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Sample records for avian mycoplasmosis update

  1. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  2. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    OpenAIRE

    ER Nascimento; VLA Pereira; MGF Nascimento; ML Barreto

    2005-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI) is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorga...

  3. Incidence of Avian Mycoplasmosis in the region of Batna, Eastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Heleili; N.; Mamache; B. and Chelihi; A.

    2011-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmosis is infectious and contagious disease which affects chicken and turkey as well as many other species with many economics losses. The absence of data on avian mycoplasmosis in Algeria and the importance of the poultry breeding in Batna encouraged us to undertake the prevalence of the most pathogenic mycoplasmas in broiler and layer chickens in this area, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). 143 Mycoplasmas were isolate from 237 samples, at a rate of 60.33%. MG was isolate at a rat...

  4. Incidence of Avian Mycoplasmosis in the region of Batna, Eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmosis is infectious and contagious disease which affects chicken and turkey as well as many other species with many economics losses. The absence of data on avian mycoplasmosis in Algeria and the importance of the poultry breeding in Batna encouraged us to undertake the prevalence of the most pathogenic mycoplasmas in broiler and layer chickens in this area, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG. 143 Mycoplasmas were isolate from 237 samples, at a rate of 60.33%. MG was isolate at a rate of 21.67% (2.09% in layer hens and 19.58% in broiler chickens. The serological screening using of breedings showed a sensitivity of 83.10%. This study shows that mycoplasmosis and in particular MG infection, represent a serious problem in chickens in Algeria in the absence of hygiene conditions and vaccination especially. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 101-105

  5. Application of Molecular and Serological Methods for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infection (Avian mycoplasmosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Jafar A; Al-Mouqati, Salwa A; Al-Ali, Ebtesam M; Ben-Haji, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Mycoplasma infection is a major problem in veterinary medicine and in poultry production. The pathogen has many strains, so that diagnosis of the disease using culture method is not effective. The objective of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in Kuwait poultry farms using serology and molecular methods in comparison to the culture under specific conditions. A total of 50 swab samples from choanal cleft and tracheal samples and blood samples were obtained from three different local farms, the blood samples were processed for an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detection and the swab samples for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and culture methods detection. A PCR diagnostic kit (VenoMGs) and ELISA diagnostic kit (ProFLOK), were used in comparison to the traditional culture method, to study the spread of this disease in samples from broiler and layer flocks. Fifty chicken samples were tested for mycoplasmosis, samples tested with ELISA gave 24 positive (48%) and 29 were positive by PCR (58%) and only seven (14%) were positive with culture methods. Swab samples obtained from the choanal cleft gave more positive (60%) with PCR than tracheal samples (56.6%). The culture gave 20 and 5% positive, respectively for tracheal and choanal samples. The methods reported here are of high sensitivity and specificity for Mycoplasma. Both the PCR and ELISA methods are superior to culture method for detection of avian mycoplasmosis. This study showed that MG infection is prevalent in commercial broiler and layer chickens in Kuwait poultry farms. The use of these methods for surveillance of the disease will establish data concerning the predominant Mycoplasmosis diseases in Kuwait if done on a large scale. PMID:26364358

  6. [Intrauterine mycoplasmosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinzerling, A V; Mitrofanov, P M; Shastina, G V

    1977-01-01

    Comparative studies of pathological anatomy of intrauterine mycoplasmosis of man and cattle were carried out. On the basis of investigations of 22 deceased newborns and of 3 stillborns with uterine infection caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia descriptions of lesions of various organs are presented. They most regularly were defected in the liver. In the respiratory organs in this infection, in contrast to respiratory mycoplasmosis, lesions of respiratory departments, not of the respiratory tract, were predominantly observed. The investigation of 18 liveborn and 5 stillborn calfs with intrauterine infection caused by Mycoplasma bovirhinis revealed the same regularities of the pathological process. The localisation of lesions and the presence of changes in the placenta justify the conclusion that the disease developed, as a rule, as a result of hematogenic transplacental infection. PMID:558745

  7. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  8. Feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis in jaguar (Panthera onca: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Guimarães Sanchioli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Being often subject to stressful situations, animals kept in captivity are more susceptible to immunosuppression. When in the presence of concurrent infections or under situations of stress, Mycoplasma haemofelis may develop the clinical symptoms of feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis. The transmission of M. haemofelis occurs through hematophagous arthropod vectors, such as fleas, ticks, and lice. Infections range from hemolytic anemia with risk of imminent death to subtle chronic anemia. Administration of imidocarb to treat wild felines infected with hemoplasms may show greater effectiveness due to its injectable nature and smaller number of applications when compared to the use of doxycycline orally for a longer period. As a prophylactic measure for wild cats, environmental enrichment seems to be more effective when compared to other prevention ways usually adopted in domestic cats. This article aims to report a case of feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis in jaguar (Panthera onca and address its relation to the immunosuppression caused by stress conditions in captivity.

  9. Zoonosis Update on H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ahad*, Masood Rabbani, Altaf Mahmood1, Zulfiqar Hussan Kuthu2, Arfan Ahmad and Muhammad Mahmudur Rahman3

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses infect various mammals like human, horse, pig and birds as well. A total of 16 hemagglutinin (HA and 9 neuraminidase (NA subtypes have been identified. Most of the combinations are found in birds and relatively few have been isolated from mammals. Although there is no report of human to human transmission till to date, several cases of H5N1, H7N7 and H9N2 identified in humans since 1997 raised serious concern for health and veterinary profession. This review paper will focus H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV with special emphasis on zoonosis. The virus H9N2 though not highly pathogenic like H5N1 but can be virulent through antigenic drift and shift.

  10. Avian influenza H5N1: an update on molecular pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HongLiang; JIANG ChengYu

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza A virus constitutes a large threat to human health. Recent outbreaks of highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus in poultry and in humans have raised concerns that an influenza pandemic will occur in the near future. Transmission from avian species to humans remains sporadic, but the mortality associated with human infection is very high (about 62%). To date, there are no effec-tive therapeutic drugs or a prophylactic vaccines available, which means that there is still a long way to go before we can eradicate or cure avian influenza. This review focuses on the molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza H5N1 virus infection. An understanding of the viral pathogenesis may facilitate the development of novel treatments or effective eradication of this fatal disease.

  11. Avian influenza H5N1: an update on molecular pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza A virus constitutes a large threat to human health. Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in poultry and in humans have raised concerns that an influenza pandemic will occur in the near future. Transmission from avian species to humans remains sporadic, but the mortality associated with human infection is very high (about 62%). To date, there are no effective therapeutic drugs or a prophylactic vaccines available, which means that there is still a long way to go before we can eradicate or cure avian influenza. This review focuses on the molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza H5N1 virus infection. An understanding of the viral pathogenesis may facilitate the development of novel treatments or effective eradication of this fatal disease.

  12. Updated Values for Molecular Diagnosis for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sakurai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses of the H5N1 strain pose a pandemic threat. H5N1 strain virus is extremely lethal and contagious for poultry. Even though mortality is 59% in infected humans, these viruses do not spread efficiently between humans. In 1997, an outbreak of H5N1 strain with human cases occurred in Hong Kong. This event highlighted the need for rapid identification and subtyping of influenza A viruses (IAV, not only to facilitate surveillance of the pandemic potential of avian IAV, but also to improve the control and treatment of infected patients. Molecular diagnosis has played a key role in the detection and typing of IAV in recent years, spurred by rapid advances in technologies for detection and characterization of viral RNAs and proteins. Such technologies, which include immunochromatography, quantitative real-time PCR, super high-speed real-time PCR, and isothermal DNA amplification, are expected to contribute to faster and easier diagnosis and typing of IAV.

  13. A clinical survey of common avian infectious diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Dong; Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple common avian infectious diseases (CAIDs), namely, avian infectious diseases excluding highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease, such as avian salmonellosis and coccidiosis, cause huge economic loss in poultry production and are of great significance in public health. However, they are usually not covered in the systems for reporting of animal diseases. Consequently, the distribution of CAIDs is not clear in many countries. Here, we report a clinical survey of CAIDs in China based on clinical diagnosis of eight veterinary clinics in 2011 and 2012. This survey provided the distribution data of viral, bacterial, and parasitic CAIDs in different types of avian flocks, seasons, and regions, data that are of great value in the research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases. This survey suggested that avian colibacillosis, infectious serositis in ducks caused by Riemerella anatipestifer, avian salmonellosis, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, avian aspergillosis, coccidiosis, low pathogenic avian influenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, and infectious laryngotracheitis are likely to be prevalent in the poultry in China. PMID:25055636

  14. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  15. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  16. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  17. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  18. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  19. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  20. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Zu Wu; Li-Min Huang

    2005-01-01

    Influenza is an old disease but remains vital nowadays. Three types of influenza viruses,namely A, B, C, have been identified; among them influenza A virus has pandemic potential.The first outbreak of human illness due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) occurred in1997 in Hong Kong with a mortality of 30%. The most recent outbreak of the avian influenzaepidemic has been going on in Asian countries since 2003. As of March 2005, 44 incidentalhuman infections and 32 deaths have been documented. Hum...

  1. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  2. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  3. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  4. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%). Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%). AI cases...

  5. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  6. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  7. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the poultry industry. The fear of MD is further enhanced by unpredictable vaccine breaks that result in ...

  9. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  10. Avian influenza – Review

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-01-01

    Recent spread of avian influenza A H5N1 virus to poultry and wild birds has increased the threat of human infections with H5N1 virus worldwide In this review the epidemiology virolgy clinical and laboratory characteristics and management of avian influenza is described The virus has demonsrated considerable pandemic potential and is the most likely candidate of next pandemic threat For pandemic preparedness stockpiling antiviral agents and vaccination are the most important intervention measu...

  11. Editorial: Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Wang; Guangmei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    <正>Welcome to Avian Research!This new journal is a continuation and enhancement of Chinese Birds,which has been and continues to be sponsored by the China Ornithological Society and Beijing Forestry University.In the four years since its inception,the original journal—the only one in China focusing on avian research—has published over 130 manuscripts,with authors from all continents across the world,garnering global respect in

  12. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  13. Avian pox in ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwright, D M; Burger, W P; Geyer, A; Wessles, J

    1994-03-01

    Nodular cutaneous and diphtheric oral lesions, resembling avian pox were observed in 2 flocks of young ostrich chicks. Typical eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in histological sections and a pox virus was isolated from the lesions. A commercial fowl pox vaccine was used to protect young ostriches in the field. PMID:7745588

  14. Avian dark cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  15. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  16. Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice: strain differences in early host responses and exacerbation by nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies reported here used genetic differences in susceptibility of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice and exacerbation of the disease by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as tools in assessing the role of early host responses in the pathogenesis of MRM. The two strains did not differ in susceptibility to infection, but C3H/HeN mice were more susceptible to and had increased severity of lung lesions 14 days after intranasal inoculation as determined by 50% biological endpoints and morphometric analysis of tissues. Exposure to NO2 for 4 hours prior to exposure to infectious aerosols exacerbated murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) by 7 days after exposure in both mouse strains. NO2 appeared to affect host lung defense mechanisms responsible for limiting mycoplasmal growth in the lungs. The NO2 exposure concentration required for this effect varied with the genetic background of the host, the dose of mycoplasmas administered, and the endpoint measured. Pulmonary clearance of radiolabeled M. pulmonis was determined in both mouse strains, and in C57BL/6N mice exposed to NO2

  17. An overview on avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA), with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS) for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the confo...

  18. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  19. SEKILAS TENTANG AVIAN INFLUENZA (AI)

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Elytha

    2011-01-01

    Fluburung atau Avian Influenza (AI) adalah penyakit zoonosis fatal dan menular serta dapat menginfeksi semua jenis burung, manusia, babi, kuda dan anjing, Virus Avian Influenza tipe A (hewan) dari keluarga Drthomyxoviridae telah menyerang manusia dan menyebabkan banyak korban meninggal dunia. Saat ini avian Influenza telah menjadi masalah kesehatan global yang sangat serius, termasuk di Indonesia. Sejak Juli 2005 Sampai 12 April 2006 telah ditemukan 479 kasus kumulatif dan dicurigai flu burun...

  20. The avian haemophili.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackall, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    There are four currently recognized taxa to accommodate the avian haemophili: Haemophilus paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, and Pasteurella species A (the last three being formerly united as Haemophilus avium). A range of other taxa has also been recognized, but they have been neither named nor assigned to a genus. All of these various taxa, legitimate and otherwise, have the common characteristic of requiring V factor, but not X factor, for in vitro growth. Several re...

  1. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Ali; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  2. Avian psychology and communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the i...

  3. Applications of avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Benjamin B; Velho, Tarciso A; Sim, Shuyin; Lois, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The ability to introduce foreign DNA into the genome of an organism has proven to be one of the most powerful tools in modern biology. Methods for the manipulation of the animal genome have been developed at an impressive pace for 3 decades, but only in the past 5 years have useful tools for avian transgenesis emerged. The most efficient technique involves the use of replication-deficient lentiviral vectors to deliver foreign DNA into the avian germline. Although lentiviral-mediated transgenesis presents some constraints, progress in this area has garnered interest in both industry and academia for its potential applications in biological research, biotechnology, and agriculture. In this review we evaluate methods for the production of transgenic birds, focusing on the advantages and limitations of lentiviral-mediated transgenesis. We also provide an overview of future applications of this technology. The most exciting of these include disease-resistant transgenic poultry, genetically modified hens that produce therapeutic proteins in their eggs, and transgenic songbirds that serve as a model to study communication disorders. Finally, we discuss technological advances that will be necessary to make avian transgenesis a more versatile tool. PMID:21131712

  4. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  5. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  6. Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between 2006 and 2011—Review and recommendations for surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dundon, William G.; Heidari, Alireza; Fusaro, Alice;

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, the members of the molecular epidemiological working group of the European “EPIZONE” network of excellence have been generating sequence data on avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses from both European and African sources in an attempt to more fully understand the circulation and...... impact of these viruses. This review presents a timely update on the epidemiological situation of these viruses based on sequence data generated during the lifetime of this project in addition to data produced by other groups during the same period. Based on this information and putting it all into a...

  7. Avian Influenza Infection Dynamics in Minor Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Dols, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) has become one of the most important challenges that ever emerged from animal reservoirs. The constant outbreaks detected worldwide in domestic and wild bird species are of concern to the economics of the poultry industry, wildlife conservation, and animal and public health. Susceptibility to AI viruses (AIVs) varies deeply among avian species, as well as their possible role as sentinels, intermediate hosts or reservoirs. To date, several experimental studies and natural ...

  8. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  9. Low Speed Avian Maneuvering Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Low speed avian maneuvering flight is an ecologically crucial behavior that has contributed to the explosive diversification of several avian taxa by allowing access to complex spatial environments. Negotiating a sharp aerial turn requires finely tuned interactions between an animal's sensory-motor system and its environment. My thesis work focuses on how aerodynamic forces, wing and body dynamics, and sensory feedback interact during aerial turning in the pigeon (Columba livea).

  10. Avian influenza : a review article

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalda; EMADI H; M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu) and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1), that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO) , world organization for animal health (OIE) , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO) information and recommendations and review of th...

  11. The Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  12. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  13. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  14. About Updating

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Survey of several forms of updating, with a practical illustrative example. We study several updating (conditioning) schemes that emerge naturally from a common scenarion to provide some insights into their meaning. Updating is a subtle operation and there is no single method, no single 'good' rule. The choice of the appropriate rule must always be given due consideration. Planchet (1989) presents a mathematical survey of many rules. We focus on the practical meaning of these rules. After sum...

  15. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  16. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  17. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  18. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataby, Khadija; Fellahi, Siham; Loutfi, Chafiqa; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and extremely difficult to control because it has extensive genetic diversity, a short generation time, and a high mutation rate. IBV is a Gammacoronavirus, single-stranded, and positive-sense RNA virus. Avian infectious bronchitis is well studied in European countries with identification of a large number of IBV variants, whereas in African countries epidemiological and scientific data are poor and not updated. However, previous studies reported that an IBV variant continues to appear regularly in Africa, as currently described in Morocco. No cross-protection between IBV strains was reported, some being unique to a particular country, others having a more general distribution. This review aims to provide a general overview on IB disease distribution in African countries and an update on the available studies of IBV variants in each country. PMID:27150555

  19. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  20. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan M; Trevor Francis Fernandez and Feroz Mohammed.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe dise...

  1. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  2. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  3. Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENOMICS To meet the growing demands of consumers, the poultry industry will need to continue to improve methods of selection in breeding programs for production and associated traits. One possible solution is genome-wide marker-assisted selection (GWMAS). In brief, evenly-spaced genetic markers s...

  4. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  5. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M;

    2015-01-01

    . Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest...

  6. OFFLU Network on Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Steven

    2006-01-01

    OFFLU is the name of the network of avian influenza expertise inaugurated jointly in 2005 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health. Achievements and constraints to date and plans for the future are described.

  7. Avian Influenza: Our current understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) has become one of the most important diseases of the poultry industry around the world. The virus has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infection. T...

  8. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  9. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  10. Cybersecurity Update

    CERN Document Server

    Heagerty, Denise

    2008-01-01

    An update on recent security issues and vulnerabilities affecting Windows, Linux and Mac platforms. This talk is based on contributions and input from a range of colleagues both within and outside CERN. It covers clients, servers and control systems.

  11. Email Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/listserv.html Email Updates To use the sharing features on this ... view your email history or unsubscribe. Prevent MedlinePlus emails from being marked as "spam" or "junk" To ...

  12. Website updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updates to Website: (Please add new items at the top of this description with the date of the website change) May 9, 2012: Uploaded experimental data in matlab...

  13. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  14. Chymotrypsin and trypsin sensitivities of avian reoviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Drastini, Y; McKenna, P K; Kibenge, F S; Lopez, A

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to examine the chymotrypsin sensitivity and trypsin sensitivity of 13 avian reoviruses, and to determine if there was any correlation with pathogenicity of some chicken reoviruses. A wide variation in the degree of sensitivity of avian reoviruses to chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed. Overall, the infectivity of the 13 avian reoviruses for Vero cells was markedly reduced by treatment with 0.01% chymotrypsin (the lowest concentration tested) while 0.5% trypsin si...

  15. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    N.L.P.I Dharmayanti; R Damayanti; R Indriani; A Wiyono; R.M.A Adjid

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1). Mo...

  16. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  17. Climate change and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in ...

  18. Simulating Avian Wingbeats and Wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Analytical models of avian flight have previously been used to predict mechanical and metabolic power consumption during cruise. These models are limited, in that they neglect details of wing kinematics, and model power by assuming a fixed or rotary wing (actuator disk) weight support mechanism. Theoretical methods that incorporate wing kinematics potentially offer more accurate predictions of power consumption by calculating instantaneous aerodynamic loads on the wing. However, the success o...

  19. Avian zoonoses – a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kozdruń Wojciech; Czekaj Hanna; Styś Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other h...

  20. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  1. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  2. Update '98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    Updates cases and issues previously discussed in this regular column on human rights in Canada, including racism and anti-Semitism, laws on hate crimes, hate sites on the World Wide Web, the use of the "free speech" defense by hate groups, and legal challenges to antiracist groups by individuals criticized by them. (DSK)

  3. Avian influenza and the poultry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nicita, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Because of high mortality rates, high rates of contagion, and the possibility of cross-species infection to mammals including humans, high pathogenic avian influenza is a major concern both to consumers and producers of poultry. The implications of the avian influenza for international poultry markets are large and include the loss of consumer confidence, loss of competitiveness, loss of m...

  4. Atypical Avian Influenza (H5N1)

    OpenAIRE

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Kitphati, Rungrueng; Thongphubeth, Kanokporn; Patoomanunt, Prisana; Anthanont, Pimjai; Auwanit, Wattana; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Saeng-Aroon, Siriphan; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Storch, Gregory A.; Mundy, Linda M.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly if they have a history of exposure to poultry.

  5. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  6. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  7. The global nature of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  8. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  9. Cryoconservation of avian gonads in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, F G; Robertson, M C; Liu, J

    2013-10-01

    Avian genetic resources have declined dramatically over the past half century as the cost of maintaining populations has exceeded the perceived benefit of keeping them. Despite the early importance of poultry in the development of cryopreservation techniques, very little avian germplasm has been conserved. Cryopreservation and recovery of avian gonads preserve the W chromosome and overcome problems of freezing and recovering semen or conserving and manipulating embryonic cells, and the use of vitrification procedures for preserving gonads minimizes cellular damage. On the basis of research demonstrating the biological possibility of cryopreserving and transplanting avian gonads, 5,125 testicles and 2,667 ovaries from 10 populations of Japanese quail, 9 populations of chickens, and 1 population of Chilean tinamou were cryopreserved and sent to the Canadian Animal Genetic Resources program for long-term storage. These gonads represent 20 of the 33 distinct avian populations currently maintained at Canadian public institutions of agricultural research. PMID:24046407

  10. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  11. Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Cheng Chang; Yi-Ying Cheng; Shin-Ru Shih

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1), there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is co...

  12. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  13. Presence of avian bornavirus RNA and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in apparently healthy macaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kloet, Siwo R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-12-01

    Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease. PMID:20095158

  14. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approv...

  15. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for...

  16. Clipping the wings of avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the threat of avian influenza has been lessened by effective animal husbandry methods. However, the public health community is trying to ensure enough measures are in place to prevent a possible pandemic. Jane Parry reports.

  17. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  18. Montana 2006 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated a nationwide avian influenza...

  19. Oseltamivir in human avian influenza infection

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses continue to cause disease outbreaks in humans, and extrapulmonary infection is characteristic. In vitro studies demonstrate the activity of oseltamivir against avian viruses of the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. In animal models of lethal infection, oseltamivir treatment and prophylaxis limit viral replication and improve survival. Outcomes are influenced by the virulence of the viral strain, dosage regimen and treatment delay; it is also critical for the compound to act sy...

