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Sample records for avian mycoplasmosis update

  1. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  2. Mycoplasmosis and upper respiratory tract disease of tortoises: a review and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Elliott R.; Brown, Mary B.; Wendland, Lori; Brown, Daniel R.; Klein, Paul A.; Christopher, Mary M.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2014-01-01

    Tortoise mycoplasmosis is one of the most extensively characterized infectious diseases of chelonians. A 1989 outbreak of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in free-ranging Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) brought together an investigative team of researchers, diagnosticians, pathologists, immunologists and clinicians from multiple institutions and agencies. Electron microscopic studies of affected tortoises revealed a microorganism in close association with the nasal mucosa that subsequently was identified as a new species, Mycoplasma agassizii. Over the next 24 years, a second causative agent, Mycoplasma testudineum, was discovered, the geographic distribution and host range of tortoise mycoplasmosis were expanded, diagnostic tests were developed and refined for antibody and pathogen detection, transmission studies confirmed the pathogenicity of the original M. agassizii isolate, clinical (and subclinical) disease and laboratory abnormalities were characterized, many extrinsic and predisposing factors were found to play a role in morbidity and mortality associated with mycoplasmal infection, and social behavior was implicated in disease transmission. The translation of scientific research into management decisions has sometimes led to undesirable outcomes, such as euthanasia of clinically healthy tortoises. In this article, we review and assess current research on tortoise mycoplasmosis, arguably the most important chronic infectious disease of wild and captive North American and European tortoises, and update the implications for management and conservation of tortoises in the wild.

  3. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  4. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  5. Feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis in jaguar (Panthera onca: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Guimarães Sanchioli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Being often subject to stressful situations, animals kept in captivity are more susceptible to immunosuppression. When in the presence of concurrent infections or under situations of stress, Mycoplasma haemofelis may develop the clinical symptoms of feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis. The transmission of M. haemofelis occurs through hematophagous arthropod vectors, such as fleas, ticks, and lice. Infections range from hemolytic anemia with risk of imminent death to subtle chronic anemia. Administration of imidocarb to treat wild felines infected with hemoplasms may show greater effectiveness due to its injectable nature and smaller number of applications when compared to the use of doxycycline orally for a longer period. As a prophylactic measure for wild cats, environmental enrichment seems to be more effective when compared to other prevention ways usually adopted in domestic cats. This article aims to report a case of feline hemotropic mycoplasmosis in jaguar (Panthera onca and address its relation to the immunosuppression caused by stress conditions in captivity.

  6. Zoonosis Update on H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ahad*, Masood Rabbani, Altaf Mahmood1, Zulfiqar Hussan Kuthu2, Arfan Ahmad and Muhammad Mahmudur Rahman3

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses infect various mammals like human, horse, pig and birds as well. A total of 16 hemagglutinin (HA and 9 neuraminidase (NA subtypes have been identified. Most of the combinations are found in birds and relatively few have been isolated from mammals. Although there is no report of human to human transmission till to date, several cases of H5N1, H7N7 and H9N2 identified in humans since 1997 raised serious concern for health and veterinary profession. This review paper will focus H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV with special emphasis on zoonosis. The virus H9N2 though not highly pathogenic like H5N1 but can be virulent through antigenic drift and shift.

  7. Avian influenza: integration of knowledge updated for disease prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI subtype H5N1 is a highly contagious as well as highly pathogenic disease of poultry, and also a zoonosis. The epidemic has occurred in Asia since 2003, causing great economic loss to the poultry industry. The fear has arisen that the virus, which can mutate easily, may have reassortment with influenza virus leading to pandemic outbreak. Stamping out the birds in infected farms is the major control measure in Thailand which has an impact on not only the psychic loss of raisers but also the loss of genetic pool. This review is aimed to disclose updated knowledge and approaches to implement the control measures. The strategies are involved with 1 outreach to stakeholders on the property of virus and transmission, 2 restriction of movement and carcass disposition, and 3 reduction of viral contamination in the environment and increased farm biosecurity. Vaccination is an option for which both pro and cons must be considered. However, owing to sophisticated technology, vaccines offer more choices and are produced better results in terms of protection and reduction of viral contamination. Thus, many countries decided to use vaccine for AI prevention and control nowadays.

  8. Avian influenza H5N1: an update on molecular pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza A virus constitutes a large threat to human health. Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in poultry and in humans have raised concerns that an influenza pandemic will occur in the near future. Transmission from avian species to humans remains sporadic, but the mortality associated with human infection is very high (about 62%). To date, there are no effective therapeutic drugs or a prophylactic vaccines available, which means that there is still a long way to go before we can eradicate or cure avian influenza. This review focuses on the molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza H5N1 virus infection. An understanding of the viral pathogenesis may facilitate the development of novel treatments or effective eradication of this fatal disease.

  9. Avian influenza H5N1: an update on molecular pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HongLiang; JIANG ChengYu

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza A virus constitutes a large threat to human health. Recent outbreaks of highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus in poultry and in humans have raised concerns that an influenza pandemic will occur in the near future. Transmission from avian species to humans remains sporadic, but the mortality associated with human infection is very high (about 62%). To date, there are no effec-tive therapeutic drugs or a prophylactic vaccines available, which means that there is still a long way to go before we can eradicate or cure avian influenza. This review focuses on the molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza H5N1 virus infection. An understanding of the viral pathogenesis may facilitate the development of novel treatments or effective eradication of this fatal disease.

  10. Updated Values for Molecular Diagnosis for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sakurai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses of the H5N1 strain pose a pandemic threat. H5N1 strain virus is extremely lethal and contagious for poultry. Even though mortality is 59% in infected humans, these viruses do not spread efficiently between humans. In 1997, an outbreak of H5N1 strain with human cases occurred in Hong Kong. This event highlighted the need for rapid identification and subtyping of influenza A viruses (IAV, not only to facilitate surveillance of the pandemic potential of avian IAV, but also to improve the control and treatment of infected patients. Molecular diagnosis has played a key role in the detection and typing of IAV in recent years, spurred by rapid advances in technologies for detection and characterization of viral RNAs and proteins. Such technologies, which include immunochromatography, quantitative real-time PCR, super high-speed real-time PCR, and isothermal DNA amplification, are expected to contribute to faster and easier diagnosis and typing of IAV.

  11. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  12. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  13. [A brief update on avian influenza and the protection of workers in view of the implementation of the new EU directive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Sbardella, Daniele; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus A(H5N1), since its first appearance in Hong Kong in 1997 killing six people, has continuously recorder by 2003 both new cases and deaths between these. Although the media and social attention received in the years between 2006 and 2008, mainly in Italy is not currently present, the same is not true for the avian flu that still exists in some countries. At the regulatory level, at the beginning of 2006 the Ministry of Health indicated the measures to be taken in the national preparedness and response to a pandemic flu, and the national Legislative Decree 25 January 2010, n. 9 makes implementing the EU Directive 2005/94/CE on Community measures to combat avian flu. Moreover, an article published in June 2010 show a new route of transmission of avian viruses by birds. The topic on avian flu, especially aimed at the protection of workers potentially exposed, has been long the subject of studies, and in particular for operators belonging to the Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco (C.N.VV.F.). In particular, in the context of the measures taken to address any outbreak of avian flu, were carried out one manual addressed to operators by C.N.VV.F. and to so-called managers/operators of the emergency public service workers represented by the operators of the C.N.VVF. and of Police, Civil Protection, and Voluntary Organisations of rescue enclosed in Civil Protection Service. It is necessary to reiterate the importance of continued and growing of the preparation and information for workers, brought to the operators themselves useful about the adoption of preventive and protective measures by the workers belonging to groups at risk of potential exposure to avian influenza viruses.

  14. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds of ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  15. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  16. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  17. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  18. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Zu Wu; Li-Min Huang

    2005-01-01

    Influenza is an old disease but remains vital nowadays. Three types of influenza viruses,namely A, B, C, have been identified; among them influenza A virus has pandemic potential.The first outbreak of human illness due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) occurred in1997 in Hong Kong with a mortality of 30%. The most recent outbreak of the avian influenzaepidemic has been going on in Asian countries since 2003. As of March 2005, 44 incidentalhuman infections and 32 deaths have been documented. Hum...

  19. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  20. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  1. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  2. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%). Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%). AI cases...

  3. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  4. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  5. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  6. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  7. Editorial: Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Wang; Guangmei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    <正>Welcome to Avian Research!This new journal is a continuation and enhancement of Chinese Birds,which has been and continues to be sponsored by the China Ornithological Society and Beijing Forestry University.In the four years since its inception,the original journal—the only one in China focusing on avian research—has published over 130 manuscripts,with authors from all continents across the world,garnering global respect in

  8. Avian influenza – Review

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-01-01

    Recent spread of avian influenza A H5N1 virus to poultry and wild birds has increased the threat of human infections with H5N1 virus worldwide In this review the epidemiology virolgy clinical and laboratory characteristics and management of avian influenza is described The virus has demonsrated considerable pandemic potential and is the most likely candidate of next pandemic threat For pandemic preparedness stockpiling antiviral agents and vaccination are the most important intervention measu...

  9. Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice: strain differences in early host responses and exacerbation by nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies reported here used genetic differences in susceptibility of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice and exacerbation of the disease by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as tools in assessing the role of early host responses in the pathogenesis of MRM. The two strains did not differ in susceptibility to infection, but C3H/HeN mice were more susceptible to and had increased severity of lung lesions 14 days after intranasal inoculation as determined by 50% biological endpoints and morphometric analysis of tissues. Exposure to NO2 for 4 hours prior to exposure to infectious aerosols exacerbated murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) by 7 days after exposure in both mouse strains. NO2 appeared to affect host lung defense mechanisms responsible for limiting mycoplasmal growth in the lungs. The NO2 exposure concentration required for this effect varied with the genetic background of the host, the dose of mycoplasmas administered, and the endpoint measured. Pulmonary clearance of radiolabeled M. pulmonis was determined in both mouse strains, and in C57BL/6N mice exposed to NO2

  10. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  11. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  12. An overview on avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA), with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS) for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the confo...

  13. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  14. SEKILAS TENTANG AVIAN INFLUENZA (AI)

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Elytha

    2011-01-01

    Fluburung atau Avian Influenza (AI) adalah penyakit zoonosis fatal dan menular serta dapat menginfeksi semua jenis burung, manusia, babi, kuda dan anjing, Virus Avian Influenza tipe A (hewan) dari keluarga Drthomyxoviridae telah menyerang manusia dan menyebabkan banyak korban meninggal dunia. Saat ini avian Influenza telah menjadi masalah kesehatan global yang sangat serius, termasuk di Indonesia. Sejak Juli 2005 Sampai 12 April 2006 telah ditemukan 479 kasus kumulatif dan dicurigai flu burun...

  15. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  16. The avian haemophili.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackall, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    There are four currently recognized taxa to accommodate the avian haemophili: Haemophilus paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, and Pasteurella species A (the last three being formerly united as Haemophilus avium). A range of other taxa has also been recognized, but they have been neither named nor assigned to a genus. All of these various taxa, legitimate and otherwise, have the common characteristic of requiring V factor, but not X factor, for in vitro growth. Several re...

  17. Avian psychology and communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the i...

  18. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  19. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  20. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy.

  1. Avian Influenza Infection Dynamics in Minor Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Dols, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) has become one of the most important challenges that ever emerged from animal reservoirs. The constant outbreaks detected worldwide in domestic and wild bird species are of concern to the economics of the poultry industry, wildlife conservation, and animal and public health. Susceptibility to AI viruses (AIVs) varies deeply among avian species, as well as their possible role as sentinels, intermediate hosts or reservoirs. To date, several experimental studies and natural ...

  2. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  3. The Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  4. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  5. Low Speed Avian Maneuvering Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Low speed avian maneuvering flight is an ecologically crucial behavior that has contributed to the explosive diversification of several avian taxa by allowing access to complex spatial environments. Negotiating a sharp aerial turn requires finely tuned interactions between an animal's sensory-motor system and its environment. My thesis work focuses on how aerodynamic forces, wing and body dynamics, and sensory feedback interact during aerial turning in the pigeon (Columba livea).

  6. Avian influenza : a review article

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalda; EMADI H; M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu) and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1), that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO) , world organization for animal health (OIE) , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO) information and recommendations and review of th...

  7. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  8. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  9. The Avian Proghrelin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Richards

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand how the proghrelin system functions in regulating growth hormone release and food intake as well as defining its pleiotropic roles in such diverse physiological processes as energy homeostasis, gastrointestinal tract function and reproduction require detailed knowledge of the structure and function of the components that comprise this system. These include the preproghrelin gene that encodes the proghrelin precursor protein from which two peptide hormones, ghrelin and obestatin, are derived and the cognate receptors that bind proghrelin-derived peptides to mediate their physiological actions in different tissues. Also key to the functioning of this system is the posttranslational processing of the proghrelin precursor protein and the individual peptides derived from it. While this system has been intensively studied in a variety of animal species and humans over the last decade, there has been considerably less investigation of the avian proghrelin system which exhibits some unique differences compared to mammals. This review summarizes what is currently known about the proghrelin system in birds and offers new insights into the nature and function of this important endocrine system. Such information facilitates cross-species comparisons and contributes to our understanding of the evolution of the proghrelin system.

  10. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  11. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  12. Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENOMICS To meet the growing demands of consumers, the poultry industry will need to continue to improve methods of selection in breeding programs for production and associated traits. One possible solution is genome-wide marker-assisted selection (GWMAS). In brief, evenly-spaced genetic markers s...

  13. Cybersecurity Update

    CERN Document Server

    Heagerty, Denise

    2008-01-01

    An update on recent security issues and vulnerabilities affecting Windows, Linux and Mac platforms. This talk is based on contributions and input from a range of colleagues both within and outside CERN. It covers clients, servers and control systems.

  14. Website updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updates to Website: (Please add new items at the top of this description with the date of the website change) May 9, 2012: Uploaded experimental data in matlab...

  15. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  16. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan M; Trevor Francis Fernandez and Feroz Mohammed.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe dise...

  17. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  18. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  19. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  20. OFFLU Network on Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Steven

    2006-01-01

    OFFLU is the name of the network of avian influenza expertise inaugurated jointly in 2005 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health. Achievements and constraints to date and plans for the future are described.

  1. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  2. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  3. Update '98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    Updates cases and issues previously discussed in this regular column on human rights in Canada, including racism and anti-Semitism, laws on hate crimes, hate sites on the World Wide Web, the use of the "free speech" defense by hate groups, and legal challenges to antiracist groups by individuals criticized by them. (DSK)

  4. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    N.L.P.I Dharmayanti; R Damayanti; R Indriani; A Wiyono; R.M.A Adjid

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1). Mo...

  5. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  6. Climate change and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in ...

  7. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  8. Simulating Avian Wingbeats and Wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Analytical models of avian flight have previously been used to predict mechanical and metabolic power consumption during cruise. These models are limited, in that they neglect details of wing kinematics, and model power by assuming a fixed or rotary wing (actuator disk) weight support mechanism. Theoretical methods that incorporate wing kinematics potentially offer more accurate predictions of power consumption by calculating instantaneous aerodynamic loads on the wing. However, the success o...

  9. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  10. Avian influenza and the poultry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nicita, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Because of high mortality rates, high rates of contagion, and the possibility of cross-species infection to mammals including humans, high pathogenic avian influenza is a major concern both to consumers and producers of poultry. The implications of the avian influenza for international poultry markets are large and include the loss of consumer confidence, loss of competitiveness, loss of m...

  11. Atypical Avian Influenza (H5N1)

    OpenAIRE

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Kitphati, Rungrueng; Thongphubeth, Kanokporn; Patoomanunt, Prisana; Anthanont, Pimjai; Auwanit, Wattana; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Saeng-Aroon, Siriphan; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Storch, Gregory A.; Mundy, Linda M.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly if they have a history of exposure to poultry.

  12. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  13. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    The avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is a specialized structure located rather inaccessibly in an air sac close to the heart where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi. The syrinx of different avian taxa varies so much in position and morphology that it has been used for taxonomy. It...

  14. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  15. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  16. Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Cheng Chang; Yi-Ying Cheng; Shin-Ru Shih

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1), there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is co...

  17. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approv...

  18. MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS IN POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Ayşe

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasmosis causes important economical losses in poultry industry. So far, 23 mycoplasma serotypes have been isolated from avian species, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum(MG), Mycoplasma synoviae(MS), Mycoplasma meleagridis(MM) and Mycoplasma iowae(MI) are known as the most pathogenic strains. Mycoplasmas generally cause disease in respiratory systems of poultry. This review summarizes the knowledge on the diagnosis and epidemiology of avian mycoplasmosis.

  19. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for...

  20. Montana 2006 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated a nationwide avian influenza...

  1. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  2. Clipping the wings of avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the threat of avian influenza has been lessened by effective animal husbandry methods. However, the public health community is trying to ensure enough measures are in place to prevent a possible pandemic. Jane Parry reports.

  3. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  4. Avian protection plan : Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (LNWR) initiated this Avian Protection Plan (APP) in 2003 to protect birds from potential electrocution hazards on the...

