategies to develop new diagnostic methods and therapeutic approaches. In particular, we hypothesize that adaptations made by breast cancer cells that allow them to efficiently scavenge sialic acid during times of nutrient deprivation renders them vulnerable to MGE, which refers to the use of exogenously-supplied, non-natural monosaccharide analogues to modulate targeted aspects of glycosylation in living cells and animals. In specific, once non-natural sialosides are incorporated into the cancer "sialome" they can be exploited as epitopes for immunotherapy or as chemical tags for targeted delivery of imaging or therapeutic agents selectively to tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human adenovirus 52 uses sialic acid-containing glycoproteins and the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor for binding to target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenman, Annasara; Liaci, A Manuel; Liu, Yan; Årdahl, Carin; Rajan, Anandi; Nilsson, Emma; Bradford, Will; Kaeshammer, Lisa; Jones, Morris S; Frängsmyr, Lars; Feizi, Ten; Stehle, Thilo; Arnberg, Niklas

    2015-02-01

    Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK) binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK) binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus:glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy.

  19. Human adenovirus 52 uses sialic acid-containing glycoproteins and the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor for binding to target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annasara Lenman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52 is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus:glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy.

  20. Sialic acid content of plasminogen 2 glycoforms as a regulator of fibrinolytic activity. Isolation, carbohydrate analysis, and kinetic characterization of six glycoforms of plasminogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie-Shepherd, S R; Jett, E A; Andon, N L; Pizzo, S V

    1995-03-17

    Six glycoforms of plasminogen 2 were isolated using a combination of lectin affinity chromatography and chromatofocussing, and the sialic acid content of each glycoform was determined. The kinetics of activation of each glycoform by tissue-type plasminogen activator were analyzed on a fibrin surface and in solution. The second-order rate constant (measured on a fibrin surface) decreased from 1.65 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 to 3.77 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 as the sialic acid content of the glycoforms increased from 1.3 mol/mol of protein to 13.65 mol/mol of protein. A similar correlation was noted for activation in solution. Each glycoform was converted to plasmin, and the inhibition constants for the reaction between alpha 2-antiplasmin and plasmin glycoforms were determined. All overall Ki values, reflecting the final essentially irreversible complex, were in the picomolar range. Sialic acid does not affect inhibition of plasmin by alpha 2-antiplasmin; however, hypersialylated plasmin does not appear to have a kringle-dependent component to inhibition.

  1. Estimation of salivary sialic acid in oral premalignancy and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oral cancer is the most life-threatening disease of oral tissues. In societies where the incidence of oral cancer is high, clinically recognizable premalignant lesions are particularly common. Diagnosing oral cancers at an early stage is critical in improving the survival rate and reducing the morbidity associated with the disease. Alterations in the sialic acid levels in cancer patients have stimulated interest in this sugar residue as a possible tumor marker. Settings and Design: The purpose of this study was to estimate the salivary sialic acid levels in patients with oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate it with their grades to develop a cost-effective and noninvasive diagnostic parameter. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from the groups under study and subjected to biochemical analysis for determination of sialic acid levels. Statistical Analysis Used: The salivary sialic acid levels were correlated with the clinical stage and histological grade by one-way ANOVA (SPSS software version 15. Results: Salivary sialic acid was elevated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC compared to oral premalignancy and control group. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the grades of squamous cell carcinoma, grades of dysplasia in premalignancy, and sialic acid level. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: Evaluation of salivary sialic acid levels in premalignant and malignant lesions can serve as a screening tool. The mortality and morbidity of OSCC can be reduced if the lesions are diagnosed in early precancerous states using such noninvasive diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of the population.

  2. Assessment of total sialic acid levels in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Sevgi Sari; Özcan, Hüseyin Çağlayan; Balat, Özcan; Öztürk, Ebru; Uğur, Mete Gurol; Gündüz, Reyhan; Taysi, Seyithan

    2018-02-01

    To determine the levels of serum total sialic acid (TSA) in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and their gestational age-matched controls. Thirty pregnant women with HG, and 30 healthy pregnant women at up to 14 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this preliminary study. Total sialic acid levels in maternal serum were measured using the quantitative sandwich ELISA method. We observed statistically significant difference in TSA levels between HG and the control groups (p = .003). The identification of the role of SA in the prediction, diagnosis and follow-up of HG warrants more comprehensive studies in the future. Impact Statement What is already known on this subject? The derivatives of neuraminic acid are collectively referred to as sialic acid (SA). Changes in SA levels are known to trigger various conditions and disorders, including inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurological and endocrine diseases. Although a sensitive test capable of identifying hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) would be useful for diagnosis purposes, such a test is currently not available. Studies focussing on identifying new potential indicators and biomarkers for HG - as well as identifying their relevance in establishing diagnosis and assessing disease severity - would not only assist in elucidating the underlying causes of this condition but would also contribute to the development of new diagnostic tests for HG. What the results of this study add? Total sialic acid levels are significantly higher in sera of the patients with HG. The present study is the first in the literature to assess total sialic acid levels in patients with HG and healthy pregnant women before 14 weeks of gestation. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Total sialic acid levels could give an idea to clinicians in the etiopathogenesis of HG. The identification of the role of sialic acid in the prediction, diagnosis and follow-up of HG warrants more

  3. Discovery and characterization of sialic acid O-acetylation in group B Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda L; Nizet, Victor; Varki, Ajit

    2004-07-27

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of human neonatal sepsis and meningitis. The GBS capsular polysaccharide is a major virulence factor and the active principle of vaccines in phase II trials. All GBS capsules have a terminal alpha 2-3-linked sialic acid [N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)], which interferes with complement-mediated killing. We show here that some of the Neu5Ac residues of the GBS type III capsule are O-acetylated at carbon position 7, 8, or 9, a major modification evidently missed in previous studies. Data are consistent with initial O-acetylation at position 7, and subsequent migration of the O-acetyl ester at positions 8 and 9. O-acetylation was also present on several other GBS serotypes (Ia, Ib, II, V, and VI). Deletion of the CMP-Neu5Ac synthase gene neuA by precise, in-frame allelic replacement gave intracellular accumulation of O-acetylated Neu5Ac, whereas overexpression markedly decreased O-acetylation. Given the known GBS Neu5Ac biosynthesis pathway, these data indicate that O-acetylation occurs on free Neu5Ac, competing with the CMP-Neu5Ac synthase. O-acetylation often generates immunogenic epitopes on bacterial capsular polysaccharides and can modulate human alternate pathway complement activation. Thus, our discovery has important implications for GBS pathogenicity, immunogenicity, and vaccine design.

  4. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  5. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  6. Polysialic acid bioengineering of neuronal cells by N-acyl sialic acid precursor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Robert A; Biggs, Nancy J; Jennings, Harold J

    2007-03-01

    The inherent promiscuity of the polysialic acid (PSA) biosynthetic pathway has been exploited by the use of exogenous unnatural sialic acid precursor molecules to introduce unnatural modifications into cellular PSA, and has found applications in nervous system development and tumor vaccine studies. The sialic acid precursor molecules N-propionyl- and N-butanoyl-mannosamine (ManPr, ManBu) have been variably reported to affect PSA biosynthesis ranging from complete inhibition to de novo production of modified PSA, thus illustrating the need for further investigation into their effects. In this study, we have used a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 13D9, specific to both N-propionyl-PSA and N-butanoyl-PSA (NPrPSA and NBuPSA), together with flow cytometry, to study precursor-treated tumor cells and NT2 neurons at different stages of their maturation. We report that both ManPr and ManBu sialic acid precursors are metabolized and the resultant unnatural sialic acids are incorporated into de novo surface sialylglycoconjugates in murine and human tumor cells and, for the first time, in human NT2 neurons. Furthermore, neither precursor treatment deleteriously affected endogenous PSA expression; however, with NT2 cells, PSA levels were naturally downregulated as a function of their maturation into polarized neurons independent of sialic acid precursor treatment.

  7. Salivary sialic acid levels and dental health in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, A M; Kavita, Rai; Sushma, K S; Suchetha, Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Congenital cardiac disease is one of the most common developmental anomalies in children. Higher caries prevalence and gingivitis compared to healthy children have been shown in children with congenital heart disease which has a significant implication in the medical care of these patients associated with bacteraemia and endocarditis. Sialic acids being terminal sugar components and marker of chronic inflammatory response are found to be present at higher levels in children with poor oral health status. So the present study aimed to evaluate the oral health status and salivary sialic acid levels among the children with congenital heart disease and normal healthy siblings. A total of 71 children with heart diseases aged 6-10 years attending various heart institutes were examined for oral hygiene status, gingival status and dental caries status by using modified WHO oral assessment form. A case-matched control group of 50 children were also examined. Salivary flow rate, pH and sialic acid levels were measured after saliva collection. The results were subjected to Unpaired t test and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient Test. The salivary pH, salivary flow rate, dental caries status, oral hygiene and the gingival status were significantly compromised with a positive correlation with the sialic acid levels in saliva, leading to increased treatment needs in the study group. Therefore the amount of sialic acid in the saliva can be a useful index of the severity of oral disease.

  8. In vitro evolution of H5N1 avian influenza virus toward human-type receptor specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Blixt, Klas Ola; Stevens, James

    2012-01-01

    . Unlike the wild type H5N1, this mutant virus was transmitted by direct contact in the ferret model although not by airborne respiratory droplets. However, a reassortant virus with the mutant hemagglutinin, a human N2 neuraminidase and internal genes from an H5N1 virus was partially transmitted via...... respiratory droplets. The complex changes required for airborne transmissibility in ferrets suggest that extensive evolution is needed for H5N1 transmissibility in humans....

  9. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R.; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J.; O’Kennedy, Richard J.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  10. Sialic acid and cholesterol variations during oogenesis of an estuarine teleost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veena, K.B.; Chacko, J. [Cochin, Univ. of Science and Technology (India). Dept. of Chemical Oceanography; Radhakrishnan, C.K. [Cochin, Univ. of Science and Technology (India). Dept. of Marine Biology. Biochemistry and Microbiology

    1995-12-31

    The pituitary gland, ovaries and blood of the three different stages of maturity of Etroplus maculatus (Bloch) were subjected to biochemical analysis. The changes in the concentrations of sialic acid in the pituitary gland and blood were observed to related oogenesis. A similar trend in concentrations of cholesterol in the ovary and blood were also observed. The amount of Sialic acid and cholesterol has been reported to give the measure of glycoprotein hormones in the pituitary gland (LICHT and PAPKOFF, 1972) and steroid hormones (NORRIS, 1985). The variation in the concentration of sialic acid and cholesterol in the tissues of the estuarine teleost Etroplus maculatus observed during oogenesis, emphasises their important roles during ovarian development.

  11. Total sialic acid, total protein and total sugar levels in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Dhakar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed a significant increase in serum sialic acid, salivary sialic acid and serum protein from control to OSCC and suggests that these markers may be reliable in diagnosis and predicting prognosis.

  12. Tapak Perlekatan Reseptor Virus Flu Burung yang Diisolasi dari Berbagai Unggas Sejak tahun 2003 sampai 2008 (RECEPTOR BINDING SITE OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS H5N1 ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS POULTRIES SINCE 2003 TO 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza (AI is an infectious disease in poultry, caused by type A of avian influenza virus(AIV, in the family of Orthomyxoviridae. Almost all birds’ species are sensitive to the AI. Beside theability to infect various species of poultry. AIV type A has a wide range of host including all bird species,mammals, dan human. Today some scientists reported that the cases of AI in mammals, including humansare increasing. This condition suggests that the AI virus circulated in the field may have some mutationsin the amino acid determinants responsible receptor binding site (RBS. A research was therefore designedto investigate the molecular level of HA gen fragment responsible for receptor binding site of AIV isolatedfrom various poultry since 2003 to 2008. Molecular characterization was based on the amplification ofreceptor binding site of HA gene by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. All RTPCRof HA gene positive products were sequenced to determine the nucleotide composition at the targetedfragment. Sequences yielded were analyzed by program Mega 4.0 versions, including multiple alignment,deductive amino acid prediction, and establishment of phylogenetic tree. The results show that all AIVisolates could be determined of some conserved amino acids residues responsible for RBS which indicatethe binding preference of avian like receptor, sialic acid ? 2, 3 galactose except isolate A/Layer/Jabar/MHW-RBS-02/2008 which could be found a deletion of amino acid at position of 129 dan mutation of 151isoleucine into threonine. Phylogenetic study showed that clustering of AIV did not base on species of birdor geographic origin of AI viruses which were studied.

  13. A novel sugar analog enhances sialic acid production and biotherapeutic sialylation in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bojiao; Wang, Qiong; Chung, Cheng-Yu; Bhattacharya, Rahul; Ren, Xiaozhi; Tang, Juechun; Yarema, Kevin J; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    A desirable feature of many therapeutic glycoprotein production processes is to maximize the final sialic acid content. In this study, the effect of applying a novel chemical analog of the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) on the sialic acid content of cellular proteins and a model recombinant glycoprotein, erythropoietin (EPO), was investigated in CHO-K1 cells. By introducing the 1,3,4-O-Bu 3 ManNAc analog at 200-300 µM into cell culture media, the intracellular sialic acid content of EPO-expressing cells increased ∼8-fold over untreated controls while the level of cellular sialylated glycoconjugates increased significantly as well. For example, addition of 200-300 µM 1,3,4-O-Bu 3 ManNAc resulted in >40% increase in final sialic acid content of recombinant EPO, while natural ManNAc at ∼100 times higher concentration of 20 mM produced a less profound change in EPO sialylation. Collectively, these results indicate that butyrate-derivatization of ManNAc improves the capacity of cells to incorporate exogenous ManNAc into the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway and thereby increase sialylation of recombinant EPO and other glycoproteins. This study establishes 1,3,4-O-Bu 3 ManNAc as a novel chemical supplement to improve glycoprotein quality and sialylation levels at concentrations orders of magnitude lower than alternative approaches. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1899-1902. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Discovery and characterization of de novo sialic acid biosynthesis in the phylum Fusobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda L; Robinson, Lloyd S; Agarwal, Kavita; Lewis, Warren G

    2016-01-01

    Sialic acids are nine-carbon backbone carbohydrates found in prominent outermost positions of glycosylated molecules in mammals. Mimicry of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, Neu5Ac) enables some pathogenic bacteria to evade host defenses. Fusobacterium nucleatum is a ubiquitous oral bacterium also linked with invasive infections throughout the body. We employed multidisciplinary approaches to test predictions that F. nucleatum engages in de novo synthesis of sialic acids. Here we show that F. nucleatum sbsp. polymorphum ATCC10953 NeuB (putative Neu5Ac synthase) restores Neu5Ac synthesis to an Escherichia coli neuB mutant. Moreover, purified F. nucleatum NeuB participated in synthesis of Neu5Ac from N-acetylmannosamine and phosphoenolpyruvate in vitro. Further studies support the interpretation that F. nucleatum ATCC10953 NeuA encodes a functional CMP-sialic acid synthetase and suggest that it may also contain a C-terminal sialic acid O-acetylesterase. We also performed BLAST queries of F. nucleatum genomes, revealing that only 4/31 strains encode a complete pathway for de novo Neu5Ac synthesis. Biochemical studies including mass spectrometry were consistent with the bioinformatic predictions, showing that F. nucleatum ATCC10953 synthesizes high levels of Neu5Ac, whereas ATCC23726 and ATCC25586 do not express detectable levels above background. While there are a number of examples of sialic acid mimicry in other phyla, these experiments provide the first biochemical and genetic evidence that a member of the phylum Fusobacterium can engage in de novo Neu5Ac synthesis. PMID:27613803

  15. Detection of Sialic Acid-Utilising Bacteria in a Caecal Community Batch Culture Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health.

  16. Porcine milk oligosaccharides and sialic acid concentrations vary throughout lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk oligosaccharides (OS are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. Objectives: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in characterizing and quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation. Methods: Up to 250 ml of milk was collected from 7 sows at each of three time points: d 0 (colostrum, d 7-9 (mature, and d 17-19 (weaning. Colostrum was collected within 6 h of farrowing and three-day intervals were used for mature and weaning milk to ensure representative sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for OS profiles by Nano LC Chip QTOF MS, OS concentrations via HPAEC-PAD, and SA (total and free was assessed by enzymatic reaction fluorescence detection.Results: Sixty unique OS were identified in porcine milk. Neutral OS were the most abundant at each lactation stage (69-81%, followed by acidic-sialylated OS (16-29% and neutral-fucosylated OS (2-4%. As lactation progressed, acidic OS decreased (P < 0.05, whereas neutral-fucosylated and neutral OS increased (P < 0.05 throughout lactation. Six OS were present in all samples analyzed across lactation (LDFH-I, 2´-FL, LNFP-I, LNnH, 3-Hex, 3´-SL, while LDFT was present only in colostrum samples. Analysis of individual OS concentrations indicated differences (P < 0.05 between days 0 and 7. Conversely, between days 7 and 18, OS concentrations remained stable with only LNnH and LNDFH-I decreasing (P < 0.05 over this period. Analysis of free SA indicated a decrease (P < 0.05 as lactation progressed, while bound and total SA increased (P < 0.05 across lactation. Conclusions: The present data suggest that while porcine milk OS profiles and

  17. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups eac...

  18. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1) Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahwan, Katarina; Hesse, Martina; Mork, Ann-Kathrin; Herrler, Georg; Winter, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins. PMID:23896748

  19. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1 Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins.

  20. Gut content analysis of Lake Michigan waterbirds in years with avian botulism type E mortality, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essian, David A.; Chipault, Jennifer G.; Lafrancois, Brenda M.; Leonard, Jill B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Waterbird die-offs caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) have occurred sporadically in the Great Lakes since the late 1960s, with a recent pulse starting in the late 1990s. In recent die-offs, round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) have been implicated as vectors for the transfer of BoNT/E to fish-eating birds due to the round goby invasion history and their importance as prey. Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena spp.) are also potentially involved in BoNT/E transmission to birds and round gobies. We examined gut contents of waterbirds collected in Lake Michigan during die-offs in 2010–2012, and the gut contents of culled, presumably BoNT/E-free double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Round gobies were found in 86% of the BoNT/E-positive individuals, 84% of the BoNT/E-negative birds, and 94% of the BoNT/E-free cormorants examined. Double-crested cormorants, ring-billed gulls (Larus delewarensis), and common loons (Gavia immer) consumed larger-sized round gobies than horned and red-necked grebes (Podiceps auritus and Podiceps grisegena), white-winged scoters (Melanitta deglandi), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hymealis). Other common prey included dreissenid mussels, terrestrial insects, and alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus). Our data emphasize the importance of round gobies and mussels in diets of Lake Michigan waterbirds and suggest they may play a role in the transfer of BoNT/E to waterbirds; however, round gobies and mussels were found in BoNT/E-positive, -negative, and -free individuals, suggesting that other factors, such as alternative trophic pathways for toxin transfer, bird migratory timing and feeding locations, prey behavior, and individual physiological differences across birds may affect the likelihood that a bird will succumb to BoNT/E intoxication.

  1. An Outbreak Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Hpai) In A Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Outbreak Of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Hpai) In A Mixed Farm By The Introduction Of A Water Fowl. ... C A Meseko, A T Oladokun, B Shehu. Abstract. Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a range of Influenza type A viruses of high and low pathogenicity (Fauci, 2005). H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) ...

  2. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  3. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löfling, Jonas [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R. [Baker Institute for Animal Health, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Varki, Ajit, E-mail: a1varki@ucsd.edu [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH.

  4. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Löfling, Jonas; Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R.; Varki, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH

  5. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 controls type I IFN induction in chicken macrophage HD-11 cells: a polygenic trait that involves NS1 and the polymerase complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A viruses are well characterized to antagonize type I IFN induction in infected mammalian cells. However, limited information is available for avian cells. It was hypothesised that avian influenza viruses (AIV) with distinct virulence may interact differently with the avian innate immune system. Therefore, the type I IFN responses induced by highly virulent and low virulent H5N1 AIV and reassortants thereof were analysed in chicken cells. Results The highly pathogenic (HP) AIV A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1) (Yama) did not induce type I IFN in infected chicken HD-11 macrophage-like cells. This contrasted with an NS1 mutant Yama virus (Yama-NS1A144V) and with the attenuated H5N1 AIV A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/04 (Vac) carrying the haemagglutinin (HA) of the Yama virus (Vac-Yama/HA), that both induced type I IFN in these cells. The substitution of the NS segment from Yama with that from Vac in the Yama backbone resulted in induction of type I IFN secretion in HD-11 cells. However, vice versa, the Yama NS segment did not prevent type I IFN induction by the Vac-Yama/HA virus. This was different with the PB1/PB2/PA segment reassortant Yama and Vac-Yama/HA viruses. Whereas the Yama virus with the Vac PB1/PB2/PA segments induced type I IFN in HD-11 cells, the Vac-Yama/HA virus with the Yama PB1/PB2/PA segments did not. As reported for mammalian cells, the expression of H5N1 PB2 inhibited the activation of the IFN-β promoter in chicken DF-1 fibroblast cells. Importantly, the Yama PB2 was more potent at inhibiting the IFN-β promoter than the Vac PB2. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the NS1 protein and the polymerase complex of the HPAIV Yama act in concert to antagonize chicken type I IFN secretion in HD-11 cells. PB2 alone can also exert a partial inhibitory effect on type I IFN induction. In conclusion, the control of type I IFN induction by H5N1 HPAIV represents a complex phenotype that involves a particular viral gene constellation

  6. The effect of CoQ10 and vitamin E on serum total sialic acid, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... Seyrek K, Seyrek-Intas K, Keskin A, Kargın-Kiral F, Musal B, Toplu N. (2005). Biochemical and histochemical studies on the occurrence of sialic acids in mammary tumours of bitches. Res. Med. Vet-Toulouse,. 156: 258-263. Simpson C, Herr H, Courville KA (2004). Concurrent therapies that protect against ...

  7. Association between salivary sialic acid and periodontal health status among smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwan Ibrahim Jawzali

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Salivary free sialic acid may be used as a diagnostic oxidative stress biomarker for periodontal diseases among young current smokers. Cumulative destructive effect of long duration of smoking on the periodontum can be controlled by smoking cessation, good oral hygiene and diet habit in early old ages.

  8. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-xu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present study established rat models of neuropathic pain via chronic constriction injury. Results of the cell electrophoresis test revealed that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells was faster than that of non-injured (control cells. We then treated cells with divalent cations of Ca 2+ and organic compounds with positive charges, polylysine to counteract the negatively charged sialic acids, or neuraminidase to specifically remove sialic acids from the membrane surface of injured neurons. All three treatments significantly reduced the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells. These findings suggest that enhanced sialic acids on injured neurons may accelerate the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons.

  9. Structure of the LPS O-chain from Fusobacterium nucleatum strain 10953, containing sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Evgeny; St Michael, Frank; Homma, Kiyonobu; Sharma, Ashu; Cox, Andrew D

    2017-02-22

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic bacterium found in the human mouth where it causes periodontitis. Recently, it has been gaining attention as a potential causative agent for colorectal cancer and is strongly linked with pregnancy complications including pre-term and still births. Little is known about virulence factors of this organism and thus we have initiated studies to examine the bacterial surface glycochemistry. Consistent with a recent paper suggesting that F. nucleatum strain 10593 can synthesize sialic acid, a staining technique identified sialic acid on the bacterial surface. We isolated lipopolysaccharide from this F. nucleatum strain and performed structural analysis on the O-antigen. Our studies identified a trisaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen with the following structure: -[→4)-α-Neup5Ac-(2 → 4)-β-d-Galp-(1 → 3)-α-d-FucpNAc4NAc-(1-]- where Ac indicates 4-N-acetylation of ∼30% FucNAc4N residues. The presence of sialic acid as a constituent of the O-antigen is consistent with recent data identifying de novo sialic acid synthesis in this strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal inactivation of avian viral and bacterial pathogens in an effluent treatment system within a biosafety level 2 and 3 enhanced facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus, avian paramyxovirus Type 1 (APMV-1 or Newcastle disease virus [NDV]), reovirus, rotavirus, turkey astrovirus (TAstV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV-1), avian parvovirus (ChPV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are significant biosafety...

  11. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups eac...... of the proventriculus and gizzard, enteritis with stasis and multi-focal necrotic hepatitis....

  12. X-ray structure of the hemagglutinin of a potential H3 avian progenitor of the 1968 Hong Kong pandemic influenza virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Ya; Stevens, David J.; Skehel, John J.; Wiley, Don C.

    2003-01-01

    We have determined the structure of the HA of an avian influenza virus, A/duck/Ukraine/63, a member of the same antigenic subtype, H3, as the virus that caused the 1968 Hong Kong influenza pandemic, and a possible progenitor of the pandemic virus. We find that structurally significant differences between the avian and the human HAs are restricted to the receptor-binding site particularly the substitutions Q226L and G228S that cause the site to open and residues within it to rearrange, including the conserved residues Y98, W153, and H183. We have also analyzed complexes formed by the HA with sialopentasaccharides in which the terminal sialic acid is in either α2,3- or α2,6-linkage to galactose. Comparing the structures of complexes in which an α2,3-linked receptor analog is bound to the H3 avian HA or to an H5 avian HA leads to the suggestion that all avian influenza HAs bind to their preferred α2,3-linked receptors similarly, with the analog in a trans conformation about the glycosidic linkage. We find that α2,6-linked analogs are bound by both human and avian HAs in a cis conformation, and that the incompatibility of an α2,6-linked receptor with the α2,3-linkage-specific H3 avian HA-binding site is partially resolved by a small change in the position and orientation of the sialic acid. We discuss our results in relation to the mechanism of transfer of influenza viruses between species

  13. Structural differences between the avian and human H7N9 hemagglutinin proteins are attributable to modifications in salt bridge formation: a computational study with implications in viral evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marni E Cueno

    Full Text Available Influenza A hemagglutinin (HA is a homotrimeric glycoprotein composed of a fibrous globular stem supporting a globular head containing three sialic acid binding sites responsible for infection. The H7N9 strain has consistently infected an avian host, however, the novel 2013 strain is now capable of infecting a human host which would imply that the HA in both strains structurally differ. A better understanding of the structural differences between the avian and human H7N9 strains may shed light into viral evolution and transmissibility. In this study, we elucidated the structural differences between the avian and human H7N9 strains. Throughout the study, we generated HA homology models, verified the quality of each model, superimposed HA homology models to determine structural differences, and, likewise, elucidated the probable cause for these structural differences. We detected two different types of structural differences between the novel H7N9 human and representative avian strains, wherein, one type (Pattern-1 showed three non-overlapping regions while the other type (Pattern-2 showed only one non-overlapping region. In addition, we found that superimposed HA homology models exhibiting Pattern-1 contain three non-overlapping regions designated as: Region-1 (S1571-A1601; Region-3 (R2621-S2651; and Region-4 (S2701-D2811, whereas, superimposed HA homology models showing Pattern-2 only contain one non-overlapping region designated as Region-2 (S1371-S1451. We attributed the two patterns we observed to either the presence of salt bridges involving the E1141 residue or absence of the R1411:D771 salt bridge. Interestingly, comparison between the human H7N7 and H7N9 HA homology models showed high structural similarity. We propose that the putative absence of the R1411:D771 salt bridge coupled with the putative presence of the E1141:R2621 and E1141:K2641 salt bridges found in the 2013 H7N9 HA homology model is associated to human-type receptor binding

  14. Residues 28 to 39 of the Extracellular Loop 1 of Chicken Na+/H+ Exchanger Type I Mediate Cell Binding and Entry of Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaolu; Zhang, Yao; Yu, Mengmeng; Ren, Chaoqi; Gao, Yanni; Yun, Bingling; Liu, Yongzhen; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Liu, Changjun; Cui, Hongyu; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Pan, Qing; Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2018-01-01

    Chicken Na + /H + exchanger type I (chNHE1), a multispan transmembrane protein, is a cellular receptor of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). To identify the functional determinants of chNHE1 responsible for the ALV-J receptor activity, a series of chimeric receptors was created by exchanging the extracellular loops (ECL) of human NHE1 (huNHE1) and chNHE1 and by ECL replacement with a hemagglutinin (HA) tag. These chimeric receptors then were used in binding and entry assays to map the minimal ALV-J gp85-binding domain of chNHE1. We show that ECL1 of chNHE1 (chECL1) is the critical functional ECL that interacts directly with ALV-J gp85; ECL3 is also involved in ALV-J gp85 binding. Amino acid residues 28 to 39 of the N-terminal membrane-proximal region of chECL1 constitute the minimal domain required for chNHE1 binding of ALV-J gp85. These residues are sufficient to mediate viral entry into ALV-J nonpermissive cells. Point mutation analysis revealed that A30, V33, W38, and E39 of chECL1 are the key residues mediating the binding between chNHE1 and ALV-J gp85. Further, the replacement of residues 28 to 39 of huNHE1 with the corresponding chNHE1 residues converted the nonfunctional ALV-J receptor huNHE1 to a functional one. Importantly, soluble chECL1 and huECL1 harboring chNHE1 residues 28 to 39 both could effectively block ALV-J infection. Collectively, our findings indicate that residues 28 to 39 of chNHE1 constitute a domain that is critical for receptor function and mediate ALV-J entry. IMPORTANCE chNHE1 is a cellular receptor of ALV-J, a retrovirus that causes infections in chickens and serious economic losses in the poultry industry. Until now, the domains determining the chNHE1 receptor function remained unknown. We demonstrate that chECL1 is critical for receptor function, with residues 28 to 39 constituting the minimal functional domain responsible for chNHE1 binding of ALV-J gp85 and efficiently mediating ALV-J cell entry. These residues are

  15. Development of an allele-specific PCR assay for simultaneous sero-typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli predominant O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Meng, Qingmei; Dai, Jianjun; Han, Xiangan; Han, Yue; Ding, Chan; Liu, Haiwen; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-01-01

    Systemic infections by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide. E. coli strains belonging to serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 are preferentially associated with avian colibacillosis. The rfb gene cluster controlling O antigen synthesis is usually various among different E. coli serotypes. In present study, the rfb gene clusters of E. coli serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 were characterized and compared. Based on the serotype-specific genes in rfb gene cluster, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed. This PCR assay was highly specific and reliable for sero-typing of APEC O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 10 pg DNA or 10 colony forming units (CFUs) bacteria for serotypes O2 and O18 strains, and 500 pg DNA or 1,000 CFUs bacteria for serotypes O1 and O78 strains. Using this PCR system, APEC isolates and the infected tissue samples were categorized successfully. Furthermore, it was able to differentiate the serotypes for the samples with multi-agglutination in the traditional serum agglutination assay. Therefore, the allele-specific PCR is more simple, rapid and accurate assay for APEC diagnosis, epidemiologic study and vaccine development.

  16. Development of an allele-specific PCR assay for simultaneous sero-typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli predominant O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Wang

    Full Text Available Systemic infections by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC are economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide. E. coli strains belonging to serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 are preferentially associated with avian colibacillosis. The rfb gene cluster controlling O antigen synthesis is usually various among different E. coli serotypes. In present study, the rfb gene clusters of E. coli serotypes O1, O2, O18 and O78 were characterized and compared. Based on the serotype-specific genes in rfb gene cluster, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was developed. This PCR assay was highly specific and reliable for sero-typing of APEC O1, O2, O18 and O78 strains. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 10 pg DNA or 10 colony forming units (CFUs bacteria for serotypes O2 and O18 strains, and 500 pg DNA or 1,000 CFUs bacteria for serotypes O1 and O78 strains. Using this PCR system, APEC isolates and the infected tissue samples were categorized successfully. Furthermore, it was able to differentiate the serotypes for the samples with multi-agglutination in the traditional serum agglutination assay. Therefore, the allele-specific PCR is more simple, rapid and accurate assay for APEC diagnosis, epidemiologic study and vaccine development.

  17. Osmotic fragility, sialic acid content and survival of circulating erythrocytes in anemic tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.R.; Roy Chowdhury, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of tumor growth on the survival of circulating erythrocytes was studied in mice bearing a wide spectrum of experimental tumors. RBC half-life (t 1/2 ) measured by the 51 Cr-labelling technique decreased significantly (p 51 Cr-labelled RBCs between normal and tumor-bearing animals revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for shortened RBC survival. As far as the cellular abnormalities are concerned, the decrease in RBC t 1/2 was not attributable to increased osmotic fragility as the cells were observed to be osmotically more resistant. Similarly, membrane sialic acid content was markedly elevated in the tumor hosts, thus the shortened erythrocyte life-span cannot be attributed to decrease in sialic acid content of the erythrocyte membrane. (author). 6 tabs., 16 refs

  18. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries. Other avian influenza A( ... outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries. Other avian influenza A( ...