  20. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  1. Cell killing by avian leukosis viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, S K; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Infection of chicken cells with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus resulted in the detachment of killed cells from the culture dish. The detached, dead cells contained more unintegrated viral DNA than the attached cells. These results confirm the hypothesis that cell killing after infection with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus is associated with accumulation of large amounts of unintegrated viral DNA. No accumulation of large amounts of integrated viral DNA was found in cells infected with c...

  2. Avian Circadian Organization: A Chorus of Clocks

    OpenAIRE

    Cassone, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to...

  3. A review of avian probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  4. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  5. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  6. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Language: English Español Recommend ...

  7. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  8. MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS IN POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Ayşe

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasmosis causes important economical losses in poultry industry. So far, 23 mycoplasma serotypes have been isolated from avian species, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum(MG), Mycoplasma synoviae(MS), Mycoplasma meleagridis(MM) and Mycoplasma iowae(MI) are known as the most pathogenic strains. Mycoplasmas generally cause disease in respiratory systems of poultry. This review summarizes the knowledge on the diagnosis and epidemiology of avian mycoplasmosis.

  9. Radioimmunological comparison of the DNA polymerases of avian retroviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, G.; Temin, H M

    1980-01-01

    125I-labeled DNA polymerases of avian myeloblastosis virus and spleen necrosis virus were used in a radioimmunological characterization of avian retrovirus DNA polymerases. It was shown that avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus DNA polymerases do not cross-react in radioimmunoassays. Within the avian leukosis virus species, species-specific and type-specific antigenic determinants of the DNA polymerase were defined. The previous finding of genus-specific antigenic determinants...

  10. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  11. Immunology of avian influenza virus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, D L; Schultz-Cherry, S

    2000-01-01

    Avian influenza virus can cause serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals, but its natural host range is in wild ducks, gulls, and shorebirds. Infections in poultry can be inapparent or cause respiratory disease, decreases in production, or a rapidly fatal systemic disease known as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). For the protection of poultry, neutralizing antibody to the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins provide the primary protection against disease. A variety of vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody, including killed whole virus vaccines and fowl-pox recombinant vaccines. Antigenic drift of influenza viruses appears to be less important in causing vaccine failures in poultry as compared to humans. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte response can reduce viral shedding in mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, but provides questionable protection against HPAI. Influenza viruses can directly affect the immune response of infected birds, and the role of the Mx gene, interferons, and other cytokines in protection from disease remains unknown. PMID:10717293

  12. [Progress in microRNAs associated with major avian viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Chaolai; Mu, Weitao; Zhao, Dongxue; Chang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Recently, avian viral diseases have become one of the main models to study mechanisms of viral infections and pathogenesis. The study of regulatory relationships and mechanisms between viruses and microRNAs has also become the focus. In this review, we briefly summarize the general situations of microRNAs encoded by avian herpesviruses. Also, we analyze the regulatory relationships between tumorigenicity of avian herpesviruses and microRNAs. Additionally, the possible applications for prevention and treatment of viral diseases (such as infectious bursal disease, avian influenza and avian leucosis) using the regulatory mechanisms of microRNAs are also discussed. PMID:26955707

  13. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  14. Composting for Avian Influenza Virus Elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Elving, Josefine; Emmoth, Eva; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn; Ottoson, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Effective sanitization is important in viral epizootic outbreaks to avoid further spread of the pathogen. This study examined thermal inactivation as a sanitizing treatment for manure inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and bacteriophages MS2 and ϕ6. Rapid inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 was achieved at both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (45 and 55°C) temperatures. Similar inactivation rates were observed for bacteriophage ϕ6, while b...

  15. Avian Influenza: Should China Be Alarmed?

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhaoliang; Xu, Huaxi; Chen, Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the primary public health concern of the 21st century. Influenza strain H5N1 is capable of incidentally infecting humans and other mammals. Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have been transmitted from poultry to humans (by direct or indirect contact with infected birds) in several provinces of Mainland China, which has resulted in 22 cases of human infection and has created repercussions for the Chinese ec...

  16. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    OpenAIRE

    Lüschow Dörte; Lierz Peter; Jansen Andreas; Harder Timm; Hafez Hafez; Kohls Andrea; Schweiger Brunhilde; Lierz Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV). In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks) as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds) seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their ...

  17. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs. PMID:27033033

  18. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  19. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  20. Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Europe and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Elam, Gillian; Aro, Arja R; Abraham, Thomas; Bishop, George D.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    During autumn 2005, we conducted 3,436 interviews in European and Asian countries. We found risk perceptions of avian influenza to be at an intermediate level and beliefs of efficacy to be slightly lower. Risk perceptions were higher in Asia than Europe; efficacy beliefs were lower in Europe than Asia.

  1. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  2. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature. PMID:22740548

  3. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... poultry caused by a paramyxovirus. END is one of most infectious diseases of poultry in the world. A death... avian influenza (HPAI) is an extremely infectious and potentially fatal form of the disease in birds and... birds' or poultry's freedom from END, HPAI subtype H5N1, and other communicable diseases,...

  4. Morphometric Analysis of the Sternum in Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    DÜZLER, Ayhan; Özgel, Özcan; DURSUN, Nejdet

    2006-01-01

    The anatomy of the sternum in avian species differs according to their movement and particularly flight capability, as well as species and habitat. Various studies aimed at the examination and measurement of the sternum in avian species have been carried out. However, to the authors' knowledge, no study on the correlation between sternal measurements and movement style has been published previously. In this study, the sternums of certain avian species including the red falcon (Buteo rufi...

  5. Multiple Control Strategies for Prevention of Avian Influenza Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Ullah; Gul Zaman; Saeed Islam

    2014-01-01

    We present the prevention of avian influenza pandemic by adjusting multiple control functions in the human-to-human transmittable avian influenza model. First we show the existence of the optimal control problem; then by using both analytical and numerical techniques, we investigate the cost-effective control effects for the prevention of transmission of disease. To do this, we use three control functions, the effort to reduce the number of contacts with human infected with mutant avian influ...

  6. Avian influenza infections in birds – a moving target

    OpenAIRE

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a complex infection of birds, of which the ecology and epidemiology have undergone substantial changes over the last decade. Avian influenza viruses infecting poultry can be divided into two groups. The very virulent viruses cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), with flock mortality as high as 100%. These viruses have been restricted to subtypes H5 and H7, although not all H5 and H7 viruses cause HPAI. All other viruses cause a milder, primarily respiratory, ...

  7. Economic effects of avian influenza on egg producers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    V Demircan; Yilmaz, H.; Z Dernek; T Bal; Gül, M; H Koknaroglu

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the economic effects of avian influenza on the egg-production sector of Afyon Province, Turkey. Economic indicators were compared before and during the avian influenza outbreak. A questionnaire was conducted with 75 poultry farmers. Farms were divided into three groups according to their size. The profitability of the three farm size groups was compared during two study periods: before and during the avian influenza outbreak. The results indicate that, as compared to pre...

  8. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  9. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  10. Applications of thermal imaging in avian science

    OpenAIRE

    McCafferty, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal imaging, or infrared thermography, has been used in avian science since the 1960s. More than 30 species of birds, ranging in size from passerines to ratites, have been studied using this technology. The main strength of this technique is that it is a non-invasive and non-contact method of measuring surface temperature. Its limitations and measurement errors are well understood and suitable protocols have been developed for a variety of experimental settings. Thermal imaging has been u...

  11. Avian influenza and poultry workers, Peru, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Ernesto J.; Tadeusz J Kochel; Capuano, Ana W; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2007-01-01

    Background  Currently numerous countries in Asia, Africa and Europe are encountering highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) infections in poultry and humans. In the Americas, home of the world’s largest poultry exporters, contingency plans are being developed and evaluated in preparation for the arrival of these viral strains. Objectives  With this cross‐sectional study, to our knowledge the first in its kind in Central or South America, we sought to learn whether Peruvian poultry workers had...

  12. Prevalence of avian influenza and host ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Møller, Anders Pape

    2007-01-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are common reservoirs of the low pathogenic subtypes of avian influenza (LPAI), which are easily transmitted to poultry and become highly pathogenic. As the risk of virus transmission depends on the prevalence of LPAI in host-reservoir systems, there is an urgent need for understanding how host ecology, life history and behaviour can affect virus prevalence in the wild. To test for the most important ecological correlates of LPAI virus prevalence at the interspecific ...

  13. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhiping; Li Jinsong; Zhang Yandong; Li Lin; Ma Limin; Li Dan; Gao Feng; Xia Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used ...

  14. Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Capua, Ilaria; Marangon, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza, listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), has become a disease of great importance for animal and human health. Several aspects of the disease lack scientific information, which has hampered the management of some recent crises. Millions of animals have died, and concern is growing over the loss of human lives and management of the pandemic potential. On the basis of data generated in recent outbreaks and in light of new OIE regulations and maintenance of anim...

  15. Avian influenza: The tip of the iceberg

    OpenAIRE

    Balkhy Hanan

    2008-01-01

    For some years now, we have been living with the fear of an impending pandemic of avian influenza (AI). Despite the recognition, in 1996, of the global threat posed by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus found in farmed geese in Guangdong Province, China, planning for the anticipated epidemic remains woefully inadequate; this is especially true in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. These deficiencies became obvious in 1997, with the outbreak of AI in the live animal markets in...

  16. Avian influenza: Myth or mass murder?

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI) is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A virus...

  17. Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds Against Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Call, Evan W.

    1991-01-01

    Tests in vitro for antiviral activity against avian influenza viruses, A/Turkey/Sanpete/85 (H6N8) and A/Turkey/Sanpete/86 (H10N9), isolated in Sanpete County, Utah, utilized known antiviral agents, amantadine•HCl (adamantanamine hydrochloride) and ribavirin (1-β-D ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide). The testing involved evaluation of seven drug concentrations. Maximum tolerated dose, minimum inhibitory concentration and therapeutic indexes were determined for each drug used. Both dru...

  18. Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Gerardo M; Lucio Eduardo; Rodríguez-Ropón Andrea; Méndez Sara T; Vázquez Lourdes; Escorcia Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs...

  19. Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Xudong Lin; Seth Schobel; Magdalena Plancarte; Kelly, Terra R.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined ...

  20. Avian Coronavirus in Wild Aquatic Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, D. K. W.; Leung, C. Y. H.; Gilbert, M.; Joyner, P. H.; Ng, E. M.; Tse, T. M.; Guan, Y; Peiris, J. S. M.; Poon, L.L.M

    2011-01-01

    We detected a high prevalence (12.5%) of novel avian coronaviruses in aquatic wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses of these coronaviruses suggest that there is a diversity of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses circulating in birds. Gammacoronaviruses were found predominantly in Anseriformes birds, whereas deltacoronaviruses could be detected in Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Anseriformes birds in this study. We observed that there are frequent interspecies transmissions of gammacorona...

  1. Scaling of avian primary feather length

    OpenAIRE

    Nudds, Robert L.; Kaiser, Gary V.; Dyke, Gareth J.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather ( ) contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus). The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was contro...

  2. Moving Objects Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong; Meng, Xiaofeng

    In moving objects applications, large numbers of locations can be sampled by sensors or GPS periodically, then sent from moving clients to the server and stored in a database. Therefore, continuously maintaining in a database the current locations of moving objects by using a tracking technique becomes very important. The key issue is minimizing the number of updates, while providing precise locations for query results. In this chapter, we will introduce some underlying location update methods. Then, we describe two location update strategies in detail, which can improve the performance. One is the proactive location update strategy, which predicts the movement of moving objects to lower the update frequency; the other is the group location update strategy, which groups the objects to minimize the total number of objects reporting their locations.

  3. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  4. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Dodman, Tim; Caron, Alexandre; Balança, Gilles; Desvaux, Stephanie; Goutard, Flavie; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lamarque, François; Hagemeijer, Ward; Monicat, François

    2007-01-01

    We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa.

  5. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  6. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with 9 CFR 114.8. If phenol is used, a direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian mycoplasma antigen. 113.408... Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.408 Avian mycoplasma antigen. Mycoplasma antigens shall be prepared...

  7. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  8. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  9. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  10. THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SHORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen of poultry as it can cause severe economic losses through disease, including respiratory signs and mortality, and effects on trade. Avian influenza virus is classified as type A influenza, which is a member of the orthomyxoviridae family. Charact...

  11. Automatisches Software-Update

    OpenAIRE

    Clauß, Matthias; Fischer, Günther

    2003-01-01

    Vorgestellt wird ein neuer Dienst zum eigenverantwortlichen Software-Update von PC-Systemen, die unter Linux Red Hat 7.3 betrieben werden. Grundlage des Dienstes bildet das Verfahren YARU (Yum based Automatic RPM Update) als Bestandteil der im URZ eingesetzten Admin-Technologie für Linux-Rechner.

  12. Livestock Update. January 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott P.; McCann, Mark A.; Smith, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This issue of Livestock Update includes articles on dates to remember, herd management, selection for marbling in a cowherd, 2014 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale results, 2015 Stocker Cattle Summit to focus on forage management for optimal animal gain, sheep update, and the 48th Virginia Pork Industry Conference.

  13. Livestock Update. September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Saville, Joi; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Callan, Peter; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Clark, Sherrie

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; September Herd Management Advisor; Time for Fall Nutrition Tune-Up; BVD's Role in Shipping Fever Pneumonia; Sheep Field Day & Ram Lamb Sale; 2014 Virginia Tech Sheep Management Basics Workshop; Sheep Update; and Swine Production in Virginia.

  14. Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens in the region of Triângulo Mineiro, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    CBC Silva; WF Chagas; RF Santos; LR Gomes; MR Ganda; AMC Lima

    2015-01-01

    Avian salmonellosis and mycoplasmosis are infectious diseases that, in addition of causing lack of flock uniformity, represent a hazard to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of mycoplasmosis and salmonellosis in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens slaughtered at a processing plant with local health inspection in Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. A total of 210 samples were randomly collected at the time of bleeding. Samples were submit...

  15. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  16. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the proliferative skin lesions and oral diphtheritic lesions. Infection of the avian pox virus was confirmed by PCR using primers specific to the 4b core protein gene of avian pox virus. All cases were diagnosed with avian pox virus infection. This is believed to be the first description on natural infection of avian pox in Oriental Turtle-doves in Korea.

  17. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  18. Avian influenza risk perception, Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, Richard; Lam, Wendy W.T.; Ho, Ella Y.Y.; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.; Leung, Gabriel M

    2005-01-01

    A telephone survey of 986 Hong Kong households determined exposure and risk perception of avian influenza from live chicken sales. Householders bought 38,370,000 live chickens; 11% touched them when buying, generating 4,220,000 exposures annually; 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33%–39%) perceived this as risky, 9% (7%–11%) estimated >50% likelihood of resultant sickness, whereas 46% (43%–49%) said friends worried about such sickness. Recent China travel (adjusted odds ratio 0.35; CI 0.13–0...

  19. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful......, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has...

  20. Mapping and modelling of Angola's avian diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Miguel José Ascensão Freire Parada

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão e Conservação de Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Universidade de Évora Angola harbours one of the richest and most diverse avifaunas in Africa, due to its vast number of biomas and ecosystems. However, mainly due to the Portuguese Colonial war (1961-1974) and Angolan civil war (1974-2002), the country’s avian diversity and distribution is still poorly known. One way to increase the scientific knowledge of Angolan ornithology is by studyi...

  1. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. PMID:26204893

  2. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds. PMID:25973630

  3. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  4. Studying avian encephalization with geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Watanabe, Akinobu; Kawabe, Soichiro

    2016-08-01

    Encephalization is a core concept in comparative neurobiology, aiming to quantify the neurological capacity of organisms. For measuring encephalization, many studies have employed relative brain sizes corrected for expected allometric scaling to body size. Here we highlight the utility of a multivariate geometric morphometric (GM) approach for visualizing and analyzing neuroanatomical shape variation associated with encephalization. GM readily allows the statistical evaluation of covariates, such as size, and many software tools exist for visualizing their effects on shape. Thus far, however, studies using GM have not attempted to translate the meaning of encephalization to shape data. As such, we tested the statistical relationship between size and encephalization quotients (EQs) to brain shape utilizing a broad interspecific sample of avian endocranial data. Although statistically significant, the analyses indicate that allometry accounts for <10% of total neuroanatomical shape variation. Notably, we find that EQs, despite being corrected for allometric scaling based on size, contain size-related neuroanatomical shape changes. In addition, much of what is traditionally considered encephalization comprises clade-specific trends in relative forebrain expansion, particularly driven by landbirds. EQs, therefore, fail to capture 90% of the total neuroanatomical variation after correcting for allometry and shared phylogenetic history. Moving forward, GM techniques provide crucial tools for investigating key drivers of this vast, largely unexplored aspect of avian brain morphology. PMID:27112986

  5. National Pediatric Program Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book of the National Pediatric Program Update, issued by the Argentina Society of Pediatrics, describes important issues, including: effective treatment of addictions (drugs); defects of the neural tube; and the use of radiation imaging in diagnosis.

  6. Livestock Update. August 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee

    2013-01-01

    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  7. Inference and update

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    We look at two fundamental logical processes, often intertwined in planning and problem solving: inference and update. Inference is an internal process with which we draw new conclusions, uncovering what is implicit in the information we already have. Update, on the other hand, is produced by external communication, usually in the form of announcements and in general in the form of observations, giving us information that might have been not available (even implicitly) to us before. Both proc...

  8. Livestock Update. October 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Groover, Gordon Eugene, 1956-; Callan, Peter; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; November Herd Management Advisor; Evaluate Nutrition Needs and Plan for Winter; 2014 Culpeper Senior Bull Sale; Tax and Financial Management in Profitable Years; Sheep Management Tips- Late Fall; Sheep Update; and Methods for Improving Pre-Weaning Survival Rates of Piglets.

  9. Risk Mapping of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Distribution and Spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. J. Williams

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence and spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza begs effective and accurate mapping of current knowledge and future risk of infection. Methods for such mapping, however, are rudimentary, and few good examples exist for use as templates for risk-mapping efforts. We review the transmission cycle of avian influenza viruses, and identify points on which risk-mapping can focus. We provide examples from the literature and from our work that illustrate mapping risk based on (1 avian influenza case occurrences, (2 poultry distributions and movements, and (3 migratory bird movements.

  10. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R. G.; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  11. Virulence of Avian Influenza A Viruses for Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian R.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Sly, D. Lewis; London, William T.; Hosier, Nanette T.; Wood, Frank T.; Webster, Robert G.; Chanock, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Ten serologically distinct avian influenza A viruses were administered to squirrel monkeys and hamsters to compare their replication and virulence with those of human influenza A virus, A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2). In squirrel monkeys, the 10 avian influenza A viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication and virulence. The levels of virus replication and clinical response were closely correlated. Two viruses, A/Mallard/NY/6874/78 (H3N2) and A/Pintail/Alb/121/79 (H7N8), resembled the human virus in their level and duration of replication and in their virulence. At the other end of the spectrum, five avian viruses were restricted by 100- to 10,000-fold in replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract and were clearly attenuated compared with the human influenza virus. In hamsters, the 10 viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication in the nasal turbinates, ranging from viruses that replicated as efficiently as the human virus to those that were 8,000- fold restricted. Since several avian viruses were closely related serologically to human influenza viruses, studies were done to confirm the avian nature of these isolates. Each of the avian viruses plaqued efficiently at 42°C, a restrictive temperature for replication of human influenza A viruses. Avian strains that had replicated either very efficiently or very poorly in squirrel monkeys still grew to high titer in the intestinal tracts of ducks, a tropism characteristic of avian, but not mammalian, influenza viruses. These observations indicate that some avian influenza A viruses grow well and cause disease in a primate host, whereas other avian viruses are very restricted in this host. These findings also provide a basis for determining the gene or genes involved in the restriction of replication that is observed with the attenuated avian viruses. Application of such information may allow the preparation of reassortant viruses derived from a virulent human influenza virus and an attenuated avian virus for possible

  12. Data base on avian mortality on man-made structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computerized data base concerning avian mortality on man-made structures is available for searching at the Ecological Sciences Information Center of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This data base, which contains entries from the available literature, provides information on avian mortality from either collision into or electrocution on man-made structures. Primary emphasis has been placed on avian collision with obstacles such as television and radio towers, airport ceilometers, transmission lines, and cooling towers. Other structures included in the studies are fences, glass walls and windows, lighthouses, telegraph and telephone wires, buildings, monuments, smokestacks, and water towers.

  13. Analysis of avian leukosis virus infections with an enzyme immunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, D P; Ball, R F; Dougherty, R M

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for avian leukosis virus group-specific antigen was used to study infections with and shedding of avian leukosis virus in a commercial flock of chickens with a known high incidence of infection. Avian leukosis virus group-specific antigen was detected in serum or cloacal washings from 76% of a group of 100 61-week-old hens. With eggs collected during the next 3 weeks, antigen was detected in the albumen of 88% of the eggs from ELISA-positive hens a...

  14. The Helper Activities of Different Avian Viruses for Propagation of Recombinant Avian Adeno-Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.

  15. The 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    正Invited participants on the 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism, sponsored by Hainan Normal University (HNU), China, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway, the Research Council of Norway, and China Ornithological Society (COS).

  16. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye;

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size......, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this...... pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits....

  17. Historical review of avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review historical information on avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. This report includes incidental reports of...

  18. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity, Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian seasonal fecundity is of interest from evolutionary, ecological, and conservation perspectives. However, direct estimation of seasonal fecundity is difficult, especially with multibrooded birds, and models representing the renesting and quitting processes are usually requi...

  19. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee

  20. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Language: English Español Recommend on ... Compartir Influenza A viruses have infected many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, and seals. ...

  1. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Best Prevention is to Avoid Sources of Exposure Currently, the ...

  2. Avian influenza surveillance sample collection and shipment protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for mortality collection and shipment of avian influenza (AI) live bird surveillance sample collections. AI sample collections will include...