  5. A review of avian probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  6. Oseltamivir in human avian influenza infection

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses continue to cause disease outbreaks in humans, and extrapulmonary infection is characteristic. In vitro studies demonstrate the activity of oseltamivir against avian viruses of the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. In animal models of lethal infection, oseltamivir treatment and prophylaxis limit viral replication and improve survival. Outcomes are influenced by the virulence of the viral strain, dosage regimen and treatment delay; it is also critical for the compound to act sy...

  7. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  8. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  9. Regular database update logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Paul; Wieringa, Roel; Meyer, John-Jules

    2001-01-01

    We study regular first-order update logic (FUL), which is a variant of regular dynamic logic in which updates to function symbols as well as to predicate symbols are possible. We fi1rst study FUL without making assumptions about atomic updates. Second, we look at relational algebra update logic (RAU

  10. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  11. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  12. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Language: English Español Recommend ...

  13. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  14. Composting for Avian Influenza Virus Elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Elving, Josefine; Emmoth, Eva; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn; Ottoson, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Effective sanitization is important in viral epizootic outbreaks to avoid further spread of the pathogen. This study examined thermal inactivation as a sanitizing treatment for manure inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and bacteriophages MS2 and ϕ6. Rapid inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 was achieved at both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (45 and 55°C) temperatures. Similar inactivation rates were observed for bacteriophage ϕ6, while b...

  15. Avian Influenza: Should China Be Alarmed?

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhaoliang; Xu, Huaxi; Chen, Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the primary public health concern of the 21st century. Influenza strain H5N1 is capable of incidentally infecting humans and other mammals. Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have been transmitted from poultry to humans (by direct or indirect contact with infected birds) in several provinces of Mainland China, which has resulted in 22 cases of human infection and has created repercussions for the Chinese ec...

  16. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    OpenAIRE

    Lüschow Dörte; Lierz Peter; Jansen Andreas; Harder Timm; Hafez Hafez; Kohls Andrea; Schweiger Brunhilde; Lierz Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV). In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks) as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds) seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their ...

  17. The impact of gene expression analysis on evolving views of avian brain organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Juan F; Molnár, Zoltán

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have presented data on adult and developing avian brain organization. Jarvis et al. ([2013] J Comp Neurol. 521:3614-3665) identify four pallial and two subpallial gene expression domains and demonstrate that the mesopallium and adjoining divisions of the hyperpallium (hyperpallium intercalatum and hyperpallium densocellulare), have very similar gene expression profiles to each other, distinct from those of the nidopallium, the arcopallium, and the more distant divisions of the hyperpallium (hyperpallium apicale). The study proposes an update of the current nomenclature (Jarvis et al. [2005] Nat Rev Neurosci. 6:151-159). The authors perform densitometric quantifications of the in situ expression of 50 selected genes, use correlations of distances between vectors that represent these gene expression patterns within the 23 avian brain regions of their study, and group them according to similarity in their expression profiles. The generated cluster tree further supports their argument for a new terminology. The authors hypothesize that the mesopallium and adjoining divisions of the hyperpallium have a common developmental origin, and in the accompanying paper (Chen et al. [2013] J Comp Neurol. 521:3666-3701) show that these structures/subdivisions initially form continuous gene expression domains. With subsequent development these domains fold into distinct subdivisions in the dorsal and ventral avian pallium, forming mirror images to each other. Jarvis et al. ([2013] J Comp Neurol. 521:3614-3665) also demonstrate interesting principles of the functional organization of the avian brain by showing that specific sensory stimulation or motor behavior elicits gene expression in functional units perpendicular to the axis of the gene expression reversal and compare their arrangements and cell types with mammalian cortical columns.

  18. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  19. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs. PMID:27033033

  20. Economic effects of avian influenza on egg producers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Demircan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the economic effects of avian influenza on the egg-production sector of Afyon Province, Turkey. Economic indicators were compared before and during the avian influenza outbreak. A questionnaire was conducted with 75 poultry farmers. Farms were divided into three groups according to their size. The profitability of the three farm size groups was compared during two study periods: before and during the avian influenza outbreak. The results indicate that, as compared to previous levels, farms experienced significantly reduced incomes during the avian influenza episode. While net income and profit margin were found to be negative in all three farm groups during the avian influenza period, only group I showed economic loss prior to avian influenza. Average net income per group was -19,576.14, -39,810.11, and -112,035.33 YTL respectively during the avian influenza outbreak, compared with prior incomes of -5,665.51, 8,422.92, and 16,3873.71 YTL (1 USD=1.43 YTL. The profit margin per egg during avian influenza was -0.029, -0.016, -0.010 YTL in group I, II, III, respectively, as compared to -0.007, 0.003, and 0.014 YTL/egg before avian influenza. It was found that, whereas larger farms were more profitable than small farms prior to the avian influenza period, larger farms suffered greater economic losses than small farms during avian influenza outbreak in the participating farms.

  1. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  2. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  3. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  4. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  5. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature. PMID:22740548

  6. Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Europe and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Elam, Gillian; Aro, Arja R; Abraham, Thomas; Bishop, George D.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    During autumn 2005, we conducted 3,436 interviews in European and Asian countries. We found risk perceptions of avian influenza to be at an intermediate level and beliefs of efficacy to be slightly lower. Risk perceptions were higher in Asia than Europe; efficacy beliefs were lower in Europe than Asia.

  7. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  8. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan;

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of human and avian metapneumoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); E.C. Holmes (Edward)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHuman (HMPV) and avian (AMPV) metapneumoviruses are closely related viruses that cause respiratory tract illnesses in humans and birds, respectively. Although HMPV was first discovered in 2001, retrospective studies have shown that HMPV has been circulating in humans for at least 50 year

  10. Are we ready for the avian flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    It may be tempting to dismiss headlines about a potential avian flu pandemic as "the sky is falling" sensationalism, but experts continue to warn that the disease is likely to show up here in the not-too-distant future. What must hospitals do to prepare for a sudden influx of patients and other huge demands such a crisis would create? PMID:16485802

  11. Experimental induced avian E. coli salpingitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    manifestations or from the cloacae of a healthy chicken. The virulence potential of the strains were evaluated in an avian experimental model for ascending infections, and experiments were conducted in both layers and broiler breeders. The clinical outcome of infection was highly depending on the challenge...

  12. Moving Objects Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong; Meng, Xiaofeng

    In moving objects applications, large numbers of locations can be sampled by sensors or GPS periodically, then sent from moving clients to the server and stored in a database. Therefore, continuously maintaining in a database the current locations of moving objects by using a tracking technique becomes very important. The key issue is minimizing the number of updates, while providing precise locations for query results. In this chapter, we will introduce some underlying location update methods. Then, we describe two location update strategies in detail, which can improve the performance. One is the proactive location update strategy, which predicts the movement of moving objects to lower the update frequency; the other is the group location update strategy, which groups the objects to minimize the total number of objects reporting their locations.

  13. Morphometric Analysis of the Sternum in Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    DÜZLER, Ayhan; Özgel, Özcan; DURSUN, Nejdet

    2006-01-01

    The anatomy of the sternum in avian species differs according to their movement and particularly flight capability, as well as species and habitat. Various studies aimed at the examination and measurement of the sternum in avian species have been carried out. However, to the authors' knowledge, no study on the correlation between sternal measurements and movement style has been published previously. In this study, the sternums of certain avian species including the red falcon (Buteo rufi...

  14. Multiple Control Strategies for Prevention of Avian Influenza Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Ullah; Gul Zaman; Saeed Islam

    2014-01-01

    We present the prevention of avian influenza pandemic by adjusting multiple control functions in the human-to-human transmittable avian influenza model. First we show the existence of the optimal control problem; then by using both analytical and numerical techniques, we investigate the cost-effective control effects for the prevention of transmission of disease. To do this, we use three control functions, the effort to reduce the number of contacts with human infected with mutant avian influ...

  15. Avian influenza infections in birds – a moving target

    OpenAIRE

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a complex infection of birds, of which the ecology and epidemiology have undergone substantial changes over the last decade. Avian influenza viruses infecting poultry can be divided into two groups. The very virulent viruses cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), with flock mortality as high as 100%. These viruses have been restricted to subtypes H5 and H7, although not all H5 and H7 viruses cause HPAI. All other viruses cause a milder, primarily respiratory, ...

  16. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  17. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  18. Seasonal change in the avian hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds.

  19. Applications of thermal imaging in avian science

    OpenAIRE

    McCafferty, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal imaging, or infrared thermography, has been used in avian science since the 1960s. More than 30 species of birds, ranging in size from passerines to ratites, have been studied using this technology. The main strength of this technique is that it is a non-invasive and non-contact method of measuring surface temperature. Its limitations and measurement errors are well understood and suitable protocols have been developed for a variety of experimental settings. Thermal imaging has been u...

  20. Avian influenza and poultry workers, Peru, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Ernesto J.; Tadeusz J Kochel; Capuano, Ana W; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2007-01-01

    Background  Currently numerous countries in Asia, Africa and Europe are encountering highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) infections in poultry and humans. In the Americas, home of the world’s largest poultry exporters, contingency plans are being developed and evaluated in preparation for the arrival of these viral strains. Objectives  With this cross‐sectional study, to our knowledge the first in its kind in Central or South America, we sought to learn whether Peruvian poultry workers had...

  1. Prevalence of avian influenza and host ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Møller, Anders Pape

    2007-01-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are common reservoirs of the low pathogenic subtypes of avian influenza (LPAI), which are easily transmitted to poultry and become highly pathogenic. As the risk of virus transmission depends on the prevalence of LPAI in host-reservoir systems, there is an urgent need for understanding how host ecology, life history and behaviour can affect virus prevalence in the wild. To test for the most important ecological correlates of LPAI virus prevalence at the interspecific ...

  2. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhiping; Li Jinsong; Zhang Yandong; Li Lin; Ma Limin; Li Dan; Gao Feng; Xia Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used ...

  3. Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Capua, Ilaria; Marangon, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza, listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), has become a disease of great importance for animal and human health. Several aspects of the disease lack scientific information, which has hampered the management of some recent crises. Millions of animals have died, and concern is growing over the loss of human lives and management of the pandemic potential. On the basis of data generated in recent outbreaks and in light of new OIE regulations and maintenance of anim...

  4. Avian influenza: The tip of the iceberg

    OpenAIRE

    Balkhy Hanan

    2008-01-01

    For some years now, we have been living with the fear of an impending pandemic of avian influenza (AI). Despite the recognition, in 1996, of the global threat posed by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus found in farmed geese in Guangdong Province, China, planning for the anticipated epidemic remains woefully inadequate; this is especially true in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. These deficiencies became obvious in 1997, with the outbreak of AI in the live animal markets in...

  5. Avian influenza: Myth or mass murder?

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI) is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A virus...

  6. Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds Against Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Call, Evan W.

    1991-01-01

    Tests in vitro for antiviral activity against avian influenza viruses, A/Turkey/Sanpete/85 (H6N8) and A/Turkey/Sanpete/86 (H10N9), isolated in Sanpete County, Utah, utilized known antiviral agents, amantadine•HCl (adamantanamine hydrochloride) and ribavirin (1-β-D ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide). The testing involved evaluation of seven drug concentrations. Maximum tolerated dose, minimum inhibitory concentration and therapeutic indexes were determined for each drug used. Both dru...

  7. Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Gerardo M; Lucio Eduardo; Rodríguez-Ropón Andrea; Méndez Sara T; Vázquez Lourdes; Escorcia Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs...

  8. Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Xudong Lin; Seth Schobel; Magdalena Plancarte; Kelly, Terra R.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined ...

  9. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  10. Livestock Update. January 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott P.; McCann, Mark A.; Smith, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This issue of Livestock Update includes articles on dates to remember, herd management, selection for marbling in a cowherd, 2014 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale results, 2015 Stocker Cattle Summit to focus on forage management for optimal animal gain, sheep update, and the 48th Virginia Pork Industry Conference.

  11. Ontogeny of avian thermoregulation from a neural point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2007-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation differs among (avian) species, but in all species both neural and endocrinological processes are involved. In this review the neural processes in ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal and early postnatal phase are discussed. Only in a few avian species (ch

  12. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Dodman, Tim; Caron, Alexandre; Balança, Gilles; Desvaux, Stephanie; Goutard, Flavie; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lamarque, François; Hagemeijer, Ward; Monicat, François

    2007-01-01

    We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa.

  13. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye;

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, ...

  14. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  15. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  17. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  18. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the proliferative skin lesions and oral diphtheritic lesions. Infection of the avian pox virus was confirmed by PCR using primers specific to the 4b core protein gene of avian pox virus. All cases were diagnosed with avian pox virus infection. This is believed to be the first description on natural infection of avian pox in Oriental Turtle-doves in Korea.

  19. ACS Updates Environmental Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a new publication of a report prepared by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Environmental Improvement. This is a new version that updates a 1969 report and contains additional material and expanded recommendations. (GA)

  20. National Pediatric Program Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book of the National Pediatric Program Update, issued by the Argentina Society of Pediatrics, describes important issues, including: effective treatment of addictions (drugs); defects of the neural tube; and the use of radiation imaging in diagnosis.

  1. Mapping and modelling of Angola's avian diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Miguel José Ascensão Freire Parada

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão e Conservação de Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Universidade de Évora Angola harbours one of the richest and most diverse avifaunas in Africa, due to its vast number of biomas and ecosystems. However, mainly due to the Portuguese Colonial war (1961-1974) and Angolan civil war (1974-2002), the country’s avian diversity and distribution is still poorly known. One way to increase the scientific knowledge of Angolan ornithology is by studyi...

  2. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  3. Avian influenza risk perception, Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, Richard; Lam, Wendy W.T.; Ho, Ella Y.Y.; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.; Leung, Gabriel M

    2005-01-01

    A telephone survey of 986 Hong Kong households determined exposure and risk perception of avian influenza from live chicken sales. Householders bought 38,370,000 live chickens; 11% touched them when buying, generating 4,220,000 exposures annually; 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33%–39%) perceived this as risky, 9% (7%–11%) estimated >50% likelihood of resultant sickness, whereas 46% (43%–49%) said friends worried about such sickness. Recent China travel (adjusted odds ratio 0.35; CI 0.13–0...

  4. Current genomic editing approaches in avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sub; Kang, Kyung Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    The chicken was domesticated from Red Jungle Fowl over 8000years ago and became one of the major food sources worldwide. At present, the poultry industry is one of the largest industrial animal stocks in the world, and its economic scale is expanding significantly with increasing consumption. Additionally, since Aristotle used chicken eggs as a model to provide remarkable insights into how life begins, chickens have been used as invaluable and powerful experimental materials for studying embryo development, immune systems, biomedical processes, and hormonal regulation. Combined with advancements in efficient transgenic technology, avian models have become even more important than would have been expected.

  5. Avian cytokines - the natural approach to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, J W; Lambrecht, B; van den Berg, T P; Andrew, M E; Strom, A D; Bean, A G

    2000-01-01

    While the effective use of antibiotics for the control of human disease has saved countless lives and has increased life expectancy over the past few decades, there are concerns arising from their usage in livestock. The use of antibiotic feed additives in food production animals has been linked to the emergence in the food chain of multiple drug-resistant bacteria that appear impervious to even the most powerful antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the use of chemical antimicrobials has led to concerns involving environmental contamination and unwanted residues in food products. The imminent banning of antibiotic usage in livestock feed has intensified the search for environmentally-friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines, as natural mediators and regulators of the immune response, offer exciting new alternatives to conventional chemical-based therapeutics. The utilisation of cytokines is becoming more feasible, particularly in poultry, with the recent cloning of a number of avian cytokine genes. Chickens offer an attractive small animal model system with which to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in intensive livestock. In this report we will review the status of avian cytokines and focus on our recent studies involving the therapeutic potential of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) as a vaccine adjuvant and a growth promoter. PMID:10717298

  6. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds.

  7. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. PMID:26204893

  8. Studying avian encephalization with geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Watanabe, Akinobu; Kawabe, Soichiro

    2016-08-01

    Encephalization is a core concept in comparative neurobiology, aiming to quantify the neurological capacity of organisms. For measuring encephalization, many studies have employed relative brain sizes corrected for expected allometric scaling to body size. Here we highlight the utility of a multivariate geometric morphometric (GM) approach for visualizing and analyzing neuroanatomical shape variation associated with encephalization. GM readily allows the statistical evaluation of covariates, such as size, and many software tools exist for visualizing their effects on shape. Thus far, however, studies using GM have not attempted to translate the meaning of encephalization to shape data. As such, we tested the statistical relationship between size and encephalization quotients (EQs) to brain shape utilizing a broad interspecific sample of avian endocranial data. Although statistically significant, the analyses indicate that allometry accounts for <10% of total neuroanatomical shape variation. Notably, we find that EQs, despite being corrected for allometric scaling based on size, contain size-related neuroanatomical shape changes. In addition, much of what is traditionally considered encephalization comprises clade-specific trends in relative forebrain expansion, particularly driven by landbirds. EQs, therefore, fail to capture 90% of the total neuroanatomical variation after correcting for allometry and shared phylogenetic history. Moving forward, GM techniques provide crucial tools for investigating key drivers of this vast, largely unexplored aspect of avian brain morphology. PMID:27112986

  9. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  10. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds. PMID:25973630

  11. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  12. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  13. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis.