  19. Relationship between inflammatory markers, metabolic and anthropometric variables in the Caribbean type 2 diabetic patients with and without microvascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lesley

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum sialic acid and C reactive protein are the markers for inflammation. The main objective of this study was to determine the sialic acid level in Caribbean type 2 diabetic patients with and without microvascular complications and its relationship with metabolic and anthropometric variables. Research design and methods The Caribbean subjects aged 15–60 years with type 2 diabetes were recruited for the study. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from 162 subjects of which 44 were healthy individuals, 44 were of type 2 diabetes, 44 were of type 2 diabetes with nephropathy and 30 were of diabetes with retinopathy. Simultaneously urine samples were also collected from each of the subjects. All the blood samples were processed for lipid profile, glucose, HbA1C, C-reactive protein and sialic acid. The urine samples were analysed for sialic acid and microalbumin. Results Serum sialic acid concentrations were significantly higher among diabetic subjects (66.0 ± 11.7 mg % as compared to controls (55.2 ± 8.3 mg %. There was a significantly increasing trend of serum sialic acid with severity of nephropathy (71.6 ± 23.6 mg % and degree of urinary albumin excretion (794.3 ± 805.9. The diabetic retinopathy patients also demonstrated significantly higher values of serum sialic acid (77.9 ± 29.0 and urine microalbumin (351.1 ± 559.9. Elevated serum sialic acid microalbumin concentrations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, increased waist to hip ratios. (P Conclusion The increased serum sialic acid and microalbumin were strongly related to the presence of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and waist to hip ratios in Caribbean type-2 diabetic patients. The serum sialic acid may be used as an inflammatory marker and possible indicator of microvascular complications in type-2 diabetic patients.

  20. Origin and evolution of avian microchromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, D W

    2002-01-01

    The origin of avian microchromosomes has long been the subject of much speculation and debate. Microchromosomes are a universal characteristic of all avian species and many reptilian karyotypes. The typical avian karyotype contains about 40 pairs of chromosomes and usually 30 pairs of small to tiny microchromosomes. This characteristic karyotype probably evolved 100-250 million years ago. Once the microchromosomes were thought to be a non-essential component of the avian genome. Recent work has shown that even though these chromosomes represent only 25% of the genome; they encode 50% of the genes. Contrary to popular belief, microchromosomes are present in a wide range of vertebrate classes, spanning 400-450 million years of evolutionary history. In this paper, comparative gene mapping between the genomes of chicken, human, mouse and zebrafish, has been used to investigate the origin and evolution of avian microchromosomes during this period. This analysis reveals evidence for four ancient syntenies conserved in fish, birds and mammals for over 400 million years. More than half, if not all, microchromosomes may represent ancestral syntenies and at least ten avian microchromosomes are the product of chromosome fission. Birds have one of the smallest genomes of any terrestrial vertebrate. This is likely to be the product of an evolutionary process that minimizes the DNA content (mostly through the number of repeats) and maximizes the recombination rate of microchromosomes. Through this process the properties (GC content, DNA and repeat content, gene density and recombination rate) of microchromosomes and macrochromosomes have diverged to create distinct chromosome types. An ancestral genome for birds likely had a small genome, low in repeats and a karyotype with microchromosomes. A "Fission-Fusion Model" of microchromosome evolution based on chromosome rearrangement and minimization of repeat content is discussed. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Determination of sialic acids in the nervous system of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.: Effects of aging and development

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    Soya Seçkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acids mainly occur as components on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. They play a major role in the chemical and biological diversity of glycoconjugates. Although sialic acids exhibit great structural variability in vertebrates, glycoconjugates with sialic acids have also been determined in small amounts in invertebrates. It has been suggested that sialic acids play important roles in the development and function of the nervous system. Despite Bombyx mori being a model organism for the investigation of many physiological processes, sialic acid changes in its nervous system have not been examined during development and aging. Therefore, in this study we aimed to determine sialic acid changes in the nervous system of Bombyx mori during development and aging processes. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS and lectin immunohistochemistry were carried out in order to find variations among different developmental stages. Developmental stages were selected as 3rd instar (the youngest and 5th larval instar (young, motionless prepupa (the oldest and 13-day-old pupa (adult development. At all stages, only Neu5Ac was present, however, it dramatically decreased during the developmental and aging stages. On the other hand, an increase was observed in the amount of Neu5Ac during the pupal stage. In immunohistochemistry experiments with Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA lectins, the obtained staining was consistent with the obtained LC-MS results. These findings indicate that sialic acids are abundant at the younger stages but that they decrease in the insect nervous system during development and aging, similarly as in mammals.

  2. The infection of chicken tracheal epithelial cells with a H6N1 avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-I Shen

    Full Text Available Sialic acids (SAs linked to galactose (Gal in α2,3- and α2,6-configurations are the receptors for avian and human influenza viruses, respectively. We demonstrate that chicken tracheal ciliated cells express α2,3-linked SA, while goblet cells mainly express α2,6-linked SA. In addition, the plant lectin MAL-II, but not MAA/MAL-I, is bound to the surface of goblet cells, suggesting that SA2,3-linked oligosaccharides with Galβ1-3GalNAc subterminal residues are specifically present on the goblet cells. Moreover, both α2,3- and α2,6-linked SAs are detected on single tracheal basal cells. At a low multiplicity of infection (MOI avian influenza virus H6N1 is exclusively detected in the ciliated cells, suggesting that the ciliated cell is the major target cell of the H6N1 virus. At a MOI of 1, ciliated, goblet and basal cells are all permissive to the AIV infection. This result clearly elucidates the receptor distribution for the avian influenza virus among chicken tracheal epithelial cells and illustrates a primary cell model for evaluating the cell tropisms of respiratory viruses in poultry.

  3. Uptake and incorporation of sialic acid by the tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Štěrba, J.; Dupejová, Jarmila; Simonová, Z.; Nebesářová, Jana; Novotný, M. V.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 9 (2012), s. 1277-1287 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960906; GA ČR GA206/09/1782; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Ixodes ricinus * Sialic acid * Basement membrane * Mass spectrometry * Electron microscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2012

  4. Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Taiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the presence of sialic acid α-2,3 and α-2,6 linked glycan receptors in seven avian species. The respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, golden pheasant, ostrich, and mallard were tested by means of lectin histochemistry, using the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin, which show affinity for α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors, respectively. Additionally, the pattern of virus attachment (PVA was evaluated with virus histochemistry, using an avian-origin H4N5 virus and a human-origin seasonal H1N1 virus. There was a great variation of receptor distribution among the tissues and avian species studied. Both α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors were present in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, and golden pheasant. In ostriches, the expression of the receptor was basically restricted to α-2,3 in both the respiratory and intestinal tracts and in mallards the α-2,6 receptors were absent from the intestinal tract. The results obtained with the lectin histochemistry were, in general, in agreement with the PVA. The differential expression and distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors among various avian species might reflect a potentially decisive factor in the emergence of new viral strains.

  5. Infection with human H1N1 influenza virus affects the expression of sialic acids of metaplastic mucous cells in the ferret airways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Glycans terminating in sialic acids serve as receptors for influenza viruses. In this study ferrets were infected with influenza virus A/New Caledonia/20/99, and the in situ localization of sialic acids linked a2-3 and a2-6 in the airways was investigated in infected and non-infected animals by u...

  6. Precise gene editing of chicken Na+/H+ exchange type 1 (chNHE1) confers resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Kyung Youn; Jung, Kyung Min; Park, Kyung Je; Lee, Ko On; Suh, Jeong-Yong; Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal; Han, Jae Yong

    2017-12-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), first isolated in the late 1980s, has caused economic losses to the poultry industry in many countries. As all chicken lines studied to date are susceptible to ALV infection, there is enormous interest in developing resistant chicken lines. The ALV-J receptor, chicken Na + /H + exchange 1 (chNHE1) and the critical amino acid sequences involved in viral attachment and entry have already been characterized. However, there are no reported attempts to induce resistance to the virus by targeted genome modification of the receptor sequences. In an attempt to induce resistance to ALV-J infection, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (CRISPR/Cas9)-based genome editing approaches to modify critical residues of the chNHE1 receptor in chicken cells. The susceptibility of the modified cell lines to ALV-J infection was examined using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing marker viruses. We showed that modifying the chNHE1 receptor by artificially generating a premature stop codon induced absolute resistance to viral infection, with mutations of the tryptophan residue at position 38 (Trp38) being very critical. Single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN)-mediated targeted recombination of the Trp38 region revealed that deletions involving the Trp38 residue were most effective in conferring resistance to ALV-J. Moreover, protein structure analysis of the chNHE1 receptor sequence suggested that its intrinsically disordered region undergoes local conformational changes through genetic alteration. Collectively, these results demonstrate that targeted mutations on chNHE1 alter the susceptibility to ALV-J and the technique is expected to contribute to develop disease-resistant chicken lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  8. Physiological significance of Fuc and Sialic acid containing glycans in the body

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    Muhammad Ramzan Manwar Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex biomolecular machinery carrying diverse glycan chains are involved in a wide range of physiological activities including blood group determination, cancer recognition protein stabilization and sperm–egg interaction. Diversity of glycan chains, linked to lipids and proteins is due to isomeric and conformational modifications of various sugar residues, giving rise to unique carbohydrate structures with a wide range of anomeric linkages. This unique and significant structural diversity of naturally occurring oligosaccharide structures make them the best recognition markers for countless physiological activities. This is a challenging task to explore the relationship between biological processes and stereochemical behavior of sugar residues. Current review article is related with the physiological significance of glycans carrying fucose and/or sialic residues in complex biomolecular assemblies. Both the sugar units have a diverse range of anomery and linkages with the penultimate sugars. The existing literature and databases did not contain comprehensive information regarding structure–function relationship of glycans. Therefore, the current study is scheduled to debate on the structure–function relationship of glycans carrying Fuc and sialic acid in their backbone structures.

  9. Sialic Acid-Responsive Polymeric Interface Material: From Molecular Recognition to Macroscopic Property Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuting; Jiang, Ge; Li, Minmin; Qing, Guangyan; Li, Xiuling; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems that utilize multiple weak non-covalent interactions and hierarchical assemblies to achieve various bio-functions bring much inspiration for the design of artificial biomaterials. However, it remains a big challenge to correlate underlying biomolecule interactions with macroscopic level of materials, for example, recognizing such weak interaction, further transforming it into regulating material’s macroscopic property and contributing to some new bio-applications. Here we designed a novel smart polymer based on polyacrylamide (PAM) grafted with lactose units (PAM-g-lactose0.11), and reported carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI)-promoted macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed investigations indicated that the binding of sialic acid molecules with the grafted lactose units via the CCIs induced conformational transformation of the polymer chains, further resulted in remarkable and reversible switching in surface topography, wettability and stiffness. With these excellent recognition and response capacities towards sialic acid, the PAM-g-lactose0.11 further facilitated good selectivity, strong anti-interference and high adsorption capacity in the capture of sialylated glycopeptides (important biomarkers for cancers). This work provides some enlightenment for the development of biointerface materials with tunable property, as well as high-performance glycopeptide enrichment materials.

  10. Complementing the sugar code: role of GAGs and sialic acid in complement regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eLangford-Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar molecules play a vital role on both microbial and mammalian cells, where they are involved in cellular communication, govern microbial virulence and modulate host immunity and inflammatory responses. The complement cascade, as part of a host’s innate immune system, is a potent weapon against invading bacteria but has to be tightly regulated to prevent inappropriate attack and damage to host tissues. A number of complement regulators, such as factor H and properdin, interact with sugar molecules, such as glycosaminoglycans and sialic acid, on host and pathogen membranes and direct the appropriate complement response by either promoting the binding of complement activators or inhibitors. The binding of these complement regulators to sugar molecules can vary from location to location, due to their different specificities and because distinct structural and functional subpopulations of sugars are found in different human organs, such as the brain, kidney and eye. This review will cover recent studies that have provided important new insights into the role of glycosaminoglycans and sialic acid in complement regulation and how sugar recognition may be compromised in disease

  11. Oligosaccharide composition of the neurotoxin responsive Na+ channel and the requirement of sialic acid for activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, M.; Shaw, G.W.; Glick, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The neurotoxin responsive Na + channel was purified to homogeneity in an 18% yield from a clonal cell line of mouse neuroblastoma, N-18, metabolically labeled with L-[ 3 H]fucose. The Na + channel, a glycoprotein, M/sub r/=200,000 (gradient 7-14% PAGE) was digested with Pronase and the glycopeptides were characterized by serial lectin affinity chromatography. greater than 90% of the oligosaccharides contained sialic acid and 18% were biantennary, 39% were triantennary and 30% tetraantennary. The glycoprotein was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles and 86 Rb flux was stimulated (65%) by 200 μM veratridine and 1.2 μg of scorpion venom and was inhibited (95%) by 5 μM tetrodotoxin. The requirement of sialic acid for Na + channel activity was demonstrated since neuraminidase (0.01 U) treatment of the reconstituted glycoprotein eliminated the response of 86 Rb flux to the stimulating neurotoxins. In other experiments, treatment of N-18 cells with 10 μM swainsonine, an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing, altered the oligosaccharide composition of the Na + channel. When the abnormally glycosylated Na + channel was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles, 86 Rb flux in response to neurotoxins was impaired. Thus, glycosylation of the polypeptide with oligosaccharides of specific composition and structure is essential for expression of the biological activity of the neurotoxin responsive Na + channel

  12. Proximity labeling of cis-ligands of CD22/Siglec-2 reveals stepwise α2,6 sialic acid-dependent and -independent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzian Deh Sheikh, Amin; Akatsu, Chizuru; Imamura, Akihiro; Abdu-Allah, Hajjaj H M; Takematsu, Hiromu; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Tsubata, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Lectins expressed on the cell surface are often bound and regulated by the membrane molecules containing the glycan ligands on the same cell (cis-ligands). However, molecular nature and function of cis-ligands are generally poorly understood partly because of weak interaction between lectins and glycan ligands. Cis-ligands are most extensively studied in CD22 (also known as Siglec-2), an inhibitory B lymphocyte receptor specifically recognizing α2,6 sialic acids. CD22, CD45 and IgM are suggested to be ligands of CD22. Here we labeled molecules in the proximity of CD22 in situ on B cell surface using biotin-tyramide. Molecules including CD22, CD45 and IgM were labeled in wild-type but not ST6GalI -/- B cells that lack α2,6 sialic acids, indicating that these molecules associate with CD22 by lectin-glycan interaction, and are therefore cis-ligands. In ST6GalI -/- B cells, these cis-ligands are located in a slightly more distance from CD22. Thus, the lectin-glycan interaction recruits cis-ligands already located in the relative proximity of CD22 through non-lectin-glycan interaction to the close proximity. Moreover, cis-ligands are labeled in Cmah -/- B cells that lack Neu5Gc preferred by mouse CD22 as efficiently as in wild-type B cells, indicating that very low affinity lectin-glycan interaction is sufficient for recruiting cis-ligands, and can be detected by proximity labeling. Thus, proximity labeling with tyramide appears to be a useful method to identify cis-ligands and to analyze their interaction with the lectins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  14. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Deborah M B; Ketterer, Margaret R; Coffin, Jeremy E; Reinders, Lorri M; Munson, Robert S; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F; Foster, Eric D; Gibson, Bradford W; Apicella, Michael A

    2016-01-04

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Plant lectin can target receptors containing sialic acid, exemplified by podoplanin, to inhibit transformed cell growth and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alberto Ochoa-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death of men and women worldwide. Tumor cell motility contributes to metastatic invasion that causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. Extracellular receptors modified by α2,3-sialic acids that promote this motility can serve as ideal chemotherapeutic targets. For example, the extracellular domain of the mucin receptor podoplanin (PDPN is highly O-glycosylated with α2,3-sialic acid linked to galactose. PDPN is activated by endogenous ligands to induce tumor cell motility and metastasis. Dietary lectins that target proteins containing α2,3-sialic acid inhibit tumor cell growth. However, anti-cancer lectins that have been examined thus far target receptors that have not been identified. We report here that a lectin from the seeds of Maackia amurensis (MASL with affinity for O-linked carbohydrate chains containing sialic acid targets PDPN to inhibit transformed cell growth and motility at nanomolar concentrations. Interestingly, the biological activity of this lectin survives gastrointestinal proteolysis and enters the cardiovascular system to inhibit melanoma cell growth, migration, and tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate how lectins may be used to help develop dietary agents that target specific receptors to combat malignant cell growth.

  16. Targeting aberrant sialylation in cancer cells using a fluorinated sialic acid analog impairs adhesion, migration, and in vivo tumor growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, C.; Boltje, T.J.; Wassink, M.; Graaf, A.M.A. de; Delft, F.L. van; Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Adema, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells decorate their surface with a dense layer of sialylated glycans by upregulating the expression of sialyltransferases and other glycogenes. Although sialic acids play a vital role in many biologic processes, hypersialylation in particular has been shown to contribute to cancer cell

  17. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  18. Sialic acid-binding lectin from bullfrog eggs inhibits human malignant mesothelioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Tatsuta

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer that results from exposure to asbestos. The therapeutic options for this type of cancer are limited; therefore, the development of novel therapeutic agents is urgently required. Sialic acid-binding lectin isolated from Rana catesbeiana oocytes (cSBL is a novel therapeutic candidate for cancer, which exhibits antitumor activity mediated through RNA degradation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of cSBL in vitro and in vivo. Xenograft-competent H2452 and MSTO human mesothelioma cell lines were treated with cSBL, and the pathway by which cSBL induces apoptosis was analyzed. In vivo studies were performed using nude mice inoculated with one of the two cell lines, and the effects of cSBL and pemetrexed were monitored simultaneously. Furthermore, the pharmacological interactions between the three agents (pemetrexed, cisplatin and cSBL were statistically assessed. It was demonstrated that cSBL treatments caused morphological and biochemical apoptotic changes in both cell lines. Caspase cascade analysis revealed that an intrinsic pathway mediated cSBL-induced apoptosis. The administration of cSBL significantly inhibited tumor growth in two xenograft models, without any adverse effects. Furthermore, the combination index and dose reduction index values indicated that the cSBL + pemetrexed combination showed the highest synergism, and thus potential for reducing dosage of each drug, compared with the other combinations, including the existing pemetrexed + cisplatin regimen. cSBL exerted prominent antitumor effects on malignant mesothelioma cells in vitro and in vivo, and showed favorable effects when combined with pemetrexed. These results suggest that cSBL has potential as a novel drug for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma.

  19. Development of magnetic resonance imaging based detection methods for beta amyloids via sialic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Hovig

    The development of a non-invasive method for the detection of Alzheimer's disease is of high current interest, which can be critical in early diagnosis and in guiding preventive treatment of the disease. The aggregates of beta amyloids are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Carbohydrates such as sialic acid terminated gangliosides have been shown to play significant roles in initiation of amyloid aggregation. Herein, we report a biomimetic approach using sialic acid coated iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles for in vitro detection in addition to the assessment of the in vivo mouse-BBB (Blood brain barrier) crossing of the BSA (bovine serum albumin)-modified ones. The sialic acid functionalized dextran nanoparticles were shown to bind with beta amyloids through several techniques including ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), gel electrophoresis and tyrosine fluorescence assay. The superparamagnetic nature of the nanoparticles allowed easy detection of the beta amyloids in mouse brains in both in vitro and ex vivo model by magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the sialic acid nanoparticles greatly reduced beta amyloid induced cytotoxicity to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, highlighting the potential of the glyconanoparticles for detection and imaging of beta amyloids. Sialic acid functionalized BSA (bovine serum albumin) nanoparticles also showed significant binding to beta amyloids, through ELISA and ex vivo mouse brain MRI experiments. Alternatively, the BBB crossing was demonstrated by several techniques such as confocal microscopy, endocytosis, exocytosis assays and were affirmed by nanoparticles transcytosis assays through bEnd.3 endothelial cells. Finally, the BBB crossing was confirmed by analyzing the MRI signal of nanoparticle-injected CD-1 mice.

  20. A novel approach to decrease sialic acid expression in cells by a C-3-modified N-acetylmannosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wratil, Paul R; Rigol, Stephan; Solecka, Barbara; Kohla, Guido; Kannicht, Christoph; Reutter, Werner; Giannis, Athanassios; Nguyen, Long D

    2014-11-14

    Due to its position at the outermost of glycans, sialic acid is involved in a myriad of physiological and pathophysiological cell functions such as host-pathogen interactions, immune regulation, and tumor evasion. Inhibitors of cell surface sialylation could be a useful tool in cancer, immune, antibiotic, or antiviral therapy. In this work, four different C-3 modified N-acetylmannosamine analogs were tested as potential inhibitors of cell surface sialylation. Peracetylated 2-acetylamino-2-deoxy-3-O-methyl-D-mannose decreases cell surface sialylation in Jurkat cells in a dose-dependent manner up to 80%, quantified by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked lectin assays. High-performance liquid chromatography experiments revealed that not only the concentration of membrane bound but also of cytosolic sialic acid is reduced in treated cells. We have strong evidence that the observed reduction of sialic acid expression in cells is caused by the inhibition of the bifunctional enzyme UDP-GlcNAc-2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase. 2-Acetylamino-2-deoxy-3-O-methyl-D-mannose inhibits the human ManNAc kinase domain of the UDP-GlcNAc-2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase. Binding kinetics of the inhibitor and human N-acetylmannosamine kinase were evaluated using surface plasmon resonance. Specificity studies with human N-acetylglucosamine kinase and hexokinase IV indicated a high specificity of 2-acetylamino-2-deoxy-3-O-methyl-D-mannose for MNK. This substance represents a novel class of inhibitors of sialic acid expression in cells, targeting the key enzyme of sialic acid de novo biosynthesis. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. A Novel Approach to Decrease Sialic Acid Expression in Cells by a C-3-modified N-Acetylmannosamine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wratil, Paul R.; Rigol, Stephan; Solecka, Barbara; Kohla, Guido; Kannicht, Christoph; Reutter, Werner; Giannis, Athanassios; Nguyen, Long D.

    2014-01-01

    Due to its position at the outermost of glycans, sialic acid is involved in a myriad of physiological and pathophysiological cell functions such as host-pathogen interactions, immune regulation, and tumor evasion. Inhibitors of cell surface sialylation could be a useful tool in cancer, immune, antibiotic, or antiviral therapy. In this work, four different C-3 modified N-acetylmannosamine analogs were tested as potential inhibitors of cell surface sialylation. Peracetylated 2-acetylamino-2-deoxy-3-O-methyl-d-mannose decreases cell surface sialylation in Jurkat cells in a dose-dependent manner up to 80%, quantified by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked lectin assays. High-performance liquid chromatography experiments revealed that not only the concentration of membrane bound but also of cytosolic sialic acid is reduced in treated cells. We have strong evidence that the observed reduction of sialic acid expression in cells is caused by the inhibition of the bifunctional enzyme UDP-GlcNAc-2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase. 2-Acetylamino-2-deoxy-3-O-methyl-d-mannose inhibits the human ManNAc kinase domain of the UDP-GlcNAc-2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase. Binding kinetics of the inhibitor and human N-acetylmannosamine kinase were evaluated using surface plasmon resonance. Specificity studies with human N-acetylglucosamine kinase and hexokinase IV indicated a high specificity of 2-acetylamino-2-deoxy-3-O-methyl-d-mannose for MNK. This substance represents a novel class of inhibitors of sialic acid expression in cells, targeting the key enzyme of sialic acid de novo biosynthesis. PMID:25278018

  2. Avian Primordial Germ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Takahiro; Miyahara, Daichi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Germ cells transmit genetic information to the next generation through gametogenesis. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first germ-cell population established during development, and are the common origins of both oocytes and spermatogonia. Unlike in other species, PGCs in birds undergo blood circulation to migrate toward the genital ridge, and are one of the major biological properties of avian PGCs. Germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth. In chicken, gonadal sex differentiation occurs as early as embryonic day 6, but meiotic initiation of female germ cells starts from a relatively late stage (embryonic day 15.5). Retinoic acid controls meiotic entry in developing chicken gonads through the expressions of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2, a major retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme, and cytochrome P450 family 26, subfamily B member 1, a major retinoic acid-degrading enzyme. The other major biological property of avian PGCs is that they can be propagated in vitro for the long term, and this technique is useful for investigating proliferation mechanisms. The main factor involved in chicken PGC proliferation is fibroblast growth factor 2, which activates the signaling of MEK/ERK and thus promotes the cell cycle and anti-apoptosis. Furthermore, the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling is indispensable for the proliferation and survival of chicken PGCs.

  3. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  4. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan D S Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue' has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  5. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ewan D S; Salisbury, Steven W; Horner, John R; Varricchio, David J

    2009-09-30

    Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue') has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  6. Tandem mass spectrometry of isomeric aniline-labeled N-glycans separated on porous graphitic carbon: Revealing the attachment position of terminal sialic acids and structures of neutral glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Claudia; Rizzi, Andreas M

    2015-07-15

    Quantitative monitoring of changes in the N-glycome upon disease has gained significance in the context of biomarker discovery. Separation and quantification of isobaric glycan isomers can be attained by using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). Collision-induced dissociation (CID)-based fragmentation of separated isobaric glycans is evaluated in respect to its potential of providing fragment ions specific for the linkage positions of terminal sialic acids and the presence of intersecting GlcNAc moieties, respectively. N-Glycans were labeled via reductive amination using (12)C6-aniline and (13)C6-aniline as isotope-coded labeling reagents. The differently labeled glycans were merged and separated into various species using a porous graphitic carbon (PGC) stationary phase. Identification of structural features of separated isobaric isomers was performed by CID-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) carried out in a quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) or a quadrupole ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometer. Working in the negative ion mode, new diagnostic CID fragment ions could be found that are indicative for the α2,6-type linkage of sialic acids. Other diagnostic ions, identified before as being indicative for the substitution of the 6-antenna, could be confirmed as being of relevance also in the case of aniline labeling. In the positive ion mode, CID fragment ions indicative for the structure of short neutral N-glycans were identified. One new diagnostic ion specific for the linkage position of the terminal sialic acids and one for the presence of bisecting GlcNAc in N-glycans were identified. The aniline label introduced for improved relative quantitation in MS(1) was found not to significantly alter the CID fragmentation patterns that were reported previously by other authors for unlabeled/reduced glycans or for glycans with more polar labels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Low pathogenic avian influenza isolates from wild birds replicate and transmit via contact in ferrets without prior adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Driskell

    Full Text Available Direct transmission of avian influenza viruses to mammals has become an increasingly investigated topic during the past decade; however, isolates that have been primarily investigated are typically ones originating from human or poultry outbreaks. Currently there is minimal comparative information on the behavior of the innumerable viruses that exist in the natural wild bird host. We have previously demonstrated the capacity of numerous North American avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds to infect and induce lesions in the respiratory tract of mice. In this study, two isolates from shorebirds that were previously examined in mice (H1N9 and H6N1 subtypes are further examined through experimental inoculations in the ferret with analysis of viral shedding, histopathology, and antigen localization via immunohistochemistry to elucidate pathogenicity and transmission of these viruses. Using sequence analysis and glycan binding analysis, we show that these avian viruses have the typical avian influenza binding pattern, with affinity for cell glycoproteins/glycolipids having terminal sialic acid (SA residues with α 2,3 linkage [Neu5Ac(α2,3Gal]. Despite the lack of α2,6 linked SA binding, these AIVs productively infected both the upper and lower respiratory tract of ferrets, resulting in nasal viral shedding and pulmonary lesions with minimal morbidity. Moreover, we show that one of the viruses is able to transmit to ferrets via direct contact, despite its binding affinity for α 2,3 linked SA residues. These results demonstrate that avian influenza viruses, which are endemic in aquatic birds, can potentially infect humans and other mammals without adaptation. Finally this work highlights the need for additional study of the wild bird subset of influenza viruses in regard to surveillance, transmission, and potential for reassortment, as they have zoonotic potential.

  8. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consultations Fact sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Influenza (Avian and other zoonotic) Fact sheet ... respiratory tract infection (fever and cough), early sputum production and rapid progression to severe pneumonia, sepsis with ...

  9. Avian H11 influenza virus isolated from domestic poultry in a Colombian live animal market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bluhm, Pedro; Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Cortez, Valerie; Marvin, Shauna A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-12-07

    Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as 'hotbeds' for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2.67% and a North American origin H11N2 AIV most similar to a virus isolated from Chilean shorebirds asymptomatically spread through multiple bird species in the market resulting in 17.0% positivity at peak of infection. Phenotypically, the H11 viruses displayed no known molecular markers associated with increased virulence in birds or mammals, had α2,3-sialic acid binding preference, and caused minimal replication in vitro and little morbidity in vivo. However, the Colombian H11N2 virus replicated and transmitted effectively in chickens explaining the spread throughout the market. Genetic similarity to H11 viruses isolated from North and South American shorebirds suggest that the LAM occurrence may have resulted from a wild bird to domestic poultry spillover event. The ability to spread in domestic poultry as well as potential for human infection by H11 viruses highlight the need for enhanced AIV surveillance in South America in both avian species and humans.

  10. Asthma induction in mice leads to appearance of alpha2-3- and alpha2-6-linked sialic acid residues in respiratory goblet-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Jensen, Niels-Erik Viby; Mandel, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    incubation with the sialic acid detecting agents, while the goblet-like cells expressed both alpha2-3- and alpha2-6-linked sialic acid residues in the asthmatic animals. The lectins but not the antibodies reacted with intestinal goblet cells. Instead, an antibody recognizing a disialoganglioside, stained......Allergic asthmatic inflammation in mice was induced by sensitization with ovalbumin and lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and visualized in the airways of asthmatic mice by spatial and temporal changes of carbohydrates containing sialic acid residues. Immunohistochemistry was used...... to demonstrate binding of lectins and antibodies that detect alpha2-3- and alpha2-6-linked sialic acid residues. After sensitization and challenge, the histology of the lung changed markedly, and goblet-like cells appeared, most likely caused by Clara cell metaplasia. Normal Clara cells showed no reaction after...

  11. [Epidemiological perspectives on SARS and avian influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    SARS is a respiratory infection caused by Coronavirus (Nidoviruses, RNA) from which 3 groups are known. Group 1 affects dogs, cats, pigs, and the human agent is 229 E. Group 2 affects bovines or rodents, and the human agent is OC43. And group 3 corresponds to the avian pathology.... The epidemics emerged on February 2003 in Guangdong, South China, due to consumption of exotic animals (Civeta, etc.), and it spread through interperson contagion to other regions in Asia, America and Europe. Incubation period is about 2-7 days. Transmission Of the virus is person-to person, but also by excretions and residual water. Basic reproductive rate is 2 to 4, and it is considered that 2.7 persons are infected from the initial case. In June 2003, SARS affected over 8,000 people and 774 were killed. Mortality approaches to 10%, and it is higher among older people rising up to 50% in those aged over 65 years. It is important to quickly establish action protocols regarding clinical, epidemiological and prevention aspects. Avian influenza is an infection caused by type A Influenza Orthomixovirus, in which migration birds and wild ducks are the main reservoir. Avian viruses correspond to H5, H7, H9. In 1997 it was observed that type AH5N1 jumped interspecies barrier and affected 18 humans, and 6 of them died. At the end of 2003 and in 2004 this type of poultry flu was described in Asia. FAO has emphasized that sacrifice of chicken in affected farms is the most effective measure to fight against the disease. It has also been established suppression of imports from these countries. There is no evidence on interperson contagion from chicken contagion, nor on food-borne contagion to humans.

  12. Community response to avian flu in Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmawati, Siwi; Nichter, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study suggests that it is more appropriate to think of avian flu as a bio-social and bio-political challenge for Indonesia than merely an epidemiological challenge involving a disease of zoonotic origin. Our examination of popular perceptions of avian flu in Central Java reveals important differences of opinion about which types of fowl are responsible for avian flu transmission and the degree of risk H5N1 poses to humans. The opinions of backyard farmers and commercial poultry farmers are motivated by different forms of practical logic and are differentially influenced by media accounts, government education programmes, foreign aid and rumours about who stands to profit from the disease. Rumours reflect collective anxieties about globalization, the agenda of big business and the trustworthiness of the national government. We also illustrate how a commodity chain analysis can assist in the identification of different stake-holders in the informal and formal poultry industries. The position of each stake-holder needs to be considered in any comprehensive investigation of avian flu. An economic analysis of the capital investment of stake-holders provides insight into how each responds to government directives about the reporting of dead chickens, vaccinating birds etc. Finally, we call for research on avian flu preparedness attentive to Indonesia's de-centralized form of political rule and the social organization of communities so that clear lines of communication and command can be established and mutual assistance mobilized.