  3. The avian tectorial membrane: Why is it tapered?

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasa, Kuni H

    2015-01-01

    While the mammalian- and the avian inner ears have well defined tonotopic organizations as well as hair cells specialized for motile and sensing roles, the structural organization of the avian ear is different from its mammalian cochlear counterpart. Presumably this difference stems from the difference in the way motile hair cells function. Short hair cells, whose role is considered analogous to mammalian outer hair cells, presumably depends on their hair bundles, and not motility of their cell body, in providing the motile elements of the cochlear amplifier. This report focuses on the role of the avian tectorial membrane, specifically by addressing the question, "Why is the avian tectorial membrane tapered from the neural to the abneural direction?"

  4. Avian Point Transect Survey; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian point-transect survey data and habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We...

  5. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  6. Region 6 Avian Health Program FY2011 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities and fund allocations of the Region 6 Avian Health Program in FY2011. Activities include morbidity and mortality monitoring, disease...

  7. Avian populations and habitat use in interior Alaska taiga

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian community structure, habitat occupancy levels, and species habitat use patterns were examined in the woody habitats of interior Alaska taiga. Some birds...

  8. Migratory Bird Avian Influenza Sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species...

  9. Avian ecology of arid habitats in Namibia / Henriette Cornelia Potgieter

    OpenAIRE

    Potgieter, Henriette Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Examination of bird assemblages along an environmental gradient which encompasses both climate and habitat change is needed if we are to better understand the potential effects of these changes for avians and the ecological process that depend upon them. Climate change is predicted to have a significant impact on deserts and desert margins, resulting in distributional shifts of entire ecosystems and new community associations. This study explores the probable responses of avian communities to...

  10. The role of the avian hippocampus in spatial memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Macphail E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Avian hippocampal function is surveyed, using data drawn from three areas: conventional laboratory paradigms, pigeon navigation, and food-storing. Damage to the avian hippocampus disrupts performance in laboratory tasks that tap spatial learning and memory, and also disrupts both pigeon homing and cache recovery by food-storing birds. Further evidence of hippocampal involvement in food-storing is provided by the fact that the hippocampus of food-storing birds is ...

  11. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Codd, Jonathan R.; Phillip L. Manning; Mark A Norell; Perry, Steven F.

    2007-01-01

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of ‘avian’ characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in th...

  12. Predicting power-optimal kinematics of avian wings

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model of avian flight is developed which simulates wing motion through a class of methods known as predictive simulation. This approach uses numerical optimization to predict power-optimal kinematics of avian wings in hover, cruise, climb and descent. The wing dynamics capture both aerodynamic and inertial loads. The model is used to simulate the flight of the pigeon, Columba livia, and the results are compared with previous experimental measurements. In cruise, the model uneart...

  13. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hoye, B.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.M.; Klaassen, M.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian infl uenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideratio...

  14. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    OpenAIRE

    van Boven, M.; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry van Beest Holle, M.; Meijer, Adam; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C. A.; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i) the animal reservoir, (ii) humans who were infected b...

  15. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild house mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Shriner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza viruses are known to productively infect a number of mammal species, several of which are commonly found on or near poultry and gamebird farms. While control of rodent species is often used to limit avian influenza virus transmission within and among outbreak sites, few studies have investigated the potential role of these species in outbreak dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We trapped and sampled synanthropic mammals on a gamebird farm in Idaho, USA that had recently experienced a low pathogenic avian influenza outbreak. Six of six house mice (Mus musculus caught on the outbreak farm were presumptively positive for antibodies to type A influenza. Consequently, we experimentally infected groups of naïve wild-caught house mice with five different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses that included three viruses derived from wild birds and two viruses derived from chickens. Virus replication was efficient in house mice inoculated with viruses derived from wild birds and more moderate for chicken-derived viruses. Mean titers (EID(50 equivalents/mL across all lung samples from seven days of sampling (three mice/day ranged from 10(3.89 (H3N6 to 10(5.06 (H4N6 for the wild bird viruses and 10(2.08 (H6N2 to 10(2.85 (H4N8 for the chicken-derived viruses. Interestingly, multiple regression models indicated differential replication between sexes, with significantly (p<0.05 higher concentrations of avian influenza RNA found in females compared with males. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Avian influenza viruses replicated efficiently in wild-caught house mice without adaptation, indicating mice may be a risk pathway for movement of avian influenza viruses on poultry and gamebird farms. Differential virus replication between males and females warrants further investigation to determine the generality of this result in avian influenza disease dynamics.

  16. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    OpenAIRE

    Heatley, J. Jill; Villalobos, de, Leonor Cristina

    2012-01-01

    J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and ...

  17. Will Wallace's Line Save Australia from Avian Influenza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia is separated from the Asian faunal realm by Wallace's Line, across which there is relatively little avian migration. Although this does diminish the risk of high pathogenicity avian influenza of Asian origin arriving with migratory birds, the barrier is not complete. Migratory shorebirds, as well as a few landbirds, move through the region on annual migrations to and from Southeast Asia and destinations further north, although the frequency of infection of avian influenza in these groups is low. Nonetheless, high pathogenicity H5N1 has recently been recorded on the island of New Guinea in West Papua in domestic poultry. This event increases interest in the movements of birds between Wallacea in eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, and Australia, particularly by waterbirds. There are frequent but irregular movements of ducks, geese, and other waterbirds across Torres Strait between New Guinea and Australia, including movements to regions in which H5N1 has occurred in the recent past. Although the likelihood of avian influenza entering Australia via an avian vector is presumed to be low, the nature and extent of bird movements in this region is poorly known. There have been five recorded outbreaks of high pathogenicity avian influenza in Australian poultry flocks, all of the H7 subtype. To date, Australia is the only inhabited continent not to have recorded high pathogenicity avian influenza since 1997, and H5N1 has never been recorded. The ability to map risk from high pathogenicity avian influenza to Australia is hampered by the lack of quantitative data on the extent of bird movements between Australia and its northern neighbors. Recently developed techniques offer the promise to fill this knowledge gap.

  18. Comparative genomic data of the Avian Phylogenomics Project

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Bo; Li, Cai; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Wang, Jun; Avian Genome Consortium

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolutionary relationships of modern birds are among the most challenging to understand in systematic biology and have been debated for centuries. To address this challenge, we assembled or collected the genomes of 48 avian species spanning most orders of birds, including all Neognathae and two of the five Palaeognathae orders, and used the genomes to construct a genome-scale avian phylogenetic tree and perform comparative genomics analyses (Jarvis et al. in press; Zhang et al....

  19. Artist conception of the Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  20. 禽流感病%Avian Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先志

    1999-01-01

    @@ 禽流感病(avian influenza)是由甲型流感病毒引起的一种禽类疾病综合征.1997年5月,我国香港特别行政区1例3岁儿童死于不明原因的多器官功能衰竭,同年8月经美国疾病预防和控制中心以及WHO荷兰鹿特丹国家流感中心鉴定为禽甲型流感病毒H5N1[A(H5N1)]引起的人类流感[1~3].这是世界上首次证实A(H5N1)感染人类,因而引起医学界的广泛关注.

  1. 禽流感%Avian influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学工; 龙云铸

    2005-01-01

    禽流感(avian influenza)是禽类流行性感冒的简称,是由甲型流感病毒株的某些亚型引起的急性呼吸道传染病。通常情况下,禽流感病毒并不感染人类,但自1997年禽甲型流感病毒H5N1感染人类之后,相继有H9N2、H7N7.亚型感染人类和H5N1再次感染人类的报道,引起了世人的广泛关注。

  2. Quantum coherence and sensitivity of avian magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2012-01-01

    Migratory birds and other species have the ability to navigate by sensing the geomagnetic field. Recent experiments indicate that the essential process in the navigation takes place in bird's eye and uses chemical reaction involving molecular ions with unpaired electron spins (radical pair). Sensing is achieved via geomagnetic-dependent dynamics of the spins of the unpaired electrons. Here we utilize the results of all behavioral experiments conducted on European Robins to argue that the average life-time of the radical pair is of the order of a microsecond and therefore agrees with experimental estimations of this parameter for cryptochrome --- a pigment believed to form the radical pairs. We also found a reasonable parameter regime where sensitivity of the avian compass is enhanced by environmental noise, showing that long coherence time is not required for navigation and may even spoil it.

  3. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  4. Infrasound and the avian navigational map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Birds can accurately navigate over hundreds to thousands of kilometres, and use celestial and magnetic compass senses to orient their flight. How birds determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing (map sense) remains controversial, and has been attributed to their olfactory or magnetic senses. Pigeons can hear infrasound down to 0??05 Hz, and an acoustic avian map is proposed consisting of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features. The source of these infrasonic signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic waves. Atmospheric processes affecting the infrasonic map cues can explain perplexing experimental results from pigeon releases. Moreover, four recent disrupted pigeon races in Europe and the north-eastern USA intersected infrasonic shock waves from the Concorde supersonic transport. Having an acoustic map might also allow clock-shifted birds to test their homeward progress and select between their magnetic and solar compasses.

  5. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan;

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...... Sp, the HI test may be effectively considered a gold standard. In the framework of LPAI surveillance, where large numbers of samples have to be processed, the blocking ELISA could be a valid alternative to the HI test, in that it is almost as sensitive and specific as the HI test yet quicker and...... has been evaluated in comparison with HI test results, whose performance for poultry has not been properly evaluated. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the HI test and six other diagnostic assays for the detection of AI...

  6. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    . The use of thin, flexible endoscopes has made direct observation of the syrinx possible in situ. The effects of direct muscle stimulation on the syringeal aperture have identified adductor and abductor muscles, confirming results from electromyographic studies. Endoscopic observations have revealed...... the dynamics of syringeal reconfiguration during phonation, which in most bird species investigated results in simultaneous movement of soft tissue masses (the medial and lateral labia in songbirds and lateral tympaniform membranes in non-songbirds) into the bronchial lumen where they collide. High......-speed video-filming during sound production has revealed that sound pulses coincide with short duration formation of slots between the soft tissue masses forming a pneumatic valve, which suggests that the avian sound generating mechanism is a similar to that in the human larynx. Lately studies have revealed...

  7. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koford, Rolf R.; Dunning, J.B., Jr.; Ribic, C.A.; Finch, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary. The cited sources were not necessarily the first ones to use the terms. Many definitions were taken verbatim from the cited source material. Others were modified slightly to clarify the meaning. Definitions that were modified to a greater extent are indicated as being adapted from the originals. Terms that have been used in more than one way by different authors are listed with numbered alternative definitions if the definitions differ substantially.

  8. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  9. Avian influenza in Croatia - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Wild birds can carry a wide range of viral and other zoonotic agents, which may be transmitted to humans. From October 2005 to March 2006 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from wild birds (mute swans, black-headed gulls and a mallard duck) in Croatia at five locations. After isolation of H5N1 virus at 2006 from mallard duck near City of Zagreb (capital of Croatia) Department of Poultry Diseases with Clinic at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has conducted monitoring of avian viruses that could endanger human health. Samples (999 pharyngeal and cloacal swabs) from 23 wild bird species were taken. After year 2006 Croatia has regular monitoring for avian influenza in wild birds and poultry (especially in the backyard flocks). During 2007 (6,928 wild birds and 18,000 blood samples from poultry) and 2008 (2,486 wild birds; 20,000 blood samples and 1,500 cloacal swabs from poultry) were taken. Isolation was performed with classical virus detection method by inoculation of 10 day old chicken embryos, and molecular methods by conventional PCR and Real Time PCR (M gene, H5, H7 and N1 genes), and serological methods by antibody detection from blood samples (inhibition hemagglutination and ELISA). All samples were HPAI virus negative but investigators from the Poultry Centre of the Croatian Veterinary Institute isolated from wild birds LPAI viruses: H2N3, H3N8, H5N3 and H10N7. The results obtained by these investigations and monitoring revealed the need for permanent monitoring of wild bird's health status, especially the water birds species. Vaccination against AI is never practiced in Croatia. Quick and accurate detection of wild migratory birds infected with the H5N1 virus prevented the spread of the virus to the domestic poultry in Croatia which would have had enormous consequences. (author)

  10. Early warning: Avian flu and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian flu has spread to 51 countries, 36 this year alone, many of which are densely populated and deprived. The joint FAO/IAEA programme is working on the rapid detection of emerging diseases, including bird flu, and using nuclear and radiation techniques in the process. The problems are serious and challenging, but nuclear technologies may offer a solution. For most developing countries, TAD (transboundary animal diseases) detection is still vital. The bottleneck is their inability to rapidly detect the virus and to determine early enough whether it is H5N1 or another subtype, so that authorities can take appropriate control measures. Serious efforts are focused on the early detection of the agents. Timely recognition of such viral infections would prevent the spread of the diseases to large animal populations in huge geographic areas. Thus, the development of novel, powerful diagnostic nuclear and nuclear-related assays is a crucial issue today in veterinary research and animal health care. Molecular virology offers a range of new methods, which are able to accelerate and improve the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals and in man. The molecular detection assays, like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, provide possibilities for a very rapid diagnosis. The detection of viruses can be completed within hours or hopefully even within minutes with a sensitivity level of less than one pathogenic organism. Molecular approaches have contributed significantly to the rapid detection of well-established, as well as newly emerging, infectious agents such as Nipah and Hendra viruses or corona viruses in the SARS scenario and the detection and molecular characterisation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype that threatens the world today. The nucleic acid amplification assays, although they were at first expensive and cumbersome, have become relatively cheap and user-friendly tools in the diagnostic laboratories

  11. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüschow Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their falconry birds as well as prey birds. Findings During 2 hunting seasons (2006/2007 and 2007/2008 falconers took tracheal and cloacal swabs from 1080 prey birds that were captured by their falconry birds (n = 54 in Germany. AIV-RNA of subtypes H6, H9, or H13 was detected in swabs of 4.1% of gulls (n = 74 and 3.8% of ducks (n = 53 using RT-PCR. The remaining 953 sampled prey birds and all falconry birds were negative. Blood samples of the falconry birds tested negative for AIV specific antibodies. Serum samples from all 43 falconers reacted positive in influenza A virus-specific ELISA, but remained negative using microneutralisation test against subtypes H5 and H7 and haemagglutination inhibition test against subtypes H6, H9 and H13. Conclusion Although we were able to detect AIV-RNA in samples from prey birds, the corresponding falconry birds and falconers did not become infected. Currently falconers do not seem to carry a high risk for getting infected with AIV through handling their falconry birds and their prey.

  12. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens.

  13. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  14. Avian antimicrobial host defense peptides: from biology to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guolong; Sunkara, Lakshmi T

    2014-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens. PMID:24583933

  15. Interstitial brachytherapy dosimetry update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2004, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) published an update to the AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43) which was initially published in 1995. This update was pursued primarily due to the marked increase in permanent implantation of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources in the United States over the past decade, and clinical rationale for the need of accurate dosimetry in the implementation of interstitial brachytherapy. Additionally, there were substantial improvements in the brachytherapy dosimetry formalism, accuracy of related parameters and methods for determining these parameters. With salient background, these improvements are discussed in the context of radiation dosimetry. As an example, the impact of this update on the administered dose is assessed for the model 200 103Pd brachytherapy source. (authors)

  16. Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A. I.; V. Shanmugam; Switzer, W. M.; Tsang, S. X.; Fadly, A.; Thea, D.; Helfand, R; Bellini, W J; Folks, T M; Heneine, W

    2001-01-01

    The identification of endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) and endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines in current use has raised concern about transmission of these retroviruses to vaccine recipients. We used serologic and molecular methods to analyze specimens from 206 recipients of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine for evidence of infection with ALV and EAV. A Western blot assay for detecting antibodies to endogenous ALV was developed and ...

  17. An avian outbreak associated with panzootic equine influenza in 1872: an early example of highly pathogenic avian influenza?

    OpenAIRE

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Morens and Taubenberger (2010) An avian outbreak associated with panzootic equine influenza in 1872: an early example of highly pathogenic avian influenza? Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(6), 373–377. Background  An explosive fatal epizootic in poultry, prairie chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese, occurred over much of the populated United States between 15 November and 15 December 1872. To our knowledge the scientific literature contains no mention of the ...

  18. Statistical Handbook: 1999 updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication consists of a series of tables containing the updated figures for: Crown land sales, drilling activity, established oil and natural gas reserves, crude oil, synthetic oil and bitumen and natural gas production, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, value of producers' sales, average crude oil and natural gas prices, Canadian demand for motor gasoline, diesel and heavy fuel oil, yields of refined petroleum products in Canada, and Canadian exports of energy materials. The data provided covers varying periods, in all cases updated to include data for 1999

  19. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  20. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Wednesday 14 June between 8.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  1. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  2. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  3. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation.We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  4. Updating: Learning versus Supposing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaying; Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya; Fitelson, Branden; Osherson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian orthodoxy posits a tight relationship between conditional probability and updating. Namely, the probability of an event "A" after learning "B" should equal the conditional probability of "A" given "B" prior to learning "B". We examine whether ordinary judgment conforms to the orthodox view. In three experiments we found substantial…

  5. Updated opal opacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reexamination of astrophysical opacities has eliminated gross discrepancies between a variety of observations and theoretical calculations; thus allowing for more detailed tests of stellar models. A number of such studies indicate that model results are sensitive to modest changes in the opacity. Consequently, it is desirable to update available opacity databases with recent improvements in physics, refinements of element abundance, and other such factors affecting the results. Updated OPAL Rosseland mean opacities are presented. The new results have incorporated improvements in the physics and numerical procedures as well as corrections. The main opacity changes are increases of as much as 20% for Population I stars due to the explicit inclusion of 19 metals (compared to 12 metals in the earlier calculations) with the other modifications introducing opacity changes smaller than 10%. In addition, the temperature and density range covered by the updated opacity tables has been extended. As before, the tables allow accurate interpolation in density and temperature as well as hydrogen, helium, carbon, oxygen, and metal mass fractions. Although a specific metal composition is emphasized, opacity tables for different metal distributions can be made readily available. The updated opacities are compared to other work. copyright 1996 The American Astronomical Society

  6. North Sea update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the offshore activity in the North Sea bringing together a special update feature for the petroleum industries in the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark and the Netherlands. The total capital expenditure required for the period from 1995 to 1998 for the North Sea area which includes exploration, development projects and well abandoning, are discussed and presented. 20 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Livestock Update. August 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Saville, Joi; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Callan, Peter; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Clark, Sherrie

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; August Herd Management Advisor; Weaning Nutrition and Management; Breeding Season Management - Ewes and Rams; 2014 Small Ruminant Field Day; Heat Stress and Small-Scale and Niche Market Pork Production in Virginia,

  8. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating num...

  9. Avian influenza viruses - new causative a gents of human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Influenza A viruses can infect humans, some mammals and especially birds. Subtypes of human influenza A viruses: ACH1N1, ACH2N2 and A(H3N2 have caused pandemics. Avian influenza viruses vary owing to their 15 hemagglutinins (H and 9 neuraminidases (N. Human cases of avian influenza A In the Netherlands in 2003, there were 83 human cases of influenza A (H7N7. In 1997, 18 cases of H5N1 influenza A, of whom 6 died, were found among residents of Hong Kong. In 2004, 34 human cases (23 deaths were reported in Viet Nam and Thailand. H5N1 virus-infected patients presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. Complications included respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, liver dysfunction and hematologic disorders. Since 1999, 7 cases of human influenza H9N2 infection have been identified in China and Hong Kong. The importance of human infection with avian influenza viruses. H5N1 virus can directly infect humans. Genetic reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses may occur in humans co infected with current human A(HIN1 or A(H3N2 subtypes and avian influenza viruses. The result would be a new influenza virus with pandemic potential. All genes of H5Nl viruses isolated from humans are of avian origin. Prevention and control. The reassortant virus containing H and N from avian and the remaining proteins from human influenza viruses will probably be used as a vaccine strain. The most important control measures are rapid destruction of all infected or exposed birds and rigorous disinfection of farms. Individuals exposed to suspected animals should receive prophylactic treatment with antivirals and annual vaccination. .

  10. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Maseleno, Andino; Hasan, Md. Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built an Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System for identifying avian influenza disease and displaying the result of identification process. In this paper, we describe five symptoms as major symptoms which include depression, combs,...

  11. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeng T. Endarti; Shamsul A. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian inf...

  12. Seroepidemiological Evidence of Avian Influenza A Virus Transmission to Pigs in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Shuo; Qi, Wenbao; Chen, Jidang; Zhu, Wanjun; Huang, Zhen; Xie, Jiexiong; Zhang, Guihong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, three novel avian-origin swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were first isolated from pigs in Guangdong Province, southern China, yet little is known about the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses among pigs in southern China. Here, we report for the first time the seroprevalence of avian H3, H4, and H6 influenza viruses in swine populations and the lack of seroepidemiological evidence of avian H5 influenza virus transmission to pigs in China.

  13. Evaluation of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism for Differentiation of Avian Mycoplasma Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y; Garcia, M.; Levisohn, S; Lysnyansky, I.; Leiting, V.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; Kleven, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used for typing avian mycoplasma species. Forty-four avian mycoplasma strains were successfully typed into eight distinct groups, with each representing a different species. Homology of AFLP patterns of 35% or less was used as a cutoff value to differentiate avian mycoplasma strains into different species.

  14. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu ... WhiteHouse.gov USA.gov GobiernoUSA.gov BusinessUSA.gov Flu Basics Symptoms (CDC) Prevention (CDC) Treatment (CDC) Vaccination ( ...

  15. Human Illness from Avian Influenza H7N3, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tweed, S. Aleina; Skowronski, Danuta M.; David, Samara T; Larder, Andrew; Petric, Martin; Lees, Wayne; Li, Yan; Katz, Jacqueline; Krajden, Mel; Tellier, Raymond; Halpert, Christine; Hirst, Martin; Astell, Caroline; Lawrence, David; Mak, Annie

    2004-01-01

    Avian influenza that infects poultry in close proximity to humans is a concern because of its pandemic potential. In 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N3 occurred in poultry in British Columbia, Canada. Surveillance identified two persons with confirmed avian influenza infection. Symptoms included conjunctivitis and mild influenzalike illness.

  16. 75 FR 10645 - Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza; Voluntary Control Program and Payment of Indemnity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Pathogenic Avian Influenza; Voluntary Control Program and Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant... avian influenza in commercial poultry. As amended by this document, the rule provides that the amount of... agencies with respect to H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks, provides that consistency...