  14. Risk Mapping of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Distribution and Spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. J. Williams

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence and spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza begs effective and accurate mapping of current knowledge and future risk of infection. Methods for such mapping, however, are rudimentary, and few good examples exist for use as templates for risk-mapping efforts. We review the transmission cycle of avian influenza viruses, and identify points on which risk-mapping can focus. We provide examples from the literature and from our work that illustrate mapping risk based on (1 avian influenza case occurrences, (2 poultry distributions and movements, and (3 migratory bird movements.

  15. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R. G.; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  16. The Helper Activities of Different Avian Viruses for Propagation of Recombinant Avian Adeno-Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.

  17. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  18. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......., the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  19. The 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    正Invited participants on the 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism, sponsored by Hainan Normal University (HNU), China, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway, the Research Council of Norway, and China Ornithological Society (COS).

  20. Region 6 Avian Health Program FY2011 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities and fund allocations of the Region 6 Avian Health Program in FY2011. Activities include morbidity and mortality monitoring, disease...

  1. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Language: English Español Recommend on ... Compartir Influenza A viruses have infected many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, and seals. ...

  2. The avian tectorial membrane: Why is it tapered?

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasa, Kuni H

    2015-01-01

    While the mammalian- and the avian inner ears have well defined tonotopic organizations as well as hair cells specialized for motile and sensing roles, the structural organization of the avian ear is different from its mammalian cochlear counterpart. Presumably this difference stems from the difference in the way motile hair cells function. Short hair cells, whose role is considered analogous to mammalian outer hair cells, presumably depends on their hair bundles, and not motility of their cell body, in providing the motile elements of the cochlear amplifier. This report focuses on the role of the avian tectorial membrane, specifically by addressing the question, "Why is the avian tectorial membrane tapered from the neural to the abneural direction?"

  3. Migratory Bird Avian Influenza Sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species...

  4. Avian populations and habitat use in interior Alaska taiga

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian community structure, habitat occupancy levels, and species habitat use patterns were examined in the woody habitats of interior Alaska taiga. Some birds...

  5. Avian Point Transect Survey; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian point-transect survey data and habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We...

  6. Historical review of avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review historical information on avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. This report includes incidental reports of...

  7. Avian influenza surveillance sample collection and shipment protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for mortality collection and shipment of avian influenza (AI) live bird surveillance sample collections. AI sample collections will include...

  8. Artist conception of the Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  9. 禽流感病%Avian Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先志

    1999-01-01

    @@ 禽流感病(avian influenza)是由甲型流感病毒引起的一种禽类疾病综合征.1997年5月,我国香港特别行政区1例3岁儿童死于不明原因的多器官功能衰竭,同年8月经美国疾病预防和控制中心以及WHO荷兰鹿特丹国家流感中心鉴定为禽甲型流感病毒H5N1[A(H5N1)]引起的人类流感[1~3].这是世界上首次证实A(H5N1)感染人类,因而引起医学界的广泛关注.

  10. 禽流感%Avian influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学工; 龙云铸

    2005-01-01

    禽流感(avian influenza)是禽类流行性感冒的简称,是由甲型流感病毒株的某些亚型引起的急性呼吸道传染病。通常情况下,禽流感病毒并不感染人类,但自1997年禽甲型流感病毒H5N1感染人类之后,相继有H9N2、H7N7.亚型感染人类和H5N1再次感染人类的报道,引起了世人的广泛关注。

  11. Quantum coherence and sensitivity of avian magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2012-01-01

    Migratory birds and other species have the ability to navigate by sensing the geomagnetic field. Recent experiments indicate that the essential process in the navigation takes place in bird's eye and uses chemical reaction involving molecular ions with unpaired electron spins (radical pair). Sensing is achieved via geomagnetic-dependent dynamics of the spins of the unpaired electrons. Here we utilize the results of all behavioral experiments conducted on European Robins to argue that the average life-time of the radical pair is of the order of a microsecond and therefore agrees with experimental estimations of this parameter for cryptochrome --- a pigment believed to form the radical pairs. We also found a reasonable parameter regime where sensitivity of the avian compass is enhanced by environmental noise, showing that long coherence time is not required for navigation and may even spoil it.

  12. Infrasound and the avian navigational map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Birds can accurately navigate over hundreds to thousands of kilometres, and use celestial and magnetic compass senses to orient their flight. How birds determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing (map sense) remains controversial, and has been attributed to their olfactory or magnetic senses. Pigeons can hear infrasound down to 0??05 Hz, and an acoustic avian map is proposed consisting of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features. The source of these infrasonic signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic waves. Atmospheric processes affecting the infrasonic map cues can explain perplexing experimental results from pigeon releases. Moreover, four recent disrupted pigeon races in Europe and the north-eastern USA intersected infrasonic shock waves from the Concorde supersonic transport. Having an acoustic map might also allow clock-shifted birds to test their homeward progress and select between their magnetic and solar compasses.

  13. Seroprevalence of avian pneumovirus in Minnesota turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Friendshuh, Keith; Halvorson, David A

    2003-01-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes respiratory tract infection in turkeys and was first seen in the United States in Colorado in late 1996. In early 1997, the disease was recognized in Minnesota and caused estimated losses of up to 15 million dollars per year. This virus has not been reported in the other turkey producing states. We here report the seroprevalence of APV in Minnesota from August 1998 to July 2002. The average rate of seroprevalence has been 36.3% (range = 14.2%-64.8%). A seasonal bias was observed, with peak incidences in the fall and spring. A higher rate of seropositivity was observed in counties with the highest concentration of turkeys.

  14. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koford, Rolf R.; Dunning, J.B., Jr.; Ribic, C.A.; Finch, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary. The cited sources were not necessarily the first ones to use the terms. Many definitions were taken verbatim from the cited source material. Others were modified slightly to clarify the meaning. Definitions that were modified to a greater extent are indicated as being adapted from the originals. Terms that have been used in more than one way by different authors are listed with numbered alternative definitions if the definitions differ substantially.

  15. Avian ecology of arid habitats in Namibia / Henriette Cornelia Potgieter

    OpenAIRE

    Potgieter, Henriette Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Examination of bird assemblages along an environmental gradient which encompasses both climate and habitat change is needed if we are to better understand the potential effects of these changes for avians and the ecological process that depend upon them. Climate change is predicted to have a significant impact on deserts and desert margins, resulting in distributional shifts of entire ecosystems and new community associations. This study explores the probable responses of avian communities to...

  16. The role of the avian hippocampus in spatial memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Macphail E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Avian hippocampal function is surveyed, using data drawn from three areas: conventional laboratory paradigms, pigeon navigation, and food-storing. Damage to the avian hippocampus disrupts performance in laboratory tasks that tap spatial learning and memory, and also disrupts both pigeon homing and cache recovery by food-storing birds. Further evidence of hippocampal involvement in food-storing is provided by the fact that the hippocampus of food-storing birds is ...

  17. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Codd, Jonathan R.; Phillip L. Manning; Mark A Norell; Perry, Steven F.

    2007-01-01

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of ‘avian’ characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in th...

  18. Predicting power-optimal kinematics of avian wings

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model of avian flight is developed which simulates wing motion through a class of methods known as predictive simulation. This approach uses numerical optimization to predict power-optimal kinematics of avian wings in hover, cruise, climb and descent. The wing dynamics capture both aerodynamic and inertial loads. The model is used to simulate the flight of the pigeon, Columba livia, and the results are compared with previous experimental measurements. In cruise, the model uneart...

  19. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild house mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Shriner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza viruses are known to productively infect a number of mammal species, several of which are commonly found on or near poultry and gamebird farms. While control of rodent species is often used to limit avian influenza virus transmission within and among outbreak sites, few studies have investigated the potential role of these species in outbreak dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We trapped and sampled synanthropic mammals on a gamebird farm in Idaho, USA that had recently experienced a low pathogenic avian influenza outbreak. Six of six house mice (Mus musculus caught on the outbreak farm were presumptively positive for antibodies to type A influenza. Consequently, we experimentally infected groups of naïve wild-caught house mice with five different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses that included three viruses derived from wild birds and two viruses derived from chickens. Virus replication was efficient in house mice inoculated with viruses derived from wild birds and more moderate for chicken-derived viruses. Mean titers (EID(50 equivalents/mL across all lung samples from seven days of sampling (three mice/day ranged from 10(3.89 (H3N6 to 10(5.06 (H4N6 for the wild bird viruses and 10(2.08 (H6N2 to 10(2.85 (H4N8 for the chicken-derived viruses. Interestingly, multiple regression models indicated differential replication between sexes, with significantly (p<0.05 higher concentrations of avian influenza RNA found in females compared with males. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Avian influenza viruses replicated efficiently in wild-caught house mice without adaptation, indicating mice may be a risk pathway for movement of avian influenza viruses on poultry and gamebird farms. Differential virus replication between males and females warrants further investigation to determine the generality of this result in avian influenza disease dynamics.

  20. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hoye, B.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.M.; Klaassen, M.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian infl uenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideratio...

  1. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    OpenAIRE

    van Boven, M.; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry van Beest Holle, M.; Meijer, Adam; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C. A.; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i) the animal reservoir, (ii) humans who were infected b...

  2. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    OpenAIRE

    Heatley, J. Jill; Villalobos, de, Leonor Cristina

    2012-01-01

    J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and ...

  3. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  4. Avian influenza in Croatia - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Wild birds can carry a wide range of viral and other zoonotic agents, which may be transmitted to humans. From October 2005 to March 2006 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from wild birds (mute swans, black-headed gulls and a mallard duck) in Croatia at five locations. After isolation of H5N1 virus at 2006 from mallard duck near City of Zagreb (capital of Croatia) Department of Poultry Diseases with Clinic at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has conducted monitoring of avian viruses that could endanger human health. Samples (999 pharyngeal and cloacal swabs) from 23 wild bird species were taken. After year 2006 Croatia has regular monitoring for avian influenza in wild birds and poultry (especially in the backyard flocks). During 2007 (6,928 wild birds and 18,000 blood samples from poultry) and 2008 (2,486 wild birds; 20,000 blood samples and 1,500 cloacal swabs from poultry) were taken. Isolation was performed with classical virus detection method by inoculation of 10 day old chicken embryos, and molecular methods by conventional PCR and Real Time PCR (M gene, H5, H7 and N1 genes), and serological methods by antibody detection from blood samples (inhibition hemagglutination and ELISA). All samples were HPAI virus negative but investigators from the Poultry Centre of the Croatian Veterinary Institute isolated from wild birds LPAI viruses: H2N3, H3N8, H5N3 and H10N7. The results obtained by these investigations and monitoring revealed the need for permanent monitoring of wild bird's health status, especially the water birds species. Vaccination against AI is never practiced in Croatia. Quick and accurate detection of wild migratory birds infected with the H5N1 virus prevented the spread of the virus to the domestic poultry in Croatia which would have had enormous consequences. (author)

  5. Early warning: Avian flu and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian flu has spread to 51 countries, 36 this year alone, many of which are densely populated and deprived. The joint FAO/IAEA programme is working on the rapid detection of emerging diseases, including bird flu, and using nuclear and radiation techniques in the process. The problems are serious and challenging, but nuclear technologies may offer a solution. For most developing countries, TAD (transboundary animal diseases) detection is still vital. The bottleneck is their inability to rapidly detect the virus and to determine early enough whether it is H5N1 or another subtype, so that authorities can take appropriate control measures. Serious efforts are focused on the early detection of the agents. Timely recognition of such viral infections would prevent the spread of the diseases to large animal populations in huge geographic areas. Thus, the development of novel, powerful diagnostic nuclear and nuclear-related assays is a crucial issue today in veterinary research and animal health care. Molecular virology offers a range of new methods, which are able to accelerate and improve the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals and in man. The molecular detection assays, like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, provide possibilities for a very rapid diagnosis. The detection of viruses can be completed within hours or hopefully even within minutes with a sensitivity level of less than one pathogenic organism. Molecular approaches have contributed significantly to the rapid detection of well-established, as well as newly emerging, infectious agents such as Nipah and Hendra viruses or corona viruses in the SARS scenario and the detection and molecular characterisation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype that threatens the world today. The nucleic acid amplification assays, although they were at first expensive and cumbersome, have become relatively cheap and user-friendly tools in the diagnostic laboratories

  6. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie New

    Full Text Available Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1 in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4; 80th

  7. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Leslie; Bjerre, Emily; Millsap, Brian; Otto, Mark C; Runge, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81)). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1) in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4); 80th quantile, 6

  8. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  9. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens.

  10. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  11. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Wednesday 14 June between 8.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  12. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation.We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  13. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  14. Dynamic update with probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Benthem; J. Gerbrandy; B. Kooi

    2009-01-01

    Current dynamic-epistemic logics model different types of information change in multi-agent scenarios. We generalize these logics to a probabilistic setting, obtaining a calculus for multi-agent update with three natural slots: prior probability on states, occurrence probabilities in the relevant pr

  15. Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A. I.; V. Shanmugam; Switzer, W. M.; Tsang, S. X.; Fadly, A.; Thea, D.; Helfand, R; Bellini, W J; Folks, T M; Heneine, W

    2001-01-01

    The identification of endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) and endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines in current use has raised concern about transmission of these retroviruses to vaccine recipients. We used serologic and molecular methods to analyze specimens from 206 recipients of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine for evidence of infection with ALV and EAV. A Western blot assay for detecting antibodies to endogenous ALV was developed and ...

  16. Avian influenza viruses - new causative a gents of human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Influenza A viruses can infect humans, some mammals and especially birds. Subtypes of human influenza A viruses: ACH1N1, ACH2N2 and A(H3N2 have caused pandemics. Avian influenza viruses vary owing to their 15 hemagglutinins (H and 9 neuraminidases (N. Human cases of avian influenza A In the Netherlands in 2003, there were 83 human cases of influenza A (H7N7. In 1997, 18 cases of H5N1 influenza A, of whom 6 died, were found among residents of Hong Kong. In 2004, 34 human cases (23 deaths were reported in Viet Nam and Thailand. H5N1 virus-infected patients presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. Complications included respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, liver dysfunction and hematologic disorders. Since 1999, 7 cases of human influenza H9N2 infection have been identified in China and Hong Kong. The importance of human infection with avian influenza viruses. H5N1 virus can directly infect humans. Genetic reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses may occur in humans co infected with current human A(HIN1 or A(H3N2 subtypes and avian influenza viruses. The result would be a new influenza virus with pandemic potential. All genes of H5Nl viruses isolated from humans are of avian origin. Prevention and control. The reassortant virus containing H and N from avian and the remaining proteins from human influenza viruses will probably be used as a vaccine strain. The most important control measures are rapid destruction of all infected or exposed birds and rigorous disinfection of farms. Individuals exposed to suspected animals should receive prophylactic treatment with antivirals and annual vaccination. .

  17. Sensors, Update 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  18. Sensors, Update 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  19. Sensors, Update 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-03-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field, presenting the current highlights of sensor and related microelectromechanical systems technology. Coverage includes most recent developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles based on micro- and nanotechnology. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update is of must-have value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  20. Sensors, Update 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  1. Sensors, Update 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  2. Sensors, Update 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  3. Sensors, Update 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  4. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  5. How Documentalists Update SIMBAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, M.; Bot, C.; Brouty, M.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Cambresy, L.; Eisele, A.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Loup, C.; Neuville, M.; Oberto, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Perret, E.; Siebert, A.; Son, E.; Vannier, P.; Vollmer, B.; Vonflie, P.; Wenger, M.; Woelfel, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Strasbourg astronomical Data Center (CDS) was created in 1972 and has had a major role in astronomy for more than forty years. CDS develops a service called SIMBAD that provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. It brings to the scientific community an added value to content which is updated daily by a team of documentalists working together in close collaboration with astronomers and IT specialists. We explain how the CDS staff updates SIMBAD with object citations in the main astronomical journals, as well as with astronomical data and measurements. We also explain how the identification is made between the objects found in the literature and those already existing in SIMBAD. We show the steps followed by the documentalist team to update the database using different tools developed at CDS, like the sky visualizer Aladin, and the large catalogues and survey database VizieR. As a direct result of this teamwork, SIMBAD integrates almost 10.000 bibliographic references per year. The service receives more than 400.000 queries per day.

  6. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeng T. Endarti; Shamsul A. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian inf...