  13. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  14. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  15. Avian influenza: An ecological and envolutionary perspective for waterbird scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Jones, I.L.

    2006-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) type A of the subtype H5N1 has recently spread widely and rapidly across Eurasia, and even to Africa, with deaths of both wild and domestic birds recorded. There are fears that it may soon spread to the Americas. Media accounts, communications from

  16. Occurrence of avian Schistosomatidae (Trematoda) in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance, prevalence and distribution of avian Schistosomatidae in South African birds has been estimated by means of a survey for parasite eggs in faecal samples. Eight types of eggs were recovered, mostly from members of the Anatidae and Laridae and these have been assigned to the following schistosome ...

  17. Total sialic acid, total protein and total sugar levels in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakar, Nidhi; Astekar, Madhusudan; Jain, Mahesh; Saawarn, Swati; Saawarn, Nisheeth

    2013-05-01

    Detection of cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, non-invasive methods like analysis of serum and saliva may provide cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Tumor markers are a major part of secondary prevention and thus, the detection of malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sialic acid (TSA), total protein and total sugar (TS) in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and controls to assess their role as a diagnostic marker. Unstimulated whole saliva and sera were collected from 40 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 controls. Serum and salivary TSA, total protein and TS estimation was carried out. This was correlated with clinical stages and histopathological grades of OSCC. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Chi-square test, ANOVA and Student's t-test with SPSS statistical software. A highly significant rise in the salivary sialic acid, serum sialic acid and serum protein was noted in OSCC subjects compared to controls. Salivary protein, serum and salivary sugar did not show any significance. Furthermore, serum and salivary sialic acid levels were found to be significantly increased with increasing level of histopathological grading. The present study showed a significant increase in serum sialic acid, salivary sialic acid and serum protein from control to OSCC and suggests that these markers may be reliable in diagnosis and predicting prognosis.

  18. Host-Derived Sialic Acids Are an Important Nutrient Source Required for Optimal Bacterial Fitness In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. McDonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing bacterial intestinal pathogens is competition for nutrient sources with the host microbiota. Vibrio cholerae is an intestinal pathogen that causes cholera, which affects millions each year; however, our knowledge of its nutritional requirements in the intestinal milieu is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that V. cholerae can grow efficiently on intestinal mucus and its component sialic acids and that a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic SiaPQM strain, transporter-deficient mutant NC1777, was attenuated for colonization using a streptomycin-pretreated adult mouse model. In in vivo competition assays, NC1777 was significantly outcompeted for up to 3 days postinfection. NC1777 was also significantly outcompeted in in vitro competition assays in M9 minimal medium supplemented with intestinal mucus, indicating that sialic acid uptake is essential for fitness. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the ability to utilize sialic acid was distributed among 452 bacterial species from eight phyla. The majority of species belonged to four phyla, Actinobacteria (members of Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Mycoplasma, and Streptomyces, Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, and Prevotella, Firmicutes (members of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus, and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Pasteurella, Photobacterium, Vibrio, and Yersinia species, mostly commensals and/or pathogens. Overall, our data demonstrate that the ability to take up host-derived sugars and sialic acid specifically allows V. cholerae a competitive advantage in intestinal colonization and that this is a trait that is sporadic in its occurrence and phylogenetic distribution and ancestral in some genera but horizontally acquired in others.

  19. An introduction to the avian gut microbiota and the effects of yeast-based prebiotic-type compounds as potential feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Roto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry has been searching for a replacement for antibiotic growth promoters in poultry feed as public concerns over the use of antibiotics and the appearance of antibiotic resistance has become more intense. An ideal replacement would be feed amendments that could eliminate pathogens and disease while retaining economic value via improvements on body weight and feed conversion ratios. Establishing a healthy gut microbiota can have a positive impact on growth and development of both body weight and the immune system of poultry, while reducing pathogen invasion and disease. The addition of prebiotics to poultry feed represents one such recognized way to establish a healthy gut microbiota. Prebiotics are feed additives, mainly in the form of specific types of carbohydrates that are indigestible to the host while serving as substrates to select beneficial bacteria and altering the gut microbiota. Beneficial bacteria in the ceca easily ferment commonly studied prebiotics, producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA, while pathogenic bacteria and the host are unable to digest their molecular bonds. Prebiotic-like substances are less commonly studied, but show promise in their effects on the prevention of pathogen colonization, improvements on the immune system, and host growth. Inclusion of yeast and yeast derivatives as probiotic and prebiotic-like substances, respectively, in animal feed has demonstrated positive associations with growth performance and modification of gut morphology. This review will aim to link together how such prebiotics and prebiotic-like substances function to influence the native and beneficial microorganisms that result in a diverse and well-developed gut microbiota.

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of Avian Influenza in One District of Guangzhou, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; Zheng, Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Li, Wenhua; Hu, Mailing; Zhong, Jinhui; Chen, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area. PMID:25356738

  1. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhang

    Full Text Available Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  2. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; Zheng, Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Li, Wenhua; Hu, Mailing; Zhong, Jinhui; Chen, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  3. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  4. Adenovirus carrying gene encoding Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin induces cancer cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyan; Wu, Liqin; Duan, Xuemei; Cui, Lianzhen; Luo, Jingjing; Li, Gongchu

    2014-06-30

    Lectins exist widely in marine bioresources such as bacteria, algae, invertebrate animals and fishes. Some purified marine lectins have been found to elicit cytotoxicity to cancer cells. However, there are few reports describing the cytotoxic effect of marine lectins on cancer cells through virus-mediated gene delivery. We show here that a replication-deficient adenovirus-carrying gene encoding Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin (Ad.FLAG-HddSBL) suppressed cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, as compared to the control virus Ad.FLAG. A down-regulated level of anti-apoptosis factor Bcl-2 was suggested to be responsible for the apoptosis induced by Ad.FLAG-HddSBL infection. Further subcellular localization studies revealed that HddSBL distributed in cell membrane, ER, and the nucleus, but not in mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. In contrast, a previously reported mannose-binding lectin Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin entered the nucleus as well, but did not distribute in inner membrane systems, suggesting differed intracellular sialylation and mannosylation, which may provide different targets for lectin binding. Further cancer-specific controlling of HddSBL expression and animal studies may help to provide insights into a novel way of anti-cancer marine lectin gene therapy. Lectins may provide a reservoir of anti-cancer genes.

  5. Targeting sialic acid dependent and independent pathways of invasion in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalynn Louise Ord

    Full Text Available The pathology of malaria is a consequence of the parasitaemia which develops through the cyclical asexual replication of parasites in a patient's red blood cells. Multiple parasite ligand-erythrocyte receptor interactions must occur for successful Plasmodium invasion of the human red cell. Two major malaria ligand families have been implicated in these variable ligand-receptor interactions used by Plasmodium falciparum to invade human red cells: the micronemal proteins from the Erythrocyte Binding Ligands (EBL family and the rhoptry proteins from the Reticulocyte binding Homolog (PfRH family. Ligands from the EBL family largely govern the sialic acid (SA dependent pathways of invasion and the RH family ligands (except for RH1 mediate SA independent invasion. In an attempt to dissect out the invasion inhibitory effects of antibodies against ligands from both pathways, we have used EBA-175 and RH5 as model members of each pathway. Mice were immunized with either region II of EBA-175 produced in Pichia pastoris or full-length RH5 produced by the wheat germ cell-free system, or a combination of the two antigens to look for synergistic inhibitory effects of the induced antibodies. Sera obtained from these immunizations were tested for native antigen recognition and for efficacy in invasion inhibition assays. Results obtained show promise for the potential use of such hybrid vaccines to induce antibodies that can block multiple parasite ligand-red cell receptor interactions and thus inhibit parasite invasion.

  6. Applications of Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the Structure Determination of Permethylated Sialic Acid-containing Oligosaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Eun Sun; Yoon, In Mo

    2005-01-01

    Sets of sialic acid-containing trisaccharides having different internal and terminal linkages have been synthesized to develop a sensitive method for analysis of the reducing terminal linkage positions. The trisaccharides, sialyl(α 2-3)Gal(β 1-3)GalNAc and sialyl(α 2-3)Gal(β 1-X)GlcNAc where X=3, 4 and 6, were synthesized and examined using electrospray ionization (ESI)-collision induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The compounds chosen for this study are related to terminal groups likely to be found on polylactosamine-like glycoproteins and glycolipids which occur on the surface of mammalian cells. The purpose of this study is to develop tandem mass spectrometral methods to determine detailed carbohydrate structures on permethylated or partially methylated oligosaccharides for future applications on biologically active glycoconjugates and to exploit a faster method of synthesizing a series of structural isomeric oligosaccharides to be used for further mass spectrometry and instrumental analysis

  7. Comparison between serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen, sialic acid and phosphohexose isomerase in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.S.; Raval, G.N.; Rawal, R.M.; Balar, D.B.; Patel, G.H.; Shah, P.M.; Patel, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    The identification and application of quantifiable tumor markers as adjuncts to clinical care is a story of both success and failure. The present study compared serum levels of carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) with total sialic acid/total protein (TSA/TP) ration and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) in 192 untreated lung cancer patients as well as 80 age and sex matched controls (44 non-smokers). CEA values were significantly raised (p < 0.001) in smokers as compared to the non-smokers; whereas, TSA/TP and PHI values were comparable between the groups of the groups of the controls. All the bio-markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.00.1) in untreated lung cancer patients as compared to the controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed higher sensitivities of TSA/TP and PHI as compared to CEA at different specificity levels between 60% and 95%. Mean values of CEA, TSA/TP and PHI were higher in non-responders compared to the responders. The results indicate that TSA/TP and PHI are superior tumor markers than CEA for lung cancer patients. (author)

  8. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  9. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  10. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus in a fat-free egg product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) and Avian Paramyxovirus Type-1 (AMPV-1) viruses can survive on the carcasses, in organ tissue of infected birds, on fomites, and have the potential for egg transmission and egg product contamination. With the increase in global trade, there are concerns that egg products could ...

  11. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  12. Avian malaria, ecological host traits and mosquito abundance in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecchio, Alan; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Andretti, Christian B; D'Horta, Fernando M; Silva, Allan M; Tkach, Vasyl V; Weckstein, Jason D

    2017-07-01

    Avian malaria is a vector transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium and recent studies suggest that variation in its prevalence across avian hosts is correlated with a variety of ecological traits. Here we examine the relationship between prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium lineages in southeastern Amazonia and: (1) host ecological traits (nest location, nest type, flocking behaviour and diet); (2) density and diversity of avian hosts; (3) abundance and diversity of mosquitoes; and (4) season. We used molecular methods to detect Plasmodium in blood samples from 675 individual birds of 120 species. Based on cytochrome b sequences, we recovered 89 lineages of Plasmodium from 136 infected individuals sampled across seven localities. Plasmodium prevalence was homogeneous over time (dry season and flooding season) and space, but heterogeneous among 51 avian host species. Variation in prevalence among bird species was not explained by avian ecological traits, density of avian hosts, or mosquito abundance. However, Plasmodium lineage diversity was positively correlated with mosquito abundance. Interestingly, our results suggest that avian host traits are less important determinants of Plasmodium prevalence and diversity in southeastern Amazonia than in other regions in which they have been investigated.

  13. PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF AVIAN CHLAMYDIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Šatrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian chlamydiosis is an infectious disease of birds caused by gram-negative bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci. However, this disease can occure among other mammals including humans. Chlamydiosis often presents as an inapparent infection, especially in older birds. During stressful conditions (deficient diet, transportation, great population density in small spaces, etc. and comorbidity, however, the birds usually begin to either present with the clinical signs of chlamydiosis, or secrete many causative agents to the environment. Depending on the serotype of the causative agent, and the type and age of the host, the disease usually causes systemic disorders, and is often fatal. The affected birds present with lethargy, fever, typical yellow-green discharge from the eyes and nose, diarrhea, anorexia and the weight lost. Bearing capacity is reduced. Autopsy findings show hepatomegaly with necrotic foci, splenomegaly and fibrinous inflammation of the pericardium, peritoneum and air sacs. Pathohistological findings reveal elementary bodies in the intercellular space dyed red to reddish purple using the Gimenez technique.Key words: avian chlamydiosis, pathomorphological changes, histopathological changes

  14. Comparative analysis of salivary sialic acid levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic periodontitis patients: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Rathod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sialic acid plays a central role in the functioning of biological systems, in stabilizing the glycoproteins and cellular membranes, assisting in cell–cell recognition and interaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the periodontal health status and salivary Sialic acid levels in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects were included in the study, which were divided into the following groups, 30 in each group. Group 1: patients suffering from COPD and chronic periodontitis, Group 2: periodontitis patients without any systemic diseases Group 3: healthy subjects. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected around 9–10 AM; 2 h after the subjects had breakfast. The sialic acid content was determined by a combined modification of the thiobarbituric acid method of Skoza and Mohos. Results: The mean salivary sialic acid levels were least in the healthy group followed by the periodontitis group, and it was highest in the COPD group. Conclusions: We can thus conclude that promotion of dental care knowledge is very much essential in the prevention and treatment of COPD. Thus, estimation of levels of salivary sialic acid can be used as an adjunct to diagnose the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes in subjects with COPD and chronic periodontitis.

  15. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  16. Control strategies against avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1959, 40 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI...

  17. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  18. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  19. The random co-polymer glatiramer acetate rapidly kills primary human leukocytes through sialic-acid-dependent cell membrane damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stig Hill; Zhang, Xianwei; Juul-Madsen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    in innate immunity. It shares the positive charge and amphipathic character of GA, and, as shown here, also the ability to kill human leukocyte. The cytotoxicity of both compounds depends on sialic acid in the cell membrane. The killing was associated with the generation of CD45 + debris, derived from cell...... membrane deformation. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed the formation of such debris, even at low GA concentrations. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing measurements also recorded stable alterations in T lymphocytes following such treatment. LL-37 forms oligomers through weak hydrophobic...

  20. Inhibition of basophil histamine release by gangliosides. Further studies on the significance of cell membrane sialic acid in the histamine release process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    Histamine release from human basophils was inhibited by preincubation of the cells with a glucolipid mixture containing sialic acid-containing gangliosides. This was true for histamine release induced by anti-IgE, Concanavalin A and the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas the release induced by S...... with the glucolipid mixture increased the sialic acid content of the cells, and this increase was attributed to an insertion of gangliosides into the cell membrane. The inhibition of histamine release was abolished by increasing the calcium concentration, which substantiates our previous findings that cell membrane...... sialic acid in basophil leukocytes is involved in the regulation of histamine release, possibly by a modulation of the transmembraneous calcium fluxes preceding histamine release....

  1. Serum sialic acid changes in non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients following bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and rosiglitazone (Avandia) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat-ur-Rahman; Malik, Salman Akbar; Bashir, Mohammad; Khan, Roohullh; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increase in sialic acid concentration along with other complications. Sialic acid changes in NIDDM patients were investigated following bitter melon (55 ml/24h) and rosiglitazone (4 mg/24h) treatment. A total of 25 patients of both sexes were used in each experimental group. Patients following bitter melon treatment showed no significant difference of serum sialic acid (57.95+/-4.90 vs. 57.6+/-5.56 mg/dl, p=0.17) and serum glucose concentration (93.7+/-9.63 vs. 88.35+/-6.31 mg/dl, p=0.78) as compared to control subjects. However, the concentration of total cholesterol was significantly high in these patients as compared to control subjects (192+/-14.23 vs. 170.6+/-15.1mg/dl, pdiabetes and its related complications as compared to rosiglitazone.

  2. Typing of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains by REP-PCR Tipificação de amostras aviárias patogênicas de Escherichia coli pela REP-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique was used to establish the clonal variability of 49 avian Escherichia coli (APEC strains isolated from different outbreak cases of septicemia (n=24, swollen head syndrome (n=14 and omphalitis (n=11. Thirty commensal strains isolated from poultry with no signs of these illnesses were used as control strains. The purified DNA of these strains produced electrophoretic profiles ranging from 0 to 15 bands with molecular sizes varying from 100 bp to 6.1 kb, allowing the grouping of the 79 strains into a dendrogram containing 49 REP-types. Although REP-PCR showed good discriminating power it was not able to group the strains either into specific pathogenic classes or to differentiate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. On the contrary, we recently demonstrated that other techniques such as ERIC-PCR and isoenzyme profiles are appropriate to discriminate between commensal and APEC strains and also to group these strains into specific pathogenic classes. In conclusion, REP-PCR seems to be a technique neither efficient nor universal for APEC strains discrimination. However, the population clonal structure obtained with the use of REP-PCR must not be ignored particularly if one takes into account that the APEC pathogenic mechanisms are not completely understood yet.A técnica de REP (Repetitive extragenic palindrome-PCR foi utilizada para avaliar a variabilidade genética de 49 amostras de Escherichia coli patogênicas para aves (APEC, isoladas de aves de corte (frangos em diferentes surtos de septicemia (n=24, síndrome da cabeça inchada (n=14 e onfalite (n=11. Trinta amostras comensais, isoladas de frangos sem sinais de doença, foram utilizadas como controle. A análise do perfil eletroforético obtido por reação de REP-PCR utilizando DNA purificado das amostras evidenciou a amplificação de 0 a 15 bandas de DNA com pesos moleculares

  3. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  4. Oligosaccharide composition of the neurotoxin responsive Na/sup +/ channel and the requirement of sialic acid for activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, M.; Shaw, G.W.; Glick, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    The neurotoxin responsive Na/sup +/ channel was purified to homogeneity in an 18% yield from a clonal cell line of mouse neuroblastoma, N-18, metabolically labeled with L-(/sup 3/H)fucose. The Na/sup +/ channel, a glycoprotein, M/sub r/=200,000 (gradient 7-14% PAGE) was digested with Pronase and the glycopeptides were characterized by serial lectin affinity chromatography. greater than 90% of the oligosaccharides contained sialic acid and 18% were biantennary, 39% were triantennary and 30% tetraantennary. The glycoprotein was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles and /sup 86/Rb flux was stimulated (65%) by 200 ..mu..M veratridine and 1.2 ..mu..g of scorpion venom and was inhibited (95%) by 5 ..mu..M tetrodotoxin. The requirement of sialic acid for Na/sup +/ channel activity was demonstrated since neuraminidase (0.01 U) treatment of the reconstituted glycoprotein eliminated the response of /sup 86/Rb flux to the stimulating neurotoxins. In other experiments, treatment of N-18 cells with 10 ..mu..M swainsonine, an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing, altered the oligosaccharide composition of the Na/sup +/ channel. When the abnormally glycosylated Na/sup +/ channel was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles, /sup 86/Rb flux in response to neurotoxins was impaired. Thus, glycosylation of the polypeptide with oligosaccharides of specific composition and structure is essential for expression of the biological activity of the neurotoxin responsive Na/sup +/ channel.

  5. Salmonella O48 Serum Resistance is Connected with the Elongation of the Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Containing Sialic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Pawlak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement is one of the most important parts of the innate immune system. Some bacteria can gain resistance against the bactericidal action of complement by decorating their outer cell surface with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs containing a very long O-antigen or with specific outer membrane proteins. Additionally, the presence of sialic acid in the LPS molecules can provide a level of protection for bacteria, likening them to human cells, a phenomenon known as molecular mimicry. Salmonella O48, which contains sialic acid in the O-antigen, is the major cause of reptile-associated salmonellosis, a worldwide public health problem. In this study, we tested the effect of prolonged exposure to human serum on strains from Salmonella serogroup O48, specifically on the O-antigen length. After multiple passages in serum, three out of four tested strains became resistant to serum action. The gas-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that, for most of the strains, the average length of the LPS O-antigen increased. Thus, we have discovered a link between the resistance of bacterial cells to serum and the elongation of the LPS O-antigen.

  6. Evidence-Based Advances in Avian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-09-01

    This article presents relevant advances in avian medicine and surgery over the past 5 years. New information has been published to improve clinical diagnosis in avian diseases. This article also describes new pharmacokinetic studies. Advances in the understanding and treatment of common avian disorders are presented in this article, as well. Although important progress has been made over the past years, there is still much research that needs to be done regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of avian diseases and evidence-based information is still sparse in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  8. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  9. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Keith A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Atkinson, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  10. A single site in human β-hexosaminidase A binds both 6-sulfate-groups on hexosamines and the sialic acid moiety of GM2 ganglioside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohita; Bukovac, Scott; Callahan, John; Mahuran, Don

    2010-01-01

    Human β-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) (αβ) is composed of two subunits whose primary structures are ~60% identical. Deficiency of either subunit results in severe neurological disease due to the storage of GM2 ganglioside; Tay–Sachs disease, α deficiency, and Sandhoff disease, β deficiency. Whereas both subunits contain active sites only the α-site can efficiently bind negatively charged 6-sulfated hexosamine substrates and GM2 ganglioside. We have recently identified the αArg424 as playing a critical role in the binding of 6-sulfate-containing substrates, and βAsp452 as actively inhibiting their binding. To determine if these same residues affect the binding of the sialic acid moiety of GM2 ganglioside, an αArg424Gln form of Hex A was expressed and its kinetics analyzed using the GM2 activator protein:[3H]-GM2 ganglioside complex as a substrate. The mutant showed a ~3-fold increase in its Km for the complex. Next a form of Hex B (ββ) containing a double mutation, βAspLeu453 AsnArg (duplicating the α-aligning sequences), was expressed. As compared to the wild type (WT), the mutant exhibited a >30-fold increase in its ability to hydrolyze a 6-sulfated substrate and was now able to hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside when the GM2 activator protein was replaced by sodium taurocholate. Thus, this α-site is critical for binding both types of negatively charge substrates. PMID:12527415

  11. Vaccinating chickens against avian influenza with fowlpox recombinants expressing the H7 haemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, D B; Selleck, P; Heine, H G

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the vaccine efficacy of a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the H7 haemagglutinin of avian influenza virus in poultry. Specific-pathogen-free poultry were vaccinated with fowlpox recombinants expressing H7 or H1 haemagglutinins of influenza virus. Chickens were vaccinated at 2 or 7 days of age and challenged with virulent Australian avian influenza virus at 10 and 21 days later, respectively. Morbidity and mortality, body weight change and the development of immune responses to influenza haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein were recorded. Vaccination of poultry with fowlpox H7 avian influenza virus recombinants induced protective immune responses. All chickens vaccinated at 7 days of age and challenged 21 days later were protected from death. Few clinical signs of infection developed. In contrast, unvaccinated or chickens vaccinated with a non-recombinant fowlpox or a fowlpox expressing the H1 haemagglutinin of human influenza were highly susceptible to avian influenza. All those chickens died within 72 h of challenge. In younger chickens, vaccinated at 2 days of age and challenged 10 days later the protection was lower with 80% of chickens protected from death. Chickens surviving vaccination and challenge had high antibody responses to haemagglutinin and primary antibody responses to nucleoprotein suggesting that although vaccination protected substantially against disease it failed to completely prevent replication of the challenge avian influenza virus. Vaccination of chickens with fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza H7 haemagglutinin provided good protection against experimental challenge with virulent avian influenza of H7 type. Although eradication will remain the method of first choice for control of avian influenza, in the circumstances of a continuing and widespread outbreak the availability of vaccines based upon fowlpox recombinants provides an additional method for disease control.

  12. Stabilization of sialic acids in N-linked oligosaccharides and gangliosides for analysis by positive ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A K; Harvey, D J

    1996-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry of oligosaccharides and gangliosides normally causes loss of sialic acid, particularly when alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid is used as the matrix. In addition, the potential signal is split because both positive and, to a greater extent, negative ions are formed while signals are frequently complicated as the result of partial alkali-salt formation. In order to stabilize the sialic acid moieties under MALDI conditions and to divert all of the signal into the positive-ion mode, a method involving their conversion into methyl esters has been developed. The method is relatively rapid and produces strong positive-ion signals from N-linked oligosaccharides containing sialic acid and from gangliosides. The latter compounds are stable, even in the presence of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. They give abundant molecular (MNa+) ions, but with sufficient residual in-source fragmentation to allow the sequence of the sugar chain to be determined. The sialic acid residue is stable after methylation, irrespective of its linkage to the parent molecule.

  13. The M/GP(5 glycoprotein complex of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus binds the sialoadhesin receptor in a sialic acid-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Van Breedam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a major threat to swine health worldwide and is considered the most significant viral disease in the swine industry today. In past years, studies on the entry of the virus into its host cell have led to the identification of a number of essential virus receptors and entry mediators. However, viral counterparts for these molecules have remained elusive and this has made rational development of new generation vaccines impossible. The main objective of this study was to identify the viral counterparts for sialoadhesin, a crucial PRRSV receptor on macrophages. For this purpose, a soluble form of sialoadhesin was constructed and validated. The soluble sialoadhesin could bind PRRSV in a sialic acid-dependent manner and could neutralize PRRSV infection of macrophages, thereby confirming the role of sialoadhesin as an essential PRRSV receptor on macrophages. Although sialic acids are present on the GP(3, GP(4 and GP(5 envelope glycoproteins, only the M/GP(5 glycoprotein complex of PRRSV was identified as a ligand for sialoadhesin. The interaction was found to be dependent on the sialic acid binding capacity of sialoadhesin and on the presence of sialic acids on GP(5. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of PRRSV biology, but the knowledge and tools generated in this study also hold the key to the development of a new generation of PRRSV vaccines.

  14. Elevated levels of serum sialic acid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: markers of systemic inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, K S; Ananthanarayanan, R H; Satheesh, S; Rajappa, M

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common, debilitating disorder in which the heart is unable to pump an adequate blood supply to the tissues. Although it has been shown that inflammation occurs in HF, inflammatory markers have yet to be defined. Inflammatory markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), cytokines and serum sialic acid (SA) have been suggested as cardiovascular risk biomarkers. This study aims to assess the serum levels of inflammatory markers such as sialic acid and hs-CRP in chronic heart failure (CHF). Forty-eight patients with CHF and 30 healthy controls were recruited. Total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-associated sialic acid (LASA), and the inflammatory marker hs-CRP, were assayed in all study subjects. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was assayed in the patient group only. Serum mean TSA and LASA were significantly higher in CHF patients when compared to healthy controls (P markers of systemic inflammation in chronic heart failure.

  15. Enzymatic Decoration of Prebiotic Galacto-oligosaccharides (Vivinal® GOS) with Sialic Acid using Trypanosoma cruzi Trans-Sialidase and Two Bovine Sialoglycoconjugates as Donor Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, Maarten Hotse; Ten Kate, Geert Albert; Sanders, Peter; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leeuwen, Sander S; Sallomons, Erik; Klarenbeek, Bert; Hage, Johannes H; van Vuure, Carine A; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2015-01-01

    Decoration of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) with sialic acid yields mixtures of GOS and sialylated GOS (Sia-GOS), novel products that are expected to have both prebiotic and anti-adhesive functionalities. The recombinantly produced trans-sialidase enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS), an

  16. Avian influenza in backyard poultry of the Mopti region, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Traoré, Abdallah; Gil, Patricia; Hammoumi, Saliha; Lesceu, Stéphanie; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Albina, Emmanuel; Chevalier, Véronique

    2010-06-01

    This study reports the first evidence of circulation of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in Mali. In the Mopti region, where AIV have already been isolated in migratory water birds, we sampled 223 backyard domestic birds potentially in contact with wild birds and found that 3.6% had tracheal or cloacal swabs positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) for type A influenza viruses (IVA) and that 13.7% had sera positive by commercial ELISA test detecting antibodies against IVA. None of the birds positive by rRT-PCR for IVA was positive by rRT-PCR for H5 and H7 subtypes, and none showed any clinical signs therefore indicating the circulation of low pathogenic avian influenza. Unfortunately, no virus isolation was possible. Further studies are needed to assess the temporal evolution of AIV circulation in the Mopti region and its possible correlation with the presence of wild birds.

  17. Seasonality, distribution and taxonomic status of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of a new species is based upon morphology of gametocyte development in the peripheral blood of the avian host. This does not distinguish between morphologically identical gametocytes from different avian host families, nor is species or family level a valid taxonomic character. Thus, Haemoproteus and ...

  18. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    The avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is a specialized structure located rather inaccessibly in an air sac close to the heart where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi. The syrinx of different avian taxa varies so much in position and morphology that it has been used for taxonomy. It...

  19. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  20. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governments in Southeast Asia have adopted a range of policies aimed at controlling the disease in animals, preventing its spread to humans and strengthening national preparedness for an avian influenza pandemic. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together national research agencies ...

  1. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  2. The effect of Plantago major Linnaeus on serum total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid, some trace elements and minerals after administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Ozdemir, Hulya; Levent, Abdulkadir; Berber, Ismet

    2012-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Plantago major Linnaeus (PM) extract on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA), some trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron) and mineral levels (magnesium, calcium and sodium) in Wistar albino rat administrated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 6). Group I comprised the control group, group II was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg, single dose) and group III was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg single dose) and aqueous extract of PM 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days. After 60 days, statistical analyses showed that TSA and LSA levels in DMBA and DMBA + PM groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (TSA: p < 0.01, p < 0.05; LSA: p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). Serum Zn levels were decreased in subjects treated with DMBA (p < 0.01) and DMBA + PM (p < 0.05) compared to the control group values. Serum Cu levels were increased in DMBA group and PM-treated group compared to the control group values. The results of this investigation showed that the levels of TSA and LSA changed significantly, which are sensitive markers for detecting the toxic effects of DMBA. On the other hand, observed decline in Zn levels in rats from DMBA + PM group might be due to decreased generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Results from this study suggest that PM may be partially effective in preventing carcinogenesis initiated by environmental carcinogen DMBA.

  3. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) mediates periarticular bone loss, but not joint destruction, in murine antigen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomohiro; Takahata, Masahiko; Kameda, Yusuke; Endo, Tsutomu; Hamano, Hiroki; Hiratsuka, Shigeto; Ota, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2015-10-01

    Osteoclastogenesis requires immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling. Multiple immunoreceptors associated with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif adaptor proteins, including DNAX-activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12) and Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ), have been identified in osteoclast lineage cells, and some are involved in arthritis-induced bone destruction. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) is an immunoreceptor that regulates osteoclast development and bone resorption in association with DAP12. Whether Siglec-15 is involved in arthritis-induced bone lesions, however, remains unknown. Here we used a murine antigen-induced arthritis model to examine the role of Siglec-15 in the development of bone lesions induced by joint inflammation. Arthritis was unilaterally induced in the knee joints of 8-week-old female wild-type (WT) and Siglec-15(-/-) mice, and the contralateral knees were used as a control. The degree of joint inflammation, and cartilage and subchondral bone destruction in Siglec-15(-/-) mice was comparable to that in WT mice, indicating that Siglec-15 is not involved in the development of arthritis and concomitant cartilage and subchondral bone destruction. On the other hand, the degree of periarticular bone loss in the proximal tibia of the arthritic knee was significantly lower in Siglec-15(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Although osteoclast formation in the metaphysis was enhanced in both WT and Siglec-15(-/-) mice after arthritis induction, mature multinucleated osteoclast formation was impaired in Siglec-15(-/-) mice, indicating impaired osteoclast bone resorptive function in the periarticular regions of the arthritic joint in Siglec-15(-/-) mice. Confirming this result, Siglec-15(-/-) primary unfractionated bone marrow cells harvested from arthritic femurs and tibiae failed to develop into mature multinuclear osteoclasts. Our findings suggest that Siglec-15 is a therapeutic target for periarticular

  4. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Hall, Brian K; Horner, John R

    2013-01-01

    The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae). This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  5. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  6. Genetic applications in avian conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  7. Avian Respiratory Coinfection and Impact on Avian Influenza Pathogenicity in Domestic Poultry: Field and Experimental Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ahmed; Naguib, Mahmoud M

    2018-02-24

    The avian respiratory system hosts a wide range of commensal and potential pathogenic bacteria and/or viruses that interact with each other. Such interactions could be either synergistic or antagonistic, which subsequently determines the severity of the disease complex. The intensive rearing methods of poultry are responsible for the marked increase in avian respiratory diseases worldwide. The interaction between avian influenza with other pathogens can guarantee the continuous existence of other avian pathogens, which represents a global concern. A better understanding of the impact of the interaction between avian influenza virus and other avian respiratory pathogens provides a better insight into the respiratory disease complex in poultry and can lead to improved intervention strategies aimed at controlling virus spread.