  17. Evidence of previous avian influenza infection among US turkey workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, G; Ortiz, E J; Chorazy, M L; Gray, G C

    2010-06-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic is looming, with new cases of sporadic avian influenza infections in man frequently reported. Exposure to diseased poultry is a leading risk factor for these infections. In this study, we used logistic regression to investigate serological evidence of previous infection with avian influenza subtypes H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, and H11 among 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys in the US Midwest and 82 unexposed controls. Our results indicate that farmers practising backyard, organic or free-ranging turkey production methods are at an increased risk of infection with avian influenza. Among these farmers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for elevated microneutralization assay titres against avian H4, H5, H6, H9, and H10 influenza strains ranged between 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-12.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 2.0-115.2) when compared to non-exposed controls. The measured ORs were adjusted for antibody titres against human influenza viruses and other exposure variables. These data suggest that sometime in their lives, the workers had been exposed to low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. These findings support calls for inclusion of agricultural workers in priority groups in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts. These data further support increasing surveillance and other preparedness efforts to include not only confinement poultry facilities, but more importantly, also small scale farms. PMID:19486492

  18. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  19. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses. PMID:25790045

  20. Avian Blood-Vessel Formation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the developmental anomalies observed in the past might be related to or caused by delayed or improper vascular development. The objective of our research is to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity during space flight cause delayed or improper vascular development during embryogenesis. The effects of microgravity on the time course and extent of avian blood-vessel formation are assessed using two models, one for angiogenesis and one for vasculogenesis. The methodological approach is dictated by the constraints of the tissue preservation method used in space. Thus, both in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the adrenal, we will evaluate microscopically the vascular architecture and immunostain endothelial cells with specific antibodies (anti- vWF and QH1). The extent of ECM protein deposition will be assessed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the degree of vascularization, using computer-based image analysis. Also, the cellular source for ECM proteins will be assessed by in situ hybridization.

  1. Scaling of avian primary feather length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather (f(prim contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus. The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was controlled for using independent contrasts: f(prim is proportional to ta(0.78-0.82. The scaling exponent was not significantly different from that predicted (0.86 by earlier work. It appears that there is a general trend for the primary feathers of birds to contribute proportionally less, and ta proportionally more, to overall wingspan as this dimension increases. Wingspan in birds is constrained close to mass (M(1/3 because of optimisation for lift production, which limits opportunities for exterior morphological change. Within the wing, variations in underlying bone and feather lengths nevertheless may, in altering the joint positions, permit a range of different flight styles by facilitating variation in upstroke kinematics.

  2. Research progress in avian dispersal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang LIU; Zhengwang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal, defined as a linear spreading move-ment of individuals away from others of the population is a fundamental characteristic of organisms in nature. Dispersal is a central concept in ecological, behavioral and evolutionary studies, driven by different forces such as avoidance of inbreeding depression, density-dependent competition and the need to change breeding locations. By effective dispersal, organisms can enlarge their geo-graphic range and adjust the dynamic, sex ratio and gen-etic compositions of a population. Birds are one of the groups that are studied intensively by human beings. Due to their diurnal habits, diverse life history strategies and complex movement, birds are also ideal models for the study of dispersal behaviors. Certain topics of avian dispersal including sex-biased, asymmetric dispersal caused by differences in body conditions, dispersal pro-cesses, habitat selection and long distance dispersal are discussed here. Bird-ringing or marking, radio-telemetry and genetic markers are useful tools widely applied in dispersal studies. There are three major challenges regard-ing theoretical study and methodology research of dis-persal: (1) improvement in research methodology is needed, (2) more in-depth theoretical research is neces-sary, and (3) application of theoretical research into the conservation efforts for threatened birds and the manage-ment of their habitats should be carried out immediately.

  3. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  4. Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Wentworth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture.

  5. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  6. Sensors, Update 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  7. Sensors, Update 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  8. Sensors, Update 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-03-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field, presenting the current highlights of sensor and related microelectromechanical systems technology. Coverage includes most recent developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles based on micro- and nanotechnology. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update is of must-have value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  9. Sensors, Update 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  10. Sensors, Update 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  11. Sensors, Update 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  12. Sensors, Update 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  13. Interactive mechanism between avian infectious bronchitis S1 protein T cell peptide and avian MHC I molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Zhu; Lu, Mei; Huang, Qing-Hua; Huang, Yan-Yan; Yang, Shao-Hua; Cui, Yan-Shun; Liu, Chang; Tan, Liugang; Kong, Zhengjie; Xu, Chuan-Tian

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to construct a 3D structure of the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-β2M complex through homology modelling technology, perform molecular docking of the predicted infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 protein potential epitope peptide Sp6 (NQFYIKLT) and the avian MHC-β2M complex, and demonstrate the interactive mechanism between Sp6 and MHC using molecular dynamical simulations. The peptide Sp6 and the non-related peptide NP89-97 (PKKTGGPIY) were used to stimulate in vitro recombinant plasmid (pCAGGS-S1) avian splenic lymphocytes. Flow cytometric results show that CD8(+) T lymphocytes reproduce stimulated by the Sp6 and the nonrelated peptide proliferate by 34.8% and 2.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, fluorescent quantitative PCR results show that the secretion of IFN-γ in avian splenic lymphocytes increases after Sp6 stimulation. These data suggest that Sp6 can induce the activated avian lymphocytes in vitro to produce CTL, which is the CTL epitope in IBV S1. PMID:26876645

  14. Updating Choquet Beliefs.

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgen Eichberger; Simon Grant; David Kelsey

    2006-01-01

    We apply Pires’s coherence property between unconditional and conditional preferences that admit a CEU representation. In conjunction with consequentialism (only those outcomes on states which are still possible can matter for conditional preference) this implies that the conditional preference may be obtained from the unconditional preference by taking the Full Bayesian Update of the capacity. Attitudes towards sequential versus simultaneous resolution of uncertainty for a simple bet are ana...

  15. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  16. Journal Update : issue 1

    OpenAIRE

    Malta Medical Journal Club

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Letter from the editors - Thomas Borg Barthet and Dale Brincat; Message for Journal Update - Gilbert Gravino and Gianluca Gonzi; Anemia, an independent predictive factor for amputation and mortality in patients hospitalized for peripheral artery disease - Thomas Borg Barthet; Peripheral blood lymphocyte telomere length as a predictor of response to immunosuppressive therapy in childhood aplastic anaemia - Thomas Borg Barthet; Influenza vaccination of pregnant women and pro...

  17. ABCD: a functional database for the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrott, Aniko; Kabai, Peter

    2008-01-30

    Here we present the first database developed for storing, retrieving and cross-referencing neuroscience information about the connectivity of the avian brain. The Avian Brain Circuitry Database (ABCD) contains entries about the new and old terminology of the areas and their hierarchy, data on connections between brain regions, as well as a functional keyword system linked to brain regions and connections. Data were collected from the primary literature and textbooks, and an online submission system was developed to facilitate further data collection directly from researchers. The database aims to help spread the results of avian connectivity studies, the recently revised nomenclature and also to provide data for brain network research. ABCD is freely available at http://www.behav.org/abcd. PMID:17889371

  18. How Documentalists Update SIMBAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, M.; Bot, C.; Brouty, M.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Cambresy, L.; Eisele, A.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Loup, C.; Neuville, M.; Oberto, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Perret, E.; Siebert, A.; Son, E.; Vannier, P.; Vollmer, B.; Vonflie, P.; Wenger, M.; Woelfel, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Strasbourg astronomical Data Center (CDS) was created in 1972 and has had a major role in astronomy for more than forty years. CDS develops a service called SIMBAD that provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. It brings to the scientific community an added value to content which is updated daily by a team of documentalists working together in close collaboration with astronomers and IT specialists. We explain how the CDS staff updates SIMBAD with object citations in the main astronomical journals, as well as with astronomical data and measurements. We also explain how the identification is made between the objects found in the literature and those already existing in SIMBAD. We show the steps followed by the documentalist team to update the database using different tools developed at CDS, like the sky visualizer Aladin, and the large catalogues and survey database VizieR. As a direct result of this teamwork, SIMBAD integrates almost 10.000 bibliographic references per year. The service receives more than 400.000 queries per day.

  19. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  20. Sequence conservation of an avian centromeric repeated DNA component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C S; Brooks, J E; de Kloet, E; de Kloet, S R

    1994-06-01

    The approximately 190-bp centromeric repeat monomers of the spur-winged lapwing (Vanellus spinosus, Charadriidae), the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis, Phoenicopteridae), the sarus crane (Grus antigone, Gruidae), parrots (Psittacidae), waterfowl (Anatidae), and the merlin (Falco columbarius, Falconidae) contain elements that are interspecifically highly variable, as well as elements (trinucleotides and higher order oligonucleotides) that are highly conserved in sequence and relative location within the repeat. Such conservation suggests that the centromeric repeats of these avian species have evolved from a common ancestral sequence that may date from very early stages of avian radiation. PMID:8034177

  1. The challenges of avian influenza virus: mechanism, epidemiology and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George F. GAO; Pang-Chui SHAW

    2009-01-01

    @@ Early 2009, eight human infection cases of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, with 5 death cases, were reported in China. This again made the world alert on a possible pandemic worldwide, probably caused by avian-origin influenza virus. Again H5N1 is in the spotlight of the world, not only for the scientists but also for the ordinary people. How much do we know about this virus? Where will this virus go and where did it come? Can we avoid a possible pandemic of influenza? Will the human beings conquer this devastating agent? Obviously we can list more questions than we know the answers.

  2. Emergence of Fatal Avian Influenza in New England Harbor Seals

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, S. J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H S; Chan, J. M.; Carpenter, Z. W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J T; Pedersen, J; Karesh, W; Daszak, P; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. L...

  3. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    OpenAIRE

    Koh GCH; Wong TY; Cheong SK; Koh DSQ

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unre...

  4. Avian tuberculosis in a captive cassowary (Casuarius casuarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewska Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes avian tuberculosis in a captive bred cassowary. A two-and-a-half-year-old bird was obtained by a Polish zoo in 2010 from the Netherlands under conditions compliant with the recommendations of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Despite being of small size for the age, the bird appeared healthy and showed no signs of the disease until the day when it was found recumbent in its pen. Later on it was euthanised due to lack of treatment possibilities. Pathological changes typical of avian tuberculosis were found in the liver and spleen. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium was cultured from both organs.

  5. Virulence of Avian Influenza A Viruses for Squirrel Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Brian R.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Sly, D. Lewis; London, William T.; Hosier, Nanette T.; Wood, Frank T.; Webster, Robert G.; Chanock, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Ten serologically distinct avian influenza A viruses were administered to squirrel monkeys and hamsters to compare their replication and virulence with those of human influenza A virus, A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2). In squirrel monkeys, the 10 avian influenza A viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication and virulence. The levels of virus replication and clinical response were closely correlated. Two viruses, A/Mallard/NY/6874/78 (H3N2) and A/Pintail/Alb/121/79 (H7N8), resembled the human virus in t...

  6. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Sanhong Liu; Liuyong Pang; Shigui Ruan; Xinan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward...

  7. Avian influenza viruses - new causative a gents of human infections

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana; Cvjetković Dejan; Jerant-Patić Vera; Milošević Vesna; Tadić-Radovanov Jelena; Kovačević Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Influenza A viruses can infect humans, some mammals and especially birds. Subtypes of human influenza A viruses: ACH1N1), ACH2N2) and A(H3N2) have caused pandemics. Avian influenza viruses vary owing to their 15 hemagglutinins (H) and 9 neuraminidases (N). Human cases of avian influenza A In the Netherlands in 2003, there were 83 human cases of influenza A (H7N7). In 1997, 18 cases of H5N1 influenza A, of whom 6 died, were found among residents of Hong Kong. In 2004, 34 human ca...

  8. Applied comparative anatomy of the avian middle ear.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, R.

    1994-01-01

    The anatomy of the middle ear has been studied in nine species of birds, with particular reference to the structure of the ossicle and its relationship to the tympanic membrane. The morphology of the avian middle ear has been compared to that of the reconstructed human middle ear. Drum to stapes foot plate assemblies created during ossiculoplasty operations differ from the pattern found in the avian middle ear in a number of important respects and this may help to explain why they are often u...

  9. Homo- and Heterosubtypic Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure on H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Taiana P.; Brown, Justin D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Swayne, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus has been shown to modulate the outcome of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection in multiple domestic avian species, but few studies have addressed this effect in wild birds. I...

  10. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  11. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  12. Role of estrogen in avian osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M M; Hansen, K K

    2004-02-01

    One of the difficulties associated with commercial layer production is the development of osteoporosis in hens late in the production cycle. In light of this fact and because of hens' unique requirements for Ca, many studies have focused on the regulation of Ca and the role of estrogen in this process. The time course of estrogen synthesis over the productive life of hens has been well documented; increased circulating estrogen accompanies the onset of sexual maturity while decreases signal a decline in egg production prior to a molt. Numbers of estrogen receptors decrease with age in numerous tissues. The parallel changes in calcium-regulating proteins, primarily Calbindin D28K, and in the ability of duodenal cells to transport Ca, are thought to occur as a result of the changes in estrogen, and are also reversible by the molt process. In addition to the traditional model of estrogen action, evidence now exists for a possible nongenomic action of estrogen via membrane-bound receptors, demonstrated by extremely rapid surges of ionized Ca in chicken granulosa cells in response to 17beta-estradiol. Estrogen receptors have also been discovered in duodenal tissue, and tamoxifen, which binds to the estrogen receptor, has been shown to cause a rapid increase in Ca transport in the duodenum. In addition, recent evidence also suggests that mineralization of bone per se may not explain entirely the etiology of osteoporosis in the hen but that changes in the collagen matrix may contribute through decreases in bone elasticity. Taken together, these studies suggest that changes in estrogen synthesis and estrogen receptor populations may underlie the age-related changes in avian bone. As with postmenopausal women, dietary Ca and vitamin D are of limited benefit as remedies for osteoporosis in the hen. PMID:14979570

  13. Nonconserved tryptophan 38 of the cell surface receptor for subgroup J avian leukosis virus discriminates sensitive from resistant avian species

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, D. (Dana); Plachý, J; Reinišová, M. (Markéta); Šenigl, F. (Filip); Trejbalová, K. (Kateřina); Geryk, J. (Josef); Hejnar, J. (Jiří)

    2013-01-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is unique among the avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses in using the multimembrane-spanning cell surface protein Na+/H+ exchanger type 1 (NHE1) as a receptor. The precise localization of amino acids critical for NHE1 receptor activity is key in understanding the virus-receptor interaction and potential interference with virus entry. Because no resistant chicken lines have been described until now, we compared the NHE1 amino acid sequences from permissive...

  14. WIMS Library updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 1990 the WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP) has been initiated at the International Atomic Energy Agency. The project was organized as an international research project, coordinated at the J. Stefan Institute. Up to now, 22 laboratories from 19 countries joined the project. Phase 1 of the project, which included WIMS input optimization for five experimental benchmark lattices, has been completed. The work presented in this paper describes also the results of Phase 2 of the Project, in which the cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV evaluated nuclear data library have been processed. (author)

  15. Shipment security update - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 2002 RERTR, NAC reported on the interim measures taken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to enhance the security afforded to shipments of spent nuclear fuel. Since that time, there have been a number of additional actions focused on shipment security including training programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Electric Power Research Council, investigation by the Government Accounting Office, and individual measures taken by shippers and transportation agents. The paper will present a status update regarding this dynamic set of events and provide an objective assessment of the cost, schedule and technical implications of the changing security landscape. (author)

  16. Fossil Energy Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil Energy Update (FEU) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs from all sources on fossil energy. All information announced in FEU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter covered by FEU includes coal, petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, hydrogen production, hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels, electric power engineering, magnetohydrodynamic generators, fuel cells, combustion systems, and combustion chemistry

  17. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Avian Influenza Virus Infection via Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven FJ; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Using literature data, daily infection risks of chickens and humans with H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) by drinking water consumption were estimated for the Netherlands. A highly infectious virus and less than 4 log10 drinking water treatment (reasonably inefficient) may lead to a high infection r

  18. Avian Encephalomyelitis in Layer Pullets Associated with Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Reimers, Nancy; Bickford, Arthur A; Charlton, Bruce R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was diagnosed in three flocks of leghorn layer pullets following AE vaccination. Ages of the birds were 11, 12, and 14 wk. The submissions came from three different companies located in two geographic areas of the Central Valley of California. The clinical signs included birds down on their legs, unilateral recumbency or sitting on their hocks, lethargy, reluctance to move, dehydration, unevenness in size, low weight, tremors of the head in a few birds, and mildly to moderately elevated mortality. The flocks had been vaccinated against fowl pox and AE with a combined product in the wing-web 2 wk prior to the onset of AE clinical signs. Histopathologic examination revealed lesions consistent with AE, including lymphocytic perivascular infiltration and neuronal central chromatolysis in the brain and spinal cord, as well as gliosis in the cerebellar molecular layer. The AE virus was detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR in the brain homogenate from three cases and peripheral nerves in one case. Additionally, the AE virus was isolated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated eggs from brain tissue pool samples. Other avian viral infections capable of causing encephalitis, including avian paramyxoviruses, avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), were ruled out by attempting virus isolation and molecular procedures. PMID:27309297

  19. DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS USING AN INTERFEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optical interferometric waveguide immunoassay for direct and label-less detection of avian influenza virus is described. The assay response is based on index of refraction changes that occur upon binding of virus particles to antigen (hemagglutinin) specific antibodies on the waveguide surface. ...

  20. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; SASHIKA, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health.

  1. Avian Metapneumovirus Molecular Biology and Development of Genetically Engineered Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important pathogen of turkeys with a worldwide distribution. aMPV is a member of the genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae. The genome of aMPV is a non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA of 1...

  2. Low frequency of paleoviral infiltration across the avian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Zhiyong;

    2014-01-01

    endogenous viral element evolution.Results: Through a systematic screening of the genomes of 48 species sampled across the avian phylogeny we reveal that birds harbor a limited number of endogenous viral elements compared to mammals, with only five viral families observed: Retroviridae, Hepadnaviridae...

  3. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  4. Avian Influenza H5N1 in Tigers and Leopards

    OpenAIRE

    Keawcharoen, Juthatip; Oraveerakul, Kanisak; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Payungporn, Sunchai; Noppornpanth, Suwanna; Wattanodorn, Sumitra; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Pattanarangsan, Rattapan; Arya, Nlin; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Poovorawan, Yong

    2004-01-01

    Influenza virus is not known to affect wild felids. We demonstrate that avian influenza A (H5N1) virus caused severe pneumonia in tigers and leopards that fed on infected poultry carcasses. This finding extends the host range of influenza virus and has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and wildlife conservation.

  5. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-01

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. PMID:25602438

  6. 9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vaccines § 113.326 Avian Pox Vaccine. Fowl Pox Vaccine and Pigeon Pox Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... established as follows: (1) Fowl pox susceptible birds all of the same age and from the same source, shall be... controls do not develop fowl pox during the observation period, the test is inconclusive and may...

  7. Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infections in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to produce infection, disease and death in different bird species. Based on the pathobiological features in chickens, AI viruses (AIV) are categorized as low pathogenicity (LPAI) or high pathogenicity (HPAI) viruses, and can be of any of...

  8. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.31 Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. The complement-fixation test... the same week from material harvested from each source flock (or other sampling procedure acceptable... cultures shall be prepared from the same cell suspension as the cultures for testing the vaccine....

  9. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  10. MHC haplotype involvement in avian resistance to an ectoparasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jeb P; Delany, Mary E; Mullens, Bradley A

    2008-10-01

    Research on immune function in evolutionary ecology has frequently focused on avian ectoparasites (e.g., mites and lice). However, host immunogenetics involved with bird resistance to ectoparasites has not been determined. The critical role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in adaptive immunity and high genetic variation found within the MHC make this gene complex useful for exploring the immunogenetic basis for bird resistance to ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to determine if the avian MHC influenced resistance to a blood-feeding ectoparasite. Four congenic lines of chickens, differing only at the MHC, were comparatively infested with a cosmopolitan ectoparasite of birds-northern fowl mite (NFM)-which is also a serious pest species of poultry. Mite infestations were monitored over time and mite densities (weekly and maximum) were compared among lines. Chickens with the MHC haplotype B21 were relatively resistant to NFM, compared with birds in the B15 congenic line (P density were tested. The highest peak NFM populations occurred more often on hens with the B15 haplotype versus the B21 haplotype (P = 0.012), which supported the results of the congenic study. These data indicate the avian MHC influences ectoparasite resistance, which is relevant to disease ecology and avian-ectoparasite interaction. PMID:18626638

  11. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.; Lierz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection.

  12. Prevention and control of avian influenza in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. For 2011-2012, 19 countries reported outbreaks of H5N1 in domestic poultry, wild birds or both. The majority of the outbr...

  13. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: Intersecting Humans, Animals, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Eurasian-African H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused an unprecedented epizootic affecting mainly poultry, but has crossed multiple species barriers to infect captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. There is still great concern over the continued infecti...

  14. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  15. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  16. Immunohistochemical staining of avian influenza virus in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunohistochemical methods are commonly used for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza (AI) virus by allowing the identification of sites of replication of the virus in infected tissues and the correlation with the histopathological changes observed. In this chapter, the materials and metho...