  7. Planning and executing a vaccination campaign against avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, S; Cristalli, A; Busani, L

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza infection caused by H5 or H7 virus subtypes has been used on several occasions in recent years to control and in some cases eradicate the disease. In order to contain avian influenza infection effectively, immunization should be combined with a coordinated set of control and monitoring measures. The outcome of an immunization campaign depends on the territorial strategy; whereas the capacity of the veterinary services in developed countries permits enforcement of strategies aimed at eradicating avian influenza, many countries currently affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have a limited veterinary infrastructure and a limited capacity to respond to such epidemics. In these countries, resources are still insufficient to conduct adequate surveillance for identification and reaction to avian influenza outbreaks when they occur. When properly applied in this scenario, immunization can reduce mortality and production losses. In the long term, immunization might also decrease the prevalence of infection to levels at which stamping-out and surveillance can be applied. Countries should adapt their immunization programmes to local conditions in order to guarantee their efficacy and sustainability. In the initial emergency phase, human resources can be mobilized, with reliance on personal responsibility and motivation, thus compensating for potential shortcomings in organization. A more appropriate allocation of resources must be pursued in the long term, remembering that biosecurity is the main component of an exit strategy and must always be improved.

  8. Avian influenza survey in migrating waterfowl in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J

    2011-02-01

    A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health.

  9. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses. PMID:25790045

  10. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  11. Evaluation of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism for Differentiation of Avian Mycoplasma Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y; Garcia, M.; Levisohn, S; Lysnyansky, I.; Leiting, V.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; Kleven, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used for typing avian mycoplasma species. Forty-four avian mycoplasma strains were successfully typed into eight distinct groups, with each representing a different species. Homology of AFLP patterns of 35% or less was used as a cutoff value to differentiate avian mycoplasma strains into different species.

  12. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu ... WhiteHouse.gov USA.gov GobiernoUSA.gov BusinessUSA.gov Flu Basics Symptoms (CDC) Prevention (CDC) Treatment (CDC) Vaccination ( ...

  13. Avian Blood-Vessel Formation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the developmental anomalies observed in the past might be related to or caused by delayed or improper vascular development. The objective of our research is to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity during space flight cause delayed or improper vascular development during embryogenesis. The effects of microgravity on the time course and extent of avian blood-vessel formation are assessed using two models, one for angiogenesis and one for vasculogenesis. The methodological approach is dictated by the constraints of the tissue preservation method used in space. Thus, both in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the adrenal, we will evaluate microscopically the vascular architecture and immunostain endothelial cells with specific antibodies (anti- vWF and QH1). The extent of ECM protein deposition will be assessed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the degree of vascularization, using computer-based image analysis. Also, the cellular source for ECM proteins will be assessed by in situ hybridization.

  14. Scaling of avian primary feather length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather (f(prim contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus. The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was controlled for using independent contrasts: f(prim is proportional to ta(0.78-0.82. The scaling exponent was not significantly different from that predicted (0.86 by earlier work. It appears that there is a general trend for the primary feathers of birds to contribute proportionally less, and ta proportionally more, to overall wingspan as this dimension increases. Wingspan in birds is constrained close to mass (M(1/3 because of optimisation for lift production, which limits opportunities for exterior morphological change. Within the wing, variations in underlying bone and feather lengths nevertheless may, in altering the joint positions, permit a range of different flight styles by facilitating variation in upstroke kinematics.

  15. Research progress in avian dispersal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang LIU; Zhengwang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal, defined as a linear spreading move-ment of individuals away from others of the population is a fundamental characteristic of organisms in nature. Dispersal is a central concept in ecological, behavioral and evolutionary studies, driven by different forces such as avoidance of inbreeding depression, density-dependent competition and the need to change breeding locations. By effective dispersal, organisms can enlarge their geo-graphic range and adjust the dynamic, sex ratio and gen-etic compositions of a population. Birds are one of the groups that are studied intensively by human beings. Due to their diurnal habits, diverse life history strategies and complex movement, birds are also ideal models for the study of dispersal behaviors. Certain topics of avian dispersal including sex-biased, asymmetric dispersal caused by differences in body conditions, dispersal pro-cesses, habitat selection and long distance dispersal are discussed here. Bird-ringing or marking, radio-telemetry and genetic markers are useful tools widely applied in dispersal studies. There are three major challenges regard-ing theoretical study and methodology research of dis-persal: (1) improvement in research methodology is needed, (2) more in-depth theoretical research is neces-sary, and (3) application of theoretical research into the conservation efforts for threatened birds and the manage-ment of their habitats should be carried out immediately.

  16. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  17. What's missing from avian global diversification analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushma

    2014-08-01

    The accumulation of vast numbers of molecular phylogenetic studies has contributed to huge knowledge gains in the evolutionary history of birds. This permits subsequent analyses of avian diversity, such as how and why diversification varies across the globe and among taxonomic groups. However, available genetic data for these meta-analyses are unevenly distributed across different geographic regions and taxonomic groups. To comprehend the impact of this variation on the interpretation of global diversity patterns, I examined the availability of genetic data for possible biases in geographic and taxonomic sampling of birds. I identified three main disparities of sampling that are geographically associated with latitude (temperate, tropical), hemispheres (East, West), and range size. Tropical regions, which host the vast majority of species, are substantially less studied. Moreover, Eastern regions, such as the Old World Tropics and Australasia, stand out as being disproportionately undersampled, with up to half of communities not being represented in recent studies. In terms of taxonomic discrepancies, a majority of genetically undersampled clades are exclusively found in tropical regions. My analysis identifies several disparities in the key regions of interest of global diversity analyses. Differential sampling can have considerable impacts on these global comparisons and call into question recent interpretations of latitudinal or hemispheric differences of diversification rates. Moreover, this review pinpoints understudied regions whose biota are in critical need of modern systematic analyses.

  18. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  19. Updates in pediatric endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Manmohan K

    2013-04-01

    There are rapid advances being made in the field of medicine! New research continues to investigate etiopathogenic mechanisms underlying many endocrine disorders, new tests to facilitate diagnosis, and newer treatment options. The discussion in this article focuses on a few of the important concerns in adolescent endocrinology and highlights some recent concepts that are important for the physicians taking care of these adolescents. This article also includes a brief update on diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome; new thoughts and controversies about vitamin D and current management of the common thyroid disorders; adrenal insufficiency; and concerns with disorders of puberty in adolescents.

  20. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  1. Shipment security update - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 2002 RERTR, NAC reported on the interim measures taken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to enhance the security afforded to shipments of spent nuclear fuel. Since that time, there have been a number of additional actions focused on shipment security including training programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Electric Power Research Council, investigation by the Government Accounting Office, and individual measures taken by shippers and transportation agents. The paper will present a status update regarding this dynamic set of events and provide an objective assessment of the cost, schedule and technical implications of the changing security landscape. (author)

  2. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  3. Absence of avian pox in wild turkeys in central Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, C E; Stacey, L M; Hurst, G A

    1991-07-01

    Eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) (n = 1,023), obtained during winter, spring, and summer from 1983 to 1988 on Tallahala Wildlife Management Area (TWMA) (Jasper County, Mississippi, USA) were examined for avian pox lesions. Domestic turkey poults (n = 152) maintained on the area for 1 to 2 wk periods from 1987 to 1989 also were examined. Neither wild nor domestic birds showed gross evidence of pox virus infection. This study indicated that avian pox was not endemic in wild turkeys at TWMA.

  4. Emergence of Fatal Avian Influenza in New England Harbor Seals

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, S. J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H S; Chan, J. M.; Carpenter, Z. W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J T; Pedersen, J; Karesh, W; Daszak, P; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. L...

  5. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    OpenAIRE

    Koh GCH; Wong TY; Cheong SK; Koh DSQ

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unre...

  6. The challenges of avian influenza virus: mechanism, epidemiology and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George F. GAO; Pang-Chui SHAW

    2009-01-01

    @@ Early 2009, eight human infection cases of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, with 5 death cases, were reported in China. This again made the world alert on a possible pandemic worldwide, probably caused by avian-origin influenza virus. Again H5N1 is in the spotlight of the world, not only for the scientists but also for the ordinary people. How much do we know about this virus? Where will this virus go and where did it come? Can we avoid a possible pandemic of influenza? Will the human beings conquer this devastating agent? Obviously we can list more questions than we know the answers.

  7. Sensitivity and entanglement in the avian chemical compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P.; Kais, Sabre

    2014-10-01

    The radical pair mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, using a two-stage model, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  8. Sensitivity and Entanglement in the Avian Chemical Compass

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

    2014-01-01

    The Radical Pair Mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, based on a two-stage strategy, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle-dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  9. Microbes of the avian cecum: types present and substrates utilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the types and properties of microorganisms found in avian ceca, with special reference to the chicken. Microbial activity in the cecum is primarily fermentative, but there has been little evidence of cellulose fermentation, and the predominant bacterial types are relatively inactive against other high-molecular-weight compounds of dietary origin. In all avian species examined, the consistent presence of large populations of uric acid-degrading bacteria supports the view that microbial populations in the ceca permit reabsorption of water and possibly nonprotein nitrogen from the backflow of urine. These capabilities may be of particular importance to wild birds under conditions of water and food deprivation.

  10. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  11. Role of estrogen in avian osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M M; Hansen, K K

    2004-02-01

    One of the difficulties associated with commercial layer production is the development of osteoporosis in hens late in the production cycle. In light of this fact and because of hens' unique requirements for Ca, many studies have focused on the regulation of Ca and the role of estrogen in this process. The time course of estrogen synthesis over the productive life of hens has been well documented; increased circulating estrogen accompanies the onset of sexual maturity while decreases signal a decline in egg production prior to a molt. Numbers of estrogen receptors decrease with age in numerous tissues. The parallel changes in calcium-regulating proteins, primarily Calbindin D28K, and in the ability of duodenal cells to transport Ca, are thought to occur as a result of the changes in estrogen, and are also reversible by the molt process. In addition to the traditional model of estrogen action, evidence now exists for a possible nongenomic action of estrogen via membrane-bound receptors, demonstrated by extremely rapid surges of ionized Ca in chicken granulosa cells in response to 17beta-estradiol. Estrogen receptors have also been discovered in duodenal tissue, and tamoxifen, which binds to the estrogen receptor, has been shown to cause a rapid increase in Ca transport in the duodenum. In addition, recent evidence also suggests that mineralization of bone per se may not explain entirely the etiology of osteoporosis in the hen but that changes in the collagen matrix may contribute through decreases in bone elasticity. Taken together, these studies suggest that changes in estrogen synthesis and estrogen receptor populations may underlie the age-related changes in avian bone. As with postmenopausal women, dietary Ca and vitamin D are of limited benefit as remedies for osteoporosis in the hen. PMID:14979570

  12. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  13. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc) could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults. PMID:26869971

  14. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  15. Memory updating and mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ching eHan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults.

  16. Updates Technologies of Media Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Whether as status notifications in news feeds or interactive prompts in online video services, updates punctuate the background routines of media by bringing a variety of changes to the attention of users. In this dissertation I argue that updates rationalize media change by making previously obscure actions of users and movements of technologies…

  17. Episodic fieldwork, updating, and sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, M.

    2013-01-01

    on these relationships. I draw on Simmel's concept of sociability to explore the significance of the recurring updates that are so much a part of long-term and thus episodic fieldwork. Updating suggests participation, positionality, and transformation-as well as play and familiarity. The presumption of familiarity...

  18. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella... established by conducting five replicate titrations on a sample of the bacterial vaccine used. Only...

  19. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  20. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  1. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  2. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Avian Influenza Virus Infection via Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven FJ; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Using literature data, daily infection risks of chickens and humans with H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) by drinking water consumption were estimated for the Netherlands. A highly infectious virus and less than 4 log10 drinking water treatment (reasonably inefficient) may lead to a high infection r

  3. Indirect transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), also known bird flu, is a serious infectious disease of chickens causing high mortality in flocks and economic damage for farmers. The control strategy to control an outbreak of HPAI in the Netherlands will include culling of infected flocks and depopulation

  4. DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS USING AN INTERFEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optical interferometric waveguide immunoassay for direct and label-less detection of avian influenza virus is described. The assay response is based on index of refraction changes that occur upon binding of virus particles to antigen (hemagglutinin) specific antibodies on the waveguide surface. ...

  5. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  6. Immunohistochemical staining of avian influenza virus in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunohistochemical methods are commonly used for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza (AI) virus by allowing the identification of sites of replication of the virus in infected tissues and the correlation with the histopathological changes observed. In this chapter, the materials and metho...

  7. Low frequency of paleoviral infiltration across the avian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Zhiyong;

    2014-01-01

    of endogenous viral element evolution.Results: Through a systematic screening of the genomes of 48 species sampled across the avian phylogeny we reveal that birds harbor a limited number of endogenous viral elements compared to mammals, with only five viral families observed: Retroviridae, Hepadnaviridae...

  8. Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, C; Graves, G R

    2001-01-01

    -250% greater than those recorded at equivalent latitudes in the central Amazon basin. These findings reflect the extraordinary abundance of species associated with humid montane regions at equatorial latitudes and the importance of orography in avian speciation. In a broader context, our data reinforce...

  9. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; SASHIKA, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health.

  10. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  11. Avian Metapneumovirus Molecular Biology and Development of Genetically Engineered Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important pathogen of turkeys with a worldwide distribution. aMPV is a member of the genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae. The genome of aMPV is a non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA of 1...

  12. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  13. First characterization of avian influenza viruses from Greenland 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Ravn Merkel, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild birds, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), were found dead at the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examinations in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2...

  14. MHC haplotype involvement in avian resistance to an ectoparasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jeb P; Delany, Mary E; Mullens, Bradley A

    2008-10-01

    Research on immune function in evolutionary ecology has frequently focused on avian ectoparasites (e.g., mites and lice). However, host immunogenetics involved with bird resistance to ectoparasites has not been determined. The critical role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in adaptive immunity and high genetic variation found within the MHC make this gene complex useful for exploring the immunogenetic basis for bird resistance to ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to determine if the avian MHC influenced resistance to a blood-feeding ectoparasite. Four congenic lines of chickens, differing only at the MHC, were comparatively infested with a cosmopolitan ectoparasite of birds-northern fowl mite (NFM)-which is also a serious pest species of poultry. Mite infestations were monitored over time and mite densities (weekly and maximum) were compared among lines. Chickens with the MHC haplotype B21 were relatively resistant to NFM, compared with birds in the B15 congenic line (P density were tested. The highest peak NFM populations occurred more often on hens with the B15 haplotype versus the B21 haplotype (P = 0.012), which supported the results of the congenic study. These data indicate the avian MHC influences ectoparasite resistance, which is relevant to disease ecology and avian-ectoparasite interaction. PMID:18626638

  15. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types.

  16. Neurocritical care update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is an essential tool for detecting nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurocritical care, including advanced hemodynamic monitoring, is a fundamental approach for delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We must be mindful of the high percentage of ICU patients who may develop sepsis-associated brain dysfunction. PMID:27239312

  17. Avian influenza diagnosis in the Russian Federation: Achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Rosselkhoznadzor data, during 2005-2006, the avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks were reported in the Russian Federation in the Siberian, Ural, Central and South Federal Okrugs. In 2007, the RF officials notified the IOE about HPAI/H5N1 outbreaks in the territories of the Krasnodarsky Krai, Republic of Adygea, Moskovskaya and Kaluzhskaya Oblast. In 2008 there was one report about HPAI/H5N1 outbreak in Primorskii Krai (Far Eastern Okrug). To detect and characterize the avian influenza virus the following diagnostic scheme was used in ARRIAH: suspected cases (poultry, wild birds) and for monitoring purposes. 392 samples were positive in PCR to avian influenza virus type A. The most part of them were HPAI H5N1. In 2005 it was discovered 618 samples (223 - from poultry and 395 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 174 samples (85 - from poultry and 89 are from wild birds). 84 poultry samples and 36 wild birds samples were positive to subtype H5N1 (HPAI). 44 AI virus isolates were recovered (28 - from poultry and 16 are from wild birds). In 2006 it was discovered 1014 samples (159 - from poultry and 855 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 144 samples (84 - from poultry and 60 are from wild birds). Most part of these samples were positive to subtype H5N1. 67 AI virus isolates were recovered (50 - from poultry and 17 are from wild birds). In 2007 there were analyzed 833 samples (233 - from poultry and 600 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 55 poultry samples. All are positive to H5N1 subtype. Avian Influenza type A virus genome was detected in 7 samples from 1 region. Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus was not found. In 2008 we analyzed approximately 1400 samples. Most of them are from wild birds. Only 30 samples are from poultry. Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 1 poultry sample (HPAI H5N1). Avian Influenza type A virus genome

  18. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  19. Characterisation and germline transmission of cultured avian primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs have significant potential to be used as a cell-based system for the study and preservation of avian germplasm, and the genetic modification of the avian genome. It was previously reported that PGCs from chicken embryos can be propagated in culture and contribute to the germ cell lineage of host birds. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We confirm these results by demonstrating that PGCs from a different layer breed of chickens can be propagated for extended periods in vitro. We demonstrate that intracellular signalling through PI3K and MEK is necessary for PGC growth. We carried out an initial characterisation of these cells. We find that cultured PGCs contain large lipid vacuoles, are glycogen rich, and express the stem cell marker, SSEA-1. These cells also express the germ cell-specific proteins CVH and CDH. Unexpectedly, using RT-PCR we show that cultured PGCs express the pluripotency genes c-Myc, cKlf4, cPouV, cSox2, and cNanog. Finally, we demonstrate that the cultured PGCs will migrate to and colonise the forming gonad of host embryos. Male PGCs will colonise the female gonad and enter meiosis, but are lost from the gonad during sexual development. In male hosts, cultured PGCs form functional gametes as demonstrated by the generation of viable offspring. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of in vitro cultures of germline competent avian PGCs offers a unique system for the study of early germ cell differentiation and also a comparative system for mammalian germ cell development. Primary PGC lines will form the basis of an alternative technique for the preservation of avian germplasm and will be a valuable tool for transgenic technology, with both research and industrial applications.