  8. [The primordial reservoir in the infectious contagion cicle. The avian influenza model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Fernández, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    An update of the role of the primordial reservoir in the biological cycle of the process of infection and contagion is made, using diseases of very frequent incidence at the present moment in the Mediterranean Area and the Iberian Peninsula. These diseases are, amongst others Severe and Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Rabies, Lyme disease, African Horse Sickness, Blue Tongue, African Swine Fever, Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Hantavirosis, and Avian Influenza. The zoonoses classification proposed by the WHO Control Center in Athens in 1994 for the Mediterranean Area, based on the type of reservoir, the importance of the process and the type of transmission, and not focusing on the etiological agent, is very positively valued. Finally, the problem of Avian Influenza and the real risk posed by aquatic migratory birds in the diffusion and contagion of the present Avian Influence epidemics is reviewed.

  9. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  10. Experimental induced avian E. coli salpingitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease manifesta......Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease...... manifestations or from the cloacae of a healthy chicken. The virulence potential of the strains were evaluated in an avian experimental model for ascending infections, and experiments were conducted in both layers and broiler breeders. The clinical outcome of infection was highly depending on the challenge......) had a distinct ability to cause disease. Results of the study shows major differences in virulence of different strains of E. coli in ascending infections; however, there was no indication of tissue-specific adaptation, since strains obtained from lesions unrelated to the reproductive system were...

  11. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, A.L.M.; Braune, B.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  12. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  13. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the sialic acid-binding domain (VP8*) of porcine rotavirus strain CRW-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Stacy A. [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University (Gold Coast Campus) PMB 50, Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726 (Australia); Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Szyczew, Alex J.; Kiefel, Milton J.; Itzstein, Mark von; Blanchard, Helen, E-mail: h.blanchard@griffith.edu.au [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University (Gold Coast Campus) PMB 50, Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726 (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    The sialic acid-binding domain (VP8*) component of the porcine CRW-8 rotavirus spike protein has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and co-crystallized with an N-acetylneuraminic acid derivative. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.3 Å, which has enabled determination of the structure by molecular replacement. Rotavirus recognition and attachment to host cells involves interaction with the spike protein VP4 that projects outwards from the surface of the virus particle. An integral component of these spikes is the VP8* domain, which is implicated in the direct recognition and binding of sialic acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates and facilitates subsequent invasion by the virus. The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of VP8* from porcine CRW-8 rotavirus is reported. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.3 Å resolution, enabling the determination of the VP8* structure by molecular replacement.

  15. The Influence of Ecological Factors on the Transmission and Stability of Avian Influenza Virus in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecology is a science studying the correlation among organisms and some environmental factors. Ecological factors play an important role to transmit Avian Influenza (AI virus and influence its stability in the environment. Avian Influenza virus is classified as type A virus and belong to Orthomyxoviridae family. The virus can infect various vertebrates, mainly birds and mammals, including human. Avian Influenza virus transmission can occur through bird migration. The bird migration patterns usually occur in the large continent covers a long distance area within a certain periode hence transmit the virus from infected birds to other birds and spread to the environment. The biotic (normal flora microbes and abiotic (physical and chemical factors play important role in transmitting the virus to susceptible avian species and influence its stability in the environment. Disinfectant can inactivate the AI virus in the environment but its effectivity is influenced by the concentration, contact time, pH, temperature and organic matter.

  16. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  17. Relationships between avian richness and landscape structure at multiple scales using multiple landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Rutzmoser, S.H.; Wigley, T.B.; Loehle, C.; Gerwin, J.A.; Keyser, P.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Perry, R.W.; Reynolds, C.J.; Thill, R.E.; Weih, R.; White, D.; Wood, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand and landscape-levels. We used data on bird communities collected under comparable sampling protocols on four managed forests located across the Southeastern US to develop logistic regression models describing relationships between habitat factors and the distribution of overall richness and richness of selected guilds. Landscape models generated for eight of nine guilds showed a strong relationship between richness and both availability and configuration of landscape features. Diversity of topographic features and heterogeneity of forest structure were primary determinants of avian species richness. Forest heterogeneity, in both age and forest type, were strongly and positively associated with overall avian richness and richness for most guilds. Road density was associated positively but weakly with avian richness. Landscape variables dominated all models generated, but no consistent patterns in metrics or scale were evident. Model fit was strong for neotropical migrants and relatively weak for short-distance migrants and resident species. Our models provide a tool that will allow managers to evaluate and demonstrate quantitatively how management practices affect avian diversity on landscapes.

  18. Investigations on the Occurrence and Associated Risk Factors of Avian Coccidiosis in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shola David Ola-Fadunsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of poultry mortalities worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and associated risk factors of avian coccidiosis in Osun State, Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected and examined from 5,544 avian species that were brought for treatment at the state veterinary hospitals over a 10-year period. Parameters such as age, sex, season, and species of birds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. Overall prevalence of 41.3% was recorded. The year specific rate for avian coccidiosis was highest in 2007 (97.9% and lowest in 2006 (0.4%, while the month-specific rate was highest in November (85.7% and lowest in July 2006 (13.3%. There was a significantly (P<0.05 higher prevalence in young birds compared to adults, in males compared to females, and during the wet season compared to the dry season. Broilers (99.8% and cockerels (81.0% were the bird types with the highest prevalence rate. The high prevalence of avian coccidiosis in the study area shows that the disease is endemic and there is need to embark on a radical preventive measure to curtail the disease.

  19. Nucleotide and Predicted Amino Acid Sequence-Based Analysis of the Avian Metapneumovirus Type C Cell Attachment Glycoprotein Gene: Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Epidemiology of U.S. Pneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rene; Lwamba, Humphrey M.; Kapczynski, Darrell R.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Seal, Bruce S.

    2003-01-01

    A serologically distinct avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) was isolated in the United States after an outbreak of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) in February 1997. The newly recognized U.S. virus was subsequently demonstrated to be genetically distinct from European subtypes and was designated aMPV serotype C (aMPV/C). We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the cell attachment glycoprotein (G) of aMPV/C (Colorado strain and three Minnesota isolates) and predicted amino acid sequence by sequencing cloned cDNAs synthesized from intracellular RNA of aMPV/C-infected cells. The nucleotide sequence comprised 1,321 nucleotides with only one predicted open reading frame encoding a protein of 435 amino acids, with a predicted Mr of 48,840. The structural characteristics of the predicted G protein of aMPV/C were similar to those of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) attachment G protein, including two mucin-like regions (heparin-binding domains) flanking both sides of a CX3C chemokine motif present in a conserved hydrophobic pocket. Comparison of the deduced G-protein amino acid sequence of aMPV/C with those of aMPV serotypes A, B, and D, as well as hRSV revealed overall predicted amino acid sequence identities ranging from 4 to 16.5%, suggesting a distant relationship. However, G-protein sequence identities ranged from 72 to 97% when aMPV/C was compared to other members within the aMPV/C subtype or 21% for the recently identified human MPV (hMPV) G protein. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes were greater than one in the G gene when comparing the more recent Minnesota isolates to the original Colorado isolate. Epidemiologically, this indicates positive selection among U.S. isolates since the first outbreak of TRT in the United States. PMID:12682171

  20. SYBR green-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR for typing and subtyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza viruses and comparison to standard serological subtyping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Javier, P.C.; Shishido, M.; Noguchi, D.; Pearce, J.; Kang, H.-M.; Jeong, O.M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Nakanishi, K.; Ashizawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) infections of wild birds and poultry worldwide emphasize the need for global surveillance of wild birds. To support the future surveillance activities, we developed a SYBR green-based, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting nucleoprotein (NP) genes and subtyping 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes simultaneously. Primers were improved by focusing on Eurasian or North American lineage genes; the number of mixed-base positions per primer was set to five or fewer, and the concentration of each primer set was optimized empirically. Also, 30 cycles of amplification of 1:10 dilutions of cDNAs from cultured viruses effectively reduced minor cross- or nonspecific reactions. Under these conditions, 346 HA and 345 NA genes of 349 AIVs were detected, with average sensitivities of NP, HA, and NA genes of 10 1.5, 10 2.3, and 10 3.1 50% egg infective doses, respectively. Utility of rRT-PCR for subtyping AIVs was compared with that of current standard serological tests by using 104 recent migratory duck virus isolates. As a result, all HA genes and 99% of the NA genes were genetically subtyped, while only 45% of HA genes and 74% of NA genes were serologically subtyped. Additionally, direct subtyping of AIVs in fecal samples was possible by 40 cycles of amplification: approximately 70% of HA and NA genes of NP gene-positive samples were successfully subtyped. This validation study indicates that rRT-PCR with optimized primers and reaction conditions is a powerful tool for subtyping varied AIVs in clinical and cultured samples. Copyright ?? 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  2. Sperm and Egg Jelly Coat from Sea Urchin Lytechinus variegatus Collected in Rio de Janeiro Contain Distinct Sialic Acid-Rich Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle M. Valle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work found the occurrence of a distinct sialic acid-rich polysaccharide in the sperm surface of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, which differed significantly from a similar molecule found in the egg jelly. The sperm polysaccharide extracted by protease digestion was purified using anion exchange chromatography and characterized using agarose gel electrophoresis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. This polysaccharide was highly sulfated and composed almost exclusively of N-acetylneuraminic acid. In contrast, the sialic acid-rich polysaccharide from the egg jelly was composed of N-glycolylneuraminic acid and contains several other hexoses in its structure. This new molecule could help to characterize in further detail the mechanism of fertilization in the sea urchin model system. Sulfated polysaccharides from the jelly coat of sea urchins showed species-specificity in inducing the sperm acrosome reaction, providing an example of a signal transduction event regulated by the sulfated polysaccharide. The new sialic acid-rich polysaccharide found in the sperm head could represent a new molecule involved in the biology of the sea urchin fertilization.

  3. A Study of Lipid- and Protein- Bound Sialic Acids for the Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer and Their Relationships with the Severity of Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Habibi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard for detection of bladder cancer is cystoscopy, which is an invasive and complicated procedure. Our study was conducted to find a tumor marker with high specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 58 bladder cancer patients and 60 healthy control subjects. Levels of lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA, and protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured spectrophotometrically by Aminoff’s method. Results: Mean levels of both markers were found to be significantly higher in the patients than the healthy controls. Positive correlations were observed between serum levels of lipid- (r=0.283, p<0.05 and protein- bound (r=0.56, p<0.05 sialic acids and the grade of malignancy. To differentiate patients with bladder tumors from healthy controls, cut-offpoints were determined for each of the two parameters based on Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis (LBSA=21.25 mg/dL, PBSA=6.15 mg/dL. The data showed good sensitivities (LBSA=89%, PBSA=79%, specificities (LBSA=70%, PBSA=70% and accuracies (LBSA=83%, PBSA=81% for both markers. Conclusion: Measuring serum LBSA and PBSA by this simple, reproducible, noninvasive, and inexpensive method can accurately discriminate cancer patients from healthy individuals.

  4. Biochemical characterization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiji; Song, Minxun; Demers, Andrew; Weng, Yuejin; Lu, Wuxun; Wang, Dan; Kaushik, Radhey S; Yu, Qingzhong; Li, Feng

    2012-08-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a paramyxovirus that has three membrane proteins (G, F, and SH). Among them, the SH protein is a small type II integral membrane protein that is incorporated into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses. In the present study, we show that the AMPV SH protein is modified by N-linked glycans and can be released into the extracellular environment. Furthermore, we demonstrate that glycosylated AMPV SH proteins form homodimers through cysteine-mediated disulfide bonds, which has not been reported previously for SH proteins of paramyxoviruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Review of Avian Monitoring and Mitigation Information at Existing Utility-Scale Solar Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wendelin, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Souder, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are two basic types of solar energy technology: photovoltaic and concentrating solar power. As the number of utility-scale solar energy facilities using these technologies is expected to increase in the United States, so are the potential impacts on wildlife and their habitats. Recent attention is on the risk of fatality to birds. Understanding the current rates of avian mortality and existing monitoring requirements is an important first step in developing science-based mitigation and minimization protocols. The resulting information also allows a comparison of the avian mortality rates of utility-scale solar energy facilities with those from other technologies and sources, as well as the identification of data gaps and research needs. This report will present and discuss the current state of knowledge regarding avian issues at utility-scale solar energy facilities.

  6. Risk for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus on poultry farms, The Netherlands, 2007–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, Ruth; Gonzales Rojas, Jose; Wit, de Sjaak; Stahl, Julia; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Elbers, Armin R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007–2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors:

  7. Silent spread of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 virus amongst vaccinated commercial layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poetri, O.N.; Boven, M.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.; Koch, G.; Wibawan, I.W.; Stegeman, A.; Broek, van den J.; Bouma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a single vaccination of commercial layer type chickens with an inactivated vaccine containing highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain H5N1 A/chicken/Legok/2003, carried out on the farm, was sufficient to protect against infection with the

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Avian-Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain APEC O18

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Bryon A.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M.; Logue, Catherine M.; Li, Ganwu; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the causative agent of colibacillosis, a disease that affects all facets of poultry production worldwide, resulting in multimillion dollar losses annually. Here, we report the genome sequence of an APEC O18 sequence type 95 (ST95) strain associated with disease in a chicken.

  9. Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation and titration in embryonated chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus is usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chickens eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, ...

  10. Avian influenza mucosal vaccination in chickens with replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial layer-type chicken groups were singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, or singly v...

  11. Newcastle Disease Virus Establishes Persistent Infection in Tumor CellsIn Vitro: Contribution of the Cleavage Site of Fusion Protein and Second Sialic Acid Binding Site of Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; Wang, Weijia; Cheng, Xing; McTamney, Patrick; Carroll, Danielle; Jin, Hong

    2017-08-15

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an oncolytic virus being developed for the treatment of cancer. Following infection of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) with a recombinant low-pathogenic NDV, persistent infection was established in a subset of tumor cells. Persistently infected (PI) cells exhibited resistance to superinfection with NDV and established an antiviral state, as demonstrated by upregulation of interferon and interferon-induced genes such as myxoma resistance gene 1 (Mx1) and retinoic acid-inducing gene-I (RIG-I). Viruses released from PI cells induced higher cell-to-cell fusion than the parental virus following infection in two tumor cell lines tested, HT1080 and HeLa, and remained attenuated in chickens. Two mutations, one in the fusion (F) protein cleavage site, F117S (F 117S ), and another in hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), G169R (HN 169R ), located in the second sialic acid binding region, were responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype. F 117S improves F protein cleavage efficiency, facilitating cell-to-cell fusion, while HN 169R possesses a multifaceted role in contributing to higher fusion, reduced receptor binding, and lower neuraminidase activity, which together result in increased fusion and reduced viral replication. Thus, establishment of persistent infection in vitro involves viral genetic changes that facilitate efficient viral spread from cell to cell as a potential mechanism to escape host antiviral responses. The results of our study also demonstrate a critical role in the viral life cycle for the second receptor binding region of the HN protein, which is conserved in several paramyxoviruses. IMPORTANCE Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) could establish persistent infection in a tumor cell line, resulting in a steady antiviral state reflected by constitutively expressed interferon. Viruses isolated from persistently infected cells are highly fusogenic, and this phenotype has been mapped to two mutations, one each in

  12. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  13. Group B Streptococcus engages an inhibitory Siglec through sialic acid mimicry to blunt innate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chi Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a common agent of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns. The GBS surface capsule contains sialic acids (Sia that engage Sia-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs on leukocytes. Here we use mice lacking Siglec-E, an inhibitory Siglec of myelomonocytic cells, to study the significance of GBS Siglec engagement during in vivo infection. We found GBS bound to Siglec-E in a Sia-specific fashion to blunt NF-κB and MAPK activation. As a consequence, Siglec-E-deficient macrophages had enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity against the pathogen. Following pulmonary or low-dose intravenous GBS challenge, Siglec-E KO mice produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines and exhibited reduced GBS invasion of the central nervous system. In contrast, upon high dose lethal challenges, cytokine storm in Siglec-E KO mice was associated with accelerated mortality. We conclude that GBS Sia mimicry influences host innate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo through engagement of an inhibitory Siglec, with the ultimate outcome of the host response varying depending upon the site, stage and magnitude of infection.

  14. Mutation in the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis causes severe glomerular proteinuria and is rescued by N-acetylmannosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Belinda; Klootwijk, Riko; Manoli, Irini; Sun, MaoSen; Ciccone, Carla; Darvish, Daniel; Starost, Matthew F; Zerfas, Patricia M; Hoffmann, Victoria J; Hoogstraten-Miller, Shelley; Krasnewich, Donna M; Gahl, William A; Huizing, Marjan

    2007-06-01

    Mutations in the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis, uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) kinase (GNE/MNK), result in hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM), an adult-onset, progressive neuromuscular disorder. We created knockin mice harboring the M712T Gne/Mnk mutation. Homozygous mutant (Gne(M712T/M712T)) mice did not survive beyond P3. At P2, significantly decreased Gne-epimerase activity was observed in Gne(M712T/M712T) muscle, but no myopathic features were apparent. Rather, homozygous mutant mice had glomerular hematuria, proteinuria, and podocytopathy. Renal findings included segmental splitting of the glomerular basement membrane, effacement of podocyte foot processes, and reduced sialylation of the major podocyte sialoprotein, podocalyxin. ManNAc administration yielded survival beyond P3 in 43% of the Gne(M712T/M712T) pups. Survivors exhibited improved renal histology, increased sialylation of podocalyxin, and increased Gne/Mnk protein expression and Gne-epimerase activities. These findings establish this Gne(M712T/M712T) knockin mouse as what we believe to be the first genetic model of podocyte injury and segmental glomerular basement membrane splitting due to hyposialylation. The results also support evaluation of ManNAc as a treatment not only for HIBM but also for renal disorders involving proteinuria and hematuria due to podocytopathy and/or segmental splitting of the glomerular basement membrane.

  15. The essential role of the sialic acid residues for IFN-β1a activity determined in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lasse Dissing; Andersen, Morten Thaysen

    the function of the rhIFN-β1a glycan moiety and its individual carbohydrate residues using the myxovirus resistance (Mx) mRNA as a biomarker in Mx-congenic mice. We showed that the Mx mRNA level in blood leukocytes peaked three hours after subcutaneous administration of rhIFN-β1a. In addition, a clear dose......-response relationship was confirmed and the Mx response was shown to be receptor mediated. Using specific glycosidases, different glycosylation analogs of rhIFN-β1a were obtained and their activities determined. The glycosylated rhIFN-β1a showed significantly higher activity than its deglycosylated counterpart, due...... to a protein stabilization/solubilization effect of the glycan. Interestingly, the terminating sialic acids were essential for these effects. Conclusively, the structure/bioactivity relationship of rhIFN-β1a was determined in vivo and provided a novel insight into the role of the rhIFN-β1a glycan and its...

  16. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. (Yale Univ. School of medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  17. Loss of sialic acid binding domain redirects protein σ1 to enhance M cell-directed vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Zlotkowska

    Full Text Available Ovalbumin (OVA genetically fused to protein sigma 1 (pσ1 results in tolerance to both OVA and pσ1. Pσ1 binds in a multi-step fashion, involving both protein- and carbohydrate-based receptors. To assess the relative pσ1 components responsible for inducing tolerance and the importance of its sialic binding domain (SABD for immunization, modified OVA-pσ1, termed OVA-pσ1(short, was deleted of its SABD, but with its M cell targeting moiety intact, and was found to be immunostimulatory and enhanced CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell proliferation. When used to nasally immunize mice given with and without cholera toxin (CT adjuvant, elevated SIgA and serum IgG responses were induced, and OVA-pσ1(s was more efficient for immunization than native OVA+CT. The immune antibodies (Abs were derived from elevated Ab-forming cells in the upper respiratory tissues and submaxillary glands and were supported by mixed Th cell responses. Thus, these studies show that pσ1(s can be fused to vaccines to effectively elicit improved SIgA responses.

  18. MicroRNA expression profiles in avian haemopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu eYao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, abundant, non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression by interfering with translation or stability of mRNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. A total of 734 precursor and 996 mature miRNAs have so far been identified in the chicken genome. A number of these miRNAs are expressed in a cell type-specific manner, and understanding their function requires detailed examination of their expression in different cell types. We carried out deep sequencing of small RNA populations isolated from stimulated or transformed avian haemopoietic cell lines to determine the changes in the expression profiles of these important regulatory molecules during these biological events. There were significant changes in the expression of a number of miRNAs, including miR-155, in chicken B cells stimulated with CD40 ligand. Similarly, avian leukosis virus (ALV-transformed DT40 cells also showed changes in miRNA expression in relation to the naïve cells. Embryonic stem cell line BP25 demonstrated a distinct cluster of upregulated miRNAs, many of which were shown previously to be involved in embryonic stem cell development. Finally, chicken macrophage cell line HD11 showed changes in miRNA profiles, some of which are thought to be related to the transformation by v-myc transduced by the virus. This work represents the first publication of a catalog of microRNA expression in a range of important avian cells and provides insights into the potential roles of miRNAs in the hematopoietic lineages of cells in a model non-mammalian species.

  19. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  20. Diversity of Multi-Drug Resistant Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Causing Outbreaks of Colibacillosis in Broilers during 2012 in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sol?-Gin?s, Marc; Cameron-Veas, Karla; Badiola, Ignacio; Dolz, Roser; Maj?, Natalia; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Viso, Susana; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; Gonz?lez-L?pez, Juan Jos?; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are the major cause of colibacillosis in poultry production. In this study, a total of 22 E. coli isolated from colibacillosis field cases and 10 avian faecal E. coli (AFEC) were analysed. All strains were characterised phenotypically by susceptibility testing and molecular typing methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The presence of 29 virulence genes associated to APEC and human extraintestina...

  1. Avian cone photoreceptors tile the retina as five independent, self-organizing mosaics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph A Kram

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The avian retina possesses one of the most sophisticated cone photoreceptor systems among vertebrates. Birds have five types of cones including four single cones, which support tetrachromatic color vision and a double cone, which is thought to mediate achromatic motion perception. Despite this richness, very little is known about the spatial organization of avian cones and its adaptive significance. Here we show that the five cone types of the chicken independently tile the retina as highly ordered mosaics with a characteristic spacing between cones of the same type. Measures of topological order indicate that double cones are more highly ordered than single cones, possibly reflecting their posited role in motion detection. Although cones show spacing interactions that are cell type-specific, all cone types use the same density-dependent yardstick to measure intercone distance. We propose a simple developmental model that can account for these observations. We also show that a single parameter, the global regularity index, defines the regularity of all five cone mosaics. Lastly, we demonstrate similar cone distributions in three additional avian species, suggesting that these patterning principles are universal among birds. Since regular photoreceptor spacing is critical for uniform sampling of visual space, the cone mosaics of the avian retina represent an elegant example of the emergence of adaptive global patterning secondary to simple local interactions between individual photoreceptors. Our results indicate that the evolutionary pressures that gave rise to the avian retina's various adaptations for enhanced color discrimination also acted to fine-tune its spatial sampling of color and luminance.

  2. Insights into genetic diversity and biological propensities of potentially zoonotic avian influenza H9N2 viruses circulating in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Parvin, Rokshana; Beer, Martin; Vahlenkamp, Thomas; Harder, Timm C

    2017-11-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have established endemic status in Egyptian poultry populations since 2012. Recently, four cases of human H9N2 virus infections in Egypt demonstrated the zoonotic potential of these viruses. Egyptian H9N2 viruses obtained from 2011 to 2014 phylogenetically grouped into three clusters (1-3) within subclade B of the G1 lineage. Antigenically, a close clustering of the Egyptian H9N2 viruses with other recent G1-B like H9N2 strains and a significant antigenic distance from viruses outside the G1-B lineage was evident. Recent Egyptian LPAIV H9N2 showed a tendency to increased binding with erythrocytes expressing α 2,6-linked sialic acid which correlated with the Q226L amino acid substitution at the receptor binding unit of the hemagglutinin (Q234L, H9 numbering). Sequence analyses of the N2 neuraminidase (NA) revealed substitutions in the NA hemadsorption site similar to the N2 of prepandemic H3N2/1968, but no distinct antigenic or functional characteristics of the H9N2 NA associated with increased zoonotic potential could be identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Possible basis for the emergence of H1N1 viruses with pandemic potential from avian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Zeynep A; Krauss, Scott; Zanin, Mark; Danner, Angela; Gulati, Shelly; Jones, Jeremy C; Friedman, Kimberly; Graham, Allison; Forrest, Heather; Seiler, Jon; Air, Gillian M; Webster, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    Influenza A viruses of the H1N1 subtype have emerged from the avian influenza gene pool in aquatic birds and caused human pandemics at least twice during the past century. Despite this fact, surprisingly little is known about the H1N1 gene pool in the aquatic bird reservoir. A preliminary study showed that an H1N1 virus from a shorebird of the Charadriiformes order was transmitted between animals through the airborne route of infection, whereas an H1N1 virus from a bird of the Anseriformes order was not. Here we show that two of the three H1N1 viruses isolated from Charadriiformes species in 2009 were transmitted between animals through the airborne route of infection, and five H1N1 isolates from Anseriformes species were not. The one H1N1 virus from a Charadriiformes species that failed to transmit through the airborne route was a reassortant possessing multiple internal gene segments from Anseriformes species. The molecular differences between the airborne-transmissible and non-airborne-transmissible H1N1 viruses were multigenic, involving the selection of virus with human-like receptor-binding specificity (α2-6 sialic acid) and multiple differences in the polymerase complex, mainly in the PB2, PB1-F2, and nonstructural genes.

  4. Avian influenza A (H9N2: computational molecular analysis and phylogenetic characterization of viral surface proteins isolated between 1997 and 2009 from the human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H9N2 avian influenza A viruses have become panzootic in Eurasia over the last decade and have caused several human infections in Asia since 1998. To study their evolution and zoonotic potential, we conducted an in silico analysis of H9N2 viruses that have infected humans between 1997 and 2009 and identified potential novel reassortments. Results A total of 22 hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were retrieved from the NCBI flu database. It was identified that mature peptide sequences of HA genes isolated from humans in 2009 had glutamine at position 226 (H3 of the receptor binding site, indicating a preference to bind to the human α (2-6 sialic acid receptors, which is different from previously isolated viruses and studies where the presence of leucine at the same position contributes to preference for human receptors and presence of glutamine towards avian receptors. Similarly, strains isolated in 2009 possessed new motif R-S-N-R in spite of typical R-S-S-R at the cleavage site of HA, which isn't reported before for H9N2 cases in humans. Other changes involved loss, addition, and variations in potential glycosylation sites as well as in predicted epitopes. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that HA and NA gene segments of H9N2 including those from current and proposed vaccine strains belong to two different Eurasian phylogenetic lineages confirming possible genetic reassortments. Conclusions These findings support the continuous evolution of avian H9N2 viruses towards human as host and are in favor of effective surveillance and better characterization studies to address this issue.

  5. Tropism and Infectivity of Influenza Virus, Including Highly Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Virus, in Ferret Tracheal Differentiated Primary Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Maines, Taronna R.; Belser, Jessica A.; Gustin, Kortney M.; Pekosz, Andrew; Zaki, Sherif R.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and adaptation of influenza viruses to new hosts is partly dependent on the distribution of the sialic acid (SA) receptors to which the viral hemagglutinin (HA) binds. Ferrets have been established as a valuable in vivo model of influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission because of similarities to humans in the distribution of HA receptors and in clinical signs of infection. In this study, we developed a ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture model that consisted of a layered epithelium structure with ciliated and nonciliated cells on its apical surface. We found that human-like (α2,6-linked) receptors predominated on ciliated cells, whereas avian-like (α2,3-linked) receptors, which were less abundant, were presented on nonciliated cells. When we compared the tropism and infectivity of three human (H1 and H3) and two avian (H1 and H5) influenza viruses, we observed that the human influenza viruses primarily infected ciliated cells and replicated efficiently, whereas a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) replicated efficiently within nonciliated cells despite a low initial infection rate. Furthermore, compared to other influenza viruses tested, VN/1203 virus replicated more efficiently in cells isolated from the lower trachea and at a higher temperature (37°C) compared to a lower temperature (33°C). VN/1203 virus infection also induced higher levels of immune mediator genes and cell death, and virus was recovered from the basolateral side of the cell monolayer. This ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture system provides a valuable in vitro model for studying cellular tropism, infectivity, and the pathogenesis of influenza viruses. PMID:23255802

  6. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David L

    2012-12-01

    Vaccination for both low pathogenicity avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used by countries that have become endemic for avian influenza virus, but stamping-out policies are still common for countries with recently introduced disease. Stamping-out policies of euthanatizing infected and at-risk flocks has been an effective control tool, but it comes at a high social and economic cost. Efforts to identify alternative ways to respond to outbreaks without widespread stamping out has become a goal for organizations like the World Organisation for Animal Health. A major issue with vaccination for avian influenza is trade considerations because countries that vaccinate are often considered to be endemic for the disease and they typically lose their export markets. Primarily as a tool to promote trade, the concept of DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) has been considered for avian influenza, but the goal for trade is to differentiate vaccinated and not-infected from vaccinated and infected animals because trading partners are unwilling to accept infected birds. Several different strategies have been investigated for a DIVA strategy, but each has advantages and disadvantages. A review of current knowledge on the research and implementation of the DIVA strategy will be discussed with possible ways to implement this strategy in the field. The increased desire for a workable DIVA strategy may lead to one of these ideas moving from the experimental to the practical.

  7. Avian Flu Epidemic 2003: Public health consequences. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman A; Mulder YM; Leeuw JRJ de; Meijer A; Du Ry van Beest Holle M; Kamst RA; Velden PG van der; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Koopmans MPG; Ruijten MWMM; Instituut voor Psychotrauma; CIE; MGO; LIS

    2004-01-01

    Executive summary Avian flu epidemic 2003: public health consequences.Risk factors, health, well-being, health care needs and preventive measures during the H7N7 avian flu outbreak control in the Netherlands.An estimated thousand people, possibly more have been infected with avian flu during the

  8. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  9. Chromosomal features of Escherichia coli serotype O2:K2, an avian pathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Steffen L; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili; Christensen, Jens P; Olsen, John E; Nolan, Lisa; Olsen, Rikke H

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli causing infection outside the gastrointestinal system are referred to as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Avian pathogenic E. coli is a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and infections due to avian pathogenic E. coli have major impact on poultry production economy and welfare worldwide. An almost defining characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli is the carriage of plasmids, which may encode virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinates. For the same reason, plasmids of avian pathogenic E. coli have been intensively studied. However, genes encoded by the chromosome may also be important for disease manifestation and antimicrobial resistance. For the E. coli strain APEC_O2 the plasmids have been sequenced and analyzed in several studies, and E. coli APEC_O2 may therefore serve as a reference strain in future studies. Here we describe the chromosomal features of E. coli APEC_O2. E. coli APEC_O2 is a sequence type ST135, has a chromosome of 4,908,820 bp (plasmid removed), comprising 4672 protein-coding genes, 110 RNA genes, and 156 pseudogenes, with an average G + C content of 50.69%. We identified 82 insertion sequences as well as 4672 protein coding sequences, 12 predicated genomic islands, three prophage-related sequences, and two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats regions on the chromosome, suggesting the possible occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in this strain. The wildtype strain of E. coli APEC_O2 is resistant towards multiple antimicrobials, however, no (complete) antibiotic resistance genes were present on the chromosome, but a number of genes associated with extra-intestinal disease were identified. Together, the information provided here on E. coli APEC_O2 will assist in future studies of avian pathogenic E. coli strains, in particular regarding strain of E. coli APEC_O2, and aid in the general understanding of the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli .

  10. Alterations in hemagglutinin receptor-binding specificity accompany the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Alla; Mochalova, Larisa; Harder, Timm; Tuzikov, Alexander; Bovin, Nicolai; Wolff, Thorsten; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2015-05-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of hemagglutinin H5 and H7 subtypes emerge after introduction of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from wild birds into poultry flocks, followed by subsequent circulation and evolution. The acquisition of multiple basic amino acids at the endoproteolytical cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA) is a molecular indicator for high pathogenicity, at least for infections of gallinaceous poultry. Apart from the well-studied significance of the multibasic HA cleavage site, there is only limited knowledge on other alterations in the HA and neuraminidase (NA) molecules associated with changes in tropism during the emergence of HPAIVs from LPAIVs. We hypothesized that changes in tropism may require alterations of the sialyloligosaccharide specificities of HA and NA. To test this hypothesis, we compared a number of LPAIVs and HPAIVs for their HA-mediated binding and NA-mediated desialylation of a set of synthetic receptor analogs, namely, α2-3-sialylated oligosaccharides. NA substrate specificity correlated with structural groups of NAs and did not correlate with pathogenic potential of the virus. In contrast, all HPAIVs differed from LPAIVs by a higher HA receptor-binding affinity toward the trisaccharides Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ (3'SLN) and Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ (SiaLe(c)) and by the ability to discriminate between the nonfucosylated and fucosylated sialyloligosaccharides 3'SLN and Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ (SiaLe(x)), respectively. These results suggest that alteration of the receptor-binding specificity accompanies emergence of the HPAIVs from their low-pathogenic precursors. Here, we have found for the first time correlations of receptor-binding properties of the HA with a highly pathogenic phenotype of poultry viruses. Our study suggests that enhanced receptor-binding affinity of HPAIVs for a typical "poultry-like" receptor, 3'SLN, is provided by substitutions in the receptor

  11. Alterations in Hemagglutinin Receptor-Binding Specificity Accompany the Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalova, Larisa; Harder, Timm; Tuzikov, Alexander; Bovin, Nicolai; Wolff, Thorsten; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of hemagglutinin H5 and H7 subtypes emerge after introduction of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from wild birds into poultry flocks, followed by subsequent circulation and evolution. The acquisition of multiple basic amino acids at the endoproteolytical cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA) is a molecular indicator for high pathogenicity, at least for infections of gallinaceous poultry. Apart from the well-studied significance of the multibasic HA cleavage site, there is only limited knowledge on other alterations in the HA and neuraminidase (NA) molecules associated with changes in tropism during the emergence of HPAIVs from LPAIVs. We hypothesized that changes in tropism may require alterations of the sialyloligosaccharide specificities of HA and NA. To test this hypothesis, we compared a number of LPAIVs and HPAIVs for their HA-mediated binding and NA-mediated desialylation of a set of synthetic receptor analogs, namely, α2-3-sialylated oligosaccharides. NA substrate specificity correlated with structural groups of NAs and did not correlate with pathogenic potential of the virus. In contrast, all HPAIVs differed from LPAIVs by a higher HA receptor-binding affinity toward the trisaccharides Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ (3′SLN) and Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ (SiaLec) and by the ability to discriminate between the nonfucosylated and fucosylated sialyloligosaccharides 3′SLN and Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ (SiaLex), respectively. These results suggest that alteration of the receptor-binding specificity accompanies emergence of the HPAIVs from their low-pathogenic precursors. IMPORTANCE Here, we have found for the first time correlations of receptor-binding properties of the HA with a highly pathogenic phenotype of poultry viruses. Our study suggests that enhanced receptor-binding affinity of HPAIVs for a typical “poultry-like” receptor, 3′SLN, is provided by

  12. The immune response to group B streptococcus type III capsular polysaccharide is directed to the -Glc-GlcNAc-Gal- backbone epitope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safari, Dodi; Dekker, Huberta A. T.; Rijkers, Ger T.; van der Ende, Arie; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Snippe, Harm

    2011-01-01

    The structures of the branched capsular polysaccharides of group B streptococcus type III (GBSIIIPS) and Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 (Pn14PS) are identical apart from the (α2→3)-linked sialic acid in the side chains of GBSIIIPS. The present study tries to determine the minimal epitope in

  13. Developmental aspects of the rat brain insulin receptor: loss of sialic acid and fluctuation in number characterize fetal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, I have investigated the structure of the rat brain insulin receptor during fetal development. There is a progressive decrease in the apparent molecular size of the brain alpha-subunit during development: 130K on day 16 of gestation, 126K at birth, and 120K in the adult. Glycosylation was investigated as a possible reason for the observed differences in the alpha-subunit molecular size. The results show that the developmental decrease in the brain alpha-subunit apparent molecular size is due to a parallel decrease in sialic acid content. This was further confirmed by measuring the retention of autophosphorylated insulin receptors on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-Sepharose. An inverse correlation between developmental age and retention of 32 P-labeled insulin receptors on the lectin column was observed. Insulin binding increases 6-fold between 16 and 20 days of gestation [61 +/- 25 (+/- SE) fmol/mg protein and 364 +/- 42 fmol/mg, respectively]. Thereafter, binding in brain membranes decreases to 150 +/- 20 fmol/mg by 2 days after birth, then reaches the adult level of 63 +/- 15 fmol/mg. In addition, the degree of insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation closely parallels the developmental changes in insulin binding. Between 16 and 20 days of fetal life, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the beta-subunit increases 6-fold. Thereafter, the extent of phosphorylation decreases rapidly, reaching adult values identical with those in 16-day-old fetal brain. These results suggest that the embryonic brain possesses competent insulin receptors whose expression changes markedly during fetal development. This information should be important in defining the role of insulin in the developing nervous system

  14. Siglec-15, a member of the sialic acid-binding lectin, is a novel regulator for osteoclast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiruma, Yoshiharu, E-mail: hiruma.yoshiharu.hy@daiichisankyo.co.jp [Biological Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo 134-8630 (Japan); Hirai, Takehiro [Translational Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology Department, Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo 134-8630 (Japan); Tsuda, Eisuke [Biological Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo 134-8630 (Japan)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Siglec-15 was identified as a gene overexpressed in giant cell tumor. {yields} Siglec-15 mRNA expression increased in association with osteoclast differentiation. {yields} Polyclonal antibody to Siglec-15 inhibited osteoclast differentiation in vitro. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells derived from monocyte/macrophage-lineage precursors and are critically responsible for bone resorption. In giant cell tumor of bone (GCT), numerous TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells emerge and severe osteolytic bone destruction occurs, implying that the emerged giant cells are biologically similar to osteoclasts. To identify novel genes involved in osteoclastogenesis, we searched genes whose expression pattern was significantly different in GCT from normal and other bone tumor tissues. By screening a human gene expression database, we identified sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) as one of the genes markedly overexpressed in GCT. The mRNA expression level of Siglec-15 increased in association with osteoclast differentiation in cultures of mouse primary unfractionated bone marrow cells (UBMC), RAW264.7 cells of the mouse macrophage cell line and human osteoclast precursors (OCP). Treatment with polyclonal antibody to mouse Siglec-15 markedly inhibited osteoclast differentiation in primary mouse bone marrow monocyte/macrophage (BMM) cells stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}. The antibody also inhibited osteoclast differentiation in cultures of mouse UBMC and RAW264.7 cells stimulated with active vitamin D{sub 3} and RANKL, respectively. Finally, treatment with polyclonal antibody to human Siglec-15 inhibited RANKL-induced TRAP-positive multinuclear cell formation in a human OCP culture. These results suggest that Siglec-15 plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation.

  15. Ribosomal RNA gene functioning in avian oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, Elena; Galkina, Svetlana; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Dyomin, Alexandr; Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gaginskaya, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Despite long-term exploration into ribosomal RNA gene functioning during the oogenesis of various organisms, many intriguing problems remain unsolved. In this review, we describe nucleolus organizer region (NOR) activity in avian oocytes. Whereas oocytes from an adult avian ovary never reveal the formation of the nucleolus in the germinal vesicle (GV), an ovary from juvenile birds possesses both nucleolus-containing and non-nucleolus-containing oocytes. The evolutionary diversity of oocyte NOR functioning and the potential non-rRNA-related functions of the nucleolus in oocytes are also discussed.

  16. Mosquito age and avian malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, Romain; Nicot, Antoine; Gandon, Sylvain; Rivero, Ana

    2015-09-30

    The immune system of many insects wanes dramatically with age, leading to the general prediction that older insects should be more susceptible to infection than their younger counterparts. This prediction is however challenged by numerous studies showing that older insects are more resistant to a range of pathogens. The effect of age on susceptibility to infections is particularly relevant for mosquitoes given their role as vectors of malaria and other diseases. Despite this, the effect of mosquito age on Plasmodium susceptibility has been rarely explored, either experimentally or theoretically. Experiments were carried out using the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum and its natural vector in the field, the mosquito Culex pipiens. Both innate immune responses (number and type of circulating haemocytes) and Plasmodium susceptibility (prevalence and burden) were quantified in seven- and 17-day old females. Whether immunity or Plasmodium susceptibility are modulated by the previous blood feeding history of the mosquito was also investigated. To ensure repeatability, two different experimental blocks were carried out several weeks apart. Haemocyte numbers decrease drastically as the mosquitoes age. Despite this, older mosquitoes are significantly more resistant to a Plasmodium infection than their younger counterparts. Crucially, however, the age effect is entirely reversed when old mosquitoes have taken one previous non-infected blood meal. The results agree with previous studies showing that older insects are often more resistant to infections than younger ones. These results suggest that structural and functional alterations in mosquito physiology with age may be more important than immunity in determining the probability of a Plasmodium infection in old mosquitoes. Possible explanations for why the effect is reversed in blood-fed mosquitoes are discussed. The reversal of the age effect in blood fed mosquitoes implies that age is unlikely to have a

  17. Association of acute-phase reactants with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Masuda, Hiroshi

    2006-03-01

    The relationship between chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerotic progress in patients with diabetes mellitus has not been confirmed. We determined whether acute-phase reactants are associated with arterial stiffness in diabetic patients. Relationships of blood inflammatory markers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), amyloid A protein (SAA), sialic acid, fibrinogen and white blood cells (WBC)] with atherosclerosis were investigated in a cross-sectional study using 114 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The degree of atherosclerosis was evaluated by arterial stiffness measured using cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a new index of arterial stiffness, which is compatible with conventional aortic pulse-wave velocity. CRP, SAA, sialic acid, fibrinogen and WBC showed significant correlations with CAVI. CAVI was significantly higher in the highest tertile of sialic acid, fibrinogen and WBC compared with the lowest tertile or lowest and middle tertiles. This association was independent of age, sex and smoking. By logistic regression analysis, the highest levels of these acute-phase reactants showed increased risk of high CAVI, while CRP and SAA were not associated with an increased risk in this analysis. CAVI was also significantly correlated with duration of diabetes, blood pressure and serum total cholesterol. Acute-phase reactants, such as CRP, SAA, sialic acid, fibrinogen and WBC, are associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated.

  19. Detection and subtyping avian metapneumovirus from turkeys in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayahi, Mansour; Momtaz, Hassan; Jafari, Ramezan Ali; Zamani, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes diseases like rhinotracheitis in turkeys, swollen head syndrome in chickens and avian rhinotracheitis in other birds. Causing respiratory problems, aMPV adversely affects production and inflicts immense economic losses and mortalities, especially in turkey flocks. In recent years, several serological and molecular studies have been conducted on this virus, especially in poultry in Asia and Iran. The purpose of the present study was detecting and subtyping aMPV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from non-vaccinated, commercial turkey flocks in Iran for the first time. Sixty three meat-type unvaccinated turkey flocks from several provinces of Iran were sampled in major turkey abattoirs. Samples were tested by RT-PCR for detecting and subtyping aMPV. The results showed that 26 samples from three flocks (4.10%) were positive for viral RNA and all of the viruses were found to be subtype B of aMPV. As a result, vaccination especially against subtype B of aMPV should be considered in turkey flocks in Iran to control aMPV infections.

  20. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  1. Effects of drought on avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Brian D. Wardlow; Volker C. Radeloff

    2010-01-01

    Droughts are expected to become more frequent under global climate change. Avifauna depend on precipitation for hydration, cover, and food. While there are indications that avian communities respond negatively to drought, little is known about the response of birds with differing functional and behavioural traits, what time periods and indicators of drought are most...

  2. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  3. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  4. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  5. Viral vectors for avian influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to 2003, vaccines against avian influenza (AI) had limited, individual country or regional use in poultry. In late 2003, H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AI spread from China to multiple Southeast Asian countries, and to Europe during 2005 and Africa during 2006, challenging governments and all p...

  6. the Avian Park Service Learning Centre story

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health (UCRH) opened in 2001, followed 10 years later by the establishment of the Ukwanda Rural Clinical School in one of the rural health districts of the Western Cape. This paper relates the journey of the Faculty with the underserviced community of Avian Park through the provision of ...

  7. Presumptive diagnosis of Avian encephalomyelitis in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A report of Avian encephalomyelitis outbreak in two flocks of adult Japanese quail is presented. High mortalities, tremor, ataxia and lateral recumbency were the prominent clinical signs observed. Absence of gross pathology and microscopic lesions of gliosis, neuronal degeneration, meningitis, congested blood vessel with ...

  8. The genetics and evolution of avian migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulido, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the characteristics of avian migration is its variability within and among species. Variation in migratory behavior, and in physiological and morphological adaptations to migration, is to a large extent due to genetic differences. Comparative studies suggest that migratory behavior has

  9. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Sanz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar

  10. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  11. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  12. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  13. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  14. Nature's Palette: Characterization of Shared Pigments in Colorful Avian and Mollusk Shells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Verdes

    Full Text Available Pigment-based coloration is a common trait found in a variety of organisms across the tree of life. For example, calcareous avian eggs are natural structures that vary greatly in color, yet just a handful of tetrapyrrole pigment compounds are responsible for generating this myriad of colors. To fully understand the diversity and constraints shaping nature's palette, it is imperative to characterize the similarities and differences in the types of compounds involved in color production across diverse lineages. Pigment composition was investigated in eggshells of eleven paleognath bird taxa, covering several extinct and extant lineages, and shells of four extant species of mollusks. Birds and mollusks are two distantly related, calcareous shell-building groups, thus characterization of pigments in their calcareous structures would provide insights to whether similar compounds are found in different phyla (Chordata and Mollusca. An ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA extraction protocol was used to analyze the presence and concentration of biliverdin and protoporphyrin, two known and ubiquitous tetrapyrrole avian eggshell pigments, in all avian and molluscan samples. Biliverdin was solely detected in birds, including the colorful eggshells of four tinamou species. In contrast, protoporphyrin was detected in both the eggshells of several avian species and in the shells of all mollusks. These findings support previous hypotheses about the ubiquitous deposition of tetrapyrroles in the eggshells of various bird lineages and provide evidence for its presence also across distantly related animal taxa.

  15. A survey for selected avian viral pathogens in backyard chicken farms in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Tammiranta, N; Ek-Kommonen, C; Soveri, T; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson Ahomaa, M; Huovilainen, A

    2017-04-01

    Backyard poultry are regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious avian diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anaemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5.4%) had chickens seropositive for avian influenza virus. No farms had chickens seropositive for Newcastle disease virus. Of the 51 farms, five (10%) had chickens positive for coronavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all backyard chicken coronaviruses collected were QX type infectious bronchitis viruses. All chickens tested for avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were negative. To our knowledge, there is no evidence to date to suggest that these diseases would have been transmitted between commercial and non-commercial flocks.

  16. Mixed species flock, nest height, and elevation partially explain avian haemoparasite prevalence in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie D González

    Full Text Available The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300 m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system.

  17. Nature's Palette: Characterization of Shared Pigments in Colorful Avian and Mollusk Shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdes, Aida; Cho, Wooyoung; Hossain, Marouf; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Hauber, Mark E; Holford, Mandë

    2015-01-01

    Pigment-based coloration is a common trait found in a variety of organisms across the tree of life. For example, calcareous avian eggs are natural structures that vary greatly in color, yet just a handful of tetrapyrrole pigment compounds are responsible for generating this myriad of colors. To fully understand the diversity and constraints shaping nature's palette, it is imperative to characterize the similarities and differences in the types of compounds involved in color production across diverse lineages. Pigment composition was investigated in eggshells of eleven paleognath bird taxa, covering several extinct and extant lineages, and shells of four extant species of mollusks. Birds and mollusks are two distantly related, calcareous shell-building groups, thus characterization of pigments in their calcareous structures would provide insights to whether similar compounds are found in different phyla (Chordata and Mollusca). An ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction protocol was used to analyze the presence and concentration of biliverdin and protoporphyrin, two known and ubiquitous tetrapyrrole avian eggshell pigments, in all avian and molluscan samples. Biliverdin was solely detected in birds, including the colorful eggshells of four tinamou species. In contrast, protoporphyrin was detected in both the eggshells of several avian species and in the shells of all mollusks. These findings support previous hypotheses about the ubiquitous deposition of tetrapyrroles in the eggshells of various bird lineages and provide evidence for its presence also across distantly related animal taxa.

  18. Diagnosis Molekuler Virus Flu Burung-A Subtipe H5 Berdasarkan Amplifikasi Gen M dan H5 dengan Metode Onestep Simplex RT-PCR (MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE A AND SUBTYPE H5 BY AMPLIFICATION OF ITS M AND H5 GENES USING ONE STEP SIMPLEX R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses which belong to the Family of Orthomyxoviridae are a group of viruses withsegmented ssRNA genome. The viruses can be subgroupped into many subtypes on the basis of theirsurface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins. Among the HA subtypes, H5and H7 have been found to be the most pathogenic. Conventional diagnosis of the viruses is usuallyperformed by isolation of the viruses in embryonated eggs, and hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutinationinhibition test. Although those methods are sensitive and accurate, they are time consuming and requirelaboratory facilities with high biosafety level. Commercial methods such as emzyme-linked immonosorbentassay (ELISA and immunoflurescense assay also provide a rapid result but less sensitive and specificthan conventional methods. Molecular diagnosis by amplification of M and H5 genes using one strepsimplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain eraction (RT-PCR provices a rapid and accurate diagnosisfor the viruses. A study was therefore conducted to evaluate the accurate and rapidity of such the moleculartests for diagnosis of avian influenza A virus, subtype H5. As many as 10 sample of the virus isolateswhich were available at the Animal Desease investigation Center in Wates, Yogyakarta, were uses in thisstudy. The virus isolates were firstly propagated in specific antigen negative (SAN chicken embryos andtested by HA/HI test. The viruses were then subjected for the RT-PCR test with varying annealingtemperatures of 500C and 520C. The result showed that all 10 isolates were type A influenza virus and 8out of 10 were influenza A subtype H5 influenza virus. RT-PCR used in this study appears to be moresensitive, rapid and accurate as compared to those by serological and isolation of the virus in embryonatedeggs.

  19. Comparison of the nature of interactions of two sialic acid specific lectins Saraca indica and Sambucus nigra with N-acetylneuraminic acid by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, Shuvendu [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India); Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bose, Partha P. [Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hajipur 844101 (India); Ganguly, Tapan [School of Laser Science and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Campana, Patricia T. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, 03828-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Ghosh, Rina [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chatterjee, Bishnu P., E-mail: cbishnup@gmail.com [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-04-15

    The present paper deals with the isolation and purification of a new sialic acid binding lectin from the seed integument of Saraca indica (Ashok) and the purified lectin was designated Saracin II. Comparative studies on the interactions of saracin II and another sialic acid specific lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) were made using UV–vis absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence along with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to reveal the nature and mechanisms of binding of these two lectins with NANA. The experimental observations obtained from UV–vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements demonstrated that SNA–NANA system formed relatively stronger ground state complex than saracin II–NANA pair. CD measurements further substantiated the propositions made from steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations. It was inferred that during interaction of SNA with NANA, the lectin adopted a relatively looser conformation with the extended polypeptide structures leading to the exposure of the hydrophobic cavities which favoured stronger binding with NANA. - Highlights: • Of the two lectins, stronger binding of SNA with NANA is observed. • Full exposure of the hydrophobic cavities of SNA favors the stronger interactions. • Saracin II can be used for the new generation of lectin based-therapeutics.

  20. The Relationship of Avian Influenza and Waterbirds in Creating Genetic Diversity and the Role of Waterbirds as Reservoir for Avian Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Avian Influenza (AI has enormous implications for poultry and human health.These outbreaks are caused by influenza A virus that belongS to the family of Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses are RNA viruses, negative polarity, and the envelope has segmented genom. Generally, Avian Influenza is a disease which originally occurred in birds with complex ecology including reassortment and transmission among different species of birds and mammals. The gene of AI virus can be transmitted among human and avian species as shown by the virus reasortantment that caused pandemic human influenza in 1957 and 1968. Pandemi in 1957 and 1968 were different from previously human viruses because the substitution of several genes are derived from avian viruses. Wild waterfowls especially Anseriformes (duck, muscovy duck and geese and Charadriiformes (gulls, seabirds, wild birds are the natural reservoirs for influenza type A viruses and play important role on the ecology and propagation of the virus. From this reservoir, influenza type A virus usually can be transmitted to other birds, mammals (including human and caused outbreak of lethal diseases. Waterfowl that is infected with influenza A virus usually does not show any clinical symptoms. However, several reports stated that HPAI viruses can cause severe disease with neurogical disorders led to death in waterfowl. Migration of birds including waterfowls have active role in transmitting and spreading the disease. Movement of wild birds and inappropriate poultry trade transportation play a greater role as vector in spreading HPAI to humans. Ecological change of environment has also a great effect in spreading AI viruses. The spreading pattern of AI viruses is usually influenced by seasons, where the prevalence of AI was reported to be in the fall, winter and rainy seasons. Finally, the effective control strategies against the spreading of AI viruses is required. Programs of monitoring, surveilence and

  1. Effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nest predation risk in Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province

    OpenAIRE

    Jiji Sun; Siyu Wang; Yanping Wang; Deyu Shao; Ping Ding

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nest predation risk, we placed 726 artificial ground nests with chicken or quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs on 16 islands in edge and interiorlocations in Thousand Island Lake from April to August 2010. We compared nest predation rates between nests with different egg types and between the nests located at different distances from the edge. We also evaluated the relationships between nest predation and island area, isolation, shape in...

  2. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Brazil: a highly complex virus meets a highly susceptible host population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PE Brandão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is a highly aggressive disease for poultry in terms of symptoms and economic losses, and the control of this disease is difficult if flocks are not protected against type-specific challenges by the Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. This article summarizes data presented by the author at the Workshop on Infectious Bronchitis 2009 on IB and IBV, including future developments on the field.

  3. Avian brains: Insights from development, behaviors and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tadashi; Izawa, Ei-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  4. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  5. Avian Circadian Organization: A Chorus of Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Vincent M

    2013-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to maintain stable phase relationships and then influence downstream rhythms through entrainment of peripheral oscillators in the brain controlling behavior and peripheral tissues. Birds represent an excellent model for the role played by biological clocks in human neurobiology; unlike most rodent models, they are diurnal, they exhibit cognitively complex social interactions, and their circadian clocks are more sensitive to the hormone melatonin than are those of nocturnal rodents. PMID:24157655

  6. Avian studies and research opportunities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest: a tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Wunderle, Jr; Wayne J. Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) located on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico has a rich history of ecological research, including a variety of avian studies, and is one of the most active ecological research sites in the Neotropics. The LEF spans an elevational range from 100 to 1075mover which five life zones and four forest types are found in a warm, humid...

  7. Avian Radar - Is It Worth the Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    DC: The Federal Aviation Administration, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service , Wildlife...Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services. York, D. L., Engeman, R. M., Cummings, J. L., Rossi, C. L., & Sinnett, D. R... Health Inspection Service , Wildlife Services. DOT/FAA/AR-09/61. (2010). Deployments of Avian Radars at Civil Airports. Springfield: National

  8. Avian influenza in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng; Sandrock, Christian E; Davis, Cristina E

    2009-07-01

    The disease syndromes caused by avian influenza viruses are highly variable depending on the host species infected, its susceptibility and response to infection and the virulence of the infecting viral strain. Although avian influenza viruses have a broad host range in general, it is rare for an individual strain or subtype to infect more than one species. The H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) lineages of viruses that descended from A/goose/Guandong/96 (H5N1 HPAIV) are unusual in the diversity of species they have infected worldwide. Although the species affected by H5N1 HPAI in the field and those that have been experimentally studied are diverse, their associated disease syndromes are remarkably similar across species. In some species, multi-organ failure and death are rapid and no signs of the disease are observed. Most prominently in this category are chickens and other avian species of the order Galliformes. In other species, neurologic signs develop resulting in the death of the host. This is what has been reported in domestic cats (Carnivora), geese (Anseriformes), ratites (Struthioniformes), pigeons inoculated with high doses (Columbiformes) and ducks infected with H5N1 HPAIV isolated since 2002 (Anseriformes). In some other species, the disease is more prolonged and although multi-organ failure and death are the eventual outcomes, the signs of disease are more extensive. Predominantly, these species include humans (Primates) and the laboratory models of human disease, the ferret (Carnivora), mouse (Rodentia) and cynamologous macaques (Primates). Finally, some species are more resistant to infection with H5N1 HPAIV and show few or no signs of disease. These species include pigeons in some studies (Columbiformes), ducks inoculated with pre-2002 isolates (Anseriformes), and pigs (Artiodactyla).

  9. The Avian Transcriptome Response to Malaria Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used hig...

  10. Integration and Validation of Avian Radars (IVAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    shape, density, gender ) is problematic; • Not suited to high-clutter environments (e.g., in forests, near buildings); • Health & safety issues...Fuca and the Saratoga Passage and within the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains, NAS Whidbey Island offers high quality year round training...was to demonstrate that the digital avian radars being evaluated by the IVAR project can automatically discriminate the echoes of moving targets

  11. Applications of thermal imaging in avian science

    OpenAIRE

    McCafferty, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal imaging, or infrared thermography, has been used in avian science since the 1960s. More than 30 species of birds, ranging in size from passerines to ratites, have been studied using this technology. The main strength of this technique is that it is a non-invasive and non-contact method of measuring surface temperature. Its limitations and measurement errors are well understood and suitable protocols have been developed for a variety of experimental settings. Thermal imaging has been u...

  12. Color polymorphism in a land snail Cepaea nemoralis (Pulmonata: Helicidae) as viewed by potential avian predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmacki, Adrian; Ożarowska-Nowicka, Agata; Rosin, Zuzanna M.

    2013-06-01

    Avian predation is one of the most probable factors maintaining polymorphism of shell coloration in Cepaea nemoralis. This assumption is justified by the fact that birds frequently forage on snails and their prey choice varies with morph coloration. However, in all preceding studies, the conspicuousness of morphs was determined only by using human vision which is significantly different from birds' visual perception. In this study, we assessed how birds perceive colors of four Cepaea nemoralis morphs using physiological models of avian color vision. We calculated combined chromatic and achromatic contrast between shells and three habitat background types as a measure of shell conspicuousness. The degree of background color matching in Cepaea nemoralis depended on both shell morph and habitat type. On average, banded morphs were more conspicuous than unbanded morphs. Morphs were the most cryptic against dry vegetation and the most conspicuous on bare ground. We also found a significant interaction between habitat type and color morph. The relative conspicuousness of shell morphs depended on habitat and was the most variable against green vegetation. Our study provides the first insight into how potential avian predators view Cepaea nemoralis morphs. The results are discussed in light of multiple hypotheses explaining selective predation on Cepaea nemoralis morphs.

  13. Tracing the evolution of avian wing digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Mackem, Susan

    2013-06-17

    It is widely accepted that birds are a subgroup of dinosaurs, but there is an apparent conflict: modern birds have been thought to possess only the middle three fingers (digits II-III-IV) of an idealized five-digit tetrapod hand based on embryological data, but their Mesozoic tetanuran dinosaur ancestors are considered to have the first three digits (I-II-III) based on fossil evidence. How could such an evolutionary quirk arise? Various hypotheses have been proposed to resolve this paradox. Adding to the confusion, some recent developmental studies support a I-II-III designation for avian wing digits whereas some recent paleontological data are consistent with a II-III-IV identification of the Mesozoic tetanuran digits. A comprehensive analysis of both paleontological and developmental data suggests that the evolution of the avian wing digits may have been driven by homeotic transformations of digit identity, which are more likely to have occurred in a partial and piecemeal manner. Additionally, recent genetic studies in mouse models showing plausible mechanisms for central digit loss invite consideration of new alternative possibilities (I-II-IV or I-III-IV) for the homologies of avian wing digits. While much progress has been made, some advances point to the complexity of the problem and a final resolution to this ongoing debate demands additional work from both paleontological and developmental perspectives, which will surely yield new insights on mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  15. Global phylogeographic limits of Hawaii's avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadell, J.S.; Ishtiaq, F.; Covas, R.; Melo, M.; Warren, B.H.; Atkinson, C.T.; Bensch, S.; Graves, G.R.; Jhala, Y.V.; Peirce, M.A.; Rahmani, A.R.; Fonseca, D.M.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) to Hawaii has provided a model system for studying the influence of exotic disease on naive host populations. Little is known, however, about the origin or the genetic variation of Hawaii's malaria and traditional classification methods have confounded attempts to place the parasite within a global ecological and evolutionary context. Using fragments of the parasite mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the nuclear gene dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase obtained from a global survey of greater than 13 000 avian samples, we show that Hawaii's avian malaria, which can cause high mortality and is a major limiting factor for many species of native passerines, represents just one of the numerous lineages composing the morphological parasite species. The single parasite lineage detected in Hawaii exhibits a broad host distribution worldwide and is dominant on several other remote oceanic islands, including Bermuda and Moorea, French Polynesia. The rarity of this lineage in the continental New World and the restriction of closely related lineages to the Old World suggest limitations to the transmission of reproductively isolated parasite groups within the morphological species. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  16. Comparison between intact and desialylated human serum amyloid P component by laser photo CIDNP (chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) technique: an indication for a conformational impact of sialic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Siebert, H.-C; André, S.; Reuter, G.; Kaptein, R.; Gabius, H.-J.

    1997-01-01

    The human pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) exhibits no microheterogeneity in its complex di-antennary glycan. To elucidate whether the removal of sialic acids from this glycoprotein might affect the accessibility of certain amino acid residues of the protein we employed the laser photo

  17. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Injection of Synthetic Poly-Alpha-2,8-Sialic Acid-Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Mimetic Peptide Improves Spatial Long-Term Performance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Cedrick; Foltz, Jane; Norreel, Jean-Chretien; Rougon, Genevieve; Roullet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Several data have shown that the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is necessary for long-term memory formation and might play a role in the structural reorganization of synapses. The NCAM, encoded by a single gene, is represented by several isoforms that differ with regard to their content of alpha-2,8-linked sialic acid residues (PSA) on their…

  18. 4-O-Acetyl-sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac2) in acidic milk oligosaccharides of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and its evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Tadasu; Inamori, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T

    2015-06-01

    Monotremes (echidnas and platypus) retain an ancestral form of reproduction: egg-laying followed by secretion of milk onto skin and hair in a mammary patch, in the absence of nipples. Offspring are highly immature at hatching and depend on oligosaccharide-rich milk for many months. The primary saccharide in long-beaked echidna milk is an acidic trisaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose), but acidic oligosaccharides have not been characterized in platypus milk. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides purified from the carbohydrate fraction of platypus milk were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All identified structures, except Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose) contained Neu4,5Ac2 (4-O-acetyl-sialic acid). These include the trisaccharide 4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose, the pentasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-tetraose d) and the hexasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose III). At least seven different octa- to deca-oligosaccharides each contained a lacto-N-neohexaose core (LNnH) and one or two Neu4,5Ac2 and one to three fucose residues. We conclude that platypus milk contains a diverse (≥ 20) array of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides based primarily on lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and LNnH structural cores and shares with echidna milk the unique feature that all identified acidic oligosaccharides (other than 3'-sialyllactose) contain the 4-O-acetyl-sialic acid moiety. We propose that 4-O-acetylation of sialic acid moieties protects acidic milk oligosaccharides secreted onto integumental surfaces from bacterial hydrolysis via steric interference with bacterial sialidases. This may be of evolutionary significance since taxa ancestral to monotremes and other mammals are

  19. Effects of oil on avian reproduction: A review and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Rosie, Don; Barnes, Stephen N.