  17. Avian influenza diagnosis in the Russian Federation: Achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Rosselkhoznadzor data, during 2005-2006, the avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks were reported in the Russian Federation in the Siberian, Ural, Central and South Federal Okrugs. In 2007, the RF officials notified the IOE about HPAI/H5N1 outbreaks in the territories of the Krasnodarsky Krai, Republic of Adygea, Moskovskaya and Kaluzhskaya Oblast. In 2008 there was one report about HPAI/H5N1 outbreak in Primorskii Krai (Far Eastern Okrug). To detect and characterize the avian influenza virus the following diagnostic scheme was used in ARRIAH: suspected cases (poultry, wild birds) and for monitoring purposes. 392 samples were positive in PCR to avian influenza virus type A. The most part of them were HPAI H5N1. In 2005 it was discovered 618 samples (223 - from poultry and 395 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 174 samples (85 - from poultry and 89 are from wild birds). 84 poultry samples and 36 wild birds samples were positive to subtype H5N1 (HPAI). 44 AI virus isolates were recovered (28 - from poultry and 16 are from wild birds). In 2006 it was discovered 1014 samples (159 - from poultry and 855 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 144 samples (84 - from poultry and 60 are from wild birds). Most part of these samples were positive to subtype H5N1. 67 AI virus isolates were recovered (50 - from poultry and 17 are from wild birds). In 2007 there were analyzed 833 samples (233 - from poultry and 600 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 55 poultry samples. All are positive to H5N1 subtype. Avian Influenza type A virus genome was detected in 7 samples from 1 region. Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus was not found. In 2008 we analyzed approximately 1400 samples. Most of them are from wild birds. Only 30 samples are from poultry. Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 1 poultry sample (HPAI H5N1). Avian Influenza type A virus genome

  18. Risk Mapping for Avian Influenza: a Social–Ecological Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme S. Cumming

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen dynamics are inseparable from the broader environmental context in which pathogens occur. Although some pathogens of people are primarily limited to the human population, occurrences of zoonoses and vector-borne diseases are intimately linked to ecosystems. The emergence of these diseases is currently being driven by a variety of influences that include, among other things, changes in the human population, long-distance travel, high-intensity animal-production systems, and anthropogenic modification of ecosystems. Anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems have both direct and indirect (food-web mediated effects. Therefore, understanding disease risk for zoonoses is a social–ecological problem. The articles in this special feature focus on risk assessment for avian influenza. They include analyses of the history and epidemiological context of avian influenza; planning and policy issues relating to risk; the roles of biogeography and spatial and temporal variation in driving the movements of potential avian influenza carriers; approaches to quantifying risk; and an assessment of risk-related interactions among people and birds in Vietnamese markets. They differ from the majority of published studies of avian influenza in that they emphasize unknowns and uncertainties in risk mapping and societal responses to avian influenza, rather than concentrating on known or proven facts. From a systems perspective, the different aspects of social–ecological systems that are relevant to the problem of risk mapping can be summarized under the general categories of structural, spatial, and temporal components. I present some examples of relevant system properties, as suggested by this framework, and argue that, ultimately, risk mapping for infectious disease will need to develop a more holistic perspective that includes explicit consideration of the roles of policy, disease management, and feedbacks between ecosystems and societies.

  19. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  20. Evaluation and optimization of avian embryos and cell culture methods for efficient isolation and propagation of avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveillance of wild bird populations for avian influenza viruses (AIV) contributes to our understanding of AIV evolution and ecology. Both real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs (ECE) are standard methods for detecting A...

  1. Nonconserved tryptophan 38 of the cell surface receptor for subgroup J avian leukosis virus discriminates sensitive from resistant avian species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Dana; Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Šenigl, Filip; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Geryk, Josef; Hejnar, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 15 (2013), s. 8399-8407. ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1651 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : avian leukosis virus * ALV-J * NHE1 * host resistance * receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.648, year: 2013

  2. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  3. Updates Technologies of Media Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Whether as status notifications in news feeds or interactive prompts in online video services, updates punctuate the background routines of media by bringing a variety of changes to the attention of users. In this dissertation I argue that updates rationalize media change by making previously obscure actions of users and movements of technologies…

  4. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Mary Lea; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  5. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Mary Lea; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  6. Update of RIPL Discrete Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first update of the Reference Input Parameter Library Phase II (RIPL-2) Discrete Level Scheme Library (DLSL) was performed in October 2005 by T. Belgya under a Contract Agreement with the IAEA. The second update followed in 2007 with the setup of easy-to-use programs which can use the original ENSDF files to create the DLSL in the format that was defined in RIPL-2. There is a description which serves as a guide to any user who wants to run the program(s). The results of the update were also reported. The current work represents a new update of the database, addressing and amending the problems which have occurred and were reported during the last 5 years. The updated version of RIPL- 2, RIPL-3 was published in December 2009. The purpose of this report is to document the changes in the new DLSL.

  7. Changes in avian disease and mosquito vector prevalence; A 15-year perceptive and assessment of future risk: Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mosquito-borne avian disease, avian malaria and avian pox, is a major limiting factor for Hawaiian forest birds. While native bird communities at Hakalau Forest NWR...

  8. Update on infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Infection control is a dynamic and ever-changing subject and all dental staff should be kept aware of the most up-to-date procedures required to prevent the transmission of infection and should understand why these procedures are necessary. Regular monitoring and updating of all procedures in the light of new scientific evidence is necessary and all new staff must be trained in infection control procedures prior to working in the surgery. A practitioner who is routinely following an appropriate infection control policy, including the use of techniques and products of proven efficacy (perhaps through accreditation), is better placed to refute allegations arising in the course of civil litigation, health and safety at work prosecution, complaints and disciplinary procedures, or investigations by the GDC. PMID:16892574

  9. Neurocritical care update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is an essential tool for detecting nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurocritical care, including advanced hemodynamic monitoring, is a fundamental approach for delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We must be mindful of the high percentage of ICU patients who may develop sepsis-associated brain dysfunction. PMID:27239312

  10. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  11. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  12. Molecular diagnostics of Avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2006-01-01

    direct sequencing of the PCR product. The possibility of typization using molecular methods is based on the big difference at the amino acid and nucleotide levels between different HA subtypes (from 20- 74%, while the differences between strains of the same HA subtype are relatively small (0- 9%. The basic advantage in the detection and typization of influenza viruses using the RTPCR method is that it saves time. Namely, it can be performed directly from the samples taken in the field, and the result can be obtained within the same day, contrary to conventional methods that take 7 to 10 days. The obtained PCR product can also be sequenced immediately, which can provide an answer to the possible virulent potential of the isolate and its further spreading. The establishment of changes in the HA gene sequence can provide us with the information about the direction of the development of the genetic drift. The paper will describe in detail the possibilities for the implementation of molecular methods in diagnostics and typization, in fact, in the molecular epizootiology of avian influenza.

  13. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Strickland, Dale M.; Young, Jr., David P.; Sernka, Karyn J.; Good, Rhett E.

    2001-08-01

    It has been estimated that from 100 million to well over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to collisions with human-made structures, including vehicles, buildings and windows, powerlines, communication towers, and wind turbines. Although wind energy is generally considered environmentally friendly (because it generates electricity without emitting air pollutants or greenhouse gases), the potential for avian fatalities has delayed and even significantly contributed to blocking the development of some windplants in the U.S. Given the importance of developing a viable renewable source of energy, the objective of this paper is to put the issue of avian mortality associated with windpower into perspective with other sources of avian collision mortality across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed summary of the mortality data collected at windplants and put avian collision mortality associated with windpower development into perspective with other significant sources of avian collision mortality across the United States. We provide a summary of data collected at many of the U.S. windplants and provide annual bird fatality estimates and projections for all wind turbines in the U.S. For comparison, we also review studies of avian collision mortality from other major human-made structures and report annual bird fatality estimates for these sources. Other sources also significantly contribute to overall avian mortality. For example, the National Audubon Society estimates avian mortality due to house cats at 100 million birds per year. Pesticide use, oil spills, disease, etc., are other significant sources of unintended avian mortality. Due to funding constraints, the scope of this paper is limited to examining only avian mortality resulting from collisions with human-made obstacles.

  14. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds

    OpenAIRE

    Darla K Zelenitsky; Therrien, François; Ridgely, Ryan C.; McGee, Amanda R.; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the olfactory capabilities of extinct basal (non-neornithine) birds or the evolutionary changes in olfaction that occurred from non-avian theropods through modern birds. Although modern birds are known to have diverse olfactory capabilities, olfaction is generally considered to have declined during avian evolution as visual and vestibular sensory enhancements occurred in association with flight. To test the hypothesis that olfaction diminished through avian evolution, we...

  15. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Warning System using Dempster-Shafer Theory and Web Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Maseleno, Andino; Hasan, Md. Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built a Web Mapping and Dempster-Shafer theory as early warning system of avian influenza. Early warning is the provision of timely and effective information, through identified institutions, that allows individuals exposed to a h...

  16. Avian leukosis virus infection: analysis of viremia and DNA integration in susceptible and resistant chicken lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, T W; Humphries, E H

    1984-01-01

    Avian leukosis viruses induce lymphoid leukosis, a lymphoma which develops within the bursa of Fabricius several months after virus infection. Chickens from the Hyline SC and FP lines are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to avian leukosis virus-induced lymphoid leukosis. We examined plasma and cellular DNA obtained from avian leukosis virus-infected chickens for the presence of viremia and integrated viral sequences to determine whether the extent of virus infection is comparable in i...

  17. Adenovirus as a carrier for the development of influenza virus-free avian influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, De-chu C.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Toro, Haroldo; Shi, Zhongkai; van Kampen, Kent R.

    2009-01-01

    A long-sought goal during the battle against avian influenza is to develop a new generation of vaccines capable of mass immunizing humans as well as poultry (the major source of avian influenza for human infections) in a timely manner. Although administration of the currently licensed influenza vaccine is effective in eliciting protective immunity against seasonal influenza, this approach is associated with a number of insurmountable problems for preventing an avian influenza pandemic. Many o...

  18. A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Hsien Tseng; Hsiang-Jung Tsai; Chung-Ming Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful ...

  19. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas April 11 Update of switch in LHC 4 LHC 4 Point April 14 Update of switch in LHC 5 LHC 5 Point April 15 Update of switches in LHC 3 and LHC 2 Points LHC 3 and LHC 2 April 22 Update of switch N4 Meyrin Ouest April 23 Update of switch  N6 Prévessin Site Ap...

  20. Linking avian communities and avian influenza ecology in southern Africa using epidemiological functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Alexandre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ecology of pathogens, and particularly their emergence in multi-host systems, is complex. New approaches are needed to reduce superficial complexities to a level that still allows scientists to analyse underlying and more fundamental processes. One promising approach for simplification is to use an epidemiological-function classification to describe ecological diversity in a way that relates directly to pathogen dynamics. In this article, we develop and apply the epidemiological functional group (EFG concept to explore the relationships between wild bird communities and avian influenza virus (AIV in three ecosystems in southern Africa. Using a two year dataset that combined bird counts and bimonthly sampling for AIV, we allocated each bird species to a set of EFGs that captured two overarching epidemiological functions: the capacity of species to maintain AIV in the system, and their potential to introduce the virus. Comparing AIV prevalence between EFGs suggested that the hypothesis that anseriforms (ducks and charadriiforms (waders drive AIV epidemiology cannot entirely explain the high prevalence observed in some EFGs. If anseriforms do play an important role in AIV dynamics in each of the three ecosystems, the role of other species in the local maintenance of AIV cannot be ruled out. The EFG concept thus helped us to identify gaps in knowledge and to highlight understudied bird groups that might play a role in AIV epidemiology. In general, the use of EFGs has potential for generating a range of valuable insights in epidemiology, just as functional group approaches have done in ecology.

  1. A new feathered maniraptoran dinosaur fossil that fills a morphological gap in avian origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xing; ZHAO Qi; NORELL Mark; SULLIVAN Corwin; HONE David; ERICKSON Gregory; WANG XiaoLin; HAN FengLu; GUO Yu

    2009-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries have substantially reduced the morphological gap between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, yet avians including Archaeopteryx differ from non-avian theropods in their limb proportions. In particular, avians have proportionally longer and more robust forelimbs that are capable of supporting a large aerodynamic surface. Here we report on a new maniraptoran dinosaur, Anchiornis huxleyi gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen collected from Iacustrine deposits of uncertain age in western Liaoning, China. With an estimated mass of 110 grams, Anchiornis is the smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur. It exhibits some wrist features indicative of high mobility, presaging the wing-folding mechanisms seen in more derived birds and suggesting rapid evolution of the carpus. Otherwise, Anchiornis is intermediate in general morphology between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, particularly with regard to relative forelimb length and thickness, and represents a transitional step toward the avian condition. In contrast with some recent comprehensive phylogenetic analyses, our phylogenetic analysis incorporates subtle morphological variations and recovers a conventional result supporting the monophyly of Avialae.

  2. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  3. Multiplicative updates for the LASSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    Multiplicative updates have proven useful for non-negativity constrained optimization. Presently, we demonstrate how multiplicative updates also can be used for unconstrained optimization. This is for instance useful when estimating the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), i.......e. least squares minimization with $L_1$-norm regularization, since the multiplicative updates (MU) can efficiently exploit the structure of the problem traditionally solved using quadratic programming (QP). We derive an algorithm based on MU for the LASSO and compare the performance to Matlabs standard QP...

  4. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI. PMID:24491922

  5. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger

  6. Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, C; Graves, G R

    2001-01-01

    -250% greater than those recorded at equivalent latitudes in the central Amazon basin. These findings reflect the extraordinary abundance of species associated with humid montane regions at equatorial latitudes and the importance of orography in avian speciation. In a broader context, our data reinforce......The search for a common cause of species richness gradients has spawned more than 100 explanatory hypotheses in just the past two decades. Despite recent conceptual advances, further refinement of the most plausible models has been stifled by the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases...... at continental scales. We used a database of the geographic ranges of 2,869 species of birds breeding in South America (nearly a third of the world's living avian species) to explore the influence of climate, quadrat area, ecosystem diversity, and topography on species richness gradients at 10 spatial scales...

  7. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Chaitaweesup, P.; Parakamawongsa, T.; Premashthira, S.; Tiensin, T.; Kalpravidh, W.; Wagner, H.; Slingenbergh, J.

    2006-01-01

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outbreaks in relation to poultry, land use, and other anthropogenic variables from the start of the second epidemic wave (July 2004–May 2005). Results demonstrate a strong association between H5N1 viru...

  8. Global Climate Change Leads to Mistimed Avian Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Marcel E; Both, Christiaan; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2004-01-01

    Climate change is apparent as an advancement of spring phenology. However, there is no a priori reason to expect that all components of food chains will shift their phenology at the same rate. This differential shift will lead to mistimed reproduction in many species, including seasonally breeding birds. We argue that climate change induced mistiming in avian reproduction occurs because there is a substantial period between the moment of decision making on when to reproduce and the moment at ...

  9. The Bird of Time: Cognition and the Avian Biological Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Michael Cassone; David F Westneat

    2012-01-01

    Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence tha...

  10. The Bird of Time: Cognition and the Avian Biological Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Michael Cassone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence that the central clock has effects is piecemeal. Second, selection acting on characters that are linked to the circadian clock should influence aspects of the clock mechanism itself. Little evidence exists for this in birds, but there have been few attempts to assess this idea. At its core, the avian circadian clock is a multi-oscillator system comprising the pineal gland, the retinae and the avian homologues of the suprachiasmatic nuclei, whose mutual interactions ensure coordinated physiological functions, which are in turn synchronized to ambient light cycles via encephalic, pineal and retinal photoreceptors. At the molecular level, avian biological clocks comprise a genetic network of positive elements clock and bmal1 whose interactions with the negative elements period2, period3 and the cryptochromes form an oscillatory feedback loop that circumnavigates the 24 hrs of the day. We assess the possibilities for dual integration of the clock with time-dependent cognitive processes. Closer examination of the molecular, physiological, and behavioral elements of the circadian system would place birds at a very interesting fulcrum in the neurobiology of time in learning, memory and navigation. 

  11. The bird of time: cognition and the avian biological clock

    OpenAIRE

    Cassone, Vincent M.; David F Westneat

    2012-01-01

    Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration, and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence th...

  12. The physiology and biomechanics of avian flight at high altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Dudley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many birds fly at high altitude, either during long-distance flights or by virtue of residence in high-elevation habitats. Among the many environmental features that vary systematically with altitude, five have significant consequences for avian flight performance: ambient wind speeds, air temperature, humidity, oxygen availability, and air density. During migratory flights, birds select flight altitudes that minimize energy expenditure via selection of advantageous tail- and cross-winds. Oxy...

  13. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-01-01

    Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis) exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the...

  14. Is low pathogenic avian influenza virus virulent for wild waterbirds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiken, T

    2013-01-01

    Although low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) is traditionally considered to have adapted to its wild waterbird host to become avirulent, recent studies have suggested that LPAIV infection might after all have clinical effects. Therefore, I reviewed the literature on LPAIV infections in wild waterbirds. The virulence of LPAIV was assessed in 17 studies on experimental infections and nine studies on natural infections. Reported evidence for virulence were reductions in return rate, fee...

  15. Embryonic growth and antioxidant provision in avian eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Deeming, D Charles; Pike , Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Avian embryos undergo extremely rapid development over a relatively short period of time, and so are likely to suffer high levels of oxidative damage unless this is mitigated by sufficient maternal allocation of appropriate antioxidants. At a species level, it is therefore predicted that antioxidants should be allocated to eggs according to the rate of embryonic growth, such that eggs containing embryos that grow faster are furnished with higher antioxidant levels, independent of egg size. We...

  16. Investigating Avian Influenza Infection Hotspots in Old-World Shorebirds

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; El Mamy, Ahmed B. Ould; Cappelle, Julien; Caron, Alexandre; Graeme S. Cumming; Grosbois, Vladimir; Gil, Patricia; Hammoumi, Saliha; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Abolnik, Celia; Mundava, Josphine; Fofana, Bouba; Ndlovu, Mduduzi

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) associated with a single species at a specific location a...

  17. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno; Fouchier, Ron

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the current knowledge of the determinants of pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in mammals is summarized. It is becoming apparent that common mechanisms exist across influenza A virus strains and...

  18. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Wielink, van, P.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce influenza vaccines, as they are more robust and lack the long lead times associated with the production of large quantities of embryonated eggs. In the study that is described in this thesis, the prod...

  19. The Irrationality of GOF Avian Influenza Virus Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The last two and a half years have witnessed a curious debate in virology characterized by a remarkable lack of discussion. It goes by the misleading epithet “gain of function” (GOF) influenza virus research, or simply GOF. As will be seen, there is nothing good to be gained. The controversial experiments confer aerosol transmission on avian influenza virus strains that can infect humans, but which are not naturally transmitted between humans. Some of the newer strains are clearly highly path...

  20. Potential Economic Impacts of Avian Influenza in LAC

    OpenAIRE

    César Falconi

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discuses bird flu in two different related scenarios: as a disease that could affect the Poultry Sector and as a disease that could cause a Human Pandemic. The paper includes an analysis on what's at stake, risks and probabilities, costs, impacts and ways of prevention, as well as a series of conclusions. This presentation was created for the Seminar "The Mass Media and the Threat of Avian Influenza in Latin America" held in August of 2006.

  1. Molecular cloning of avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29) transforming sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenberger, J A; Schulz, R A; Garon, C F; Tsichlis, P N; Papas, T S

    1981-01-01

    Avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29), a defective acute leukemia virus, has a broad oncogenic spectrum in vivo and transforms fibroblasts and hematopoietic target cells in vitro. We have used recombinant DNA technology to isolate and to characterize the sequences that are essential in the transformation process. Integrated MC29 proviral DNA was isolated from a library of recombinant phage containing DNA from the MC29-transformed nonproducer quail cell line Q5. The cloned DNA was analyzed by So...

  2. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E.; Martin Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island...

  3. Control of Avian Coccidiosis: Future and Present Natural Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda; Edgar Dantán-González

    2015-01-01

    Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herba...

  4. Avian Bornavirus Associated with Fatal Disease in Psittacine Birds▿

    OpenAIRE

    Staeheli, Peter; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to new technologies which enable rapid and unbiased screening for viral nucleic acids in clinical specimens, an impressive number of previously unknown viruses have recently been discovered. Two research groups independently identified a novel negative-strand RNA virus, now designated avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a severe lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis of the gastrointestinal tract of psittacine birds that is frequently accompanied...

  5. Sociable schedules: interplay between avian seasonal and social behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Helm, Barbara; Piersma, Theunis; van der Jeugd, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Timing is essential in seasonally changing habitats. Survival and reproduction are enhanced through precise adjustment to environmental conditions. Avian seasonal behaviour, that is, diverse activities associated with reproduction, moult and migration, has an endogenous basis and is ultimately linked to changes in environmental factors such as food supply. However, behaviour occurs in social contexts, and interactions with conspecifics are intimately linked to seasonal activities. Time progra...

  6. Does weather affect biting fly abundance in avian nests?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Lobato, Elisa; Rivero de Aguilar, Juan; Cerro Gómez, Sara del; Ruiz De Castañeda, Rafael; Moreno Klemming, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Environmental factors may strongly affect avian-biting fly interactions in different ways because insects are heterothermic organisms that depend greatly on environmental variables to activate their metabolism and behaviour. We studied the effects of weather on both blackfly (Simuliidae) and biting midge Culicoides (Ceratopogonidae) abundance in nests of three passerine species: blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, great tits Parus major and pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca, breeding in the sam...

  7. Phylogenetic Position of Avian Nocturnal and Diurnal Raptors

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Gillian C Gibb; Penny, David

    2014-01-01

    We report three new avian mitochondrial genomes, two from widely separated groups of owls and a falcon relative (the Secretarybird). We then report additional progress in resolving Neoavian relationships in that the two groups of owls do come together (it is not just long-branch attraction), and the Secretarybird is the deepest divergence on the Accipitridae lineage. This is now agreed between mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. There is no evidence for the monophyly of the combined three gr...

  8. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry, like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and pala­table insects mimicking distasteful ones, involve signals directed at the eyes of birds. Despite this, studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare, particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade. Defensive visual mimicry, which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry, occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators. Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object, such as a leaf, stick, or pebble. In this paper, I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds. The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey, but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators. Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds, I show how quantitative models of avian color, luminance, and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals. Overall, I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2, Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4, and masquerade (5 as follows: 1 Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2 Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3 Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4 Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5 Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids [Current Zoology 58 (4: 630–648, 2012].