  20. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas April 11 Update of switch in LHC 4 LHC 4 Point April 14 Update of switch in LHC 5 LHC 5 Point April 15 Update of switches in LHC 3 and LHC 2 Points LHC 3 and LHC 2 April 22 Update of switch N4 Meyrin Ouest April 23 Update of switch  N6 Prévessin Site Ap...

  1. Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between 2006 and 2011—Review and recommendations for surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dundon, William G.; Heidari, Alireza; Fusaro, Alice;

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, the members of the molecular epidemiological working group of the European “EPIZONE” network of excellence have been generating sequence data on avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses from both European and African sources in an attempt to more fully understand the circulation and ...

  2. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Mary Lea; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  3. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Mary Lea; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  4. Changes in avian disease and mosquito vector prevalence; A 15-year perceptive and assessment of future risk: Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mosquito-borne avian disease, avian malaria and avian pox, is a major limiting factor for Hawaiian forest birds. While native bird communities at Hakalau Forest NWR...

  5. Molecular diagnostics of Avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2006-01-01

    direct sequencing of the PCR product. The possibility of typization using molecular methods is based on the big difference at the amino acid and nucleotide levels between different HA subtypes (from 20- 74%, while the differences between strains of the same HA subtype are relatively small (0- 9%. The basic advantage in the detection and typization of influenza viruses using the RTPCR method is that it saves time. Namely, it can be performed directly from the samples taken in the field, and the result can be obtained within the same day, contrary to conventional methods that take 7 to 10 days. The obtained PCR product can also be sequenced immediately, which can provide an answer to the possible virulent potential of the isolate and its further spreading. The establishment of changes in the HA gene sequence can provide us with the information about the direction of the development of the genetic drift. The paper will describe in detail the possibilities for the implementation of molecular methods in diagnostics and typization, in fact, in the molecular epizootiology of avian influenza.

  6. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  7. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Strickland, Dale M.; Young, Jr., David P.; Sernka, Karyn J.; Good, Rhett E.

    2001-08-01

    It has been estimated that from 100 million to well over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to collisions with human-made structures, including vehicles, buildings and windows, powerlines, communication towers, and wind turbines. Although wind energy is generally considered environmentally friendly (because it generates electricity without emitting air pollutants or greenhouse gases), the potential for avian fatalities has delayed and even significantly contributed to blocking the development of some windplants in the U.S. Given the importance of developing a viable renewable source of energy, the objective of this paper is to put the issue of avian mortality associated with windpower into perspective with other sources of avian collision mortality across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed summary of the mortality data collected at windplants and put avian collision mortality associated with windpower development into perspective with other significant sources of avian collision mortality across the United States. We provide a summary of data collected at many of the U.S. windplants and provide annual bird fatality estimates and projections for all wind turbines in the U.S. For comparison, we also review studies of avian collision mortality from other major human-made structures and report annual bird fatality estimates for these sources. Other sources also significantly contribute to overall avian mortality. For example, the National Audubon Society estimates avian mortality due to house cats at 100 million birds per year. Pesticide use, oil spills, disease, etc., are other significant sources of unintended avian mortality. Due to funding constraints, the scope of this paper is limited to examining only avian mortality resulting from collisions with human-made obstacles.

  8. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:27502303

  9. Higgcision Updates 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Kingman; Tseng, Po-Yan

    2014-01-01

    During the 2014 Summer Conferences, both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations of the LHC experiments have demonstrated tremendous efforts in treatment of data and processing more data such that most data on signal strengths have improved; especially the diphoton and fermionic modes of both experiments. Here in this note we perform an update to our previous model-independent Higgs precision analysis -- Higgcision. We found the followings: (i) the uncertainties on most couplings shrink about 10--20%, (ii) the nonstandard (e.g. invisible) decay branching ratio of the Higgs boson is constrained to be less than 18.5% if only the width is allowed to vary, (iii) the gauge-Higgs coupling C_v is constrained to be 0.95^{+0.11}_{-0.12}, in which the uncertainty is reduced by about 10%, and (iv) the standard model (SM) Higgs boson still provides the best fit to all the Higgs boson data, and compared to the previous results the SM Higgs boson now enjoys a higher p value than the last year.

  10. Advanced Stirling Convertor Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Matejczyk, Dan; Penswick, L. B.; Soendker, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the 88 We Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) currently being developed under Phase II of a NASA NRA program for possible use in advanced high specific power radioisotope space power systems. An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) which was built and tested in Phase I demonstrated 36% efficiency. The ASC-1 currently being developed under Phase II, uses a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C and is expected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (based on AC electrical out) at a temperature ratio of 3.1. The final lightweight ASC-2 convertor to be developed in Phase III is expected to have a mass of approximately 1 kg. The implementation of the ASC would allow for much higher specific power radioisotope power systems, requiring significantly less radioisotope fuel than current systems. The first run of the ASC-1 occurred in September 2005, and full temperature operation was achieved in early October 2005. Presented is an update on progress on the ASC program as well as the plans for future development. Also presented are efforts being performed to ensure the ASC has the required long life already demonstrated in free-piston Stirling cryocoolers.

  11. Dali server update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Liisa; Laakso, Laura M

    2016-07-01

    The Dali server (http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/dali) is a network service for comparing protein structures in 3D. In favourable cases, comparing 3D structures may reveal biologically interesting similarities that are not detectable by comparing sequences. The Dali server has been running in various places for over 20 years and is used routinely by crystallographers on newly solved structures. The latest update of the server provides enhanced analytics for the study of sequence and structure conservation. The server performs three types of structure comparisons: (i) Protein Data Bank (PDB) search compares one query structure against those in the PDB and returns a list of similar structures; (ii) pairwise comparison compares one query structure against a list of structures specified by the user; and (iii) all against all structure comparison returns a structural similarity matrix, a dendrogram and a multidimensional scaling projection of a set of structures specified by the user. Structural superimpositions are visualized using the Java-free WebGL viewer PV. The structural alignment view is enhanced by sequence similarity searches against Uniprot. The combined structure-sequence alignment information is compressed to a stack of aligned sequence logos. In the stack, each structure is structurally aligned to the query protein and represented by a sequence logo. PMID:27131377

  12. Atomic spectrometry update : environmental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Owen T.; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Cook, Jennifer M.; Davidson, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the 27th annual review published in Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry of the application of atomic spectrometry to the chemical analysis of environmental samples. This Update refers to papers published approximately between September 2010 and August 2011 and continues the series of Atomic Spectrometry Updates (ASUs) in Environmental Analysis1 that should be read in conjunction with other related ASU reviews in the series, namely: clinical and biological materials, foods and be...

  13. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  14. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2008-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Now in its 11th edition, Communication Technology Update has become an indispensable information resource for business, government, and academia. As always, every chapter has been completely rewritten to reflect the latest developments and market statistics, and now covers mobile computing, dig

  15. Linking avian communities and avian influenza ecology in southern Africa using epidemiological functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Ndlovu, Mduduzi; Cumming, Graeme S

    2012-01-01

    The ecology of pathogens, and particularly their emergence in multi-host systems, is complex. New approaches are needed to reduce superficial complexities to a level that still allows scientists to analyse underlying and more fundamental processes. One promising approach for simplification is to use an epidemiological-function classification to describe ecological diversity in a way that relates directly to pathogen dynamics. In this article, we develop and apply the epidemiological functional group (EFG) concept to explore the relationships between wild bird communities and avian influenza virus (AIV) in three ecosystems in southern Africa. Using a two year dataset that combined bird counts and bimonthly sampling for AIV, we allocated each bird species to a set of EFGs that captured two overarching epidemiological functions: the capacity of species to maintain AIV in the system, and their potential to introduce the virus. Comparing AIV prevalence between EFGs suggested that the hypothesis that anseriforms (ducks) and charadriiforms (waders) drive AIV epidemiology cannot entirely explain the high prevalence observed in some EFGs. If anseriforms do play an important role in AIV dynamics in each of the three ecosystems, the role of other species in the local maintenance of AIV cannot be ruled out. The EFG concept thus helped us to identify gaps in knowledge and to highlight understudied bird groups that might play a role in AIV epidemiology. In general, the use of EFGs has potential for generating a range of valuable insights in epidemiology, just as functional group approaches have done in ecology. PMID:23101696

  16. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds

    OpenAIRE

    Darla K Zelenitsky; Therrien, François; Ridgely, Ryan C.; McGee, Amanda R.; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the olfactory capabilities of extinct basal (non-neornithine) birds or the evolutionary changes in olfaction that occurred from non-avian theropods through modern birds. Although modern birds are known to have diverse olfactory capabilities, olfaction is generally considered to have declined during avian evolution as visual and vestibular sensory enhancements occurred in association with flight. To test the hypothesis that olfaction diminished through avian evolution, we...

  17. A new feathered maniraptoran dinosaur fossil that fills a morphological gap in avian origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xing; ZHAO Qi; NORELL Mark; SULLIVAN Corwin; HONE David; ERICKSON Gregory; WANG XiaoLin; HAN FengLu; GUO Yu

    2009-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries have substantially reduced the morphological gap between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, yet avians including Archaeopteryx differ from non-avian theropods in their limb proportions. In particular, avians have proportionally longer and more robust forelimbs that are capable of supporting a large aerodynamic surface. Here we report on a new maniraptoran dinosaur, Anchiornis huxleyi gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen collected from Iacustrine deposits of uncertain age in western Liaoning, China. With an estimated mass of 110 grams, Anchiornis is the smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur. It exhibits some wrist features indicative of high mobility, presaging the wing-folding mechanisms seen in more derived birds and suggesting rapid evolution of the carpus. Otherwise, Anchiornis is intermediate in general morphology between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, particularly with regard to relative forelimb length and thickness, and represents a transitional step toward the avian condition. In contrast with some recent comprehensive phylogenetic analyses, our phylogenetic analysis incorporates subtle morphological variations and recovers a conventional result supporting the monophyly of Avialae.

  18. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  19. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI. PMID:24491922

  20. Chemical compass for avian magnetoreception as a quantum coherent device

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    It is known that more than 50 species use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Intensive studies particularly behavior experiments with birds provide support for a chemical compass based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions as a source of this sense. However, the fundamental question of whether and how quantum coherence plays an essential role in such a chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception yet remains controversial. Here, we show that the essence of the chemical compass model can be understood in analogy to a quantum interferometer exploiting quantum coherence. Within the framework of quantum metrology, we quantify quantum coherence and demonstrate that it is a resource for chemical magnetoreception. Our results allow us to understand and predict how various factors can affect the performance of a chemical compass from the unique perspective of quantum coherence assisted metrology. This represents a crucial step to affirm avian magnetoreception as an example of qu...

  1. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger.

  2. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø.; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools...... to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy...... shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings...

  3. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E.; Martin Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island...

  4. Global Climate Change Leads to Mistimed Avian Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Marcel E; Both, Christiaan; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2004-01-01

    Climate change is apparent as an advancement of spring phenology. However, there is no a priori reason to expect that all components of food chains will shift their phenology at the same rate. This differential shift will lead to mistimed reproduction in many species, including seasonally breeding birds. We argue that climate change induced mistiming in avian reproduction occurs because there is a substantial period between the moment of decision making on when to reproduce and the moment at ...

  5. The Bird of Time: Cognition and the Avian Biological Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Michael Cassone; David F Westneat

    2012-01-01

    Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence tha...

  6. The Bird of Time: Cognition and the Avian Biological Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Michael Cassone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence that the central clock has effects is piecemeal. Second, selection acting on characters that are linked to the circadian clock should influence aspects of the clock mechanism itself. Little evidence exists for this in birds, but there have been few attempts to assess this idea. At its core, the avian circadian clock is a multi-oscillator system comprising the pineal gland, the retinae and the avian homologues of the suprachiasmatic nuclei, whose mutual interactions ensure coordinated physiological functions, which are in turn synchronized to ambient light cycles via encephalic, pineal and retinal photoreceptors. At the molecular level, avian biological clocks comprise a genetic network of positive elements clock and bmal1 whose interactions with the negative elements period2, period3 and the cryptochromes form an oscillatory feedback loop that circumnavigates the 24 hrs of the day. We assess the possibilities for dual integration of the clock with time-dependent cognitive processes. Closer examination of the molecular, physiological, and behavioral elements of the circadian system would place birds at a very interesting fulcrum in the neurobiology of time in learning, memory and navigation. 

  7. The bird of time: cognition and the avian biological clock

    OpenAIRE

    Cassone, Vincent M.; David F Westneat

    2012-01-01

    Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration, and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence th...

  8. The physiology and biomechanics of avian flight at high altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Dudley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many birds fly at high altitude, either during long-distance flights or by virtue of residence in high-elevation habitats. Among the many environmental features that vary systematically with altitude, five have significant consequences for avian flight performance: ambient wind speeds, air temperature, humidity, oxygen availability, and air density. During migratory flights, birds select flight altitudes that minimize energy expenditure via selection of advantageous tail- and cross-winds. Oxy...

  9. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-01-01

    Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis) exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the...

  10. Secondarily flightless birds or Cretaceous non-avian theropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanau, J Lee

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies by Varricchio et al. reveal that males cared for the eggs of troodontids and oviraptorids, so-called "non-avian theropods" of the Cretaceous, just as do those of most Paleognathic birds (ratites and tinamous) today. Further, the clutches of both groups have large relative volumes, and consist of many eggs of relatively large size. By comparison, clutch care by most extant birds is biparental and the clutches are of small relative volume, and consist of but few small eggs. Varricchio et al. propose that troodontids and oviraptorids were pre-avian and that paternal egg care preceded the origin of birds. On the contrary, unmentioned by them is that abundant paleontological evidence has led several workers to conclude that troodontids and oviraptorids were secondary flightless birds. This evidence ranges from bird-like bodies and bone designs, adapted for climbing, perching, gliding, and ultimately flight, to relatively large, highly developed brains, poor sense of smell, and their feeding habits. Because ratites also are secondarily flightless and tinamous are reluctant, clumsy fliers, the new evidence strengthens the view that troodontids and oviraptorids were secondarily flightless. Although secondary flightlessness apparently favors paternal care of clutches of large, abundant eggs, such care is not likely to have been primitive. There are a suite of previously unknown independent findings that point to the evolution of, first, maternal, followed by biparental egg care in earliest ancestors of birds. This follows from the discovery of remarkable relict avian reproductive behaviors preserved by virtue of the highly conservative nature of vertebrate brain evolution. These behaviors can be elicited readily by exposing breeding birds to appropriate conditions, both environmental and with respect to their eggs and chicks. They give significant new clues for a coherent theory of avian origin and early evolution. PMID:19800747

  11. Embryonic growth and antioxidant provision in avian eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Deeming, D Charles; Pike , Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Avian embryos undergo extremely rapid development over a relatively short period of time, and so are likely to suffer high levels of oxidative damage unless this is mitigated by sufficient maternal allocation of appropriate antioxidants. At a species level, it is therefore predicted that antioxidants should be allocated to eggs according to the rate of embryonic growth, such that eggs containing embryos that grow faster are furnished with higher antioxidant levels, independent of egg size. We...

  12. Control of Avian Coccidiosis: Future and Present Natural Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda; Edgar Dantán-González

    2015-01-01

    Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herba...

  13. Sociable schedules: interplay between avian seasonal and social behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Helm, Barbara; Piersma, Theunis; van der Jeugd, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Timing is essential in seasonally changing habitats. Survival and reproduction are enhanced through precise adjustment to environmental conditions. Avian seasonal behaviour, that is, diverse activities associated with reproduction, moult and migration, has an endogenous basis and is ultimately linked to changes in environmental factors such as food supply. However, behaviour occurs in social contexts, and interactions with conspecifics are intimately linked to seasonal activities. Time progra...

  14. Investigating Avian Influenza Infection Hotspots in Old-World Shorebirds

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; El Mamy, Ahmed B. Ould; Cappelle, Julien; Caron, Alexandre; Graeme S. Cumming; Grosbois, Vladimir; Gil, Patricia; Hammoumi, Saliha; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Abolnik, Celia; Mundava, Josphine; Fofana, Bouba; Ndlovu, Mduduzi

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) associated with a single species at a specific location a...

  15. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno; Fouchier, Ron

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the current knowledge of the determinants of pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in mammals is summarized. It is becoming apparent that common mechanisms exist across influenza A virus strains and...

  16. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Wielink, van, P.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce influenza vaccines, as they are more robust and lack the long lead times associated with the production of large quantities of embryonated eggs. In the study that is described in this thesis, the prod...