    1983-01-01

    Oil pollution is a highly visible form of environmental contamination that affects avian reproduction in a variety of ways. Plumage oiling causes widespread and locally severe mortality of adult birds. Egg oiling can be a serious hazard for bird embryos but only a few field observationons of this have been reported. Oil ingestion seldom kills birds directly but it causes sublethal change~ in the bodily functions and behavior of adults and nestlings. Studies of the effects of oil on avian reproduction have produced varied and, in ingestion studies, sometimes conflicting results because of inconsistent experimental design and the use of different test species and types of oil. Field experimentation with the sublethal effects of ingested oil on avian reproduction has been limited. Simulation modelling of seabird populations has shown that (l) an occasional decrease in survival of breeding adults will have a greater impact on seabird populations than an occasional decrease in reproductive success, and (2) populations of long-lived seabirds with low reproductive potential have great difficulty recovering from high one-time mortality when experiencing even small sustained annual decreases in either natality or breeding adult survival. The impact of oil-related decreases in survival or reproduction will be more noticeable at the local or colony level than at the regional or species level. Immigration, surplus breeders, and possible compensatory changes in natality and mortality resulting from population reductions usually prevent local population reductions from lasting very long (unless the species is rare or at the edge of its range). A study of west European seabird populations indicates that the natural annual mortality of the region greatly exceeds the annual mortality due to plumage oiling; effects of oil ingestion and egg oiling were not measured but were thought to be less than the mortality from plu~age oiling. Oil-related mortality, even if in addition to

  20. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  1. Avian personalities : characterization and epigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, TGG; Carere, C; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    The work presented here aims at understanding the nature, epigenesis and function of personality types (here called behavioral profiles) in birds, focusing on a wild bird species, the great tit (Parus major). Lines bidirectionally selected for exploration show a wide array of social and non-social

  2. EPIZOOTIOLOGICAL CHART OF AVIAN CHLAMYDIOSIS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Šatrović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2003 to 2008 we conducted a research on avian chlamydiosis in Bosnia and Herzegovina on a great number of domestic and wild birds from different localities. Diagnostic material from the wild birds was provided by the hunting societies during the hunting season while material from the domestic poultry was taken indiscriminately. Chicken samples are taken from the facilities for intensive production, namely parent flocks. Turkey samples are taken from the individual households keeping and breeding turkey on extensive basis (half – open type of breeding. Pigeon samples are provided from the central parts of Sarajevo where the pigeons live in a close contact with people. Also, pigeon samples are provided from around the town's bakery and a farm for intensive poultry breeding because the pigeons are considered a potential source of infection for other birds, primarily domestic ones, and also for the people. We also took samples of the breeding pheasants from a pheasant farm in Orašje, which is oriented toward breeding and releasing pheasants into their natural habitat, but also breeding for the needs of hunting industry. Samples from the wild/hunting birds (ducks and wild pheasants were provided in the proximity of watercourses as their residence, and where the hunting is of a greater extent. To obtain valid diagnostic results we have used multiple diagnostic methods and tests: bacteriological examination to exclude cross reactions, IIF (indirect immunofluorescence to confirm antibodies in the blood serum, ELISA (immunoesay and EIA (quick immunoessay to detect antigen, and conventional PCR and rRT – PCR to detect antigen as sensitive and sophisticated diagnostics methods.Key words: avian chlamydiosis, epizootiological chart, Bosnia and Herzegovina

  3. Systematic analysis of transcription start sites in avian development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lizio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE in combination with single-molecule sequencing technology allows precision mapping of transcription start sites (TSSs and genome-wide capture of promoter activities in differentiated and steady state cell populations. Much less is known about whether TSS profiling can characterize diverse and non-steady state cell populations, such as the approximately 400 transitory and heterogeneous cell types that arise during ontogeny of vertebrate animals. To gain such insight, we used the chick model and performed CAGE-based TSS analysis on embryonic samples covering the full 3-week developmental period. In total, 31,863 robust TSS peaks (>1 tag per million [TPM] were mapped to the latest chicken genome assembly, of which 34% to 46% were active in any given developmental stage. ZENBU, a web-based, open-source platform, was used for interactive data exploration. TSSs of genes critical for lineage differentiation could be precisely mapped and their activities tracked throughout development, suggesting that non-steady state and heterogeneous cell populations are amenable to CAGE-based transcriptional analysis. Our study also uncovered a large set of extremely stable housekeeping TSSs and many novel stage-specific ones. We furthermore demonstrated that TSS mapping could expedite motif-based promoter analysis for regulatory modules associated with stage-specific and housekeeping genes. Finally, using Brachyury as an example, we provide evidence that precise TSS mapping in combination with Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR-on technology enables us, for the first time, to efficiently target endogenous avian genes for transcriptional activation. Taken together, our results represent the first report of genome-wide TSS mapping in birds and the first systematic developmental TSS analysis in any amniote species (birds and mammals. By facilitating promoter-based molecular analysis and genetic

  4. 2 original article non-attenuation of highly pathogenic avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Ularamu, H. G1., Ponman, S1 and Nwagbo, I2., 1 FAO Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle. Disease (West and Central ... Avian influenza H5N1 represents one of the most researched viruses in laboratories world-wide in recent times with regards ..... Cayouette B. Kinetics of ultra- violet light inactivation of.

  5. High prevalence of avian malaria infection to avifauna at Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was undertaken during January and February 2004, to determine the epidemiological risk of avian malaria infection to seabirds at the proposed marine animal rehabilitation complex, to be sited at Cape Receife. Despite low numbers of mosquitoes trapped, the incidence of avian malaria infections was ...

  6. Avian fossils from the Early Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian remains from the Early Miocene (~17 Ma) Moghra Formation of Egypt include new records of 'waterbirds' (storks, herons, pelicans and allies) and a ratite. Only a single avian fossil has been previously reported from Wadi Moghra and, thus, additional knowledge of the avifauna complements previously documented ...

  7. Avian influenza, Newcastle and Gumboro disease antibodies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on avian influenza and Newcastle disease focus on waterfowls, considered natural reservoirs of these viruses. This study surveyed avian influenza (AI), Gumboro and Newcastle disease antibodies and antigens in birds in live wild bird markets (LWBMs), live poultry markets (LPMs) and free flying in Kaduna State ...

  8. Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial breeders and layers, southwest Nigeria. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Background: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the ...

  9. Avian nestling predation by endangered Mount Graham red squirrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2007-01-01

    Studies using artificial nests or remote cameras have documented avian predation by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although several direct observations of avian predation events are known in the northern range of the red squirrel distribution, no accounts have been reported in the southern portion. We observed predation upon a hermit thrush...

  10. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  11. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  12. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  13. Avian research in the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice Van Horne

    2005-01-01

    Avian research in the Federal Government is in a crisis. Yes, there is a strong interest in avian research, as evidenced by the size and level of interest in this conference. But political parties increasingly see wildlife research as expendable. At the same time, the reaction to environment-friendly legislation of the 1970s and 1980s has been strong from both sides....

  14. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  15. Socioeconomic Impacts of Avian Influenza on Small and Backyard ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    and compensation schemes are more difficult to enforce than in large commercial poultry farms. Moreover, small and backyard farmers have fewer reserves to cope with the financial impact of avian influenza and, possibly, greater motivation to circumvent government control measures. The Asian Partnership for Avian ...

  16. Ontogeny of avian thermoregulation from a neural point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2007-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation differs among (avian) species, but in all species both neural and endocrinological processes are involved. In this review the neural processes in ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal and early postnatal phase are discussed. Only in a few avian species

  17. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Isolate. 113.70 Section 113.70 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or modified...

  18. Detection of avian nephritis virus and chicken astrovirus in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian nephritis virus (ANV) and chicken astrovirus (CAstV) are widely distributed in poultry flocks worldwide, causing growth retardation. However, these avian astroviruses have not been previously diagnosed in poultry species in Nigeria. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRTPCR) and reverse ...

  19. Nanostructures for the development of vaccines against avian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... Photo: IDRC / Sven Torfinn. The impact of avian influenza. The livelihoods of smallholder farmers, who most frequently own poultry have been severely impacted by recent outbreaks of avian influenza (AI). The severity of the disease can range from mild to extremely severe cases with up to a 100% mortality ...

  20. A single immunization with soluble recombinant trimeric hemagglutinin protects chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette A H M Cornelissen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus H5N1 causes multi-organ disease and death in poultry, resulting in significant economic losses in the poultry industry. In addition, it poses a major public health threat as it can be transmitted directly from infected poultry to humans with very high (60% mortality rate. Effective vaccination against HPAI H5N1 would protect commercial poultry and would thus provide an important control measure by reducing the likelihood of bird-to-bird and bird-to-human transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we evaluated the vaccine potential of recombinant soluble trimeric subtype 5 hemagglutinin (sH5(3 produced in mammalian cells. The secreted, purified sH5(3 was biologically active as demonstrated by its binding to ligands in a sialic acid-dependent manner. It was shown to protect chickens, in a dose-dependent manner, against a lethal challenge with H5N1 after a single vaccination. Protected animals did not shed challenge virus as determined by a quantitative RT-PCR on RNA isolated from trachea and cloaca swabs. Also in mice, vaccination with sH5(3 provided complete protection against challenge with HPAI H5N1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that sH5(3 constitutes an attractive vaccine antigen for protection of chickens and mammals against HPAI H5N1. As these recombinant soluble hemagglutinin preparations can be produced with high yields and with relatively short lead time, they enable a rapid response to circulating and potentially pandemic influenza viruses.

  1. Tumor Targeting via Sialic Acid: [68Ga]DOTA-en-pba as a New Tool for Molecular Imaging of Cancer with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, Charalambos; Geninatti-Crich, Simonetta; Gaitanis, Anastasios; Tsotakos, Theodoros; Paravatou-Petsotas, Maria; Aime, Silvio; Jiménez-Juárez, Rogelio; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos D; Djanashvili, Kristina; Bouziotis, Penelope

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Ga-68-labeled macrocycle (DOTA-en-pba) conjugated with phenylboronic vector for tumor recognition by positron emission tomography (PET), based on targeting of the overexpressed sialic acid (Sia). The imaging reporter DOTA-en-pba was synthesized and labeled with Ga-68 at high efficiency. Cell binding assay on Mel-C and B16-F10 melanoma cells was used to evaluate melanin production and Sia overexpression to determine the best model for demonstrating the capability of [ 68 Ga]DOTA-en-pba to recognize tumors. The in vivo PET imaging was done with B16-F10 tumor-bearing SCID mice injected with [ 68 Ga]DOTA-en-pba intravenously. Tumor, blood, and urine metabolites were assessed to evaluate the presence of a targeting agent. The affinity of [ 68 Ga]DOTA-en-pba to Sia was demonstrated on B16-F10 melanoma cells, after the production of melanin as well as Sia overexpression was proved to be up to four times higher in this cell line compared to that in Mel-C cells. Biodistribution studies in B16-F10 tumor-bearing SCID mice showed blood clearance at the time points studied, while uptake in the tumor peaked at 60 min post-injection (6.36 ± 2.41 % ID/g). The acquired PET images were in accordance with the ex vivo biodistribution results. Metabolite assessment on tumor, blood, and urine samples showed that [ 68 Ga]DOTA-en-pba remains unmetabolized up to at least 60 min post-injection. Our work is the first attempt for in vivo imaging of cancer by targeting overexpression of sialic acid on cancer cells with a radiotracer in PET.

  2. Anti-HIV I/II activity and molecular cloning of a novel mannose/sialic acid-binding lectin from rhizome of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jie; Liu, Jin-Zhi; Wu, Chuan-Fang; Li, Jian; Dai, Lei; Van Damme, Els; Balzarini, Jan; De Clercq, Erik; Chen, Fang; Bao, Jin-Ku

    2006-02-01

    The anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) I/II activity of a mannose and sialic acid binding lectin isolated from rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua was elucidated by comparing its HIV infection inhibitory activity in MT-4 and CEM cells with that of other mannose-binding lectins (MBLs). The anti-HIV activity of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua lectin (PCL) was 10- to 100-fold more potent than other tested MBLs, but without significant cytotoxicity towards MT-4 or CEM cells. To amplify cDNA of PCL by 3'/5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the 30 amino acids of N-terminal were determined by sequencing and the degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed. The full-length cDNA of PCL contained 693 bp with an open reading frame encoding a precursor protein of 160 amino acid residues, consisting of a 28-residue signal peptide, a 22-residue C-terminal cleavage peptide and a 110-residue mature polypeptide which contained three tandemly arranged subdomains with an obvious sequence homology to the monocot MBL. However, only one active mannose-binding site (QDNVY) was found in subdomain I of PCL, that of subdomain II and III changed to HNNVY and PDNVY, respectively. There was no intron in PCL, which was in good agreement with other monocot MBLs. Molecular modeling of PCL indicated that its three-dimensional structure resembles that of the snowdrop agglutinin. By docking, an active sialic acid-binding site was found in PCL. The instabilization of translation initiation region (TIR) in mRNA of PCL benefits its high expression in rhizomes.

  3. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  4. Avian mycobacteriosis in companion birds: 20-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarolla, Giovanni; Liandris, Emmanouil; Pisoni, Giuliano; Sassera, Davide; Grilli, Guido; Gallazzi, Daniele; Sironi, Giuseppe; Moroni, Paolo; Piccinini, Renata; Rampin, Tiziana

    2009-02-02

    The causative agents of avian mycobacteriosis in pet birds are rarely identified. The aim of this study is to add information about the etiology of avian mycobacteriosis. The identification of mycobacterium species in 27 cases of avian mycobacteriosis in pet birds was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of a rRNA hypervariable region. Avian mycobacteriosis appeared to be an infrequent diagnosis. Interestingly, a few cases of avian mycobacteriosis were recorded in very young birds. The most commonly affected species were the canary (Serinus canarius), the Eurasian goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) and the red siskin (Spinus cucullatus). All but one bird were infected with Mycobacterium genavense. Mycobacterium avium was identified only in one case.

  5. New USDA licensed avian influenza vaccine (rHVT-AI) for protection against H5 avian influenza and usage discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, a new avian influenza vaccine was licensed by USDA for use in the United States for protection of commercial poultry. The vaccine is a recombinant herpes virus of turkeys expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5 subtype avian influenza virus belonging to the 2.2 clade of the H5N1 highly ...

  6. The avian transcriptome response to malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-05-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 postinfection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). We found considerable differences in the transcriptomes of infected and uninfected individuals, with a large number of genes differentially expressed during both peak and decreasing parasitemia stages. These genes were overrepresented among functions involved in the immune system, stress response, cell death regulation, metabolism, and telomerase activity. Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse) revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. By using RNA-sequencing we gained a more complete view of the host response, and were able to pinpoint not only well-documented host genes but also unannotated genes with clear significance during infection, such as microRNAs. This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe that it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. The threshold of a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrong; Zhang, Xinhong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect in human population and saturation effect within avian population is investigated. This model describes the transmission of avian influenza among avian population and human population in random environments. For stochastic avian-only system, persistence in the mean and extinction of the infected avian population are studied. For the avian-human influenza epidemic system, sufficient conditions for the existence of an ergodic stationary distribution are obtained. Furthermore, a threshold of this stochastic model which determines the outcome of the disease is obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  8. Landscape matrix mediates occupancy dynamics of Neotropical avian insectivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christina M.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Neel, Maile C.; Fagan, William F.; Marpa, Peter P.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to patch-level attributes (i.e., area and isolation), the nature of land cover between habitat patches (the matrix) may drive colonization and extinction dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Despite a long-standing recognition of matrix effects in fragmented systems, an understanding of the relative impacts of different types of land cover on patterns and dynamics of species occurrence remains limited. We employed multi-season occupancy models to determine the relative influence of patch area, patch isolation, within-patch vegetation structure, and landscape matrix on occupancy dynamics of nine Neotropical nsectivorous birds in 99 forest patches embedded in four matrix types (agriculture, suburban evelopment, bauxite mining, and forest) in central Jamaica. We found that within-patch vegetation structure and the matrix type between patches were more important than patch area and patch isolation in determining local colonization and local extinction probabilities, and that the effects of patch area, isolation, and vegetation structure on occupancy dynamics tended to be matrix and species dependent. Across the avian community, the landscape matrix influenced local extinction more than local colonization, indicating that extinction processes, rather than movement, likely drive interspecific differences in occupancy dynamics. These findings lend crucial empirical support to the hypothesis that species occupancy dynamics in fragmented systems may depend greatly upon the landscape context.

  9. Current genomic editing approaches in avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sub; Kang, Kyung Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    The chicken was domesticated from Red Jungle Fowl over 8000years ago and became one of the major food sources worldwide. At present, the poultry industry is one of the largest industrial animal stocks in the world, and its economic scale is expanding significantly with increasing consumption. Additionally, since Aristotle used chicken eggs as a model to provide remarkable insights into how life begins, chickens have been used as invaluable and powerful experimental materials for studying embryo development, immune systems, biomedical processes, and hormonal regulation. Combined with advancements in efficient transgenic technology, avian models have become even more important than would have been expected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  11. Avian influenza overview September–November 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian; Kuiken, Thijs; Mulatti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    the outbreaks, no transmission to humans has been identified in the EU. The report includes an update of the list of wild bird target species for passive surveillance activities that is based on reported AI-infected wild birds since 2006. The purpose of this list is to provide information on which bird species...... the continuing threat of this avian influenza virus to human health and possible introduction via migratory wild birds into Europe. Close monitoring is required of the situation in Africa with regards to HPAI of the subtypes A(H5N1) and A(H5N8), given the rapidity of the evolution and the uncertainty...

  12. Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teti, A.; Rizzoli, R.; Zambonin Zallone, A. (Univ. of Bari (Italy))

    1991-02-14

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with ({sup 125}I)--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated.

  13. Tissue interactions of avian viral attachment proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can infect a wide range of hosts; varying from bacteria and plants to animals and humans. While many viral infections may pass unnoticed, some are of major importance due to their implications on health and welfare of plants, animals and/or humans. In particular, viruses that can infect avian hosts have been studied intensively due the occurrence of the pandemics of highly pathogenic influenza A virus infection or “bird flu’’. Viral infections in domesticated birds can result in huge ...

  14. Avian personalities: characterization and epigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Ton G G; Carere, Claudio

    2005-02-01

    The work presented here aims at understanding the nature, epigenesis and function of personality types (here called behavioral profiles) in birds, focusing on a wild bird species, the great tit (Parus major). Lines bidirectionally selected for exploration show a wide array of social and non-social behavioral differences, and also some differences in physiological parameters. Line differences in these characteristics and their relationships show significant temporal consistency. The results show a surprising similarity between the great tit and a rodent model, suggesting a fundamental principle in the organization of behavioral profiles. The nature of this principle and whether or not it is multi-dimensional is discussed. However, the similarity with a chicken model is less clear, which points to some caution for generalization. The epigenesis of great tit behavioral profiles is discussed. Selection experiments with replication and backcrosses reveal a strong genetic basis, and suggest an influence of maternal effects. Ontogenetic manipulations indicate strong developmental plasticity, suggesting adaptive adjustment to prevailing environmental circumstances. They also show that behavioral characteristics belonging to the same profile can become uncoupled. Finally, field data on several fitness parameters of the different personalities in wild great tits are summarized. These data suggest that variation in selection pressure in time and space and assortative mating are plausible mechanisms accounting for the maintenance of different behavioral profiles within the same population.

  15. Lower Detection Probability of Avian Plasmodium in Blood Compared to Other Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson-Coelho, M; Silva, G T; Santos, S S; Miranda, L S; Araújo-Silva, L E; Ricklefs, R E; Miyaki, C Y; Maldonado-Coelho, M

    2016-10-01

    We tested whether the probability of detecting avian haemosporidia (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) using molecular techniques differs among blood, liver, heart, and pectoral muscle tissues. We used a paired design, sampling the 4 tissue types in 55 individuals of a wild South American suboscine antbird, the white-shouldered fire-eye (Pyriglena leucoptera). We also identified parasites to cytochrome b lineage. Detection probability was significantly lower in blood compared to the other 3 tissue types combined. Eight of 22 infections were not detected in blood samples; 4-7 infections were not detected in the other individual tissues. The same parasite lineage was recovered from different tissues.

  16. Conservation status, species composition, and distribution of Avian Community in Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shahnawaz Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Birds are among the best indicators of environmental changes. Given the significance of birds for conservation planning and environmental assessments, there is a need to develop a better ecological understanding of avian community structure. In southeast Asia, the association among tropical birds with their habitat is poorly studied. To investigate the influence of different habitats on the avifauna, we studied the composition of local bird communities along habitat gradients characterized by environmental factors such as vegetation type and extent of anthropogenic pressure, using the open-radius point count method. This is the first attempt to document the status, composition, and distribution of avifauna in Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary, Bihar, India. A total of 147 avian species belonging to 58 families and 20 orders were recorded during the study. It was found that the forest range Lakhisarai, with 50% of habitat heterogeneity, supports the highest avian density (6,428 individuals/km2 in the sanctuary, whereas the lowest bird density was recorded from the Munger forest range i.e. 3,847 individuals/km2, which also has the least habitat heterogeneity (i.e. 20%. The forest range Dharara (p = 0.006, and habitat categories degraded bamboo forest (p = 0.005 and forest edge with cultivation (p < 0.001 were found to support significantly higher bird diversity.

  17. Avian polymavirus in wild birds: genome analysis of isolates from Falconiformes and Psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne, R; Müller, H

    1998-01-01

    Avian polyomavirus (APV) infections have been reported to cause fatal disease in a wide range of psittacine species. Here we demonstrate APV infections in buzzards (Buteo buteo) and in a falcon (Falco tinnunculus) found dead in Germany, and in lovebirds (Agapornis pullaria) with fatal disease, wild-caught in Moçambique. APV infection in buzzards was determined by PCR amplification of parts of the viral genome followed by Southern blot hybridisation. The genomes of the isolates obtained from the falcon and one of the lovebirds proved to be very closely related to those of Budgerigar Fledgling Disease Virus (BFDV)-1, BFDV-2 and BFDV-3, isolated from budgerigar, chicken, and parakeet, respectively. A consensus sequence was delineated from the known nucleotide sequences of APV isolates. The significance of some nucleotide changes is discussed. Infectivity of all of these isolates was neutralized by antibodies directed against BFDV-1. Data presented in this investigation show that the polyomavirus isolates obtained from different avian species so far all belong to one genotype and one serotype within the proposed subgenus Avipolyomavirus of the family Papovaviridae. The designation Budgerigar Fledgling Disease Virus (BFDV) is, therefore, misleading as this virus type infects different species of birds. The name Avian Polymavirus and the abreviation APV should be adopted to all of the isolates investigated in detail at present. The possible role of birds of passage in the epidemiology in APV infections is discussed.

  18. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  19. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F

    2008-01-22

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of 'avian' characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  20. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  1. Developmental studies of avian brain organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Avian brain organization or brain Bauplan is identical with that of vertebrates in general. This essay visits avian studies that contained advances or discussions about brain organization, trying to explain critically what they contributed. In order to start from a specific background, the new prevailing paradigm as regards brain organization, the prosomeric model, is presented first. Next a brief historic survey is made of how ideas on this topic evolved from the start of modern neuromorphology at the end of the 19th century. Longitudinal zonal organization with or without transverse segmentation (neuromeres) was the first overall concept applied to the brain. The idea of neuromeric structure later decayed in favour of a columnar model. This emphasized functional correlations rather than causal developmental content, assimilating forebrain functions to hindbrain ones. Though it became prevalent in the post-world-war period of neuroscience, in the last decades of the 20th century advances in molecular biology allowed developmental genes to be mapped, and it became evident that gene expression patterns support the old neuromeric model rather than the columnar one. This was also corroborated by modern experimental approaches (fate-mapping and analysis of patterning).

  2. Seasonal change in the avian hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Functional window of the avian compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Kondabagil, Kiran; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2017-05-01

    The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation. While these lend support to the radical-pair model, we find that in its simplest form-or even with minor augmentations-it cannot quantitatively explain the observed width of the functional window. This suggests deeper generalization of the model, possibly in terms of more nuclei or more subtle environmental interaction than has been considered hitherto. Finally, we examine a possible biological purpose for the functional window; even assuming evolutionary benefit from radical-pair magnetoreception, it seems likely that the functional window could be just a corollary thereof, imparting no additional advantage.

  5. Milestones in avian coccidiosis research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D

    2014-03-01

    This article describes some of the milestones in research concerned with protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria that infect birds and cause the disease coccidiosis. The time period covered is from 1891, when oocysts were first found in the ceca of diseased chickens, to the present. Progress in our understanding has lagged behind that of other protozoan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium despite the enormous importance of Eimeria to animal livestock production. Nevertheless, applied research by universities, government agencies, and private industry has resulted in the successful development of methods of control, research that continues today. The topics covered and the references provided are selective and include life cycles and biology, pathology, ultrastructure, biochemistry, immunity, genetics, host cell invasion, species identification, taxonomy, chemotherapy, vaccination, and literature concerned with avian coccidiosis. This review is primarily concerned with the avian species of Eimeria that infect poultry, but some important advances, principally in immunology, have been made using species that infect rodents and rabbits. These are included where appropriate.

  6. Subpathotypes of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Exist as Defined by their Syndromes and Virulence Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Victor Gonçalves; de Pace, Fernanda; Carlos, Camila; Mistretta Pires, Mathias; Amabile de Campos, Tatiana; Nakazato, Gerson; Guedes Stheling, Eliana; Logue, Catherine M; Nolan, Lisa K; Dias da Silveira, Wanderley

    2011-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause different types of systemic extraintestinal infections in poultry, collectively termed colibacillosis, which can cause significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To date, there have been no descriptions of genes or characteristics that allow for the classification of avian strains pathotypes responsible for causing specific diseases in their hosts. In this study we aimed to characterize avian E. coli strains representing 4 groups, including one of commensal strains (AFEC - Avian Fecal Escherichia coli) and 3 groups of APEC strains, where each group is responsible for causing a different disease syndrome in their respective hosts (septicemia, omphalitis and swollen head syndrome). We chose to examine several biological characteristics of these strains including: adhesion to eukaryotic cells, pathogenicity levels according to the lethal dose (50%) assay, phylogenetic group and virulence gene profiles. The comparison of strains based on these genotypic and phenotypic traits, using multivariate statisticals tools and complex networks, allowed us to infer information about the population structure of the studied groups. Our results indicate that APEC strains do not constitute a unique homogeneous group, but rather a structured set of subgroups, where each one is associated with a specific infectious syndrome which can possibly be used to define pathotypes or subpathotypes within APEC strains. These results offer new possibilities with which to study the genes responsible for various pathogenetic processes within APEC strains, and for vaccine development. It may be important to consider these subgroups when developing a vaccine in an effort for obtain cross protection, which has not yet been successfully accomplished when working with APEC strains.

  7. Cases of mortality in little penguins (Eudyptula minor) in New Zealand associated with avian malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijbranda, D C; Hunter, S; Howe, L; Lenting, B; Argilla, L; Gartrell, B D

    2017-11-01

    CASE HISTORY A little penguin (Eudyptula minor) of wild origin, in captivity at Wellington Zoo, became inappetent and lethargic in March 2013. Despite supportive care in the zoo's wildlife hospital, the bird died within 24 hours. CLINICAL FINDINGS Weight loss, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, weakness, increased respiratory effort and biliverdinuria were apparent on physical examination. Microscopic evaluation of blood smears revealed intra-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium spp. and a regenerative reticulocytosis in the absence of anaemia. PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS Post-mortem findings included reduced body condition, dehydration, pulmonary congestion and oedema, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hydropericardium and subcutaneous oedema. Histopathological findings included protozoal organisms in sections of lung, liver and spleen. A marked, diffuse, sub-acute interstitial histiocytic pneumonia was present. Accumulation of haemosiderin was noted in the Kupffer cells of the liver and in histiocytic-type cells in the spleen. MOLECULAR TESTING DNA was extracted from frozen portions of the liver. Nested PCR results and DNA sequencing confirmed infection of the deceased little penguin with Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum lineage GRW06. DIAGNOSIS Avian malaria due to Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06 RETROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATION A retrospective analysis of 294 little penguin cases in the Massey University post-mortem database revealed three other potential avian malaria cases. Analysis of archived tissues using a nested PCR for Plasmodium spp. followed by DNA sequencing revealed that a little penguin which died at Auckland Zoo was infected with P. elongatum GRW06 and two wild little penguins found dead on New Zealand beaches were infected with P. relictum SGS1 and Plasmodium. sp. lineage LINN1. Therefore, the overall frequency of deaths in little penguins associated with avian malaria was 4/295 (1.36%). CLINICAL RELEVANCE Our results suggest that avian malaria is associated with

  8. Identification of high risk areas for avian influenza outbreaks in California using disease distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Belkhiria

    Full Text Available The coexistence of different types of poultry operations such as free range and backyard flocks, large commercial indoor farms and live bird markets, as well as the presence of many areas where wild and domestic birds co-exist, make California susceptible to avian influenza outbreaks. The 2014-2015 highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI outbreaks affecting California and other states in the United States have underscored the need for solutions to protect the US poultry industry against this devastating disease. We applied disease distribution models to predict where Avian influenza is likely to occur and the risk for HPAI outbreaks is highest. We used observations on the presence of Low Pathogenic Avian influenza virus (LPAI in waterfowl or water samples at 355 locations throughout the state and environmental variables relevant to the disease epidemiology. We used two algorithms, Random Forest and MaxEnt, and two data-sets Presence-Background and Presence-Absence data. The models performed well (AUCc > 0.7 for testing data, particularly those using Presence-Background data (AUCc > 0.85. Spatial predictions were similar between algorithms, but there were large differences between the predictions with Presence-Absence and Presence-Background data. Overall, predictors that contributed most to the models included land cover, distance to coast, and broiler farm density. Models successfully identified several counties as high-to-intermediate risk out of the 8 counties with observed outbreaks during the 2014-2015 HPAI epizootics. This study provides further insights into the spatial epidemiology of AI in California, and the high spatial resolution maps may be useful to guide risk-based surveillance and outreach efforts.

  9. 2014-2016 Avian Point Count and Migration Surveys at Site 300 for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The primary goals of the surveys were to: 1) collect minutes of bird activity within Site 300, 2) consider relative abundance of the different bird species occurring within the Site, 3) collect behavioral information, and 4) provide compelling evidence to determine the status of the Site as a migration corridor or migration stopover site. To this end, two survey types were conducted: avian point counts were conducted on a monthly basis from February 2014 through January 2016 and migration surveys were conducted over two three-month periods from September 2014 through November 2014, and September 2015 through November 2015. These two surveys types provided the opportunity to observe avian species in a variety of conditions across a two year period. Whenever possible or relevant, the observations of either survey were used to inform and complement the observations of the other survey in pursuit of the above goals. Both survey types are described below.

  10. Impact of Management on Avian Communities in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newey, Scott; Mustin, Karen; Bryce, Rosalind; Fielding, Debbie; Redpath, Steve; Bunnefeld, Nils; Daniel, Bronwen; Irvine, R Justin

    2016-01-01

    The protection of biodiversity is a key national and international policy objective. While protected areas provide one approach, a major challenge lies in understanding how the conservation of biodiversity can be achieved in the context of multiple land management objectives in the wider countryside. Here we analyse metrics of bird diversity in the Scottish uplands in relation to land management types and explore how bird species composition varies in relation to land managed for grazing, hunting and conservation. Birds were surveyed on the heather moorland areas of 26 different landholdings in Scotland. The results indicate that, in relation to dominant management type, the composition of bird species varies but measures of diversity and species richness do not. Intensive management for grouse shooting affects the occurrence, absolute and relative abundance of bird species. While less intensive forms of land management appear to only affect the relative abundance of species, though extensive sheep grazing appears to have little effect on avian community composition. Therefore enhanced biodiversity at the landscape level is likely to be achieved by maintaining heterogeneity in land management among land management units. This result should be taken into account when developing policies that consider how to achieve enhanced biodiversity outside protected areas, in the context of other legitimate land-uses.

  11. Impact of Management on Avian Communities in the Scottish Highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Newey

    Full Text Available The protection of biodiversity is a key national and international policy objective. While protected areas provide one approach, a major challenge lies in understanding how the conservation of biodiversity can be achieved in the context of multiple land management objectives in the wider countryside. Here we analyse metrics of bird diversity in the Scottish uplands in relation to land management types and explore how bird species composition varies in relation to land managed for grazing, hunting and conservation. Birds were surveyed on the heather moorland areas of 26 different landholdings in Scotland. The results indicate that, in relation to dominant management type, the composition of bird species varies but measures of diversity and species richness do not. Intensive management for grouse shooting affects the occurrence, absolute and relative abundance of bird species. While less intensive forms of land management appear to only affect the relative abundance of species, though extensive sheep grazing appears to have little effect on avian community composition. Therefore enhanced biodiversity at the landscape level is likely to be achieved by maintaining heterogeneity in land management among land management units. This result should be taken into account when developing policies that consider how to achieve enhanced biodiversity outside protected areas, in the context of other legitimate land-uses.

  12. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R G; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  13. Data base on avian mortality on man-made structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computerized data base concerning avian mortality on man-made structures is available for searching at the Ecological Sciences Information Center of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This data base, which contains entries from the available literature, provides information on avian mortality from either collision into or electrocution on man-made structures. Primary emphasis has been placed on avian collision with obstacles such as television and radio towers, airport ceilometers, transmission lines, and cooling towers. Other structures included in the studies are fences, glass walls and windows, lighthouses, telegraph and telephone wires, buildings, monuments, smokestacks, and water towers.