  9. Immunological phenotype of lymphomas induced by avian leukosis viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, L. C.; S.A. Courtneidge; Bishop, J M

    1983-01-01

    The production of immunoglobulin by six cell lines derived from bursal tumors induced by avian leukosis virus follows two general patterns: (i) three cell lines that have been extensively passaged in culture synthesize and secrete light chains only; (ii) three cell lines that are recently isolated produce and secrete monomeric immunoglobulin M in addition to free light chains. All six cell lines synthesize and secrete both glycosylated and unglycosylated forms of light chain. We conclude that...

  10. Rapid induction of hypothyroidism by an avian leukosis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, J K; Smith, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Infection of 10-day chicken embryos with an avian leukosis virus, RAV-7, resulted in hypothyroidism within 3 weeks posthatching. Histological examination of the thyroids from infected chickens showed an extensive infiltration of lymphoblastoid cells by 7 days posthatching. Areas resembling germinal centers were present in the thyroids of infected chickens by 3 weeks posthatching. Examination of circulating thyroid and pancreas hormones showed a significant reduction in T3 and T4 levels and a ...

  11. Relationship of avian retrovirus DNA synthesis to integration in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Y.M.; Coffin, J M

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro integration system derived from avian leukosis virus-infected cells supports both intra- and intermolecular integration of the viral DNA. In the absence of polyethylene glycol, intramolecular integration of viral DNA molecules into themselves (autointegration) was preferred. In the presence of polyethylene glycol, integration into an exogenously supplied DNA target was greatly promoted. Analysis of integration intermediates revealed that the strand transfer mechanisms of both reac...

  12. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-01-01

    Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry,like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and palatable insects mimicking distasteful ones,involve signals directed at the eyes of birds.Despite this,studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare,particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade.Defensive visual mimicry,which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry,occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators.Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object,such as a leaf,stick,or pebble.In this paper,I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds.The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey,but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators.Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds,I show how quantitative models of avian color,luminance,and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals.Overall,I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2),Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4),and masquerade (5) as follows:1) Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2) Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3) Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4) Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5) Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids.

  13. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  14. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne C. Fecheyr-Lippens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour.

  15. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H.S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  16. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Mbuvi P; Muya, Shadrack; Gicheru, Muita M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27306902

  17. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  18. New Perspectives on the Ontogeny and Evolution of Avian Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Ashley M

    2016-09-01

    Close correspondence between form and function is a central tenet of natural selection. One of the most striking, textbook cases for form-function congruence is the evolution of flight and the body plan of birds: compared with other tetrapods, extant adult birds have highly modified integuments and skeletons, and it has traditionally been assumed that many of these modifications are adaptations or exaptations for flight. However, developing birds that lack many of the morphological signatures of flight capacity nevertheless use their developing wings for a variety of flapping behaviors, such as wing-assisted incline running and even brief flight. Immature birds thereby demonstrate that rudimentary "flight" apparatuses are more functional than traditional assumptions about form-function relationships would predict. Here, I review the ontogeny of avian locomotion, highlighting how the developmental acquisition of flight in extant birds can improve our understanding of form-function relationships in the avian body plan, and provide insight into the evolutionary origin of flight among extinct non-avian theropod dinosaurs. PMID:27371381

  19. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Hall, Brian K; Horner, John R

    2013-01-01

    The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae). This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors. PMID:23418610

  20. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  1. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Cheng, K M; Purdy, P H; Silversides, F G

    2012-12-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A simple vitrification method that included dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose as cryoprotective agents, and allowed the storage of tissue in a sealed macrotube was applied to the testicular tissue from 1-wk-old Japanese quail. The vitrified tissue was warmed at room temperature or at 40°C. After warming, tissue was implanted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of 8- to 9-d-old chicken embryos and the vascularization of the grafts was evaluated. When compared with fresh tissue, the tissue that had been warmed at 40°C showed no difference in vascularization. The tissue that had been warmed at room temperature was significantly less vascularized than the fresh tissue. Vitrification of testicular tissue and storage in macrotubes provide a promising model for preservation and recovery of male germplasm of avian species. PMID:23155032

  2. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:27502303

  3. Updates of pathologic myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Lai, Chi-Chun; Cheung, Chiu Ming Gemmy

    2016-05-01

    Complications from pathologic myopia are a major cause of visual impairment and blindness, especially in east Asia. The eyes with pathologic myopia may develop loss of the best-corrected vision due to various pathologies in the macula, peripheral retina and the optic nerve. Despite its importance, the definition of pathologic myopia has been inconsistent. The refractive error or axial length alone often does not adequately reflect the 'pathologic myopia'. Posterior staphyloma, which is a hallmark lesion of pathologic myopia, can occur also in non-highly myopic eyes. Recently a revised classification system for myopic maculopathy has been proposed to standardize the definition among epidemiological studies. In this META-PM (meta analyses of pathologic myopia) study classification, pathologic myopia was defined as the eyes having chorioretinal atrophy equal to or more severe than diffuse atrophy. In addition, the advent of new imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) has enabled the detailed observation of various pathologies specific to pathologic myopia. New therapeutic approaches including intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and the advance of vitreoretinal surgeries have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with pathologic myopia. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on topics related to the field of pathologic myopia, and to outline the remaining issues which need to be solved in the future. PMID:26769165

  4. [Emergency departments - 2016 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, M; Brokmann, J C; Gräff, I; Kumle, B; Wilke, P; Gries, A

    2016-04-01

    Acute medical care in hospital emergency departments has experienced rapid development in recent years and gained increasing importance not only from a professional medical point of view but also from an economic and health policy perspective. The present article therefore provides an update on the situation of emergency departments in Germany. Care in emergency departments is provided with an increasing tendency to patients of all ages presenting with varying primary symptoms, complaints, illnesses and injury patterns. In the process, patients reach the emergency department by various routes and structural provision. Cross-sectional communication and cooperation, prioritization and organization of emergency management and especially medical staff qualifications increasingly play a decisive role in this process. The range of necessary knowledge and skills far exceeds the scope of prehospital medical emergency care and the working environment differs substantially. In addition to existing structural and economic problems, the latest developments, as well as future proposals for the design of in-hospital emergency medical care in interdisciplinary emergency departments are described. PMID:26952123

  5. Higgcision Updates 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Kingman; Tseng, Po-Yan

    2014-01-01

    During the 2014 Summer Conferences, both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations of the LHC experiments have demonstrated tremendous efforts in treatment of data and processing more data such that most data on signal strengths have improved; especially the diphoton and fermionic modes of both experiments. Here in this note we perform an update to our previous model-independent Higgs precision analysis -- Higgcision. We found the followings: (i) the uncertainties on most couplings shrink about 10--20%, (ii) the nonstandard (e.g. invisible) decay branching ratio of the Higgs boson is constrained to be less than 18.5% if only the width is allowed to vary, (iii) the gauge-Higgs coupling C_v is constrained to be 0.95^{+0.11}_{-0.12}, in which the uncertainty is reduced by about 10%, and (iv) the standard model (SM) Higgs boson still provides the best fit to all the Higgs boson data, and compared to the previous results the SM Higgs boson now enjoys a higher p value than the last year.

  6. Dali server update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Liisa; Laakso, Laura M

    2016-07-01

    The Dali server (http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/dali) is a network service for comparing protein structures in 3D. In favourable cases, comparing 3D structures may reveal biologically interesting similarities that are not detectable by comparing sequences. The Dali server has been running in various places for over 20 years and is used routinely by crystallographers on newly solved structures. The latest update of the server provides enhanced analytics for the study of sequence and structure conservation. The server performs three types of structure comparisons: (i) Protein Data Bank (PDB) search compares one query structure against those in the PDB and returns a list of similar structures; (ii) pairwise comparison compares one query structure against a list of structures specified by the user; and (iii) all against all structure comparison returns a structural similarity matrix, a dendrogram and a multidimensional scaling projection of a set of structures specified by the user. Structural superimpositions are visualized using the Java-free WebGL viewer PV. The structural alignment view is enhanced by sequence similarity searches against Uniprot. The combined structure-sequence alignment information is compressed to a stack of aligned sequence logos. In the stack, each structure is structurally aligned to the query protein and represented by a sequence logo. PMID:27131377

  7. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  8. Atomic spectrometry update : environmental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Owen T.; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Cook, Jennifer M.; Davidson, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the 27th annual review published in Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry of the application of atomic spectrometry to the chemical analysis of environmental samples. This Update refers to papers published approximately between September 2010 and August 2011 and continues the series of Atomic Spectrometry Updates (ASUs) in Environmental Analysis1 that should be read in conjunction with other related ASU reviews in the series, namely: clinical and biological materials, foods and be...

  9. Atomic spectrometry update : environmental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Owen T.; Warren R. L. Cairns; Cook, Jennifer M.; Davidson, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the 28th annual review published in JAAS on the application of atomic spectrometry to the chemical analysis of environmental samples. This Update refers to papers published approximately between September 2011 and August 2012 and continues the series of Atomic Spectrometry Updates (ASUs) in Environmental Analysis1 that should be read in conjunction with other related ASUs in the series, namely: clinical and biological materials, foods and beverages2; advances in atomic spectrometry an...

  10. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  11. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2008-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Now in its 11th edition, Communication Technology Update has become an indispensable information resource for business, government, and academia. As always, every chapter has been completely rewritten to reflect the latest developments and market statistics, and now covers mobile computing, dig

  12. Avian Flu School: A Training Approach to Prepare for H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel; Bunn, David A.; Sandrock, Christian E.; Cardona, Carol J.

    2008-01-01

    Since the reemergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) in 2003, a panzootic that is historically unprecedented in the number of infected flocks, geographic spread, and economic consequences for agriculture has developed. The epidemic has affected a wide range of birds and mammals, including humans. The ineffective management of outbreaks, mainly due to a lack of knowledge among those involved in detection, prevention, and response, points to the need for training on H5N1 HPAI....

  13. A new scenario for the evolutionary origin of hair, feather, and avian scales. : Origin of hair, feather and avian scales

    OpenAIRE

    Dhouailly, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    In zoology it is well known that birds are characterized by the presence of feathers, and mammals by hairs. Another common point of view is that avian scales are directly related to reptilian scales. As a skin embryologist, I have been fascinated by the problem of regionalization of skin appendages in amniotes throughout my scientific life. Here I have collected the arguments that result from classical experimental embryology, from the modern molecular biology era, and from the recent discove...

  14. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  15. The passage of cells can improve the detection rate of avian leukosis virus to facilitate the elimination of avian leukosis in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiuzhen; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Peipei; Cheng, Hegang; Sun, Shuhong

    2013-01-01

    Avian leukosis (AL) is one of the most harmful diseases to the poultry industry in China. The detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV) p27 antigen plays a decisive role in the elimination of avian leukosis. To explore the influence of passaging cells on the detection rate of the ALV p27 antigen, 21 aseptic anticoagulated blood samples were collected from 21 chickens for which the cloacal swabs were positive for the p27 antigen to inoculate two sets of cell culture plates containing DF1 cel...

  16. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37°C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal ...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian-Like H4N8 Swine Influenza Virus Discovered in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Shuo; Qi, Wen-bao; Chen, Ji-dang; Cao, Nan; Zhu, Wan-jun; Yuan, Li-Guo; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Gui-hong

    2012-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of an avian-like H4N8 swine influenza virus containing an H5N1 avian influenza virus segment from swine in southern China. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of all eight viral RNA segments demonstrated that these are wholly avian influenza viruses of the Asia lineage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an avian H4N8 influenza virus to domestic pigs under natural conditions.

  18. Different intracellular distribution of avian reovirus core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Lostale-Seijo, Irene; Martinez-Costas, Jose [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, y Centro Singular de Investigacion en Quimica Biologica y Materiales Moleculares (CIQUS), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Benavente, Javier, E-mail: franciscojavier.benavente@usc.es [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, y Centro Singular de Investigacion en Quimica Biologica y Materiales Moleculares (CIQUS), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-10-25

    A comparative analysis of the intracellular distribution of avian reovirus (ARV) core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin revealed that, whereas the viral protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of avian cells, most sigmaA concentrates in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells in tight association with the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction. Our results further showed that sigmaA becomes arrested in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells via association with mammalian cell-specific factors and that this association prevents nucleolar targeting. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity, but not of RNA polymerase I activity, in infected mammalian cells induces nucleus-to-cytoplasm sigmaA translocation through a CRM1- and RanGTP-dependent mechanism, yet a heterokaryon assay suggests that sigmaA does not shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The scarcity of sigmaA in cytoplasmic viral factories of infected mammalian cells could be one of the factors contributing to limited ARV replication in mammalian cells.

  19. NB market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2004 New Brunswick proclamation introduced several changes to the industry. This paper presents an update of the current New Brunswick electricity market from the perspective of the recently created New Brunswick System Operator (NBSO). A comparison was made between the modified industry and the previous industry structure. Significant changes included: corporate restructuring and market implementation; the formation of the independent system operator; and an increase in Public Utilities Board regulatory authority. The main objectives of the NBSO were reviewed, including its intention to reliably plan and operate the integrated power system as well as facilitating and operating the electricity market. Details of directors and officers were provided along with a list of legislated functions which included entering agreements with transmitters; provision and procurement of ancillary services; maintenance of integrated system; coordination of external activities; participation with standards authorities; planning and development of transmission; and the facilitation of a competitive market. An outline of the NBSO, Transco and Public Utilities Board relationships were presented. Details of the market advisory committee were outlined, with information concerning contracts, operations and services agreements. Transmission and ancillary services were also discussed, as well as issues concerning interruptible load agreements. A chart of the New Brunswick electricity market structure was presented, along with a market overview including details of capacity, ancillary services and suppliers. Market rules and amendments were presented, as well as market participation guides. Details of generation resource adequacy requirements and the imposition of penalties were outlined. Scheduling and dispatch issues were overviewed, as well as settlement processes, inputs and their sources, including settlements for variances. Future development possibilities included an expansion of

  20. Modelling the innate immune response against avian influenza virus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.J.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Jansen, C.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Spekreijse, D.; Vervelde, L.; Backer, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koets, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load, interferon-α,

  1. Current developments in avian influenza vaccines, including safety of vaccinated birds as food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, most vaccines against avian influenza were based on oil-emulsified inactivated low- or high-pathogenicity viruses. Now, recombinant fowl pox and avian paramyxovirus type 1 vaccines with avian influenza H5 gene inserts (+ or - N1 gene insert) are available and licensed. New technologies might overcome existing limitations to make available vaccines that can be grown in tissue culture systems for more rapid production; provide optimized protection, as a result of closer genetic relations to field viruses; allow mass administration by aerosol, in drinking-water or in ovo; and allow easier strategies for identifying infected birds within vaccinated populations (DIVA). The technologies include avian influenza viruses with partial gene deletions, avian influenza-Newcastle disease virus chimeras, vectored vaccines such as adenoviruses and Marek's disease virus, and subunit vaccines. These new methods should be licensed only after their purity, safety, efficacy and potency against avian influenza viruses have been demonstrated, and, for live vectored vaccines, restriction of viral transmission to unvaccinated birds. Use of vaccines in countries affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza will not only protect poultry but will provide additional safety for consumers. Experimental studies have shown that birds vaccinated against avian influenza have no virus in meat and minimal amounts in eggs after HPAI virus challenge, and that replication and shedding from their respiratory and alimentary tracts is greatly reduced. PMID:18411943

  2. H5N1 Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The existing H5N1 HPAI experimental infection data in wild avian species has validated observations made from field data and provided useful objective data on susceptibility, viral shedding, and pathobiology in different avian species. However, a complete understanding of the H5N1 HPAI virus epidem...

  3. The Pathology of Avian Influenza in Birds and Animals: An Analytical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influenza virus remains enigmatic despite of long extensive studies. Avian influenza virus (H5N1) is able to infect a large spectrum of animal and bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus represents a serious problem both for a human and birds, particularly for chicks. Many studies have been performed in order to show differences between highly and low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, and examine their biological properties. Many separate pathological and microscopic descriptions are interspersed in numerous published articles. The aim of our study was to analyze data published in international scientific journals, and to attempt a generalized view of avian influenza pathology in various animal and bird hosts. We summarized and systematized data describing pathological changes caused by both highly and low pathogenic types of avian influenza virus (H5N1) in animals and birds, and developed generalized descriptions with accent at the type of virus. We also tried to show up species specific features of pathological changes in birds and animals infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1). The results of this analytical work may be useful for pathological studies of a new avian influenza virus isolates, and for understanding of avian influenza pathogenesis in birds and animals. (author)

  4. 9 CFR 147.9 - Standard test procedures for avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard test procedures for avian influenza. 147.9 Section 147.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.9 Standard test procedures for avian influenza. (a) The agar...

  5. Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qi; Liu, Linqing; Pu, Juan; Zhao, Jingyi; Sun, Yipeng; Shen, Guangnian; Wei, Haitao; Zhu, Junjie; Zheng, Ruifeng; Xiong, Dongyan; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    To determine risk for avian influenza virus infection, we conducted serologic surveillance for H5 and H9 subtypes among poultry workers in Beijing, China, 2009–2010, and assessed workers’ understanding of avian influenza. We found that poultry workers had considerable risk for infection with H9 subtypes. Increasing their knowledge could prevent future infections.

  6. Surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza in layer chickens: risk factors, transmission and early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales Rojas, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) of H5 and H7 subtypes are able to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv), which are lethal for most poultry species, can cause large epidemics and are a serious threat to public health. Thus, circulation of these LPAIv in poultry is und

  7. Chicken dendritic cells are susceptible to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which induce strong cytokine responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervelde, L.; Reemens, S.S.; Haarlem, van D.A.; Post, J.; Claassen, E.A.W.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Jansen, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in birds and mammals is associated with severe pathology and increased mortality. We hypothesize that in contrast to low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) infection, HPAI infection of chicken dendritic cells (DC) induces a cytokine deregulat

  8. Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zoghby Elham F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment of two main genetic clusters. The 2.2.1/C group where all recent human and majority of backyard origin viruses clustered together, meanwhile the majority of viruses derived from vaccinated poultry in commercial farms grouped in 2.2.1.1 clade. Findings In the present investigation, an HPAIV H5N1 was isolated from twenty weeks old layers chickens that were vaccinated with a homologous H5N1 vaccine at 1, 7 and 16 weeks old. At twenty weeks of age, birds showed cyanosis of comb and wattle, decrease in egg production and up to 27% mortality. Examined serum samples showed low antibody titer in HI test (Log2 3.2± 4.2. The hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the isolated virus were closely related to viruses in 2.2.1/C group isolated from poultry in live bird market (LBM and backyards or from infected people. Conspicuous mutations in the HA and NA genes including a deletion within the receptor binding domain in the HA globular head region were observed. Conclusions Despite repeated vaccination of layer chickens using a homologous H5N1 vaccine, infection with HPAIV H5N1 resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. In endemic countries like Egypt, rigorous control measures including enforcement of biosecurity, culling of infected birds and constant update of vaccine virus strains are highly required to prevent circulation of HPAIV H5N1 between backyard birds, commercial poultry, LBM and humans.

  9. Chinese and global distribution of H9 subtype avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Jiang

    Full Text Available H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs are of significance in poultry and public health, but epidemiological studies about the viruses are scarce. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of the viruses were analyzed based on 1233 previously reported sequences and 745 novel sequences of the viral hemagglutinin gene. The novel sequences were obtained through large-scale surveys conducted in 2008-2011 in China. The results revealed distinct distributions of H9 subtype AIVs in different hosts, sites and regions in China and in the world: (1 the dominant lineage of H9 subtype AIVs in China in recent years is lineage h9.4.2.5 represented by A/chicken/Guangxi/55/2005; (2 the newly emerging lineage h9.4.2.6, represented by A/chicken/Guangdong/FZH/2011, has also become prevalent in China; (3 lineages h9.3.3, h9.4.1 and h9.4.2, represented by A/duck/Hokkaido/26/99, A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 and A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97, respectively, have become globally dominant in recent years; (4 lineages h9.4.1 and h9.4.2 are likely of more risk to public health than others; (5 different lineages have different transmission features and host tropisms. This study also provided novel experimental data which indicated that the Leu-234 (H9 numbering motif in the viral hemagglutinin gene is an important but not unique determinant in receptor-binding preference. This report provides a detailed and updated panoramic view of the epidemiological distributions of H9 subtype AIVs globally and in China, and sheds new insights for the prevention of infection in poultry and preparedness for a potential pandemic caused by the viruses.