  17. The Irrationality of GOF Avian Influenza Virus Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The last two and a half years have witnessed a curious debate in virology characterized by a remarkable lack of discussion. It goes by the misleading epithet “gain of function” (GOF) influenza virus research, or simply GOF. As will be seen, there is nothing good to be gained. The controversial experiments confer aerosol transmission on avian influenza virus strains that can infect humans, but which are not naturally transmitted between humans. Some of the newer strains are clearly highly path...

  18. Potential Economic Impacts of Avian Influenza in LAC

    OpenAIRE

    César Falconi

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discuses bird flu in two different related scenarios: as a disease that could affect the Poultry Sector and as a disease that could cause a Human Pandemic. The paper includes an analysis on what's at stake, risks and probabilities, costs, impacts and ways of prevention, as well as a series of conclusions. This presentation was created for the Seminar "The Mass Media and the Threat of Avian Influenza in Latin America" held in August of 2006.

  19. Molecular cloning of avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29) transforming sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenberger, J A; Schulz, R A; Garon, C F; Tsichlis, P N; Papas, T S

    1981-01-01

    Avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29), a defective acute leukemia virus, has a broad oncogenic spectrum in vivo and transforms fibroblasts and hematopoietic target cells in vitro. We have used recombinant DNA technology to isolate and to characterize the sequences that are essential in the transformation process. Integrated MC29 proviral DNA was isolated from a library of recombinant phage containing DNA from the MC29-transformed nonproducer quail cell line Q5. The cloned DNA was analyzed by So...

  20. Avian Bornavirus Associated with Fatal Disease in Psittacine Birds▿

    OpenAIRE

    Staeheli, Peter; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to new technologies which enable rapid and unbiased screening for viral nucleic acids in clinical specimens, an impressive number of previously unknown viruses have recently been discovered. Two research groups independently identified a novel negative-strand RNA virus, now designated avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a severe lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis of the gastrointestinal tract of psittacine birds that is frequently accompanied...

  1. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry, like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and pala­table insects mimicking distasteful ones, involve signals directed at the eyes of birds. Despite this, studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare, particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade. Defensive visual mimicry, which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry, occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators. Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object, such as a leaf, stick, or pebble. In this paper, I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds. The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey, but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators. Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds, I show how quantitative models of avian color, luminance, and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals. Overall, I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2, Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4, and masquerade (5 as follows: 1 Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2 Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3 Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4 Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5 Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids [Current Zoology 58 (4: 630–648, 2012].

  2. Presence of avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Imada, Tadao; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2003-01-01

    Four avian pneumovirus (APV) isolates from chickens clinically diagnosed with swollen head syndrome were genetically characterized as to the subtypes of the virus in Japan. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions based on subtype-specific primers and direct sequence analysis of G genes indicated subtypes A and B but not C or D of APV were present in Japan. Several routes or sources are conceivable for APV to invade into Japan.

  3. Phylogenetic Position of Avian Nocturnal and Diurnal Raptors

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Gillian C Gibb; Penny, David

    2014-01-01

    We report three new avian mitochondrial genomes, two from widely separated groups of owls and a falcon relative (the Secretarybird). We then report additional progress in resolving Neoavian relationships in that the two groups of owls do come together (it is not just long-branch attraction), and the Secretarybird is the deepest divergence on the Accipitridae lineage. This is now agreed between mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. There is no evidence for the monophyly of the combined three gr...

  4. Neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorinated alkyls in an avian model

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Brick-Turin, Yael; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyls are widely-used agents that accumulate in ecosystems and organisms because of their slow rate of degradation. There is increasing concern that these agents may be developmental neurotoxicants and the present study was designed to develop an avian model for the neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with 5 or 10 mg/kg of either compound on incubation day 0. On the day of h...

  5. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-01-01

    Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry,like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and palatable insects mimicking distasteful ones,involve signals directed at the eyes of birds.Despite this,studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare,particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade.Defensive visual mimicry,which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry,occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators.Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object,such as a leaf,stick,or pebble.In this paper,I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds.The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey,but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators.Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds,I show how quantitative models of avian color,luminance,and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals.Overall,I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2),Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4),and masquerade (5) as follows:1) Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2) Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3) Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4) Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5) Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids.

  6. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  7. The role of environmental transmission in recurrent avian influenza epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus Breban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV persists in North American wild waterfowl, exhibiting major outbreaks every 2-4 years. Attempts to explain the patterns of periodicity and persistence using simple direct transmission models are unsuccessful. Motivated by empirical evidence, we examine the contribution of an overlooked AIV transmission mode: environmental transmission. It is known that infectious birds shed large concentrations of virions in the environment, where virions may persist for a long time. We thus propose that, in addition to direct fecal/oral transmission, birds may become infected by ingesting virions that have long persisted in the environment. We design a new host-pathogen model that combines within-season transmission dynamics, between-season migration and reproduction, and environmental variation. Analysis of the model yields three major results. First, environmental transmission provides a persistence mechanism within small communities where epidemics cannot be sustained by direct transmission only (i.e., communities smaller than the critical community size. Second, environmental transmission offers a parsimonious explanation of the 2-4 year periodicity of avian influenza epidemics. Third, very low levels of environmental transmission (i.e., few cases per year are sufficient for avian influenza to persist in populations where it would otherwise vanish.

  8. Clinical features of avian influenza in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Maamoun Mohamad; Khatab, Adel Mahmoud; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; Amer, Wegdan Ahmad Fouad

    2012-08-01

    The clinical manifestations associated with H5N1 infection in humans range from asymptomatic infection to mild upper respiratory illness, severe pneumonia, and multiple organ failure. The ratio of symptomatic cases to asymptomatic cases is not known, because it is not possible to precisely define the number of asymptomatic cases. A total of 97 cases suffering from avian flu were suspected based on history taking, demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological investigations. The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count), coagulation profile, renal and liver function tests. H5N1 influenza virus was diagnosed thorough PCR technique. Changes in arterial blood gases and repeated chest X-rays were reported frequently. All patients were given specific antiviral therapy (oseltamivir). The study described the clinical picture and laboratory results of 81 confirmed avian influenza human cases in an Egyptian hospital (Abassia chest hospital), and reviewed the avian influenza current situation covering from March 2006 to June 2009 with very high pick in the first half of 2009. The significant apparent symptoms were fever as initial and main symptom (93.75%), followed by shortness of breathing (73%), cough (66.6%), muscle & joint pain (60%) and sore throat (40%).

  9. Force-velocity properties of two avian hindlimb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Frank E; Gabaldón, Annette M; Roberts, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    Recent work has provided measurements of power output in avian skeletal muscles during running and flying, but little is known about the contractile properties of avian skeletal muscle. We used an in situ preparation to characterize the force-velocity properties of two hind limb muscles, the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and peroneus longus (PL), in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A servomotor measured shortening velocity for at least six different loads over the plateau region of the length-tension curve. The Hill equation was fit to the data to determine maximum shortening velocity and peak instantaneous power. Maximum unloaded shortening velocity was 13.0+/-1.6 L s(-1) for the LG muscle and 14.8+/-1.0 L s(-1) for the PL muscle (mean+/-S.E.M.). These velocities are within the range of values published for reptilian and mammalian muscles. Values recorded for maximum isometric force per cross-sectional area, 271+/-28 kPa for the LG and 257+/-30.5 kPa for the PL, and peak instantaneous power output, 341.7+/-36.4 W kg(-1) for the LG and 319.4+/-42.5 W kg(-1) for the PL, were also within the range of published values for vertebrate muscle. The force-velocity properties of turkey LG and PL muscle do not reveal any extreme differences in the mechanical potential between avian and other vertebrate muscle.

  10. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gch; Wong, Ty; Cheong, Sk; Koh, Dsq

    2008-11-13

    There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919-1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  11. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  12. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  13. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Julie A; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  14. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Jedlicka

    Full Text Available Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  15. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H.S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  16. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Mbuvi P; Muya, Shadrack; Gicheru, Muita M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27306902

  17. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne C. Fecheyr-Lippens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour.

  18. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Hall, Brian K; Horner, John R

    2013-01-01

    The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae). This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors. PMID:23418610

  19. Characterization of avian influenza H5N1 virosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Sarachai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize virosome containing envelope proteins of the avian influenza (H5N1 virus. The virosome was prepared by the solubilization of virus with octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether (C12E8 followed by detergent removal with SM2 Bio-Beads. Biochemical analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, indicated that avian influenza H5N1 virosome had similar characteristics to the parent virus and contained both the hemagglutinin (HA, 60-75 kDa and neuraminidase (NA, 220 kDa protein, with preserved biological activity, such as hemagglutination activity. The virosome structure was analyzed by negative stained transmission electron microscope (TEM demonstrated that the spherical shapes of vesicles with surface glycoprotein spikes were harbored. In conclusion, the biophysical properties of the virosome were similar to the parent virus, and the use of octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether to solubilize viral membrane, followed by removal of detergent using polymer beads adsorption (Bio-Beads SM2 was the preferable method for obtaining avian influenza virosome. The outcome of this study might be useful for further development veterinary virus vaccines.

  20. New Perspectives on the Ontogeny and Evolution of Avian Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Ashley M

    2016-09-01

    Close correspondence between form and function is a central tenet of natural selection. One of the most striking, textbook cases for form-function congruence is the evolution of flight and the body plan of birds: compared with other tetrapods, extant adult birds have highly modified integuments and skeletons, and it has traditionally been assumed that many of these modifications are adaptations or exaptations for flight. However, developing birds that lack many of the morphological signatures of flight capacity nevertheless use their developing wings for a variety of flapping behaviors, such as wing-assisted incline running and even brief flight. Immature birds thereby demonstrate that rudimentary "flight" apparatuses are more functional than traditional assumptions about form-function relationships would predict. Here, I review the ontogeny of avian locomotion, highlighting how the developmental acquisition of flight in extant birds can improve our understanding of form-function relationships in the avian body plan, and provide insight into the evolutionary origin of flight among extinct non-avian theropod dinosaurs. PMID:27371381

  1. Avian Flu School: A Training Approach to Prepare for H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel; Bunn, David A.; Sandrock, Christian E.; Cardona, Carol J.

    2008-01-01

    Since the reemergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) in 2003, a panzootic that is historically unprecedented in the number of infected flocks, geographic spread, and economic consequences for agriculture has developed. The epidemic has affected a wide range of birds and mammals, including humans. The ineffective management of outbreaks, mainly due to a lack of knowledge among those involved in detection, prevention, and response, points to the need for training on H5N1 HPAI....

  2. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  3. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  4. Replication and adaptive mutations of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in tracheal organ cultures of different avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Petersen

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV between different avian species may require genome mutations that allow efficient virus replication in a new species and could increase virulence. To study the role of domestic poultry in the evolution of AIV we compared replication of low pathogenic (LP AIV of subtypes H9N2, H7N7 and H6N8 in tracheal organ cultures (TOC and primary embryo fibroblast cultures of chicken, turkey, Pekin duck and homing pigeon. Virus strain-dependent and avian species-related differences between LPAIV were observed in growth kinetics and induction of ciliostasis in TOC. In particular, our data demonstrate high susceptibility to LPAIV of turkey TOC contrasted with low susceptibility of homing pigeon TOC. Serial virus passages in the cells of heterologous host species resulted in adaptive mutations in the AIV genome, especially in the receptor-binding site and protease cleavage site of the hemagglutinin. Our data highlight differences in susceptibility of different birds to AIV viruses and emphasizes potential role of poultry in the emergence of new virus variants.

  5. Different intracellular distribution of avian reovirus core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Lostale-Seijo, Irene; Martinez-Costas, Jose [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, y Centro Singular de Investigacion en Quimica Biologica y Materiales Moleculares (CIQUS), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Benavente, Javier, E-mail: franciscojavier.benavente@usc.es [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, y Centro Singular de Investigacion en Quimica Biologica y Materiales Moleculares (CIQUS), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-10-25

    A comparative analysis of the intracellular distribution of avian reovirus (ARV) core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin revealed that, whereas the viral protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of avian cells, most sigmaA concentrates in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells in tight association with the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction. Our results further showed that sigmaA becomes arrested in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells via association with mammalian cell-specific factors and that this association prevents nucleolar targeting. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity, but not of RNA polymerase I activity, in infected mammalian cells induces nucleus-to-cytoplasm sigmaA translocation through a CRM1- and RanGTP-dependent mechanism, yet a heterokaryon assay suggests that sigmaA does not shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The scarcity of sigmaA in cytoplasmic viral factories of infected mammalian cells could be one of the factors contributing to limited ARV replication in mammalian cells.

  6. How to Green Windows Update?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifedine Kadry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important challenges facing the earth in the future are energy, water, environment and food security, Green IT contributes in significant role in finding solutions because it consume energy more efficient and reduce pollution in water, air and soil in addition to improving economy because Green IT is manage energy sources by reducing energy consumption with good performance. Most of energy consumed around the world depends on non-renewable energy and part of this energy consumed to update technologies In this paper ,we will study one of the most important tools in Microsoft, which is used in order to help users to get updates of Microsoft's products, which is called windows server update services (WSUS, which is helping to reduce energy consumption, we will study this tool and then try to make it more green by reducing the send / receive between Microsoft Update (MU and WSUS, which will reduce energy consumption, and we will propose algorithm and compared the energy consumption in the current design with energy consumption in the proposed design. This design will open the way for future work in order to make sending updates in MU less energy consumption by apply conditional sending and that will help to improve the performance of MU added to improve the network performance with more efficient consumption of energy.

  7. gga-miR-375 plays a key role in tumorigenesis post subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused in part by subgroup J avian leukosis virus J (ALV-J). Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play pivotal oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in tumour development and progression. However, little is known about the potential role of miRNAs in avian leukosis...

  8. Multiplicative updates for the LASSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2007-01-01

    Multiplicative updates have proven useful for non-negativity constrained optimization. Presently, we demonstrate how multiplicative updates also can be used for unconstrained optimization. This is for instance useful when estimating the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), i.......e. least squares minimization with $L_1$-norm regularization, since the multiplicative updates (MU) can efficiently exploit the structure of the problem traditionally solved using quadratic programming (QP). We derive an algorithm based on MU for the LASSO and compare the performance to Matlabs standard QP...... solver as well as the basis pursuit denoising algorithm (BP) which can be obtained from www.sparselab.stanford.edu. The algorithms were tested on three benchmark bio-informatic datasets: A small scale data set where the number of observations is larger than the number of variables estimated ($M...

  9. Updated safety analysis of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Neill, E-mail: neill.taylor@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baker, Dennis; Ciattaglia, Sergio; Cortes, Pierre; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Iseli, Markus; Reyes, Susana; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Rosanvallon, Sandrine; Topilski, Leonid [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    An updated version of the ITER Preliminary Safety Report has been produced and submitted to the licensing authorities. It is revised and expanded in response to requests from the authorities after their review of an earlier version in 2008, to reflect enhancements in ITER safety provisions through design changes, to incorporate new and improved safety analyses and to take into account other ITER design evolution. The updated analyses show that changes to the Tokamak cooling water system design have enhanced confinement and reduced potential radiological releases as well as removing decay heat with very high reliability. New and updated accident scenario analyses, together with fire and explosion risk analyses, have shown that design provisions are sufficient to minimize the likelihood of accidents and reduce potential consequences to a very low level. Taken together, the improvements provided a stronger demonstration of the very good safety performance of the ITER design.

  10. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  11. Modelling the innate immune response against avian influenza virus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.J.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Jansen, C.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Spekreijse, D.; Vervelde, L.; Backer, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koets, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load, interferon-α,

  12. Chicken dendritic cells are susceptible to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which induce strong cytokine responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervelde, L.; Reemens, S.S.; Haarlem, van D.A.; Post, J.; Claassen, E.A.W.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Jansen, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in birds and mammals is associated with severe pathology and increased mortality. We hypothesize that in contrast to low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) infection, HPAI infection of chicken dendritic cells (DC) induces a cytokine deregulat

  13. Ectopic expression of the erythrocyte band 3 anion exchange protein, using a new avian retrovirus vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerstenberg, S; Beug, H; Introna, M;

    1990-01-01

    A retrovirus vector was constructed from the genome of avian erythroblastosis virus ES4. The v-erbA sequences of avian erythroblastosis virus were replaced by those coding for neomycin phosphotransferase, creating a gag-neo fusion protein which provides G418 resistance as a selectable marker. The v...

  14. Surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza in layer chickens: risk factors, transmission and early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales Rojas, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) of H5 and H7 subtypes are able to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv), which are lethal for most poultry species, can cause large epidemics and are a serious threat to public health. Thus, circulation of these LPAIv in poultry is und

  15. Rational design of avian metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccines by inhibiting viral messenger RNA cap methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...