  14. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size...... this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits....

  15. Global dynamic analysis of a H7N9 avian-human influenza model in an outbreak region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongxue; Wen, Yongxian

    2015-02-21

    In 2013 in China a new type of avian influenza virus, H7N9, began to infect humans and had aroused severe fatality in the infected humans. We know that the spread is from poultry to humans, and the H7N9 avian influenza is low pathogenic in the poultry world but highly pathogenic in the human world, but the transmission mechanism is unclear. Since it has no signs of human-to-human transmission and outbreaks are isolated in some cities in China, in order to investigate the transmission mechanism of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza, an eco-epidemiological model in an outbreak region is proposed and analyzed dynamically. Researches and reports show that gene mutation makes the new virus be capable of infecting humans, therefore the mutation factor is taken into account in the model. The global dynamic analysis is conducted, different thresholds are identified, persistence and global qualitative behaviors are obtained. The impact of H7N9 avian influenza on the people population is concerned. Finally, the numerical simulations are carried out to support the theoretical analysis and to investigate the disease control measures. It seems that we may take people׳s hygiene and prevention awareness factor as a significant policy to achieve the aim of both the disease control and the economic returns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  17. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee

  18. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Selection and syntheses of tentacle type peptides as 'artificial' lectins against various cell-surface carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Soonsil; Kim, Jiyoung; Kwon, Miyun; Yu, Jaehoon

    2007-01-01

    Sialyl Lewis X and its derivatives are cell-surface carbohydrates that are involved in cell-cell recognition by carbohydrate-mediated interactions. Unfortunately, owing to the similarities between carbohydrates only a limited number of tools are available for their differentiation. In this study, we prepared a selected phage-displayed peptide library against LeX (2), SLN (3), or LN (4), which compared to sLeX (1) lack sialic acid, fucose, and both sialic acid and fucose from constituents, respectively. Sequences of the selected peptides, prepared as tentacle type dimeric peptides, were prepared and shown to have micromolar affinities for the cognate carbohydrates. The specificities displayed by these 'artificial' lectins overwhelm those of natural lectins. These results suggest that they can serve as useful tools to detect changes in the terminal monosaccharide of cell-surface carbohydrates.

  20. Artist conception of the Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  1. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    . It consists of a skeletal framework, flexible membranes or soft tissue masses, labia, stretched between elements of this framework, and the syringeal muscles. Until a decade ago most of our knowledge about syringeal mechanics was based on such indirect evidence as electromyography, emitted sound, and anatomy....... The use of thin, flexible endoscopes has made direct observation of the syrinx possible in situ. The effects of direct muscle stimulation on the syringeal aperture have identified adductor and abductor muscles, confirming results from electromyographic studies. Endoscopic observations have revealed......-filming during sound production has revealed that sound pulses coincide with short duration formation of slots between the soft tissue masses forming a pneumatic valve, which suggests that the avian sound generating mechanism is a similar to that in the human larynx. Lately studies have revealed surprising...

  2. Ontogeny of avian thermoregulation from a neural point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den, H.

    2007-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation differs among (avian) species, but in all species both neural and endocrinological processes are involved. In this review the neural processes in ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal and early postnatal phase are discussed. Only in a few avian species (chicken, ducklings) the ontogeny of some important neural structures are described. In the early post hatching phase, peripheral and deep-body thermoreceptors are present and functional, even in altr...

  3. Will Wallace's Line Save Australia from Avian Influenza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish I. McCallum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia is separated from the Asian faunal realm by Wallace's Line, across which there is relatively little avian migration. Although this does diminish the risk of high pathogenicity avian influenza of Asian origin arriving with migratory birds, the barrier is not complete. Migratory shorebirds, as well as a few landbirds, move through the region on annual migrations to and from Southeast Asia and destinations further north, although the frequency of infection of avian influenza in these groups is low. Nonetheless, high pathogenicity H5N1 has recently been recorded on the island of New Guinea in West Papua in domestic poultry. This event increases interest in the movements of birds between Wallacea in eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, and Australia, particularly by waterbirds. There are frequent but irregular movements of ducks, geese, and other waterbirds across Torres Strait between New Guinea and Australia, including movements to regions in which H5N1 has occurred in the recent past. Although the likelihood of avian influenza entering Australia via an avian vector is presumed to be low, the nature and extent of bird movements in this region is poorly known. There have been five recorded outbreaks of high pathogenicity avian influenza in Australian poultry flocks, all of the H7 subtype. To date, Australia is the only inhabited continent not to have recorded high pathogenicity avian influenza since 1997, and H5N1 has never been recorded. The ability to map risk from high pathogenicity avian influenza to Australia is hampered by the lack of quantitative data on the extent of bird movements between Australia and its northern neighbors. Recently developed techniques offer the promise to fill this knowledge gap.

  4. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian retrovirus, can infect primate cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, H M; Brown, A M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spleen necrosis virus (SNV) is an avian retrovirus that can infect some mammalian cells such as dog cells as well as all avian cells tested to date. We were interested in testing whether SNV could also infect primate cells. For these experiments, we used HeLa and COS-7 cells. Initially, we determined whether the SNV long terminal repeat promoter was functional in HeLa and COS-7 cells. In transient transfection assays, the SNV promoter efficiently directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gen...

  5. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P

    2002-05-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus.

  6. Impacts of climate change on avian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenouvrier, Stephanie

    2013-07-01

    This review focuses on the impacts of climate change on population dynamics. I introduce the MUP (Measuring, Understanding, and Predicting) approach, which provides a general framework where an enhanced understanding of climate-population processes, along with improved long-term data, are merged into coherent projections of future population responses to climate change. This approach can be applied to any species, but this review illustrates its benefit using birds as examples. Birds are one of the best-studied groups and a large number of studies have detected climate impacts on vital rates (i.e., life history traits, such as survival, maturation, or breeding, affecting changes in population size and composition) and population abundance. These studies reveal multifaceted effects of climate with direct, indirect, time-lagged, and nonlinear effects. However, few studies integrate these effects into a climate-dependent population model to understand the respective role of climate variables and their components (mean state, variability, extreme) on population dynamics. To quantify how populations cope with climate change impacts, I introduce a new universal variable: the 'population robustness to climate change.' The comparison of such robustness, along with prospective and retrospective analysis may help to identify the major climate threats and characteristics of threatened avian species. Finally, studies projecting avian population responses to future climate change predicted by IPCC-class climate models are rare. Population projections hinge on selecting a multiclimate model ensemble at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales and integrating both radiative forcing and internal variability in climate with fully specified uncertainties in both demographic and climate processes. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Andrographolide interferes quorum sensing to reduce cell damage caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xun; Zhang, Li-Yan; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Xia, Fang; Fu, Yun-Xing; Wu, Yong-Li; Leng, Chun-Qing; Yi, Peng-Fei; Shen, Hai-Qing; Wei, Xu-Bin; Fu, Ben-Dong

    2014-12-05

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induce septicemia in chickens by invading type II pneumocytes to breach the blood-air barrier. The virulence of APEC can be regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Andrographolide is a QS inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Therefore, we investigate whether andrographolide inhibits the injury of chicken type II pneumocytes by avian pathogenic E. coli O78 (APEC-O78) by disrupting the bacterial QS system. The results showed that sub-MIC of andrographolide significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), F-actin cytoskeleton polymerization, and the degree of the adherence to chicken type II pneumocytes induced by APEC-O78. Further, we found that andrographolide significantly decreased the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity and the expression of virulence factors of APEC-O78. These results suggest that andrographolide reduce the pathogenicity of APEC-O78 in chicken type II pneumocytes by interfering QS and decreasing virulence. These results provide new evidence for colibacillosis prevention methods in chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) diversity and virulence factor distribution in avian Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Su, Zhixin; Cheng, Yuqiang; Wang, Zhaofei; Li, Shiyu; Wang, Heng'an; Sun, Jianhe; Yan, Yaxian

    In order to investigate the diverse characteristics of clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays and the distribution of virulence factor genes in avian Escherichia coli, 80 E. coli isolates obtained from chickens with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) or avian fecal commensal E. coli (AFEC) were identified. Using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), five genes were subjected to phylogenetic typing and examined for CRISPR arrays to study genetic relatedness among the strains. The strains were further analyzed for CRISPR loci and virulence factor genes to determine a possible association between their CRISPR elements and their potential virulence. The strains were divided into five phylogenetic groups: A, B1, B2, D and E. It was confirmed that two types of CRISPR arrays, CRISPR1 and CRISPR2, which contain up to 246 distinct spacers, were amplified in most of the strains. Further classification of the isolates was achieved by sorting them into nine CRISPR clusters based on their spacer profiles, which indicates a candidate typing method for E. coli. Several significant differences in invasion-associated gene distribution were found between the APEC isolates and the AFEC isolates. Our results identified the distribution of 11 virulence genes and CRISPR diversity in 80 strains. It was demonstrated that, with the exception of iucD and aslA, there was no sharp demarcation in the gene distribution between the pathogenic (APEC) and commensal (AFEC) strains, while the total number of indicated CRISPR spacers may have a positive correlation with the potential pathogenicity of the E. coli isolates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Survival analysis of infected mice reveals pathogenic variations in the genome of avian H1N1 viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Zeynep A.; Fan, Yiping; Huether, Robert; Obenauer, John; Webby, Richard J.; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G.; Wu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Most influenza pandemics have been caused by H1N1 viruses of purely or partially avian origin. Here, using Cox proportional hazard model, we attempt to identify the genetic variations in the whole genome of wild-type North American avian H1N1 influenza A viruses that are associated with their virulence in mice by residue variations, host origins of virus (Anseriformes-ducks or Charadriiformes-shorebirds), and host-residue interactions. In addition, through structural modeling, we predicted that several polymorphic sites associated with pathogenicity were located in structurally important sites, especially in the polymerase complex and NS genes. Our study introduces a new approach to identify pathogenic variations in wild-type viruses circulating in the natural reservoirs and ultimately to understand their infectious risks to humans as part of risk assessment efforts towards the emergence of future pandemic strains. PMID:25503687

  10. Avian magnetic compass: Its functional properties and physical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswitha WILTSCHKO, Wolfgang WILTSCHKO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The avian magnetic compass was analyzed in bird species of three different orders – Passeriforms, Columbiforms and Galliforms – and in three different behavioral contexts, namely migratory orientation, homing and directional conditioning. The respective findings indicate similar functional properties: it is an inclination compass that works only within a functional window around the ambient magnetic field intensity; it tends to be lateralized in favor of the right eye, and it is wavelength-dependent, requiring light from the short-wavelength range of the spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms have been identified as radical pair processes, spin-chemical reactions in specialized photopigments. The iron-based receptors in the upper beak do not seem to be involved. The existence of the same type of magnetic compass in only very distantly related bird species suggests that it may have been present already in the common ancestors of all modern birds, where it evolved as an all-purpose compass mechanism for orientation within the home range [Current Zoology 56 (3: 265–276, 2010].

  11. Frequency of Helicobacter pylori blood-group antigen-binding adhesion 2 and sialic acid binding adhesion genes among dyspeptic patients in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Yousefi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this research was to analyze blood-group antigen-binding adhesion (babA2 and sialic acid binding adhesion (sabA genotypes status in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori isolates and their relationship with clinical outcomes. Methods: Gastric biopsy specimens were homogenized and placed in Brucella agar medium supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 3 antibiotics and were cultured at 37 °C under microaerophilic conditions and incubated for 4-7 days. H. pylori was identified by typical morphology, gram-staining and urease tests, and babA2 and sabA genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: From a total of 100 H. pylori isolates; babA2 and sabA genes were detected in 23.0 and 26.4%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between these genes and clinical outcomes (P < 0.050. Conclusion: We found that the babA2 status was not related to clinical outcomes in Tabriz, Iran. However, sabA was a promoting determinant for disease, and multivariate analysis disclosed sabA to be an independent marker of non-ulcer diseases in our subjects.

  12. Pretreatment of Sialic Acid Efficiently Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure and Suppresses TLR4/gp91-Mediated Apoptotic Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activate NADPH oxidase gp91 subunit-mediated inflammation and oxidative damage. Recognizing the high binding affinity of sialic acid (SA with LPS, we further explored the preventive potential of SA pretreatment on LPS-evoked acute renal failure (ARF. Methods: We determined the effect of intravenous SA 30 min before LPS-induced injury in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats by evaluating kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. Results: LPS time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation, and increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the rats. LPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage infiltration and ROS production, and subsequently impaired kidneys with the enhancement of TLR4/NADPH oxidase gp91/Caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP-mediated apoptosis in the kidneys. SA pretreatment effectively alleviated LPS-induced ARF. The levels of LPS-increased ED-1 infiltration and ROS production in the kidney were significantly depressed by SA pretreatment. Furthermore, SA pretreatment significantly depressed TLR4 activation, gp91 expression, and Caspase 3/PARP induced apoptosis in the kidneys. Conclusion: We suggest that pretreatment of SA significantly and preventively attenuated LPS-induced detrimental effects on systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal ROS production and renal function, as well as, LPS-activated TLR4/gp91/Caspase3 mediated apoptosis signaling.

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* sialic acid-binding domain of porcine rotavirus strain OSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang-De, E-mail: zhangyd1960@yahoo.com.cn; Li, Hao [National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center of The Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Province (China); Liu, Hui; Pan, Yi-Feng [Biochemistry Laboratory, Institution of Biomedical Engineering, Central South University, Hunan Province (China); National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center of The Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Province (China)

    2007-02-01

    Porcine rotavirus strain OSU VP8* domain has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data from different crystal forms of the VP8* domain have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. The rotavirus outer capsid spike protein VP4 is utilized in the process of rotavirus attachment to and membrane penetration of host cells. VP4 is cleaved by trypsin into two domains: VP8* and VP5*. The VP8* domain is implicated in initial interaction with sialic acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates and triggers subsequent virus invasion. The VP8* domain from porcine OSU rotavirus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Different crystal forms (orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and tetragonal P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2) were harvested from two distinct crystallization conditions. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution and the VP8*{sub 65–224} structure was determined by molecular replacement.

  14. Neonatal administration of goat whey modulates memory and cortical spreading depression in rats previously suckled under different litter sizes: Possible role of sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Larissa de Brito; Vitor-de-Lima, Suênia Marcele; Lira Benevides, Regina de Deus; do Egypto Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos; Araújo Guedes, Rubem Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Goat whey, a usually discarded byproduct from goat cheese manufacturing, is a good source of sialic acid (SA), an oligosaccharide that is involved in processes such as memory and brain excitability. Here, we investigated in rats the effect of dried goat whey (DGW) on memory and the brain excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). We also provide evidence for the involvement of SA in this effect. In addition, we tested animals under unfavorable suckling conditions to evaluate whether nutritional deficiency would modulate DGW action. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15 , respectively). From postnatal (P) days 7-14, the animals received per gavage 17.45 g of DGW/kg/day, or SA (20 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day). At P28-30, we tested the animals' memory in the object recognition paradigm. At P35-45 we recorded CSD and analyze its velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration. In the object recognition test, the L 15 DGW-treated rats performed better than the L 15 -controls. The L 15 rats displayed higher CSD velocities compared with L 9 groups. The DGW and SA groups exhibited higher CSD velocity than the naïve- and saline-treated controls, regardless the lactation status (P shall be further translationally investigated.

  15. Exploring Alternative Radiolabeling Strategies for Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-Like Lectin 9 Peptide: [68Ga]Ga- and [18F]AlF-NOTA-Siglec-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Moisio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid residues 283–297 from sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9 form a cyclic peptide ligand targeting vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1. VAP-1 is associated with the transfer of leukocytes from blood to tissues upon inflammation. Therefore, analogs of Siglec-9 peptide are good candidates for visualizing inflammation non-invasively using positron emission tomography (PET. Gallium-68-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid (DOTA-conjugated Siglec-9 has been evaluated extensively for this purpose. Here, we explored two alternative strategies for radiolabeling Siglec-9 peptide using a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA-chelator to bind [68Ga]Ga or [18F]AlF. The radioligands were evaluated by in vivo PET imaging and ex vivo γ-counting of turpentine-induced sterile skin/muscle inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Both tracers showed clear accumulation in the inflamed tissues. The whole-body biodistribution patterns of the tracers were similar.

  16. H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses from the US 2014-2015 outbreak have an unusually long pre-clinical period in turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Kapczynski, Darrell R.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Background From December 2014 through June 2015, the US experienced the most costly highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak to date. Most cases in commercial poultry were caused by an H5N2 strain which was a reassortant with 5 Eurasian lineage genes, including a clade 2.3.4.4 goose/Guangdong/1996 lineage hemagglutinin, and 3 genes from North American wild waterfowl low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. The outbreak primarily affected turkeys and table-egg layer type chickens. T...

  17. The same clade of Clostridium botulinum strains is causing avian botulism in southern and northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anza, Ibone; Skarin, Hanna; Vidal, Dolors; Lindberg, Anna; Båverud, Viveca; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    Avian botulism is a paralytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum-produced botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), most commonly of type C/D. It is a serious disease of waterbirds and poultry flocks in many countries in Europe. The objective of this study was to compare the genetic relatedness of avian C. botulinum strains isolated in Spain with strains isolated in Sweden using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen strains were isolated from Spanish waterbirds using an immunomagnetic separation technique. Isolates were characterized by PCR, and all were identified as the genospecies Clostridium novyi sensu lato and eight harboured the gene coding for the BoNT type C/D. PFGE analysis of the strains revealed four highly similar pulsotypes, out of which two contained strains from both countries. It also showed that outbreaks in wild and domestic birds can be caused by the same strains. These results support a clonal spreading of the mosaic C. botulinum type C/D through Europe and give relevant information for future epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathogenicity of FtsK mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiaojing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC is a leading cause of extraintestinal infection and heavy economic losses. Imparting immunity after vaccination with live attenuated strain vaccination is an ideal strategy for infection control. This study considers an FtsK knockout mutant strain as a candidate. Material and Methods: An FtsK knockout mutant of APEC strain E058 was constructed and the pathogenicity of the mutant and wild-type strains was further evaluated in chickens. Results: The 50% lethal doses of each strain for one-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF chickens challenged experimentally via trachea were 105.5 and 107.0 colony-forming units (CFU respectively. Chickens challenged with the wild-type strain exhibited typical signs and lesions of avian colibacillosis, while those inoculated with the mutant strain showed mild pericarditis and pulmonary congestion. The growth rate of the FtsK mutant strain was much slower than the wild-type strain in the heart, spleen, liver, and lung of infected chickens. Conclusion: These results indicated that the APEC FtsK mutant can be attenuated for chickens, and that this mutant has the potential for the development of an APEC vaccine.

  19. RfaH promotes the ability of the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli O2 strain E058 to cause avian colibacillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingqing; Xu, Huiqing; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Debao; Ye, Zhengqin; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-06-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection causes avian colibacillosis, which refers to any localized or systemic infection, such as acute fatal septicemia or subacute pericarditis and airsacculitis. The RfaH transcriptional regulator in E. coli is known to regulate a number of phenotypic traits. The direct effect of RfaH on the virulence of APEC has not been investigated yet. Our results showed that the inactivation of rfaH significantly decreased the virulence of APEC E058. The attenuation was assessed by in vivo and in vitro assays, including chicken infection assays, an ingestion and intracellular survival assay, and a bactericidal assay with serum complement. The virulence phenotype was restored to resemble that of the wild type by complementation of the rfaH gene in trans. The results of the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis and animal system infection experiments indicated that the deletion of rfaH correlated with decreased virulence of the APEC E058 strain.

  20. Antimicrobial Products Registered for Disinfection Use against Avian Influenza on Poultry Farms and Other Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA registers disinfectants against Avian Influenza A. Although there are no antimicrobial products registered for the H5N2 subtype of Avian Influenza A virus, based on available scientific information these products will work against other HPAI strains.

  1. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  2. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Persistence of Pasteurella multocida in wetlands following avian cholera outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, D.J.; Lehr, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by Pasteurella multocida, affects waterbirds across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Once an epizootic begins, contamination of the wetland environment likely facilitates the transmission of P. multocida to susceptible birds. To evaluate the ability of P. multocida serotype-1, the most common serotype associated with avian cholera in waterfowl in western and central North America, to persist in wetlands and to identify environmental factors associated with its persistence, we collected water and sediment samples from 23 wetlands during winters and springs of 1996a??99. These samples were collected during avian cholera outbreaks and for up to 13 wk following initial sampling. We recovered P. multocida from six wetlands that were sampled following the initial outbreaks, but no P. multocida was isolated later than 7 wk after the initial outbreak sampling. We found no significant relationship between the probability of recovery of P. multocida during resampling and the abundance of the bacterium recovered during initial sampling, the substrate from which isolates were collected, isolate virulence, or water quality conditions previously suggested to be related to the abundance or survival of P. multocida. Our results indicate that wetlands are unlikely to serve as a long-term reservoir for P. multocida because the bacterium does not persist in wetlands for long time periods following avian cholera outbreaks.

  4. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  5. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses.

  6. Genome Modification Technologies and Their Applications in Avian Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of genome modification technology has provided many great benefits in diverse areas of research and industry. Genome modification technologies have also been actively used in a variety of research areas and fields of industry in avian species. Transgenic technologies such as lentiviral systems and piggyBac transposition have been used to produce transgenic birds for diverse purposes. In recent years, newly developed programmable genome editing tools such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9 have also been successfully adopted in avian systems with primordial germ cell (PGC-mediated genome modification. These genome modification technologies are expected to be applied to practical uses beyond system development itself. The technologies could be used to enhance economic traits in poultry such as acquiring a disease resistance or producing functional proteins in eggs. Furthermore, novel avian models of human diseases or embryonic development could also be established for research purposes. In this review, we discuss diverse genome modification technologies used in avian species, and future applications of avian biotechnology.

  7. The influence of vertical and horizontal habitat structure on nationwide patterns of avian biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff; Curtis H. Flather; Josef M. Kellndorfer; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Anna M. Pidgeon

    2013-01-01

    With limited resources for habitat conservation, the accurate identification of high-value avian habitat is crucial. Habitat structure affects avian biodiversity but is difficult to quantify over broad extents. Our goal was to identify which measures of vertical and horizontal habitat structure are most strongly related to patterns of avian biodiversity across the...

  8. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  9. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  10. Public health risk from avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Michael L; Swayne, David E

    2005-09-01

    Since 1997, avian influenza (AI) virus infections in poultry have taken on new significance, with increasing numbers of cases involving bird-to-human transmission and the resulting production of clinically severe and fatal human infections. Such human infections have been sporadic and are caused by H7N7 and H5N1 high-pathogenicity (HP) and H9N2 low-pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses in Europe and Asia. These infections have raised the level of concern by human health agencies for the potential reassortment of influenza virus genes and generation of the next human pandemic influenza A virus. The presence of endemic infections by H5N1 HPAI viruses in poultry in several Asian countries indicates that these viruses will continue to contaminate the environment and be an exposure risk with human transmission and infection. Furthermore, the reports of mammalian infections with H5N1 AI viruses and, in particular, mammal-to-mammal transmission in humans and tigers are unprecedented. However, the subsequent risk for generating a pandemic human strain is unknown. More international funding from both human and animal health agencies for diagnosis or detection and control of AI in Asia is needed. Additional funding for research is needed to understand why and how these AI viruses infect humans and what pandemic risks they pose.

  11. Avian Metapneumovirus circulation in Italian broiler farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Franzo, Giovanni; Lupini, Caterina; Alejo, Carolina Torres; Listorti, Valeria; Mescolini, Giulia; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Martini, Marco; Catelli, Elena; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2018-02-01

    With increasing frequency, avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) is reported to induce respiratory signs in chickens. An adequate knowledge of current aMPV prevalence among Italian broilers is lacking, with little information available on its economical and health impact on the poultry industry. In order to collect preliminary data on the epidemiological context of aMPV in broiler flocks, a survey was performed in areas of Northern Italy with high poultry density from 2014 to 2016. Upper respiratory tract swabs were collected and processed by A and B subtype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Samples were also screened for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by generic RT-PCR and sequencing. Productive data and respiratory signs were detailed where possible. The high prevalence of aMPV was confirmed in broilers older than 26 d and also attested in IBV-negative farms. All aMPV detections belonged to subtype B. Italian strain genetic variability was evaluated by the partial attachment (G) gene sequencing of selected strains and compared with contemporary turkey strains and previously published aMPV references, revealing no host specificity and the progressive evolution of this virus in Italy. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  13. Ground Squirrel Shooting and Potential Lead Exposure in Breeding Avian Scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Wagner, Mason T

    2016-01-01

    Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding's ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson's hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling's mass, energy needs, and diet

  14. Ground Squirrel Shooting and Potential Lead Exposure in Breeding Avian Scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius. Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding's ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival. Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos, red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis, and Swainson's hawks (B. swainsoni consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling's mass, energy

  15. Ground squirrel shooting and potential lead exposure in breeding avian scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wagner, Mason T.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding’s ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson’s hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling’s mass, energy needs

  16. Deletion of luxS further attenuates the virulence of the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli aroA mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangan; Bai, Hao; Tu, Jian; Yang, Lijun; Xu, Da; Wang, Shaohui; Qi, Kezong; Fan, Guobo; Zhang, Yuxi; Zuo, Jiakun; Tian, Mingxing; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2015-11-01

    In this study, an aroA-deletion avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) mutant (strain DE17ΔaroA) and aroA and luxS double deletion APEC mutant (strain DE17ΔluxSΔaroA) were constructed from the APEC DE17 strain. The results showed that as compared to DE17ΔaroA, the virulence of DE17ΔluxSΔaroA was further attenuated by 200- and 31.7-fold, respectively, in ducklings based on the 50% lethal dose. The adherence and invasion abilities of DE17ΔluxSΔaroA and DE17ΔaroA were reduced by 36.5%/42.5% and 25.8%/29.3%, respectively, as compared to the wild-type strain DE17 (p avian colibacillosis than DE17ΔaroA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A generic model of contagious disease and its application to human-to-human transmission of avian influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.

    2007-03-01

    Modeling contagious diseases has taken on greater importance over the past several years as diseases such as SARS and avian influenza have raised concern about worldwide pandemics. Most models developed to consider projected outbreaks have been specific to a single disease. This paper describes a generic System Dynamics contagious disease model and its application to human-to-human transmission of a mutant version of avian influenza. The model offers the option of calculating rates of new infections over time based either on a fixed ''reproductive number'' that is traditional in contagious disease models or on contact rates for different sub-populations and likelihood of transmission per contact. The paper reports on results with various types of interventions. These results suggest the potential importance of contact tracing, limited quarantine, and targeted vaccination strategies as methods for controlling outbreaks, especially when vaccine supplies may initially be limited and the efficacy of anti-viral drugs uncertain.

  18. The Bacterial Species Campylobacter jejuni Induce Diverse Innate Immune Responses in Human and Avian Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. John

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter remain the major cause of human gastroenteritis in the Developed World causing a significant burden to health services. Campylobacter are pathogens in humans and chickens, although differences in mechanistic understanding are incomplete, in part because phenotypic strain diversity creates inconsistent findings. Here, we took Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 100 from multi-locus sequence typed collections to assess their pathogenic diversity, through their inflammatory, cytotoxicity, adhesion, invasion and signaling responses in a high-throughput model using avian and human intestinal epithelial cells. C. jejuni induced IL-8 and CXCLi1/2 in human and avian epithelial cells, respectively, in a MAP kinase-dependent manner. In contrast, IL-10 responses in both cell types were PI 3-kinase/Akt-dependent. C. jejuni strains showed diverse levels of invasion with high invasion dependent on MAP kinase signaling in both cell lines. C. jejuni induced diverse cytotoxic responses in both cell lines with cdt-positive isolates showing significantly higher toxicity. Blockade of endocytic pathways suggested that invasion by C. jejuni was clathrin- and dynamin-dependent but caveolae- independent in both cells. In contrast, IL-8 (and CXCLi1/2 production was dependent on clathrin, dynamin, and caveolae. This study is important because of its scale, and the data produced, suggesting that avian and human epithelial cells use similar innate immune pathways where the magnitude of the response is determined by the phenotypic diversity of the Campylobacter species.

  19. Dynamics of avian coronavirus circulation in commercial and non-commercial birds in Asia--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promkuntod, Naruepol

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to understand the latest situation regarding avian coronaviruses (ACoVs), commonly referred to as the well-known avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), given that new and diverse types of IBV are continually being identified worldwide, particularly ones that are isolated from commercial poultry and associated with a wide range of disease conditions. The existing IBVs continue to evolve in various geographic areas in Asia, which results in the recombination and co-circulation between IBV types. This makes it increasingly difficult to prevent and control IBV infections, despite routine vaccination. Some ACoVs have also been identified in other avian species and they may pose a threat of cross-transmission to commercial sectors. The present review provides an overview of IBV circulation and the dynamic emergence of new variants found throughout Asia via the recombination of IBV strains. In addition to commercial poultry, backyard poultry and free-ranging birds may serve as a 'hub' for ACoV transmission within a particular area. These birds may be capable of spreading viruses, either to areas of close proximity, or to remote places via migration and trade.

  20. Members of a novel protein family containing microneme adhesive repeat domains act as sialic acid-binding lectins during host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nikolas; Santos, Joana M; Liu, Yan; Palma, Angelina S; Leon, Ester; Saouros, Savvas; Kiso, Makoto; Blackman, Michael J; Matthews, Stephen; Feizi, Ten; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2010-01-15

    Numerous intracellular pathogens exploit cell surface glycoconjugates for host cell recognition and entry. Unlike bacteria and viruses, Toxoplasma gondii and other parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa actively invade host cells, and this process critically depends on adhesins (microneme proteins) released onto the parasite surface from intracellular organelles called micronemes (MIC). The microneme adhesive repeat (MAR) domain of T. gondii MIC1 (TgMIC1) recognizes sialic acid (Sia), a key determinant on the host cell surface for invasion by this pathogen. By complementation and invasion assays, we demonstrate that TgMIC1 is one important player in Sia-dependent invasion and that another novel Sia-binding lectin, designated TgMIC13, is also involved. Using BLAST searches, we identify a family of MAR-containing proteins in enteroparasitic coccidians, a subclass of apicomplexans, including T. gondii, suggesting that all these parasites exploit sialylated glycoconjugates on host cells as determinants for enteric invasion. Furthermore, this protein family might provide a basis for the broad host cell range observed for coccidians that form tissue cysts during chronic infection. Carbohydrate microarray analyses, corroborated by structural considerations, show that TgMIC13, TgMIC1, and its homologue Neospora caninum MIC1 (NcMIC1) share a preference for alpha2-3- over alpha2-6-linked sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine sequences. However, the three lectins also display differences in binding preferences. Intense binding of TgMIC13 to alpha2-9-linked disialyl sequence reported on embryonal cells and relatively strong binding to 4-O-acetylated-Sia found on gut epithelium and binding of NcMIC1 to 6'sulfo-sialyl Lewis(x) might have implications for tissue tropism.

  1. Dietary Sialyllactose Influences Sialic Acid Concentrations in the Prefrontal Cortex and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures in Corpus Callosum of Young Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T. Mudd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid (SA is a key component of gangliosides and neural cell adhesion molecules important during neurodevelopment. Human milk contains SA in the form of sialyllactose (SL an abundant oligosaccharide. To better understand the potential role of dietary SL on neurodevelopment, the effects of varying doses of dietary SL on brain SA content and neuroimaging markers of development were assessed in a newborn piglet model. Thirty-eight male pigs were provided one of four experimental diets from 2 to 32 days of age. Diets were formulated to contain: 0 mg SL/L (CON, 130 mg SL/L (LOW, 380 mg SL/L (MOD or 760 mg SL/L (HIGH. At 32 or 33 days of age, all pigs were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to assess brain development. After MRI, pig serum and brains were collected and total, free and bound SA was analyzed. Results from this study indicate dietary SL influenced (p = 0.05 bound SA in the prefrontal cortex and the ratio of free SA to bound SA in the hippocampus (p = 0.04. Diffusion tensor imaging indicated treatment effects in mean (p < 0.01, axial (p < 0.01 and radial (p = 0.01 diffusivity in the corpus callosum. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS indicated differences (p < 0.05 in white matter tracts and voxel-based morphometry (VBM indicated differences (p < 0.05 in grey matter between LOW and MOD pigs. CONT and HIGH pigs were not included in the TBSS and VBM assessments. These findings suggest the corpus callosum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be differentially sensitive to dietary SL supplementation.