  10. Comparative analysis of chest radiological findings between avian human influenza and SARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the chest radiological findings of a mortal avian human influenza case. Methods: One patient in our hospital was proved to be infected avian human influenza in Guangdong province on March 1, 2006. The Clinical appearances and chest radiological findings of this case were retrospectively analyzed and compared with that of 3 mortal SARS cases out of 16 cases in 2003. Results: Large consolidated areas in left lower lobe was showed in pulmonary radiological findings of this patient and soon developed into ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome). However, the pulmonary radiological findings had no characteristic. Characteristics of soaring size and number during short term appeared in SARS instead of avian human influenza. Final diagnosis was up to the etiology and serology examination. Conclusion: Bronchial dissemination was not observed in this avian human influenza case. Pay attention to the avian human influenza in spite of no history of contract with sick or dead poultry in large city. (authors)

  11. Development, standardization and assessment of PCR systems for purity testing of avian viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottiger, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) requires avian viral vaccines to be free of adventitious agents. Purity testing is an essential quality requirement of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs) and testing for extraneous agents includes monitoring for many different viruses. Conventional virus detection methods include serology or virus culture, however, molecular tests have become a valid alternative testing method. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is fast, highly sensitive and has a higher degree of discrimination than conventional approaches. These advantages have led to the development and standardization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of avian leucosis virus, avian orthoreovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, influenza A virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, egg drop syndrome virus, chicken anaemia virus, avian adenovirus and avian encephalomyelitis virus. This paper reviews the development, standardization and assessment of PCR for extraneous agent testing in IVMPs with examples from an Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). PMID:20338785

  12. Air issues update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A government sponsored poll revealed that the primary environmental concern for Ontarians in 2000 was air pollution. While scientists tend to focus on smog episodes, greenhouse gas emissions, acid rain or emissions of toxic pollutants, the public shows concern in more practical terms such as the overall impact of poor air quality on people and the ecosystem, and how this will affect future life on earth. It was emphasized that policy makers should try to apply this holistic approach to the complex issues associated with air quality. Climate change, acid rain and ultraviolet radiation are some examples of how air emissions impact on ecosystems. Other examples include elevated levels of mercury in otters in Ontario. Climate change has also been linked with the re-acidification of lakes, as droughts typically occur in years following an El Nino cycle which has been pronounced as a possible consequence of greenhouse gas emissions. The Environmental Commissioner of Ontario (ECO) has reviewed the efforts of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) regarding the regulation of air quality. The MOE has proposed several initiatives, including newer air dispersion models into legislation, establishing a new consultation process for applying new air quality standards to emission sources, an expansion of the Drive Clean Program, and a discussion paper on a proposed emission cap and trade system. This paper presents ECO's review of these initiatives and provides updates on other air quality issues such as control of emissions from Ontario's transportation, industrial and electricity sectors. It also described policy proposals related to standard-setting for air pollutants, as well as the newly adopted Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. A progress report on Ontario's Anti-Smog Action Plan (ASAP) confirms that major reductions in NO{sub x} expected from Ontario's coal-fired power plants never materialized. Emissions of nitrogen oxide

  13. How to Green Windows Update?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifedine Kadry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important challenges facing the earth in the future are energy, water, environment and food security, Green IT contributes in significant role in finding solutions because it consume energy more efficient and reduce pollution in water, air and soil in addition to improving economy because Green IT is manage energy sources by reducing energy consumption with good performance. Most of energy consumed around the world depends on non-renewable energy and part of this energy consumed to update technologies In this paper ,we will study one of the most important tools in Microsoft, which is used in order to help users to get updates of Microsoft's products, which is called windows server update services (WSUS, which is helping to reduce energy consumption, we will study this tool and then try to make it more green by reducing the send / receive between Microsoft Update (MU and WSUS, which will reduce energy consumption, and we will propose algorithm and compared the energy consumption in the current design with energy consumption in the proposed design. This design will open the way for future work in order to make sending updates in MU less energy consumption by apply conditional sending and that will help to improve the performance of MU added to improve the network performance with more efficient consumption of energy.

  14. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh GCH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  16. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  17. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  18. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  19. E Protein Prokaryotic Expression of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ping; ZHANG Fang; MING Xiaobo; ZENG Xiangwei; ZHU Yuqing; WANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    The small envelope protein (E) gene of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) M41 strain was cloned,and then it was subeloned into prokaryotic expressing vector pGEX-6P-1.The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli.BL21 and induced by IPTG.SDS-PAGE result showed that when objective protein fused with GST (about 20 ku), the relative molecular mass of fusion protein was 38 ku.It indicated that objective protein was about 12.4 ku.The result showed that E protein was expressed successfully, it was useful to the subsequent E protein research.

  20. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, C.K.; Maletskos, C.J.; Youngstrom, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of /sup 131/I and /sup 137/Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods.

  1. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø.; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per Walter; Nejsum, Peter; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2015-01-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools to...... subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails...

  2. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of 131I and 137Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods

  3. Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Premashthira, Sith; Boles, Stephen; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses has become a global scale problem which first emerged in southern China and from there spread to other countries in Southeast and East Asia, where it was first confirmed in end 2003. In previous work, geospatial analyses demonstrated that free grazing ducks played critical role in the epidemiology of the disease in Thailand in the winter 2004/2005, both in terms of HPAI emergence and spread. This study explored the geographic ass...

  4. Within-host variation of avian influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Munir; Xiao, Hiaxia; Baillie, Greg; Warry, Andrew; Essen, Steve C.; Londt, Brandon; Brookes, Sharon M; Brown, Ian H.; McCauley, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence and spread of H5N1 avian influenza viruses from Asia through to Europe and Africa pose a significant animal disease problem and have raised concerns that the virus may pose a pandemic threat to humans. The epizootological factors that have influenced the wide distribution of the virus are complex, and the variety of viruses currently circulating reflects these factors. Sequence analysis of the virus genes sheds light on the H5N1 virus evolution during its emergence and spread, b...

  5. Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7 virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus still has gaps, complicating epidemic control. A model was developed to back-calculate the day HPAI virus was introduced into a flock, based on within-flock mortality data of the Dutch HPAI H7N7 epidemic (2003). The method was based on a stochastic epidemic model in which birds move from being susceptible, latently infected and infectious, to death. Our results indicated that two weeks can elapse before a noticeab...

  6. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8+ T Cell Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and ...

  7. Avian sarcoma virus 17 carries the jun oncogene.

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Y; Bos, T J; Davis, C; Starbuck, M; Vogt, P K

    1987-01-01

    Biologically active molecular clones of avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17) contain a replication-defective proviral genome of 3.5 kilobases (kb). The genome retains partial gag and env sequences, which flank a cell-derived putative oncogene of 0.93 kb, termed jun. The jun gene lacks preserved coding domains of tyrosine-specific protein kinases. It also shows no significant nucleic acid homology with other known oncogenes. The probable transformation-specific protein in ASV 17-transformed cells i...

  8. First characterization of avian influenza viruses from Greenland 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Ravn Merkel, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild birds, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), were found dead at the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examinations in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2 and...... emaciated appearance of birds, suggests that the murre die-off was not due to infection with AIV, but could be the mere cause of sparse food availability or stormy weather. Here we present the first characterization of AIVs isolated in Greenland, and our results support the idea that wild birds in Greenland...

  9. Specificity of avian leukosis virus-induced hyperlipidemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, J K; Smith, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Rous-associated virus 7 (RAV-7) is a subgroup C avian leukosis virus which does not transform cells in vitro or carry an oncogene. When injected into 1-day-old hatched chicks, RAV-7 causes a low incidence of lymphoid leukosis after a latent period of several months. In contrast, infection of 10-day-old chicken embryos with RAV-7 leads to a disease syndrome characterized by stunting, obesity, atrophy of the bursa and the thymus, high triglyceride and cholesterol levels, reduced thyroxine level...

  10. Studies on Nanoparticle Based Avian Influenza Vaccines to Present Immunogenic Epitopes of the Virus with Concentration on Ectodomain of Matrix 2 (M2e) Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babapoor Dighaleh, Sankhiros

    2011-12-01

    Avian influenza is an infectious disease of avian species caused by type A influenza viruses with a significant economic impact on the poultry industry. Vaccination is the main prevention strategy in many countries worldwide. However, available vaccines elicit antibodies against two major surface protein of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), where they constantly change by point mutations. Influenza viruses can also easily undergo gene reassortment. Therefore, to protect chickens against new strain of avian influenza virus, as well as control and prevent virus spread among farms, new vaccines needed to be designed which is a tedious, time consuming and expensive. Recently, conserved regions of the influenza genome have been evaluated as possible universal vaccines to eliminate constant vaccine updates based on circulating virus. In this study, peptide nanotechnology was used to generate vaccine nanoparticles that carry the highly conserved external domain of matrix 2 protein (M2e). These nanoparticles presented M2e in monomeric or tetrameric forms, designated as PSC-M2e-CH and BNSC-M2eN-CH. respectively. First, to demonstrate immunogenicity of these nanoparticles, we measured anti-M2e antibody in chickens, particularly when a high dose was applied. Prior to vaccination-challenge study, the challenge dose were determined by oculonasal inoculation of 10 6 EID50 or 107.7 EID50 of low pathogenicity AI virus HSN2 followed by measuring cloacal and tracheal virus shedding. A biphasic virus shedding pattern was observed with two peaks of virus shedding at days 4 and 8 for both tracheal and cloacal swabs. The chickens infected with 107.7 EID50 had significant virus shedding as compared with 106 EID50. Based on results of mentioned studies, a vaccination-challenge study was conducted by using 75mug of each vaccine construct per inoculation (with and without adjuvant) and higher dose of virus for challenge. BN5C-M2e-CH with adjuvant significantly reduced the

  11. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated. PMID:19618621

  12. Avian evolution: from Darwin's finches to a new way of thinking about avian forebrain organization and behavioural capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Anton

    2008-01-01

    The study of birds, especially the Galapagos finches, was important to Darwin in the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Birds have also been at the centre of a recent reformulation in understanding cerebral evolution and the substrates for higher cognition. While it was once thought that birds possess a simple cerebrum and were thus limited to instinctive behaviours, it is now clear that birds possess a well-developed cerebrum that looks very different from the mammalian cerebrum but can support a cognitive ability that for some avian species rivals that in primates. PMID:18854290

  13. Antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9 subtype isolated from desi and zoo birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Saleem

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza is a viral infection which affects mainly the respiratory system of birds. The H9N2 considered as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI virus and continuously circulating in poultry flocks causing enormous economic losses to poultry industry of Pakistan. As these viruses have RNA genome and their RNA polymerase enzyme lacks proof reading activity which resulted in spontaneous mutation in surface glycoproteins (HA and NA and reassortment of their genomic segments results in escape from host immune response produced by the vaccine. Efforts made for the isolation and identification of avian influenza virus from live desi and zoo birds of Lahore and performed antigenic characterization. The local vaccines although gives a little bit less titer when we raise the antisera against these vaccines but their antisera have more interaction with the local H9 subtype antigen so it gives better protective immune response. Infected chicken antisera are more reactive as compare to rabbit antisera. This shows that our isolates have highest similarity with the currently circulating viruses. These results guided us to devise a new control strategy against avian influenza viral infections. The antigenic characterization of these avian influenza isolates helped us to see the antigenic differences between the isolates of this study and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses used in vaccines. Therefore, this study clearly suggests that a new local H9 subtype avian influenza virus should be used as vaccinal candidate every year for the effective control of influenza viral infections of poultry.

  14. Deductive Updating Is Not Bayesian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-01-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based theories such as mental model theory and probabilistic theories. This study looks at conclusion updating after the addition of statistical information to examine the hypothesis that deductive reasoning cannot be explained by probabilistic…

  15. Medicare Update: Annual Wellness Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health condition (such as diabetes, heart disease or depression), you might consider bringing a family member or friend with you to the appointment. ... annual wellness visit: • Review and update medical and family ... potential risk factors for depression, including current or past experiences with depression or ...

  16. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated that...

  17. AMDIS and CHART update. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, I.; Kato, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Igarashi, A. [Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (JP)] [and others

    2002-10-01

    A working group for updating atomic and molecular collision data in the NIFS database AMDIS (electron scattering) and CHART (ion scattering) has been organized. This group has searched and reviewed literatures for collecting relevant atomic data with are to be included into the database. This is a summary report of the activities of this working group. (author)

  18. Model validation: Correlation for updating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, a review is presented of the various methods which are available for the purpose of performing a systematic comparison and correlation between two sets of vibration data. In the present case, the application of interest is in conducting this correlation process as a prelude to model correlation or updating activity.

  19. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas March 26Update of the voice messaging systemAll CERN sites April 4Updat...

  20. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas April 8 Update of switch in LHC 7 LHC 7 Point April 9 Update of...

  1. Evidence-based guideline update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Peer Carsten Tfelt-Hansen, Glostrup, Denmark: According to the recent American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline update, a drug can be recommended as possibly effective for migraine prevention if it had demonstrated efficacy in one Class II study.(1) Eight drugs are recommended as possibly eff...

  2. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  3. Bangladesh Development Update, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to update the Government of Bangladesh, think tanks and researchers, the general public as well as the Bank’s senior management on the state of the economy, outlook, risks, progress on structural policy reforms, and key challenges the economy is currently facing. The coverage includes developments in the real sector focusing on growth, inflation, and poverty...

  4. AMDIS and CHART update. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working group for updating atomic and molecular collision data in the NIFS database AMDIS (electron scattering) and CHART (ion scattering) has been organized. This group has searched and reviewed literatures for collecting relevant atomic data with are to be included into the database. This is a summary report of the activities of this working group. (author)

  5. Software Update Recovery for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephen; Sreenan, Cormac J.

    2009-01-01

    Updating software over the network is important for Wireless Sensor Networks in support of scale, remote deployment, feature upgrades, and fixes. The risk of a fault in the updated code causing system failure is a serious problem. In this paper, we identify a single, critical, symptom loss-of-control, that complements exception-based schemes, and supports failsafe recovery from faults in software updates. We present a new software update recovery mechanism that uses loss-ofc...

  6. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  7. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Puño-Sarmiento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%, three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%, 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%, but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  8. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per W; Nejsum, Peter; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-03-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy and subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings are of concern and, particularly, the presence of the potentially neuro-pathogenic species, T. regenti, in Danish freshwaters calls for attention. PMID:26573519

  9. Subtype Identification of Avian Influenza Virus on DNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-rong; YU Kang-zhen; DENG Guo-hua; SHI Rui; LIU Li-ling; QIAO Chuan-ling; BAO Hong-mei; KONG Xian-gang; CHEN Hua-lan

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a rapid microarray-based assay for the reliable detection of H5, H7 and H9 subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV). The strains used in the experiment were A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1), A/African starling/983/79 (H7N1) and A/Turkey/Wiscosin/1/66 (H9N2). The capture DNAs clones which encoding approximate 500-bp avian influenza virus gene fragments obtained by RT-PCR, were spotted on a slide-bound microarray. Cy5-1abeled fluorescent cDNAs,which generated from virus RNA during reverse transcription were hybridized to these capture DNAs. These capture DNAs contained multiple fragments of the hemagglutinin and matrix protein genes of AIV respectively, for subtyping and typing AIV. The arrays were scanned to determine the probe binding sites. The hybridization pattern agreed approximately with the known grid location of each target. The results show that DNA microarray technology provides a useful diagnostic method for AIV.

  10. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  11. Proceedings of national avian-wind power planning meeting II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was the second in a series. The purposes of this meeting were to: (1) provide information on avian/wind power interactions that will help meet the needs of regulators, researchers, and other stakeholders concerned with responsible development and permitting of wind plants; (2) create dialogue among regulators, researchers and other stakeholders to help all parties understand the role that research can play in responsible development and permitting of wind plants, and allow researchers to understand the relevance of their research to the process; and (3) propose research projects and the appropriate sponsorship. The meeting began with oral presentations and discussions of nine White Papers on the theory and methods for studying and understanding impacts. The Proceedings include the written version of each of the nine White Papers, plus a summary of the oral discussion associated with each paper. The second part of the meeting consisted of four working group sessions: (1) site evaluation and pre-permit research and planning; (2) operational monitoring; (3) modeling and forecasting, including population dynamics models; and (4) avian behavior and mortality reduction. The Proceedings includes a summary of the discussions on these topics, including each working group's recommendations for future research or associated activities. A final plenary session drew together the main recommendations

  12. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  13. The role of passive avian head stabilization in flapping flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete, Ashley E; Kress, Daniel; Dimitrov, Marina A; Lentink, David

    2015-09-01

    Birds improve vision by stabilizing head position relative to their surroundings, while their body is forced up and down during flapping flight. Stabilization is facilitated by compensatory motion of the sophisticated avian head-neck system. While relative head motion has been studied in stationary and walking birds, little is known about how birds accomplish head stabilization during flapping flight. To unravel this, we approximate the avian neck with a linear mass-spring-damper system for vertical displacements, analogous to proven head stabilization models for walking humans. We corroborate the model's dimensionless natural frequency and damping ratios from high-speed video recordings of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) flying over a lake. The data show that flap-induced body oscillations can be passively attenuated through the neck. We find that the passive model robustly attenuates large body oscillations, even in response to head mass and gust perturbations. Our proof of principle shows that bird-inspired drones with flapping wings could record better images with a swan-inspired passive camera suspension. PMID:26311316

  14. THE AVIAN FLU IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN POULTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat represents one of the most dynamic branches of the local meat production. The poultry sector represents a good quality protein source, at an acceptable price as compared to other animal production domains. There has been an ascending evolution of the sector after the year 2000, although there appeared a series of discontinuities that affected agricultural production, mainly on a short-term basis. The Avian Flu led to 190 million euros’ worth losses at the level of Romanian national economy. Low consumption due to the impact was a short-term consequence, being rapidly amortized by the Romanian producers. The lack of some business continuity insurance measures can further affect the poultry meat sector, which does not have the necessary robustness needed in case of larger shocks. The following article proposes an analysis of the Avian Flu crisis economic effects on the Romanian meat sector, and it is part of a general framework of research regarding the Romanian food chain resilience to critical situations.

  15. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhang

    Full Text Available Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  16. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; Zheng, Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Li, Wenhua; Hu, Mailing; Zhong, Jinhui; Chen, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area. PMID:25356738

  17. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Daesub; Kang, Bokyu; Lee, Chulseung; Jung, Kwonil; Ha, Gunwoo; Kang, Dongseok; Park, Seongjun; Park, Bongkyun; Oh, Jinsik

    2008-01-01

    In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) is...

  18. Diversity and Distribution of Avian Fauna of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Jan Pathan; Shahroz Khan; Naveed Akhtar; Kausar Saeed

    2014-01-01

    This survey was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 to explore the avian fauna of Swat valley and to find out the major threats to the avian fauna of the area as it was neglected for years. Direct and indirect methods were used in the study by visiting the field and by interviewing the local peoples and hunters about the current and past status of the avian fauna of the area. During the current study direct and indirect methods were used. A total of 138 species were recorded belongin...

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Avian Influenza in One District of Guangzhou, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; ZHENG Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs i...

  20. Early apoptosis of porcine alveolar macrophages limits avian influenza virus replication and pro-inflammatory dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pengxiang Chang; Kuchipudi, Suresh V; Kenneth H. Mellits; Sujith Sebastian; Joe James; Jinhua Liu; Holly Shelton; Kin-Chow Chang

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are evidently more resistant to avian than swine influenza A viruses, mediated in part through frontline epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AM). Although porcine AM (PAM) are crucial in influenza virus control, their mode of control is unclear. To gain insight into the possible role of PAM in the mediation of avian influenza virus resistance, we compared the host effects and replication of two avian (H2N3 and H6N1) and three mammalian (swine H1N1, human H1N1 and pandemic H1N1) in...

  1. Seroprevalensi Avian influenza H5N1 pada Unggas di Kabupaten Aceh Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Darmawi Darmawi; Darniati Darniati; Maryulia Dewi; Fakhrurrazi Fakhrurrazi; Mahdi Abrar; Erina Erina

    2013-01-01

    Seroprevalence of avian influenza H5N1 in birds in north aceh district ABSTRACT. Avian influenza virus H5N1 infections are an important cause of diseases in humans and several animal species, including birds. The present study conducted to investigate the seroprevalence Avian Influenza H5N1 in native birds from 15 sub-districts of North Aceh.  This study utilized 1108 serum samples collected from the axilaris vein (left or right) of birds. The standard Hemaglutination Inhibition (HI) assa...

  2. Genome characterisation of the newly discovered avian influenza A H5N7 virus subtype combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, K.J.; Fomsgaard, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, in 2003, a previously unknown subtype combination of avian influenza A virus, H5N7 (A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03), was isolated from a flock of 12,000 mallards. The H5N7 subtype combination might be a reassortant between recent European avian influenza A H5, H7, and a third subtype....../Duck/Hong Kong/3096/99 (H6N2) and A/WDk/ST/1737/2000 (H6N8), respectively. All genes of the H5N7 strain were of avian origin, and no further evidence of pathogenicity to humans has been found....

  3. Genome Sequence of a Novel Reassortant H3N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Jin; Zhang, Changhui; Qi, Wenbao; XU, CHENGGANG; Huang, Lihong; Li, Huanan; Liao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and prevalence of H3 subtype influenza viruses in avian and mammalian hosts constitutes a potential threat to both human and avian health. We report a complete genome sequence of a novel reassortant H3N2 avian influenza virus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HA and NA showed the highest sequence homologies with those of A/white-backed munia/Hong Kong/4519/2009 (H3N2). However, the internal genes had the highest sequence homologies with those of H6 and H7 subtypes. The data ...

  4. Emergence of avian H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Y.; Shortridge, K. F.; Krauss, S.; Li, P H; Kawaoka, Y.; Webster, R G

    1996-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses from Asia are recognized as the source of genes that reassorted with human vital genes to generate the Asian/57 (H2N2) and Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) pandemic strains earlier in this century. Here we report the genetic analysis of avian influenza A H1N1 viruses recently isolated from pigs in southern China, a host suspected to generate new pandemic strains through gene reassortment events. Each of the eight gene segments was of avian origin. Phylogenetic analysis indicates ...

  5. Control of avian influenza: philosophy and perspectives on behalf of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1992-01-01

    Aquatic birds are considered the primary reservoir for influenza A viruses (Nettles et al., 1987).  However, there is little concern about avian influenza among conservation agencies responsible for the welfare of those species.  IN contrast, the poultry industry has great concern about avian influenza and view aquatic birds as a source for infection of poultry flocks.  In some instances, differences in these perspectives created conflict between conservation agencies and the poultry industry.  I speak on behalf of migratory birds, but philosophy and perspectives offered are intended to be helpful to the poultry industry in their efforts to combat avian influenza.

  6. Correlates of avian building strikes at a glass façade museum surrounded by avian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, L.; Flannery, M.; Dumbacher, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Bird window collisions are the second largest anthropogenic cause of bird deaths in the world. Effective mitigation requires an understanding of which birds are most likely to strike, when, and why. Here, we examine five years of avian window strike data from the California Academy of Sciences - a relatively new museum with significant glass façade situated in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. We examine correlates of window-killed birds, including age, sex, season, and migratory or sedentary tendencies of the birds. We also examine correlates of window kills such as presence of habitat surrounding the building and overall window area. We found that males are almost three times more likely than females to mortally strike windows, and immature birds are three times more abundant than adults in our window kill dataset. Among seasons, strikes were not notably different in spring, summer, and fall; however they were notably reduced in winter. There was no statistical effect of building orientation (north, south, east, or west), and the presence of avian habitat directly adjacent to windows had a minor effect. We also report ongoing studies examining various efforts to reduce window kill (primarily external decals and large electronic window blinds.) We hope that improving our understanding of the causes of the window strikes will help us strategically reduce window strikes.