  16. The Pathology of Avian Influenza in Birds and Animals: An Analytical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influenza virus remains enigmatic despite of long extensive studies. Avian influenza virus (H5N1) is able to infect a large spectrum of animal and bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus represents a serious problem both for a human and birds, particularly for chicks. Many studies have been performed in order to show differences between highly and low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, and examine their biological properties. Many separate pathological and microscopic descriptions are interspersed in numerous published articles. The aim of our study was to analyze data published in international scientific journals, and to attempt a generalized view of avian influenza pathology in various animal and bird hosts. We summarized and systematized data describing pathological changes caused by both highly and low pathogenic types of avian influenza virus (H5N1) in animals and birds, and developed generalized descriptions with accent at the type of virus. We also tried to show up species specific features of pathological changes in birds and animals infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1). The results of this analytical work may be useful for pathological studies of a new avian influenza virus isolates, and for understanding of avian influenza pathogenesis in birds and animals. (author)

  17. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated that gadoli......Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated...

  18. Chinese and global distribution of H9 subtype avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Jiang

    Full Text Available H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs are of significance in poultry and public health, but epidemiological studies about the viruses are scarce. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of the viruses were analyzed based on 1233 previously reported sequences and 745 novel sequences of the viral hemagglutinin gene. The novel sequences were obtained through large-scale surveys conducted in 2008-2011 in China. The results revealed distinct distributions of H9 subtype AIVs in different hosts, sites and regions in China and in the world: (1 the dominant lineage of H9 subtype AIVs in China in recent years is lineage h9.4.2.5 represented by A/chicken/Guangxi/55/2005; (2 the newly emerging lineage h9.4.2.6, represented by A/chicken/Guangdong/FZH/2011, has also become prevalent in China; (3 lineages h9.3.3, h9.4.1 and h9.4.2, represented by A/duck/Hokkaido/26/99, A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 and A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97, respectively, have become globally dominant in recent years; (4 lineages h9.4.1 and h9.4.2 are likely of more risk to public health than others; (5 different lineages have different transmission features and host tropisms. This study also provided novel experimental data which indicated that the Leu-234 (H9 numbering motif in the viral hemagglutinin gene is an important but not unique determinant in receptor-binding preference. This report provides a detailed and updated panoramic view of the epidemiological distributions of H9 subtype AIVs globally and in China, and sheds new insights for the prevention of infection in poultry and preparedness for a potential pandemic caused by the viruses.

  19. Comparative analysis of chest radiological findings between avian human influenza and SARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the chest radiological findings of a mortal avian human influenza case. Methods: One patient in our hospital was proved to be infected avian human influenza in Guangdong province on March 1, 2006. The Clinical appearances and chest radiological findings of this case were retrospectively analyzed and compared with that of 3 mortal SARS cases out of 16 cases in 2003. Results: Large consolidated areas in left lower lobe was showed in pulmonary radiological findings of this patient and soon developed into ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome). However, the pulmonary radiological findings had no characteristic. Characteristics of soaring size and number during short term appeared in SARS instead of avian human influenza. Final diagnosis was up to the etiology and serology examination. Conclusion: Bronchial dissemination was not observed in this avian human influenza case. Pay attention to the avian human influenza in spite of no history of contract with sick or dead poultry in large city. (authors)

  20. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  1. Bangladesh Development Update, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to update the Government of Bangladesh, think tanks and researchers, the general public as well as the Bank’s senior management on the state of the economy, outlook, risks, progress on structural policy reforms, and key challenges the economy is currently facing. The coverage includes developments in the real sector focusing on growth, inflation, and poverty...

  2. AMDIS and CHART update. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working group for updating atomic and molecular collision data in the NIFS database AMDIS (electron scattering) and CHART (ion scattering) has been organized. This group has searched and reviewed literatures for collecting relevant atomic data with are to be included into the database. This is a summary report of the activities of this working group. (author)

  3. Deductive Updating Is Not Bayesian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-01-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based theories such as mental model theory and probabilistic theories. This study looks at conclusion updating after the addition of statistical information to examine the hypothesis that deductive reasoning cannot be explained by probabilistic…

  4. AMDIS and CHART update. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, I.; Kato, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Igarashi, A. [Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (JP)] [and others

    2002-10-01

    A working group for updating atomic and molecular collision data in the NIFS database AMDIS (electron scattering) and CHART (ion scattering) has been organized. This group has searched and reviewed literatures for collecting relevant atomic data with are to be included into the database. This is a summary report of the activities of this working group. (author)

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  6. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arai, Koji; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-01

    NACRE, the `nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  7. Model validation: Correlation for updating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, a review is presented of the various methods which are available for the purpose of performing a systematic comparison and correlation between two sets of vibration data. In the present case, the application of interest is in conducting this correlation process as a prelude to model correlation or updating activity.

  8. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas March 26Update of the voice messaging systemAll CERN sites April 4Updat...

  9. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas April 8 Update of switch in LHC 7 LHC 7 Point April 9 Update of...

  10. Evidence-based guideline update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Peer Carsten Tfelt-Hansen, Glostrup, Denmark: According to the recent American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline update, a drug can be recommended as possibly effective for migraine prevention if it had demonstrated efficacy in one Class II study.(1) Eight drugs are recommended as possibly eff...

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques. PMID:27517015

  12. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  13. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh GCH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  15. MicroRNA expression profiles in avian haemopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu eYao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, abundant, non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression by interfering with translation or stability of mRNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. A total of 734 precursor and 996 mature miRNAs have so far been identified in the chicken genome. A number of these miRNAs are expressed in a cell type-specific manner, and understanding their function requires detailed examination of their expression in different cell types. We carried out deep sequencing of small RNA populations isolated from stimulated or transformed avian haemopoietic cell lines to determine the changes in the expression profiles of these important regulatory molecules during these biological events. There were significant changes in the expression of a number of miRNAs, including miR-155, in chicken B cells stimulated with CD40 ligand. Similarly, avian leukosis virus (ALV-transformed DT40 cells also showed changes in miRNA expression in relation to the naïve cells. Embryonic stem cell line BP25 demonstrated a distinct cluster of upregulated miRNAs, many of which were shown previously to be involved in embryonic stem cell development. Finally, chicken macrophage cell line HD11 showed changes in miRNA profiles, some of which are thought to be related to the transformation by v-myc transduced by the virus. This work represents the first publication of a catalog of microRNA expression in a range of important avian cells and provides insights into the potential roles of miRNAs in the hematopoietic lineages of cells in a model non-mammalian species.

  16. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, C.K.; Maletskos, C.J.; Youngstrom, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of /sup 131/I and /sup 137/Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods.

  17. Taking a rational approach in the treatment of avian mycobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Jennifer; Saggese, Miguel D

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for avian mycobacteriosis is still in its infancy and based on extrapolations from human medicine. The optimum drug choice, dose, or length of treatment has yet to be determined for most exotic animal species. Treatment should include multiple drugs for extended periods of time with appropriate monitoring of both drug levels and overall animal health. Risk to owners and handlers needs to be minimized through appropriate identification of the species of mycobacteri causing disease. More research is necessary on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in other animal species and antibiotic resistance. Currently, euthanasia remains the most common action in the face of active mycobacteriosis. PMID:22244113

  18. E Protein Prokaryotic Expression of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ping; ZHANG Fang; MING Xiaobo; ZENG Xiangwei; ZHU Yuqing; WANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    The small envelope protein (E) gene of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) M41 strain was cloned,and then it was subeloned into prokaryotic expressing vector pGEX-6P-1.The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli.BL21 and induced by IPTG.SDS-PAGE result showed that when objective protein fused with GST (about 20 ku), the relative molecular mass of fusion protein was 38 ku.It indicated that objective protein was about 12.4 ku.The result showed that E protein was expressed successfully, it was useful to the subsequent E protein research.

  19. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8+ T Cell Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and ...

  20. Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Premashthira, Sith; Boles, Stephen; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses has become a global scale problem which first emerged in southern China and from there spread to other countries in Southeast and East Asia, where it was first confirmed in end 2003. In previous work, geospatial analyses demonstrated that free grazing ducks played critical role in the epidemiology of the disease in Thailand in the winter 2004/2005, both in terms of HPAI emergence and spread. This study explored the geographic ass...

  1. Within-host variation of avian influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Munir; Xiao, Hiaxia; Baillie, Greg; Warry, Andrew; Essen, Steve C.; Londt, Brandon; Brookes, Sharon M; Brown, Ian H.; McCauley, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence and spread of H5N1 avian influenza viruses from Asia through to Europe and Africa pose a significant animal disease problem and have raised concerns that the virus may pose a pandemic threat to humans. The epizootological factors that have influenced the wide distribution of the virus are complex, and the variety of viruses currently circulating reflects these factors. Sequence analysis of the virus genes sheds light on the H5N1 virus evolution during its emergence and spread, b...

  2. Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7 virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus still has gaps, complicating epidemic control. A model was developed to back-calculate the day HPAI virus was introduced into a flock, based on within-flock mortality data of the Dutch HPAI H7N7 epidemic (2003). The method was based on a stochastic epidemic model in which birds move from being susceptible, latently infected and infectious, to death. Our results indicated that two weeks can elapse before a noticeab...

  3. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  4. Updating Recursive XML Views of Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Byron; Cong, Gao; Fan, Wenfei;

    2009-01-01

    to be explored. In response to these, on the XML side, we revise the notion of side effects and update semantics based on the semantics of XML views, and present effecient algorithms to translate XML updates to relational view updates. On the relational side, we propose a mild condition on SPJ views, and show...

  5. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated. PMID:19618621

  6. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the e...

  7. Avian evolution: from Darwin's finches to a new way of thinking about avian forebrain organization and behavioural capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Anton

    2009-02-23

    The study of birds, especially the Galapagos finches, was important to Darwin in the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Birds have also been at the centre of a recent reformulation in understanding cerebral evolution and the substrates for higher cognition. While it was once thought that birds possess a simple cerebrum and were thus limited to instinctive behaviours, it is now clear that birds possess a well-developed cerebrum that looks very different from the mammalian cerebrum but can support a cognitive ability that for some avian species rivals that in primates.

  8. Antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9 subtype isolated from desi and zoo birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Saleem

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza is a viral infection which affects mainly the respiratory system of birds. The H9N2 considered as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI virus and continuously circulating in poultry flocks causing enormous economic losses to poultry industry of Pakistan. As these viruses have RNA genome and their RNA polymerase enzyme lacks proof reading activity which resulted in spontaneous mutation in surface glycoproteins (HA and NA and reassortment of their genomic segments results in escape from host immune response produced by the vaccine. Efforts made for the isolation and identification of avian influenza virus from live desi and zoo birds of Lahore and performed antigenic characterization. The local vaccines although gives a little bit less titer when we raise the antisera against these vaccines but their antisera have more interaction with the local H9 subtype antigen so it gives better protective immune response. Infected chicken antisera are more reactive as compare to rabbit antisera. This shows that our isolates have highest similarity with the currently circulating viruses. These results guided us to devise a new control strategy against avian influenza viral infections. The antigenic characterization of these avian influenza isolates helped us to see the antigenic differences between the isolates of this study and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses used in vaccines. Therefore, this study clearly suggests that a new local H9 subtype avian influenza virus should be used as vaccinal candidate every year for the effective control of influenza viral infections of poultry.

  9. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2014-12-01

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period.

  10. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Puño-Sarmiento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%, three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%, 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%, but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  11. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from avian organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-08-28

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  12. Avian pox in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Miller, R.A. Pierce, C.A.; Rowe, S.E.

    1985-07-01

    Avian pox has been reported in at least 60 species of birds belonging to 20 different families. However, poxvirus infection in birds of prey is apparently uncommon. On 18 May 1981, an adult male red-tailed hawk was found on the US Department of Energy's Arid Land Ecology Reserve in Benton County, Washington. The bird was incapable of flight and was extremely thin. Nodular proliferations were noted on both feet and cutaneous scab-like lesions around the beak and eyes. The bird was killed in the field and submitted promptly to the diagnostic laboratory for necropsy. This report of pox infection in a free-living adult red-tailed hawk represents one of the few such cases reported in the US. The potential for spread of the virus to other hawks may occur particularly during the nesting season when an infected adult could conceivably pass the virus to a mate and nestlings by direct contact or fomites. Little is known of the natural of avian pox infection in birds of prey. In other birds it is generally considered mild and self-limiting; however, eye lesions resulting in impaired vision may lead to starvation.

  13. Neural correlates of executive control in the avian brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rose

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive control, the ability to plan one's behaviour to achieve a goal, is a hallmark of frontal lobe function in humans and other primates. In the current study we report neural correlates of executive control in the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, a region analogous to the mammalian prefrontal cortex. Homing pigeons (Columba livia performed a working memory task in which cues instructed them whether stimuli should be remembered or forgotten. When instructed to remember, many neurons showed sustained activation throughout the memory period. When instructed to forget, the sustained activation was abolished. Consistent with the neural data, the behavioural data showed that memory performance was high after instructions to remember, and dropped to chance after instructions to forget. Our findings indicate that neurons in the avian nidopallium caudolaterale participate in one of the core forms of executive control, the control of what should be remembered and what should be forgotten. This form of executive control is fundamental not only to working memory, but also to all cognition.

  14. Subtype Identification of Avian Influenza Virus on DNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-rong; YU Kang-zhen; DENG Guo-hua; SHI Rui; LIU Li-ling; QIAO Chuan-ling; BAO Hong-mei; KONG Xian-gang; CHEN Hua-lan

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a rapid microarray-based assay for the reliable detection of H5, H7 and H9 subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV). The strains used in the experiment were A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1), A/African starling/983/79 (H7N1) and A/Turkey/Wiscosin/1/66 (H9N2). The capture DNAs clones which encoding approximate 500-bp avian influenza virus gene fragments obtained by RT-PCR, were spotted on a slide-bound microarray. Cy5-1abeled fluorescent cDNAs,which generated from virus RNA during reverse transcription were hybridized to these capture DNAs. These capture DNAs contained multiple fragments of the hemagglutinin and matrix protein genes of AIV respectively, for subtyping and typing AIV. The arrays were scanned to determine the probe binding sites. The hybridization pattern agreed approximately with the known grid location of each target. The results show that DNA microarray technology provides a useful diagnostic method for AIV.

  15. Evolutionary Footprints of Short Tandem Repeats in Avian Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideaki; Gemmell, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) or microsatellites are well-known sequence elements that may change the spacing between transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in promoter regions by expansion or contraction of repetitive units. Some of these mutations have the potential to contribute to phenotypic diversity by altering patterns of gene expression. To explore how repetitive sequence motifs within promoters have evolved in avian lineages under mutation-selection balance, more than 400 evolutionary conserved STRs (ecSTRs) were identified in this study by comparing the 2 kb upstream promoter sequences of chicken against those of other birds (turkey, duck, zebra finch, and flycatcher). The rate of conservation was significantly higher in AG dinucleotide repeats than in AC or AT repeats, with the expansion of AG motifs being noticeably constrained in passerines. Analysis of the relative distance between ecSTRs and TFBSs revealed a significantly higher rate of conserved TFBSs in the vicinity of ecSTRs in both chicken-duck and chicken-passerine comparisons. Our comparative study provides a novel insight into which intrinsic factors have influenced the degree of constraint on repeat expansion/contraction during avian promoter evolution. PMID:26766026

  16. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  17. THE AVIAN FLU IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN POULTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat represents one of the most dynamic branches of the local meat production. The poultry sector represents a good quality protein source, at an acceptable price as compared to other animal production domains. There has been an ascending evolution of the sector after the year 2000, although there appeared a series of discontinuities that affected agricultural production, mainly on a short-term basis. The Avian Flu led to 190 million euros’ worth losses at the level of Romanian national economy. Low consumption due to the impact was a short-term consequence, being rapidly amortized by the Romanian producers. The lack of some business continuity insurance measures can further affect the poultry meat sector, which does not have the necessary robustness needed in case of larger shocks. The following article proposes an analysis of the Avian Flu crisis economic effects on the Romanian meat sector, and it is part of a general framework of research regarding the Romanian food chain resilience to critical situations.

  18. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  19. Species formation by host shifting in avian malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E; Outlaw, Diana C; Svensson-Coelho, Maria; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Latta, Steven

    2014-10-14

    The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in vector-borne parasites, including the role of host shifting, are poorly understood. Here, we examine the hosts of sister lineages in a phylogeny of 181 putative species of malaria parasites of New World terrestrial birds to determine the role of shifts between host taxa in the formation of new parasite species. We find that host shifting, often across host genera and families, is the rule. Sympatric speciation by host shifting would require local reproductive isolation as a prerequisite to divergent selection, but this mechanism is not supported by the generalized host-biting behavior of most vectors of avian malaria parasites. Instead, the geographic distribution of individual parasite lineages in diverse hosts suggests that species formation is predominantly allopatric and involves host expansion followed by local host-pathogen coevolution and secondary sympatry, resulting in local shifting of parasite lineages across hosts.