  2. Updated Values for Molecular Diagnosis for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sakurai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses of the H5N1 strain pose a pandemic threat. H5N1 strain virus is extremely lethal and contagious for poultry. Even though mortality is 59% in infected humans, these viruses do not spread efficiently between humans. In 1997, an outbreak of H5N1 strain with human cases occurred in Hong Kong. This event highlighted the need for rapid identification and subtyping of influenza A viruses (IAV, not only to facilitate surveillance of the pandemic potential of avian IAV, but also to improve the control and treatment of infected patients. Molecular diagnosis has played a key role in the detection and typing of IAV in recent years, spurred by rapid advances in technologies for detection and characterization of viral RNAs and proteins. Such technologies, which include immunochromatography, quantitative real-time PCR, super high-speed real-time PCR, and isothermal DNA amplification, are expected to contribute to faster and easier diagnosis and typing of IAV.

  3. Comparison of avian populations on unmined and reclaimed lands in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponsler, M.; Klimstra, W.D.

    1984-12-01

    Avian populations were sampled in southwestern and west central Illinois on mined and unmined and reclaimed lands to evaluate the impact on these populations of the reclamation required by the Illinois Surface-Mined Land Reclamation and Conservation Act of 1971. Comparison of avifauna of each habitat type showed reclaimed lands held more individuals than the unmined fence row, cropland, oldfield and woodland; less density was noted on mined sites as compared to unmined hedge row, pond, streamside pasture, and edge habitats. Avian diversity indices on reclaimed land were lower than every unmined habitat type; however, reclaimed land populations appeared to be more diverse than cropland because of the value of water to migrating and nesting waterbirds. Therefore, habitat on pre-mine sites dominated by cropland appeared improved after reclamation because corn-soybean monocultures were replaced by less monotypic habitat interspersed with water. The avifauna of pre-mine sites where cropland was regularly interspersed with woodland or hedge rows, was negatively impacted by pasture-pond reclamation. Based upon comparison of avifauna populations on mined and unmined land and the potential for including habitat needs in reclamation plans, several development and management practices were identified.

  4. Avian-Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Are Similar to Neonatal Meningitis E. coli Strains and Are Able To Cause Meningitis in the Rat Model of Human Disease ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivendale, Kelly A.; Logue, Catherine M.; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jordan, Dianna; Hussein, Ashraf; Li, Ganwu; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains causing avian colibacillosis and human neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections, and septicemia are collectively known as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Characterization of ExPEC strains using various typing techniques has shown that they harbor many similarities, despite their isolation from different host species, leading to the hypothesis that ExPEC may have zoonotic potential. The present study examined a subset of ExPEC strains: neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) strains and avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains belonging to the O18 serogroup. The study found that they were not easily differentiated on the basis of multilocus sequence typing, phylogenetic typing, or carriage of large virulence plasmids. Among the APEC strains examined, one strain was found to be an outlier, based on the results of these typing methods, and demonstrated reduced virulence in murine and avian pathogenicity models. Some of the APEC strains tested in a rat model of human neonatal meningitis were able to cause meningitis, demonstrating APEC's ability to cause disease in mammals, lending support to the hypothesis that APEC strains have zoonotic potential. In addition, some NMEC strains were able to cause avian colisepticemia, providing further support for this hypothesis. However, not all of the NMEC and APEC strains tested were able to cause disease in avian and murine hosts, despite the apparent similarities in their known virulence attributes. Thus, it appears that a subset of NMEC and APEC strains harbors zoonotic potential, while other strains do not, suggesting that unknown mechanisms underlie host specificity in some ExPEC strains. PMID:20515929

  5. Avian Adenoviruses Infections with Special Attention to Inclusion Body Hepatitis/ Hydropericardium Syndrome and Egg Drop Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first avian adenovirus (AAV associated with clinical disease was isolated from an outbreak of respiratory disease in quail in 1950 (Olson, 1950. Since that time, AAVs have been found in all types and breeds of chickens and from a variety of other avian species. The infections may be asymptomatic or associated with several clinical and pathological conditions. Vertical transmission via the egg is the most common way of transmission. Also horizontal transmission through faeces, contaminated egg trays, crates and trucks play a role in the infection route. Studies have demonstrated the presence of antibodies in healthy poultry, and viruses have been isolated from normal birds. Avian adenoviruses in chickens are the etiological agents of 2 diseases known as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH and hydropericardium syndrome (HP. In some cases each condition is observed separately, however, recently the 2 conditions have frequently been observed as a single entity; therefore, the name hepatitis hydropericardium has been widely used to describe the pathologic condition. The syndrome is an acute disease of young chickens associated with anemia, haemorrhagic disorders, hydropericardium and high mortality. Egg-Drop-Syndrome (EDS is caused also by an adenovirus. The disease is characterised by a severe drop in egg production as well as the production of shell-less, thin-shelled, discoloured or misshapen eggs in apparently healthy birds. Ducks and geese are the natural host of the EDS virus. It was first described in chickens in the 1970s and spread to several countries world wide. The birds usually do not show any other signs of disease, and mortality is not expected. There is no specific treatment of the AAV infections. Active immunization by vaccination using an inactivated is wide spread.

  6. New oligonucleotide microarray for rapid diagnosis of avian viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Kozhabergenov, Nurlan S; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Burashev, Yerbol D; Shorayeva, Kamshat A; Chervyakova, Olga V; Rametov, Nurkuisa M; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Orynbayev, Mukhit B

    2017-04-05

    We developed a new oligonucleotide microarray comprising 16 identical subarrays for simultaneous rapid detection of avian viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infection bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in single- and mixed-virus infections. The objective of the study was to develop an oligonucleotide microarray for rapid diagnosis of avian diseases that would be used in the course of mass analysis for routine epidemiological surveillance owing to its ability to test one specimen for several infections. The paper describes the technique for rapid and simultaneous diagnosis of avian diseases such as avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease with use of oligonucleotide microarray, conditions for hybridization of fluorescent-labelled viral cDNA on the microarray and its specificity tested with use of AIV, NDV, IBV, IBDV strains as well as biomaterials from poultry. Sensitivity and specificity of the developed microarray was evaluated with use of 122 specimens of biological material: 44 cloacal swabs from sick birds and 78 tissue specimens from dead wild and domestic birds, as well as with use of 15 AIV, NDV, IBV and IBDV strains, different in their origin, epidemiological and biological characteristics (RIBSP Microbial Collection). This microarray demonstrates high diagnostic sensitivity (99.16% within 95% CI limits 97.36-100%) and specificity (100%). Specificity of the developed technique was confirmed by direct sequencing of NP and M (AIV), VP2 (IBDV), S1 (IBV), NP (NDV) gene fragments. Diagnostic effectiveness of the developed DNA microarray is 99.18% and therefore it can be used in mass survey for specific detection of AIV, NDV, IBV and IBDV circulating in the region in the course of epidemiological surveillance. Rather simple method for rapid diagnosis of avian viral diseases that several times shortens duration of assay versus classical diagnostic

  7. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø.; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools...... to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy...

  8. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Pruett, Christin L.; Meier, Rose; Huettmann, Falk; Wege, Michael; Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; Perdue, Michael L.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird?origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998?2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infecti...

  9. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  10. Quantifying variability of avian colours: are signalling traits more variable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar Delhey

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased variability in sexually selected ornaments, a key assumption of evolutionary theory, is thought to be maintained through condition-dependence. Condition-dependent handicap models of sexual selection predict that (a sexually selected traits show amplified variability compared to equivalent non-sexually selected traits, and since males are usually the sexually selected sex, that (b males are more variable than females, and (c sexually dimorphic traits more variable than monomorphic ones. So far these predictions have only been tested for metric traits. Surprisingly, they have not been examined for bright coloration, one of the most prominent sexual traits. This omission stems from computational difficulties: different types of colours are quantified on different scales precluding the use of coefficients of variation.Based on physiological models of avian colour vision we develop an index to quantify the degree of discriminable colour variation as it can be perceived by conspecifics. A comparison of variability in ornamental and non-ornamental colours in six bird species confirmed (a that those coloured patches that are sexually selected or act as indicators of quality show increased chromatic variability. However, we found no support for (b that males generally show higher levels of variability than females, or (c that sexual dichromatism per se is associated with increased variability.We show that it is currently possible to realistically estimate variability of animal colours as perceived by them, something difficult to achieve with other traits. Increased variability of known sexually-selected/quality-indicating colours in the studied species, provides support to the predictions borne from sexual selection theory but the lack of increased overall variability in males or dimorphic colours in general indicates that sexual differences might not always be shaped by similar selective forces.

  11. Avian influenza: The tip of the iceberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkhy Hanan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For some years now, we have been living with the fear of an impending pandemic of avian influenza (AI. Despite the recognition, in 1996, of the global threat posed by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus found in farmed geese in Guangdong Province, China, planning for the anticipated epidemic remains woefully inadequate; this is especially true in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. These deficiencies became obvious in 1997, with the outbreak of AI in the live animal markets in Hong Kong that led to the transmission of infection to 18 humans with close contact with diseased birds; there were six reported deaths. [1] In 2003, with the reemergence of H5N1 (considered the most likely AI virus in the Republic of Korea and its subsequent spread to Thailand, Vietnam, Hong Kong and China. Many countries started aggressively making preparations to meet the threat. [2] The pressure for real action from governments has increased. Most developed countries have requested increased funding for the search for a more effective vaccine, for stockpiling possibly helpful antiviral drugs, and for intensifying domestic and global surveillance. [3] Most countries, however, continue to be inadequately prepared for such an epidemic, especially with regard to animal surveillance in the farm market and surveillance among migratory birds. Even now, most countries do not have the ability to detect disease among humans in the early stages of an outbreak nor do most hospitals comply with effective infection control measures that could curtail the spread of the virus in the early stages of an epidemic. In Saudi Arabia we are rapidly implementing many of these measures. [4

  12. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  13. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  14. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI.

  15. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous) of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Buckley, Lisa G; McCrea, Richard T; Lockley, Martin G; Zhang, Jianping; Piñuela, Laura; Klein, Hendrik; Wang, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian) large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes) based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous.

  16. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Xing

    Full Text Available Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous.

  17. Genotyping and detection of common avian and human origin-influenza viruses using a portable chemiluminescence imaging microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Qiqi; Wang, Dou; Chen, Suhong; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Shengqi

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses are divided into three types, A, B, and C. Human influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics, but influenza C causes only a mild respiratory illness. Influenza A virus can infect various host species. In 2013, human-infectious avian influenza A (H7N9) was first reported in China. By the second week of 2014, there were 210 laboratory-confirmed human cases in the country, and the mortality rate eventually reached 22 %. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of influenza viruses is important for clinical management and epidemiology. In this assay, a cost-effective chemiluminescence (CL) detection oligonucleotide microarray was developed to genotype and detect avian influenza A (H7N9), avian influenza A (H5N1), 2009 influenza A (H1N1), seasonal influenza A (H1N1), and seasonal influenza A (H3N2). Influenza A viruses and influenza B viruses were also generally detected using this microarray. The results of detection of 40 cultivated influenza virus strains showed that the microarray was able to distinguish the subtypes of these influenza viruses very well. The microarray possessed similar or 10 fold higher limit of detection than the real-time RT-PCR method. Sixty-six clinical swab samples were detected using this microarray and verified with real time RT-PCR to evaluate the efficiency of this microarray for clinical testing. A reliable CL detection oligonucleotide microarray had been developed to genotype and detected these influenza viruses.

  18. A new mass mortality of juvenile Protoceratops and size-segregated aggregation behaviour in juvenile non-avian dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W E Hone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monodominant bonebeds are a relatively common occurrence for non-avian dinosaurs, and have been used to infer associative, and potentially genuinely social, behavior. Previously known assemblages are characterized as either mixed size-classes (juvenile and adult-sized specimens together or single size-classes of individuals (only juveniles or only adult-sized individuals within the assemblage. In the latter case, it is generally unknown if these kinds of size-segregated aggregations characterize only a particular size stage or represent aggregations that happened at all size stages. Ceratopsians ("horned dinosaurs" are known from both types of assemblages. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a new specimen of the ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi, Granger and Gregory 1923 from Mongolia representing an aggregation of four mid-sized juvenile animals. In conjunction with existing specimens of groups of P. andrewsi that includes size-clustered aggregations of young juveniles and adult-sized specimens, this new material provides evidence for some degree of size-clustered aggregation behaviour in Protoceratops throughout ontogeny. This continuity of size-segregated (and presumably age-clustered aggregation is previously undocumented in non-avian dinosaurs. CONCLUSIONS: The juvenile group fills a key gap in the available information on aggregations in younger ceratopsians. Although we support the general hypothesis that many non-avian dinosaurs were gregarious and even social animals, we caution that evidence for sociality has been overstated and advocate a more conservative interpretation of some data of 'sociality' in dinosaurs.

  19. Production of avian retroviruses and tissue-specific somatic retroviral gene transfer in vivo using the RCAS/TVA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Werder, Alexander; Seidler, Barbara; Schmid, Roland M; Schneider, Günter; Saur, Dieter

    2012-05-24

    Spatiotemporal retroviral gene transfer into specific somatic mammalian cells using the avian RCAS (replication-competent avian sarcoma-leukosis virus long terminal repeat with splice acceptor)/tumor virus A (TVA) system is a versatile tool for performing lineage tracing and gene function analysis in vivo. RCAS retroviruses carrying the subgroup A envelope transduce only genetically engineered mammalian cells that express the cognate avian retroviral receptor TVA. The RCAS/TVA gene delivery system has been successfully used in various different mouse TVA-expression models. This protocol contains a detailed description of the production of high-titer RCAS retroviruses in chicken fibroblasts and the transduction of proliferating TVA-positive somatic mammalian cells in vivo. By taking advantage of the combination of the RCAS/TVA with the 'universal' Cre/loxP system, the protocol can be used in nearly every proliferating cell type in vivo. The protocol takes 4 weeks from transfection of chicken fibroblasts, which act as the host cells for viral production, to the transduction of TVA-transgenic mice.

  20. A new mass mortality of juvenile Protoceratops and size-segregated aggregation behaviour in juvenile non-avian dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, David W E; Farke, Andrew A; Watabe, Mahito; Shigeru, Suzuki; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav

    2014-01-01

    Monodominant bonebeds are a relatively common occurrence for non-avian dinosaurs, and have been used to infer associative, and potentially genuinely social, behavior. Previously known assemblages are characterized as either mixed size-classes (juvenile and adult-sized specimens together) or single size-classes of individuals (only juveniles or only adult-sized individuals within the assemblage). In the latter case, it is generally unknown if these kinds of size-segregated aggregations characterize only a particular size stage or represent aggregations that happened at all size stages. Ceratopsians ("horned dinosaurs") are known from both types of assemblages. Here we describe a new specimen of the ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi, Granger and Gregory 1923 from Mongolia representing an aggregation of four mid-sized juvenile animals. In conjunction with existing specimens of groups of P. andrewsi that includes size-clustered aggregations of young juveniles and adult-sized specimens, this new material provides evidence for some degree of size-clustered aggregation behaviour in Protoceratops throughout ontogeny. This continuity of size-segregated (and presumably age-clustered) aggregation is previously undocumented in non-avian dinosaurs. The juvenile group fills a key gap in the available information on aggregations in younger ceratopsians. Although we support the general hypothesis that many non-avian dinosaurs were gregarious and even social animals, we caution that evidence for sociality has been overstated and advocate a more conservative interpretation of some data of 'sociality' in dinosaurs.

  1. Colibacillosis in poultry: unravelling the molecular basis of virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in their natural hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziva, Francis; Stevens, Mark P

    2008-08-01

    Avian colibacillosis is caused by a group of pathogens designated avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Despite being known for over a century, avian colibacillosis remains one of the major endemic diseases afflicting the poultry industry worldwide. Autologous bacterins provide limited serotype-specific protection, yet multiple serogroups are associated with disease, especially O1, O2 and O78 among many others. Experimental infection models have facilitated the identification of some key APEC virulence genes and have allowed testing of vaccine candidates. Well-recognized virulence factors include Type 1 (F1) and P (Pap/Prs) fimbriae for colonization, IbeA for invasion, iron acquisition systems, TraT and Iss for serum survival, K and O antigens for anti-phagocytic activity, and a temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin of imprecise function. Intriguingly, these factors do not occur universally among APEC, suggesting the presence of multiple alternative mechanisms mediating pathogenicity. The recent availability of the first complete APEC genome sequence can be expected to accelerate the identification of bacterial genes expressed during infection and required for virulence. High-throughput molecular approaches like signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis have already proved invaluable in revealing portfolios of genes expressed by pathogenic bacteria during infection, and this has enabled identification of APEC O2 factors required for septicaemia in the chicken model. Complimentary approaches, such as in vivo-induced antigen technology, exist to define the activities of APEC in vivo. In recent years, reverse vaccinology and immuno-proteomic approaches have also enabled identification of novel vaccine candidates in other bacterial pathogens. Collectively, such information provides the basis for the development or improvement of strategies to control APEC infections in the food-producing avian species.

  2. tkt1, located on a novel pathogenicity island, is prevalent in avian and human extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ganwu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli are important pathogens of human and animal hosts. Some human and avian extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli are indistinguishable on the basis of diseases caused, multilocus sequence and phylogenetic typing, carriage of large virulence plasmids and traits known to be associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli virulence. Results The gene tkt1 identified by a previous signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis study, was found on a 16-kb genomic island of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC O1, the first pathogenic Escherichia coli strain whose genome has been completely sequenced. tkt1 was present in 39.6% (38/96 of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, while only 6.25% (3/48 of E. coli from the feces of apparently healthy chickens was positive. Further, tkt1 was predominantly present in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group, as compared to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli of other phylogenetic groups. The tkt1-containing genomic island is inserted between the metE and ysgA genes of the E. coli K12 genome. Among different extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli of the B2 phylogenetic group, 61.7% of pathogenic Escherichia coli, 80.6% of human uropathogenic E.coli and 94.1% of human neonatal meningitis-causing E. coli, respectively, harbor a complete copy of this island; whereas, only a few avian fecal E. coli strains contained the complete island. Functional analysis showed that Tkt1 confers very little transketolase activity but is involved in peptide nitrogen metabolism. Conclusion These results suggest tkt1 and its corresponding genomic island are frequently associated with avian and human ExPEC and are involved in bipeptide metabolism.

  3. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

  4. Modeling approaches in avian conservation and the role of field biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissinger, Steven R.; Walters, J.R.; Catanzaro, D.G.; Smith, Kimberly G.; Dunning, J.B.; Haig, Susan M.; Noon, Barry; Stith, Bradley M.

    2006-01-01

    This review grew out of our realization that models play an increasingly important role in conservation but are rarely used in the research of most avian biologists. Modelers are creating models that are more complex and mechanistic and that can incorporate more of the knowledge acquired by field biologists. Such models require field biologists to provide more specific information, larger sample sizes, and sometimes new kinds of data, such as habitat-specific demography and dispersal information. Field biologists need to support model development by testing key model assumptions and validating models. The best conservation decisions will occur where cooperative interaction enables field biologists, modelers, statisticians, and managers to contribute effectively. We begin by discussing the general form of ecological models—heuristic or mechanistic, "scientific" or statistical—and then highlight the structure, strengths, weaknesses, and applications of six types of models commonly used in avian conservation: (1) deterministic single-population matrix models, (2) stochastic population viability analysis (PVA) models for single populations, (3) metapopulation models, (4) spatially explicit models, (5) genetic models, and (6) species distribution models. We end by considering their unique attributes, determining whether the assumptions that underlie the structure are valid, and testing the ability of the model to predict the future correctly.

  5. Avian predation on juvenile salmonids in the Lower Columbia River; 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results

  6. Manifold habitat effects on the prevalence and diversity of avian blood parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder N.M. Sehgal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitats are rapidly changing across the planet and the consequences will have major and long-lasting effects on wildlife and their parasites. Birds harbor many types of blood parasites, but because of their relatively high prevalence and ease of diagnosis, it is the haemosporidians – Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon – that are the best studied in terms of ecology and evolution. For parasite transmission to occur, environmental conditions must be permissive, and given the many constraints on the competency of parasites, vectors and hosts, it is rather remarkable that these parasites are so prevalent and successful. Over the last decade, a rapidly growing body of literature has begun to clarify how environmental factors affect birds and the insects that vector their hematozoan parasites. Moreover, several studies have modeled how anthropogenic effects such as global climate change, deforestation and urbanization will impact the dynamics of parasite transmission. This review highlights recent research that impacts our understanding of how habitat and environmental changes can affect the distribution, diversity, prevalence and parasitemia of these avian blood parasites. Given the importance of environmental factors on transmission, it remains essential that researchers studying avian hematozoa document abiotic factors such as temperature, moisture and landscape elements. Ultimately, this continued research has the potential to inform conservation policies and help avert the loss of bird species and threatened habitats.

  7. A Reverse Genetics Approach for the Design of Methyltransferase-Defective Live Attenuated Avian Metapneumovirus Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens. aMPV belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae which includes many important human pathogens such as human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3). The family also includes highly lethal emerging pathogens such as Nipah virus and Hendra virus, as well as agriculturally important viruses such as Newcastle disease virus (NDV). For many of these viruses, there is no effective vaccine. Here, we describe a reverse genetics approach to develop live attenuated aMPV vaccines by inhibiting the viral mRNA cap methyltransferase. The viral mRNA cap methyltransferase is an excellent target for the attenuation of paramyxoviruses because it plays essential roles in mRNA stability, efficient viral protein translation and innate immunity. We have described in detail the materials and methods used to generate recombinant aMPVs that lack viral mRNA cap methyltransferase activity. We have also provided methods to evaluate the genetic stability, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity of live aMPV vaccine candidates in turkeys.

  8. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  9. Phytochemistry predicts habitat selection by an avian herbivore at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Graham G; Connelly, John W; Musil, David D; Forbey, Jennifer S

    2013-02-01

    Animal habitat selection is a process that functions at multiple, hierarchically. structured spatial scales. Thus multi-scale analyses should be the basis for inferences about factors driving the habitat selection process. Vertebrate herbivores forage selectively on the basis of phytochemistry, but few studies have investigated the influence of selective foraging (i.e., fine-scale habitat selection) on habitat selection at larger scales. We tested the hypothesis that phytochemistry is integral to the habitat selection process for vertebrate herbivores. We predicted that habitats selected at three spatial scales would be characterized by higher nutrient concentrations and lower concentrations of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) than unused habitats. We used the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), an avian herbivore with a seasonally specialized diet of sagebrush, to test our hypothesis. Sage-Grouse selected a habitat type (black sagebrush, Artemisia nova) with lower PSM concentrations than the alternative (Wyoming big sagebrush, A. tridentata wyomingensis). Within black sagebrush habitat, Sage-Grouse selected patches and individual plants within those patches that were higher in nutrient concentrations and lower in PSM concentrations than those not used. Our results provide the first evidence for multi-scale habitat selection by an avian herbivore on the basis of phytochemistry, and they suggest that phytochemistry may be a fundamental driver of habitat selection for vertebrate herbivores.

  10. Identification and Investigation of Native Chromosomal Fragile Sites in the Avian Cell Line DT40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Constanze

    sensing of replication difficulties is crucial for correct duplication of the DNA to maintain genome integrity over generations. Untimely or defective sensing and repair at common fragile sites (CFSs) can result in major rearrangements, potentially leading to the development of cancer or other diseases....... It has been proposed that cell-­‐type specific CFSs give rise to cell-­‐type specific diseases. Therefore, it is of special interest to better define and understand genomic regions that are prone to breakage. In this PhD thesis a new approach to map CFSs genome-­‐wide was established. This mapping method...... is not relying on cytogenetic analysis, instead using a FANCD2 ChIP-­‐seq high-­‐throughput approach. It enables the application of the method irrespective of the original tissue. FANCD2 enrichment sites were validated as bona fide CFSs in avian DT40 cells. To additionally elucidate genomic consequences of CFS...

  11. Contribution of the attachment G glycoprotein to pathogenicity and immunogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K

    2010-03-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys leading to serious economic losses to the turkey industry. The G glycoprotein of AMPV is known to be associated with viral attachment and pathogenesis. In this study, we determined the role of the G glycoprotein in the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of AMPV strain Colorado (AMPV/CO). Recombinant AMPV/CO lacking the G protein (rAMPV/CO-deltaG) was generated using a reverse-genetics system. The recovered rAMPV/CO-deltaG replicated slightly better than did wild-type AMPV in Vero cells. However, deletion of the G gene in AMPV resulted in attenuation of the virus in turkeys. The mutant virus induced less-severe clinical signs and a weaker immune response in turkeys than did the wild-type AMPV. Our results suggest that the G glycoprotein is an important determinant for the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of AMPV.

  12. A Comparative Morphometrical Study of the Pecten Oculi in Different Avian Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Orhun Dayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study was investigated the structure of pecten oculi in the ostrich, duck, pigeon, turkey, and starling. The pecten oculi of the ostrich was vaned type and made up primary, secondary, and few tertiary lamellae. However, duck, pigeon, turkey and starling had a pleated-type pecten oculi which displayed folded structure. The numbers of pleats of the pectens were 12, 13-14, 21-22, and 17 in duck, pigeon, turkey, and starling, respectively. Light microscopic investigation demonstrated that pecten oculi is basically composed of numerous capillaries, large blood vessels, and pigment cells in all investigating avian species. Capillaries were 20.23, 14.34, 11.78, 12.58, and 12.78 μm in diameter in ostrich, duck, pigeon, turkey, and starling, respectively. The capillaries are surrounded by thick basal membrane, and pigmented cells were observed around the capillaries.

  13. The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian influenza virus in post HPAI H5N1 outbreak area, Sunyani Municipality, Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Vitus Burimuah, W.K. Ampofo, B Awumbila, N Yebuah, B.O. Emikpe, W Tasiame, R.D. Folitse ...

  14. Avian and Human Influenza Pandemic, How Prepared is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How much the perennial flight patterns of wild bird had on its spread is another question for consideration? The avian influenza virus does not readily cross the species barrier, though there is a potential for genetic re-assortment and cross infection. The main finding of this review suggest a lack of historic epidemiological ...

  15. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... for a circulating and newer strain of avian influenza, and would aid in combating the disease in a pandemic situation, in which production time matters ... India; Indian Immunologicals Ltd, Hyderabad, India; Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India- ...

  16. Innate resistance to avian influenza: Of MHC's and Mx proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is an economically important virus of poultry that has significant impact on global trade. Recently, increased attention to animal genomics has been applied to enhance innate resistance to infectious diseases in poultry. Two known contributors to innate resistance are the host m...

  17. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 3. Evaluation of antibody response in mice against avian influenza A (H5N1) strain neuraminidase expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. Murugan Subathra Ponsekaran Santhakumar Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu Syed Sultan Beevi Sunil K Lal. Articles Volume 39 ...

  18. Ducks as sentinels for avian influenza in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globig, Anja; Baumer, Anette; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Beer, Martin; Wodak, Eveline; Fink, Maria; Greber, Norbert; Harder, Timm C; Wilking, Hendrik; Brunhart, Iris; Matthes, Doris; Kraatz, Ulf; Strunk, Peter; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J; Griot, Chris; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2009-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring.

  19. DETECTION OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA (H5N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kamani

    domestic poultry in Hong Kong. Different reassortant of this virus however continued to emerge from goose and duck containing the same H5 haemagglutinins glycoprotein but had various internal genes and spread to different regions (Guan et al., 2002). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza also caused respiratory disease ...

  20. First characterization of avian influenza viruses from Greenland 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Ravn Merkel, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild birds, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), were found dead at the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examinations in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2...

  1. A nine - year retrospective study of avian neoplastic diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian neoplastic diseases have been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and production losses in commercial chickens in Nigeria. Although available reports described the trend of Marek's disease in Zaria, Kaduna state, they did not take cognizance of other neoplastic diseases of poultry hence the need for ...

  2. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoye, B.J.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations

  3. Serological and Virological Study of Newcastle Disease and Avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...

  4. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-09-18

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee.

  5. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection. PMID:25417715

  6. EDITORIAL Avian Flu Pandemic Threat: Why is Ethiopia considered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    influenza virus spread among human population the effect could be devastating with high mortality rates. It is this situation that is threatening the world now. Epidemiological evidences in the last two years from around the world, particularly from Asia, suggest an imminent threat to another avian influenza pandemic that can ...

  7. Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza epidemcis: Lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Koch, G.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is based on a talk which was held in the course of the spring symposium „Impfen statt Keulen“ of the Akademie für Tiergesundheit (AfT) 2011 in Wiesbaden-Naurod. Experience with recent large-scale epidemics of Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza – among others in the

  8. Seroprevalence of Selected Avian Pathogens of Backyard Poultry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A serological survey for Newcastle (ND), avian influenza (AI), Gumboro (IBD) and Infectious bronchitis (IB) viruses was conducted in 310 serum samples in village chickens in Sinar State, Sudan. The studied chickens had no history of previous vaccination and showed no clinical signs. Results of indirect enzyme-linked ...

  9. Review of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in poultry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza cases that were diagnosed in Zaria at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, were reviewed in this study. The outbreaks occurred between the months of December, 2006 and March, 2007. The clinical signs and postmortem lesions ...

  10. The epizootiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza prior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epizootiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza prior to the anticipated pandemic of the early twenty first century. ... Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic fowls back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. This has grave consequences for the poultry ...

  11. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outbreaks may only occur after transmission from migratory species to domestic flocks through local amplification and secondary spread through the movement of poultry or people, as well as equipment or vehicles contaminated by sick birds. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together ...

  12. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Although the international spread of the disease is still poorly understood, scientists are increasingly convinced that at least some migratory waterfowl carry the H5N1 ...

  13. Optimizing factors influencing DNA extraction from fresh whole avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to optimize the efficient combination of lysis buffer, proteinase K, incubation time, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) volume, spinning rate (rpm), and precipitation agent on quantity and quality of DNA extracted from various volumes of avian blood. Blood samples were collected in EDTA and ...

  14. Perspectives on avian and bovine leukemia virus immunological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, T.; Souza, J.M.M. de; Nogueira, Z.M.; Ogata, H.

    1984-01-01

    The avian and bovine RNA virus are studied. The mechanism of replication, the genome, the ultrastructural composition, the immunogens reactivity, the class of determinants and affinity are presented. Purification techniques of viral proteins and immunoassay proceeding are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of avian Escherichia coli isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colibacillosis is a poultry disease of economic importance in Iran and all around the world. The aim of this study is to test the antibiotic sensitivity of Escherichia coli strains which were isolated in Tabriz. A total of 100 E. coli strains isolated from avian colibacillosis of 50 farms from 2008 to 2009 in Tabriz, were investigated for ...

  16. Asian Partnership for Avian Influenza Research : Effectiveness of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam for collaboration on research and research capacity building in avian influenza prevention and control. This grant will allow APAIR to investigate the effectiveness of the measures employed by China, Thailand and Viet Nam and evaluate the factors contributing to their success or failure.

  17. Aspects of the ontogenesis of the avian columella auris | Smit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations on embryological material from Spheniscus demersus, Acridotheres tristis, Geopelia cuneata and Gallus domesticus strongly suggest that the avian stapes represents part of an infrapharyngohyal while the rest of the pharyngohyal material (supra- plus infrapharyngohyal) together with the epihyal and a ...

  18. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-02

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Avian Mobbing of the Puerto Rican Boa (Epicrates inornatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAVIER E. MERCADO; ESTEBAN TERRANOVA; JR. WUNDERLE

    2002-01-01

    Mobbing, defined as an intense collective behavior in which birds of one or more species scold or even physically attack a predator, is known from a variety of bird species (Campbell and Lack, 1985; Gill, 1995). Targets commonly include hawks, owls, and snakes. In the West Indies, observations have documented avian mobbing towards various hawk species (e.g., Jeffrey-...

  20. Rumor surveillance and avian influenza H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, Gina; Patel, Mahomed; Olowokure, Babatunde; Roces, Maria C; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2005-03-01

    We describe the enhanced rumor surveillance during the avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in 2004. The World Health Organization's Western Pacific Regional Office identified 40 rumors; 9 were verified to be true. Rumor surveillance informed immediate public health action and prevented unnecessary and costly responses.