  7. Living with avian FLU⬝Persistence of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njabo, Kevin Yana; Zanontian, Linda; Sheta, Basma N; Samy, Ahmed; Galal, Shereen; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-05-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cross J-function to investigate the degree and spatial temporal nature of the clustering between sightings of infected birds of different types, and the risk of infection associated with direct contact with infected birds. While we found no infection in wild birds, outbreaks occurred year round between 2009 and 2012, with a positive interaction between chickens and ducks. The disease was more present in the years 2010 and 2011 coinciding with the political unrest in the country. Egypt thus continues to experience endemic outbreaks of avian influenza HPAIV in poultry and an increased potential risk of infection to other species including humans. With the current trends, the elimination of the HPAIV infection is highly unlikely without a complete revamp of current policies. The application of spatial statistics techniques to these types of data may help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and may subsequently allow practitioners to explore possible preventive solutions. PMID:27066713

  8. 'O sibling, where art thou?'--a review of avian sibling recognition with respect to the mammalian literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Waas, Joseph R

    2004-02-01

    Avian literature on sibling recognition is rare compared to that developed by mammalian researchers. We compare avian and mammalian research on sibling recognition to identify why avian work is rare, how approaches differ and what avian and mammalian researchers can learn from each other. Three factors: (1) biological differences between birds and mammals, (2) conceptual biases and (3) practical constraints, appear to influence our current understanding. Avian research focuses on colonial species because sibling recognition is considered adaptive where 'mixing potential' of dependent young is high; research on a wider range of species, breeding systems and ecological conditions is now needed. Studies of acoustic recognition cues dominate avian literature; other types of cues (e.g. visual, olfactory) deserve further attention. The effect of gender on avian sibling recognition has yet to be investigated; mammalian work shows that gender can have important influences. Most importantly, many researchers assume that birds recognise siblings through 'direct familiarisation' (commonly known as associative learning or familiarity); future experiments should also incorporate tests for 'indirect familiarisation' (commonly known as phenotype matching). If direct familiarisation proves crucial, avian research should investigate how periods of separation influence sibling discrimination. Mammalian researchers typically interpret sibling recognition in broad functional terms (nepotism, optimal outbreeding); some avian researchers more successfully identify specific and testable adaptive explanations, with greater relevance to natural contexts. We end by reporting exciting discoveries from recent studies of avian sibling recognition that inspire further interest in this topic. PMID:15005175

  9. Coronaviridae, pathogenetic and clinical aspects: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, K

    1990-01-01

    A review is given about pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the well-known as well as of recently detected members of the family Coronaviridae. Special attention is paid to coronavirus infections of domestic cattle and pets, whereas avian, murine, rat and human coronaviruses are summarized briefly. PMID:1963836

  10. Investigations of avian populations and wetland habitats at Square Lake study site: 1978 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers the investigations of avian populations and wetland habitats at Square Lake study site. Study sites, methods, physical conditions, wetland...

  11. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built an Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System for identifying avian influenza disease and displaying the result of identification process. In this paper, we describe five symptoms as major symptoms which include depression, combs, wattle, bluish face region, swollen face region, narrowness of eyes, and balance disorders. We use chicken as research object. Research location is in the Lampung Province, South Sumatera. The researcher reason to choose Lampung Province in South Sumatera on the basis that has a high poultry population. Dempster-Shafer theory to quantify the degree of belief as inference engine in expert system, our approach uses Dempster-Shafer theory to combine beliefs under conditions of uncertainty and ignorance, and allows quantitat...

  12. The challenges of avian influenza virus:mechanism,epidemiology and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George; F.GAO; Pang-Chui; SHAW

    2009-01-01

    Early 2009, eight human infection cases of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, with 5 death cases, were reported in China. This again made the world alert on a possible pandemic worldwide, probably caused by

  13. Avian Influenza Surveillance and Disease Contingency Plan for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — With Avian Influenza, a nonclinical viral infection, becoming a growing concern for wild bird populations in North America and the United States, it has become...

  14. 9 CFR 113.118 - Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Isolate, Type 3. Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin, Avian Isolate, Type 3, shall be prepared from culture of... turkey, test results shall be determined by observing the remaining 20 turkeys. The test is...

  15. VMRCVM's Center for Public and Corporate Veterinary Medicine presents Avian Influenza Program

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    About 50 people from state and federal agencies and veterinary practitioners recently gathered at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's (VMRCVM) College Park Campus for a four-hour seminar on Avian Influenza recently.

  16. The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

    2015-01-01

    We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on (1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and (2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects o...

  17. Classical Markov Chains: A Unifying Framework for Understanding Avian Reproductive Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional methods for monitoring and analysis of avian nesting success have several important shortcomings, including 1) inability to handle multiple classes of nest failure, and 2) inability to provide estimates of annual reproductive success (because birds can, and typically ...

  18. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  19. Antimicrobial properties of avian eggshell-specific C-type lectin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman-Labadie, Olivier; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Hincke, Maxwell T

    2008-03-01

    C-type lectin-like proteins are major components of the calcified eggshell of multiple avian species. In this study, two representative avian C-type lectin-like proteins, ovocleidin-17 and ansocalcin, were purified from decalcified chicken and goose eggshell protein extracts and investigated for carbohydrate binding activity as well as antimicrobial activity. Purified ovocleidin-17 and ansocalcin were found to bind bacterial polysaccharides, and were bactericidal against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomona aeruginosa. Bactericidal activity was found to be enhanced in the presence of calcium but was not dependent on its presence. The results suggest that avian C-type lectin-like proteins may play an important antimicrobial role in defence of the avian embryo. PMID:18258195

  20. Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C; Suarez, David L; Sylte, Matt J; Pfeiffer, Jennifer; Van Kampen, Kent R

    2007-04-12

    Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. This vaccine can be mass-administered using available robotic in ovo injectors which provide a major advantage over current vaccination regimens. In addition, this class of adenovirus-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly with improved safety since they do not contain any replication-competent adenoviruses. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural avian influenza virus infections. PMID:17055126

  1. Seroprevalence of avian influenza (H9N2) in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Ghaniei; Manoochehr Allymehr; Ali Moradschendi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate seroprevalence of avian invluenza (H9N2) subtybe in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran. Materials:A total of 310 blood samples were collected from 25 broiler flocks in slaughterhouses of West Azarbayjan, Iran. Serum samples were subjected to haemagglutination inhibition test. Results:The test showed 40.6%of positive serums. Mean antibody titer of avian influenza virus differed between geographical locations in this survey. Conclusions:High prevalence of avian influenza virus antibodies in serum of birds emphasize that avian influenza has an important role in respiratory complexes in broiler chickens in this region, and probably throughout Iran. Biosecurity measures, monitoring and surveillance programs, and to some degree vaccination are effective tools to prevent introduction of H9N2 infection and its economic losses.

  2. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy in the southeast: An ecoepidemiological assessment with emphasis on Lake Surf, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 2000 and 2005, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) and partners conducted an investigation of avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), an unusual...

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Virulent Serotypes of Avian Pasteurella multocida

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahante, Juan E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hunter, Samuel S.; Maheswaran, Samuel K.; Hauglund, Melissa J.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Tatum, Fred M.; Briggs, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequences of two virulent avian strains of Pasteurella multocida. Comparative analyses of these genomes were done with the published genome sequence of avirulent P. multocida strain Pm70.

  4. Survelliance for Avian Influenza in Wood Ducks at Coldwater and Tallahatchie NWRs in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains sampling effort and results of Avian Influenza testing in live wood ducks at Coldwater, Walker Tract, and Tallahatchie in 2009. All samples were...

  5. Transmission and reassortment of avian influenza viruses at the Asian-North American interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Pearce, John M.; Ely, Craig R.; Guy, Lisa M. Sheffield; Irons, David B.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Ip, Hon S.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty avian influenza viruses were isolated from seven wild migratory bird species sampled at St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. We tested predictions based on previous phylogenetic analyses of avian influenza viruses that support spatially dependent trans-hemispheric gene flow and frequent interspecies transmission at a location situated at the Asian–North American interface. Through the application of phylogenetic and genotypic approaches, our data support functional dilution by distance of trans-hemispheric reassortants and interspecific virus transmission. Our study confirms infection of divergent avian taxa with nearly identical avian influenza strains in the wild. Findings also suggest that H16N3 viruses may contain gene segments with unique phylogenetic positions and that further investigation of how host specificity may impact transmission of H13 and H16 viruses is warranted.

  6. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses inhibit effective immune responses of human blood-derived macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Friesenhagen, Judith; Boergeling, Yvonne; Hrincius, Eike; Ludwig, Stephan; Roth, Johannes; Viemann, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Human blood-derived macrophages are non-permissive for influenza virus propagation, and fail to elicit inflammatory and antiviral responses upon infection with high pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  7. Chest imaging of H7N9 subtype of human avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-ming Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The characteristic imaging demonstrations of H7N9 subtype of human avian influenza are segmental or lobar exudative lesions at lungs at the initial stage, which rapidly progress into bilateral distribution at lungs at the progressive stage.

  8. A comparison of biologically active elements in geese in relation to avian cholera

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian cholera caused an estimated mortality of between 166,000 to 197,000 migrating waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska in the 10-year period 1975 through...

  9. Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype-10 detected in Rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological, serological and genomic characterization of a paramyxovirus recently isolated from rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) suggested that this virus represented a new avian paramyxovirus group, APMV10. This penguin virus resembled other APMV by electron microscopy; however, its vi...

  10. USAR managing and updating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper basis and background of the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) document and its conversion process to the USAR (Updated Safety Analysis Report) document are described. In addition, there are internal and external reviews as approval process presented. The following is included in our new approach to manage USAR changes: initiating the USAR change, technical reviewing, preparing a safety evaluation, KSC (Krsko Safety Committee) and KOC (Krsko Operating Committee) review, ESD Director approval, and the Regulatory Body review or approval. The intensive technological modification activities started in the year 1992 when the NEK Engineering Services Division was established. These activities are one of the most important reason for a very intensive USAR items change. The other reason for its conversation to an electronic format is a possibility for easier and faster searching, updating and changing process and introducing a new systematic USAR managing approach as mentioned above. (author)

  11. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Keith A.; Scully, Sean T.

    1995-01-01

    WThe current status of big bang nucleosynthesis is reviewed with an emphasis on the comparison between the observational determination of the light element abundances of \\D, \\he3, \\he4 and \\li7 and the predictions from theory. In particular, we present new analyses for \\he4 and \\li7. Implications for physics beyond the standard model are also discussed. Limits on the effective number of neutrino flavors are also updated.

  12. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm ...

  13. Atomic spectrometry update : environmental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Owen T.; Cook, Jennifer; Davidson, Christine M.; Harrington, Chris F.; Miles, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This is the twenty-forth annual review published in JAAS of the application of atomic spectrometry to the chemical analysis of environmental samples. This Update refers to papers published approximately between September 2007 and August 2008. In the analysis of air, work is focused on the need to collect and characterise ultrafines, i.e. particles below 100 nm in size, and such research is being facilitated through the development of air sampler technologies for subsequent off-line analysis o...

  14. Atomic spectrometry update : environmental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Owen T.; Cairns, Warren; Cook, Jennifer M.; Davidson, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    This is the twenty-fifth annual review published in JAAS on the application of atomic spectrometry to the chemical analysis of environmental samples. This Update refers to papers published approximately between September 2008 and August 2009. In the analysis of air, work has focused on: the need to collect and characterise ultrafines; determination of elements such as Be, Hg and PGEs in air samples; application of SRXRF techniques and advances in the development of field deployable aerosol ma...

  15. Profile updating for information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profiles updating methods were analysed. A method suitable to the characteristics of the system used in the research (SDI/CIN/CNEN) that uses as the selection criterio the threshold and weights criterion, was determined. Relevance weighting theory was described and experiments to verify precision were carried out. The improvements obtained were good nevertheless more significant tests are required to attain more reliable results. (Author)

  16. Using Versions in Update Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Llirbat, François,; Simon, Eric; Tombroff, Dimitri

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the multiversion two phase locking protocol, called EMV2PL, which enables update transactions to use versions while guaranteeing the serializability of all transactions. The use of the protocol is restricted to transactions, called {\\em write-then-read} transactions that consist of two consecutive parts: a write part containing both read and write operations in some arbitrary order, and an abusively called read part, containing read operations or write oper...

  17. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas March 26 Update of the voice messaging system All CERN sites April...

  18. Agro-Environmental Determinants of Avian Influenza Circulation: A Multisite Study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Mathilde; Gilbert, Marius; Desvaux, Stephanie; Andriamanivo, Harena Rasamoelina; Peyre, Marisa; Nguyen Viet Khong; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Chevalier, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1) lowe...

  19. Avian brood parasitism——a growing research area in behavioral ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eivin; RSKAFT; Wei; LIANG; Brd; G.STOKKE

    2012-01-01

    正We are pleased to be responsible guest editors for the two special issues of Chinese Birds(Vol.3,No.4,2012 and Vol.4,No.1,2013),entitled "Avian Brood Parasitism — a Growing Research Area in Behavioral Ecology".The goal of the two special issues is to publish accumulated knowledge and some of the recent developments in the fascinating research occurring in avian

  20. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Bahl, Justin; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Killian, Mary Lea; Ip, Hon S.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. PMID:27314845

  1. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Bahl, Justin; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Killian, Mary Lea; Ip, Hon S; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Swayne, David E

    2016-07-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. PMID:27314845

  2. Examination of presence of specific antibodies against avian influenza virus in some species of wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Šekler Milanko; Ašanin Ružica; Krnjaić D.; Palić T.; Milić N.; Jovanović Tanja; Kovačević Dragana; Plavšić B.; Stojanović Dragica; Vidanović D.; Ašanin N.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the avian influenza virus have been known for a long time and they are present, to a smaller or greater extent, in both extensive and intensive poultry production in many parts of the world. Epidemiological investigations have established a definite significance of the population of wild birds in maintaining and spreading this infection. Avian influenza is a zoonosis, and the virus has a great potential for causing mortality in humans, in particular its subtypes H5 and H7...

  3. Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Multiple Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 ...

  4. Specificity and functional interaction of the polymerase complex proteins of human and avian metapneumoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, Marieke; Herfst, Sander; Schrauwen, Eefje; Choi, Ying; Hoogen, Bernadette; Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHuman metapneumovirus (HMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) have a similar genome organization and protein composition, but a different host range. AMPV subgroup C (AMPV-C) is more closely relaled to HMPV than other AMPVs. To investigate the specificity and functional interaction of the polymerase complex proteins of human and avian metapneumoviruses, a minireplicon system was generated for AMPV-C and used in combination with minireplicon systems for HMPV lineages A1 and B1. Vir...

  5. A Transmission Model for the Ecology of an Avian Blood Parasite in a Temperate Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Murdock, Courtney C.; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Simon, Carl P.

    2013-01-01

    Most of our knowledge about avian haemosporidian parasites comes from the Hawaiian archipelago, where recently introduced Plasmodium relictum has contributed to the extinction of many endemic avian species. While the ecology of invasive malaria is reasonably understood, the ecology of endemic haemosporidian infection in mainland systems is poorly understood, even though it is the rule rather than the exception. We develop a mathematical model to explore and identify the ecological factors tha...

  6. Food plant diversity as broad-scale determinant of avian frugivore richness

    OpenAIRE

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Rahbek, Carsten; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    The causes of variation in animal species richness at large spatial scales are intensively debated. Here, we examine whether the diversity of food plants, contemporary climate and energy, or habitat heterogeneity determine species richness patterns of avian frugivores across sub-Saharan Africa. Path models indicate that species richness of Ficus (their fruits being one of the major food resources for frugivores in the tropics) has the strongest direct effect on richness of avian frugivores, w...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Bornavirus Genotype 1 from a Macaw with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L.; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1).

  8. Complete genome sequence of avian bornavirus genotype 1 from a Macaw with proventricular dilatation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1). PMID:22628404

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and generation of novel reassortants,United States, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Hun Lee; Justin Bahl; Mia Kim Torchetti; Mary Lea Killian; Ip, Hon S.; David E Swayne

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

  10. Avian myeloblastosis virus-induced lymphosarcoma producing erythroblastic leucosis in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki,Yoshito

    1975-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloblastosis and several forms of tumor, including one case of lymphosarcoma occurred when avian myeloblastosis virus (BAI-A strain was inoculated into newly hatched chicks (SPF. The homogenate of lymphosarcoma inoculated intraperitoneally into other newly hatched chicks induced a high incidence of erythroblastic leucosis. Electron microscopy did not reveal the presence of C-type virus particles in the tumor tissue. The relationship between avian myeloblastosis virus, lymphosarcoma and erythroblastic leucosis is discussed.

  11. Avian cholera causes marine bird mortality in the Bering Sea of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Barbara; Kimberlee Beckmen; Gay Sheffield; Kathy Kuletz; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2015-01-01

    The first known avian cholera outbreak among wild birds in Alaska occurred during November 2013. Liver, intestinal, and splenic necrosis consistent with avian cholera was noted, and Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from liver and lung or spleen in Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella), Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), and Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

  12. Host Specificity And Co-Speciation In Avian Haemosporidia In The Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Okanga, Sharon; Graeme S. Cumming; Philip A. R. Hockey; Nupen, Lisa; Peters, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Host and pathogen ecology are often closely linked, with evolutionary processes often leading to the development of host specificity traits in some pathogens. Host specificity may range from ‘generalist’, where pathogens infect any available competent host; to ‘specialist’, where pathogens repeatedly infect specific host species or families. Avian malaria ecology in the region remains largely unexplored, despite the presence of vulnerable endemic avian species. We analysed the expression of h...

  13. Peningkatan Titer Antibodi Terhadap Avian Influenza Dalam Serum Ayam Petelur yang Divaksin Dengan Vaksin Komersial

    OpenAIRE

    Ummu Balqis; Muhammad Hambal; Mulyadi Mulyadi; Samadi Samadi; Darmawi Darmawi

    2011-01-01

    Increasing of antibody titre against avian influenza in serum of vaccinated laying hens with commercial vaccine ABSTRACT. The advantages of vaccination are that it reduces the risk of infection, and concurrently reduces morbidity, mortality and shedding of virus. The goal of the present study was to evaluate efficacy of Avian Influenza commercial vaccine based on humoral immunity responses of laying hens. Totally, 20 breakel silver layer hens were used in this research. The laying hens we...

  14. How Predation Risk Shapes Avian Nest Site Selection and Processes Underlying Nest Predation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Quresh Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    Given the importance of nest predation to avian fitness, ornithologists expect birds to select nest sites that minimize predation risk. Despite numerous studies contributing to a large body of literature, how predation shapes avian nest site selection is not well understood largely because studies rarely examine the processes underlying either nest site selection or predation risk. I investigated how predation shapes nest site selection for a population of Yellow Warblers with an eye for the ...

  15. Molecular Detection of Avian Pathogens in Poultry Red Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) Collected in Chicken Farms

    OpenAIRE

    HUONG, Chu Thi Thanh; MURANO, Takako; UNO, Yukiko; USUI, Tatsufumi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Poultry red mite (PRM, Dermanyssus gallinae) is a blood-sucking ectoparasite as well as a possible vector of several avian pathogens. In this study, to define the role of PRM in the prevalence of avian infectious agents, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to check for the presence of seven pathogens: Avipox virus (APV), Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER), Salmonella enterica (SE), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (M...

  16. Risk maps for the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry.

    OpenAIRE

    Gert Jan Boender; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Annemarie Bouma; Gonnie Nodelijk; Elbers, Armin R. W; De Jong, Mart C. M.; Michiel van Boven

    2007-01-01

    Devastating epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases such as avian influenza, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease underline the need for improved understanding of the factors promoting the spread of these pathogens. Here the authors present a spatial analysis of the between-farm transmission of a highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus that caused a large epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003. The authors developed a method to estimate key parameters determining the spr...

  17. Risk maps for the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Boender, G.J.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Bouma, A.; Nodelijk, G.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Jong, de, D.; Boven, van, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Devastating epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases such as avian influenza, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease underline the need for improved understanding of the factors promoting the spread of these pathogens. Here the authors present a spatial analysis of the between-farm transmission of a highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus that caused a large epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003. The authors developed a method to estimate key parameters determining the spr...

  18. Generation of transforming viruses in cultures of chicken fibroblasts infected with an avian leukosis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Stavnezer, E; Gerhard, D S; Binari, R C; Balazs, I.

    1981-01-01

    During serial passages of an avian leukosis virus (the transformation-defective, src deletion mutant of Bratislava 77 avian sarcoma virus, designated tdB77) in chicken embryo fibroblasts, viruses which transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro emerged. Chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with these viruses (SK770 and Sk780) had a distinctive morphology, formed foci in monolayer cultures, and grew independent of anchorage in semisolid agar. Bone marrow cells were not transformed by these...

  19. Genetic determinants of neoplastic diseases induced by a subgroup F avian leukosis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, M C; Neckameyer, W S; Hayward, W S; Smith, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    Two subgroup F avian leukosis viruses, ring-necked pheasant virus (RPV) and RAV-61, were previously shown to induce a high incidence of a fatal proliferative disorder in the lungs of infected chickens. These lung lesions, termed angiosarcomas, appear rapidly (4 to 5 weeks after infection), show no evidence of proto-oncogene activation by proviral integration, and are not induced by avian leukosis viruses belonging to other subgroups. To identify the viral sequences responsible for induction o...

  20. Enhanced inhibition of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication by multi-target miRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Qing-Wen; Zhang Zai-Ping; Wang Wei; Tian Jin; Xiao Zhi-Guang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a major infectious disease that impacts the poultry industry worldwide. Despite intensive efforts, no effective vaccine has been developed against ALV because of mutations that lead to resistant forms. Therefore, there is a dire need to develop antiviral agents for the treatment of ALV infections and RNA interference (RNAi) is considered an effective antiviral strategy. Results In this study, the avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) provira...