  20. Novel Picornavirus Associated with Avian Keratin Disorder in Alaskan Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Zylberberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian keratin disorder (AKD, characterized by debilitating overgrowth of the avian beak, was first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus in Alaska. Subsequently, similar deformities have appeared in numerous species across continents. Despite the widespread distribution of this emerging pathology, the cause of AKD remains elusive. As a result, it is unknown whether suspected cases of AKD in the afflicted species are causally linked, and the impacts of this pathology at the population and community levels are difficult to evaluate. We applied unbiased, metagenomic next-generation sequencing to search for candidate pathogens in birds affected with AKD. We identified and sequenced the complete coding region of a novel picornavirus, which we are calling poecivirus. Subsequent screening of 19 AKD-affected black-capped chickadees and 9 control individuals for the presence of poecivirus revealed that 19/19 (100% AKD-affected individuals were positive, while only 2/9 (22% control individuals were infected with poecivirus. Two northwestern crows (Corvus caurinus and two red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis with AKD-consistent pathology also tested positive for poecivirus. We suggest that poecivirus is a candidate etiological agent of AKD.

  1. Proceedings of national avian-wind power planning meeting II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was the second in a series. The purposes of this meeting were to: (1) provide information on avian/wind power interactions that will help meet the needs of regulators, researchers, and other stakeholders concerned with responsible development and permitting of wind plants; (2) create dialogue among regulators, researchers and other stakeholders to help all parties understand the role that research can play in responsible development and permitting of wind plants, and allow researchers to understand the relevance of their research to the process; and (3) propose research projects and the appropriate sponsorship. The meeting began with oral presentations and discussions of nine White Papers on the theory and methods for studying and understanding impacts. The Proceedings include the written version of each of the nine White Papers, plus a summary of the oral discussion associated with each paper. The second part of the meeting consisted of four working group sessions: (1) site evaluation and pre-permit research and planning; (2) operational monitoring; (3) modeling and forecasting, including population dynamics models; and (4) avian behavior and mortality reduction. The Proceedings includes a summary of the discussions on these topics, including each working group's recommendations for future research or associated activities. A final plenary session drew together the main recommendations

  2. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; Zheng, Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Li, Wenhua; Hu, Mailing; Zhong, Jinhui; Chen, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area. PMID:25356738

  3. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhang

    Full Text Available Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  4. Coronaviridae, pathogenetic and clinical aspects: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, K

    1990-01-01

    A review is given about pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the well-known as well as of recently detected members of the family Coronaviridae. Special attention is paid to coronavirus infections of domestic cattle and pets, whereas avian, murine, rat and human coronaviruses are summarized briefly. PMID:1963836

  5. Diversity and Distribution of Avian Fauna of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Jan Pathan; Shahroz Khan; Naveed Akhtar; Kausar Saeed

    2014-01-01

    This survey was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 to explore the avian fauna of Swat valley and to find out the major threats to the avian fauna of the area as it was neglected for years. Direct and indirect methods were used in the study by visiting the field and by interviewing the local peoples and hunters about the current and past status of the avian fauna of the area. During the current study direct and indirect methods were used. A total of 138 species were recorded belongin...

  6. Control of avian influenza: philosophy and perspectives on behalf of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1992-01-01

    Aquatic birds are considered the primary reservoir for influenza A viruses (Nettles et al., 1987).  However, there is little concern about avian influenza among conservation agencies responsible for the welfare of those species.  IN contrast, the poultry industry has great concern about avian influenza and view aquatic birds as a source for infection of poultry flocks.  In some instances, differences in these perspectives created conflict between conservation agencies and the poultry industry.  I speak on behalf of migratory birds, but philosophy and perspectives offered are intended to be helpful to the poultry industry in their efforts to combat avian influenza.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Avian Influenza in One District of Guangzhou, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; ZHENG Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs i...

  8. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl in North America and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Jesper; Thomsen, Anders F.; Bertelsen, Mads Frost;

    The first avian bornavirus (ABV) was identified in 2008 by researchers investigating the cause of proventricular dilation disease in psittacine birds 3,4. A distinctly separate genotype (ABV-CG) was discovered in 2009 in association with neurological disease in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta...... was identified in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) 2. In order to determine whether avian bornavirus was present in European waterfowl, the brains of 333 hunter killed geese in Denmark were examined by real time RT-PCR for the presence of avian bornavirus; seven birds (2.1%) were positive. Sequences were 98...

  9. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Keith A.; Scully, Sean T.

    1995-01-01

    WThe current status of big bang nucleosynthesis is reviewed with an emphasis on the comparison between the observational determination of the light element abundances of \\D, \\he3, \\he4 and \\li7 and the predictions from theory. In particular, we present new analyses for \\he4 and \\li7. Implications for physics beyond the standard model are also discussed. Limits on the effective number of neutrino flavors are also updated.

  10. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm ...

  11. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas March 26 Update of the voice messaging system All CERN sites April...

  12. Correlates of avian building strikes at a glass façade museum surrounded by avian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, L.; Flannery, M.; Dumbacher, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Bird window collisions are the second largest anthropogenic cause of bird deaths in the world. Effective mitigation requires an understanding of which birds are most likely to strike, when, and why. Here, we examine five years of avian window strike data from the California Academy of Sciences - a relatively new museum with significant glass façade situated in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. We examine correlates of window-killed birds, including age, sex, season, and migratory or sedentary tendencies of the birds. We also examine correlates of window kills such as presence of habitat surrounding the building and overall window area. We found that males are almost three times more likely than females to mortally strike windows, and immature birds are three times more abundant than adults in our window kill dataset. Among seasons, strikes were not notably different in spring, summer, and fall; however they were notably reduced in winter. There was no statistical effect of building orientation (north, south, east, or west), and the presence of avian habitat directly adjacent to windows had a minor effect. We also report ongoing studies examining various efforts to reduce window kill (primarily external decals and large electronic window blinds.) We hope that improving our understanding of the causes of the window strikes will help us strategically reduce window strikes.

  13. 'O sibling, where art thou?'--a review of avian sibling recognition with respect to the mammalian literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Waas, Joseph R

    2004-02-01

    Avian literature on sibling recognition is rare compared to that developed by mammalian researchers. We compare avian and mammalian research on sibling recognition to identify why avian work is rare, how approaches differ and what avian and mammalian researchers can learn from each other. Three factors: (1) biological differences between birds and mammals, (2) conceptual biases and (3) practical constraints, appear to influence our current understanding. Avian research focuses on colonial species because sibling recognition is considered adaptive where 'mixing potential' of dependent young is high; research on a wider range of species, breeding systems and ecological conditions is now needed. Studies of acoustic recognition cues dominate avian literature; other types of cues (e.g. visual, olfactory) deserve further attention. The effect of gender on avian sibling recognition has yet to be investigated; mammalian work shows that gender can have important influences. Most importantly, many researchers assume that birds recognise siblings through 'direct familiarisation' (commonly known as associative learning or familiarity); future experiments should also incorporate tests for 'indirect familiarisation' (commonly known as phenotype matching). If direct familiarisation proves crucial, avian research should investigate how periods of separation influence sibling discrimination. Mammalian researchers typically interpret sibling recognition in broad functional terms (nepotism, optimal outbreeding); some avian researchers more successfully identify specific and testable adaptive explanations, with greater relevance to natural contexts. We end by reporting exciting discoveries from recent studies of avian sibling recognition that inspire further interest in this topic. PMID:15005175

  14. The challenges of avian influenza virus:mechanism,epidemiology and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George; F.GAO; Pang-Chui; SHAW

    2009-01-01

    Early 2009, eight human infection cases of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, with 5 death cases, were reported in China. This again made the world alert on a possible pandemic worldwide, probably caused by

  15. Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype-10 detected in Rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological, serological and genomic characterization of a paramyxovirus recently isolated from rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) suggested that this virus represented a new avian paramyxovirus group, APMV10. This penguin virus resembled other APMV by electron microscopy; however, its vi...

  16. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy in the southeast: An ecoepidemiological assessment with emphasis on Lake Surf, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 2000 and 2005, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) and partners conducted an investigation of avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), an unusual...

  17. Survelliance for Avian Influenza in Wood Ducks at Coldwater and Tallahatchie NWRs in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains sampling effort and results of Avian Influenza testing in live wood ducks at Coldwater, Walker Tract, and Tallahatchie in 2009. All samples were...

  18. A comparison of biologically active elements in geese in relation to avian cholera

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian cholera caused an estimated mortality of between 166,000 to 197,000 migrating waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska in the 10-year period 1975 through...

  19. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built an Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System for identifying avian influenza disease and displaying the result of identification process. In this paper, we describe five symptoms as major symptoms which include depression, combs, wattle, bluish face region, swollen face region, narrowness of eyes, and balance disorders. We use chicken as research object. Research location is in the Lampung Province, South Sumatera. The researcher reason to choose Lampung Province in South Sumatera on the basis that has a high poultry population. Dempster-Shafer theory to quantify the degree of belief as inference engine in expert system, our approach uses Dempster-Shafer theory to combine beliefs under conditions of uncertainty and ignorance, and allows quantitat...

  20. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  1. Antimicrobial properties of avian eggshell-specific C-type lectin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman-Labadie, Olivier; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Hincke, Maxwell T

    2008-03-01

    C-type lectin-like proteins are major components of the calcified eggshell of multiple avian species. In this study, two representative avian C-type lectin-like proteins, ovocleidin-17 and ansocalcin, were purified from decalcified chicken and goose eggshell protein extracts and investigated for carbohydrate binding activity as well as antimicrobial activity. Purified ovocleidin-17 and ansocalcin were found to bind bacterial polysaccharides, and were bactericidal against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomona aeruginosa. Bactericidal activity was found to be enhanced in the presence of calcium but was not dependent on its presence. The results suggest that avian C-type lectin-like proteins may play an important antimicrobial role in defence of the avian embryo. PMID:18258195

  2. Effects of immune supplementation and immune challenge on bacterial assemblages in the avian cloaca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, Kevin D.; Versteegh, Maaike A.; van der Velde, Marco; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between avian physiology and bacterial assemblages in the cloaca are poorly understood. We used molecular techniques to analyze cloacal swabs from pigeons that were subjected to two immunological manipulations: lysozyme supplementation and endotoxin challenge. From the swabs, we derive

  3. Seroprevalence of avian influenza (H9N2) in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Ghaniei; Manoochehr Allymehr; Ali Moradschendi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate seroprevalence of avian invluenza (H9N2) subtybe in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran. Materials:A total of 310 blood samples were collected from 25 broiler flocks in slaughterhouses of West Azarbayjan, Iran. Serum samples were subjected to haemagglutination inhibition test. Results:The test showed 40.6%of positive serums. Mean antibody titer of avian influenza virus differed between geographical locations in this survey. Conclusions:High prevalence of avian influenza virus antibodies in serum of birds emphasize that avian influenza has an important role in respiratory complexes in broiler chickens in this region, and probably throughout Iran. Biosecurity measures, monitoring and surveillance programs, and to some degree vaccination are effective tools to prevent introduction of H9N2 infection and its economic losses.

  4. The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

    2015-01-01

    We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on (1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and (2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects o...

  5. Quantum Zeno Effect Underpinning the Radical-Ion-Pair Mechanism of Avian Magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Kominis, I K

    2008-01-01

    The intricate biochemical processes underlying avian magnetoreception, the sensory ability of migratory birds to navigate using earths magnetic field, have been narrowed down to spin-dependent recombination of radical-ion pairs to be found in avian species retinal proteins. The avian magnetic field detection is governed by the interplay between magnetic interactions of the radicals unpaired electrons and the radicals recombination dynamics. Critical to this mechanism is the long lifetime of the radical-pair spin coherence, so that the weak geomagnetic field will have a chance to signal its presence. It is here shown that a fundamental quantum phenomenon, the quantum Zeno effect, is at the basis of the radical-ion-pair magnetoreception mechanism. The quantum Zeno effect naturally leads to long spin coherence lifetimes, without any constraints on the systems physical parameters, ensuring the robustness of this sensory mechanism. Basic experimental observations regarding avian magnetic sensitivity are seamlessly...

  6. Avian Influenza Surveillance and Disease Contingency Plan for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — With Avian Influenza, a nonclinical viral infection, becoming a growing concern for wild bird populations in North America and the United States, it has become...

  7. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

    2013-01-01

    The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated.

  8. Investigations of avian populations and wetland habitats at Square Lake study site: 1978 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers the investigations of avian populations and wetland habitats at Square Lake study site. Study sites, methods, physical conditions, wetland...

  9. Research Development on Cryopreservation Technique to Preserve Avian Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatan Kostaman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation technique could be used to preserve animal cell, plant or other genetic materials (included semen in frozen. In this case, the cryopreservation technique is a storage technique that carries out at very low temperature in liquid nitrogen at -196oC. At this temperature, semen does not experience the process of metabolism but still has the ability to live on when used later. Semen that is preserved by cryopreservation technique has unlimited shelf life. This method is more efficient in terms of cost, time, space, and labour than other methods. Cryopreservation techniques can be divided into conventional technique (controlled slow freezing and rapid freezing technique. Besides cryopreservation of semen, other genetic material from avian that can be cryopreservesed is Primodial Germ Cells (PGC. Balitnak has succesfully isolated the PGC of some Indonesian native chickens. The success of cryopreservation is indicated by not only the high rate of survival, but also the fertility after cryopreservation.

  10. The evolution of host specialisation in avian brood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2016-09-01

    Traditional ecological theory predicts that specialisation can promote speciation; hence, recently derived species are specialists. However, an alternative view is that new species have broad niches, which become narrower and specialised over time. Here, we test these hypotheses using avian brood parasites and three different measures of host specialisation. Brood parasites provide an ideal system in which to investigate the evolution of specialisation, because some exploit more than 40 host species and others specialise on only one. We find that young brood parasite species are smaller and specialise on a narrower range of host sizes, as expected, if specialisation is linked with the generation of new species. Moreover, we show that highly virulent parasites are more specialised, supporting findings in other host-parasite systems. Finally, we demonstrate that different measures of specialisation can lead to different conclusions, and specialisation indices should be designed taking into account the biology of each system. PMID:27417381

  11. Science for avian conservation: priorities for the new millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Petit, D.R.; Sauer, J.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Johnson, F.A.; Fornwall, M.D.; Korschgen, C.E.; Bennett, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, bird conservation activities have become the preeminent natural resource conservation effort in North America. Maturation of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP), establishment of Partners in Flight (PIF), and creation of comprehensive colonial waterbird and shorebird conservation plans have stimulated unprecedented interest in, and funding for, bird conservation in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and other countries in the western hemisphere. Key to that success in the United States has been active collaboration among federal, state and local governments, conservation organizations, academia, and industry. The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), which has primary statutory responsibility for migratory bird conservation and management, has been a key partner. Despite the great strides that have been made in bird conservation science, historical approaches to research and monitoring have often failed to provide sufficient information and understanding to effectively manage bird populations at large spatial scales. That shortcoming, and the lack of an integrated strategy and comprehensive set of research priorities, is more evident in light of the goals established by the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI). The NABCI is a trinational, coalition-driven effort to provide an organizational umbrella for existing conservation initiatives. The expanded focus of NABCI and individual bird conservation initiatives is to work together in an integrated, holistic fashion to keep common birds common and to increase populations of declining, threatened, and endangered species. To assist bird conservation initiatives in defi ning goals and developing new approaches to effective research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the research agency of DOI, convened a workshop, a??Science for Avian Conservation: Understanding, Modeling, and Applying Ecological Relationships,a?? on 31 Octobera??2 November 2000, which brought

  12. Avian hosts of West Nile virus in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Young, Ginger R; Brault, Aaron C; Levy, Craig E

    2013-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix. PMID:23857022

  13. Experimental comparison of mammalian and avian blood flow in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Kathryn; Liepmann, Dorian

    2015-11-01

    The non-Newtonian, shear rate dependent behavior of blood in microchannel fluid dynamics has been studied for nearly a century, with a significant focus on the characteristics of human blood. However, for over 200 years biologists have noted significant differences in red blood cell characteristics across vertebrate species, with particularly drastic differences in cell size and shape between mammals and non-mammalian classes. We present an experimental analysis of flow in long microchannels for several varieties of mammalian and avian blood, across a range of hematocrits, channel diameters, and flow rates. Correlation of shear rate and viscosity is compared to existing constitutive equations for human blood to further quantify the importance of red blood cell characteristics. Ongoing experimental results are made available in an online database for reference or collaboration. K.F. acknowledges funding from the ARCS Foundation and an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship through NSF Grant DGE 1106400.

  14. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriță

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method, and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g% were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%. There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709 between the total protein values, determined with both methods. Protein is the major determinant of plasma refractive index, but glucose contributes too. The refractometric method is not recommended in chickens for the determination of total protein, because avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice than in mammalian blood.

  15. Ballistocardiogram of avian eggs determined by an electromagnetic induction coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H; Akiyama, R; Sakamoto, Y; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1997-07-01

    As an avian embryo grows within an eggshell, the whole egg is moved by embryonic activity and also by the embryonic heartbeat. A technical interest in detecting minute biological movements has prompted the development of techniques and systems to measure the cardiogenic ballistic movement of the egg or ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this context, there is interest in using an electromagnetic induction coil (solenoid) as another simple sensor to measure the BCG and examining its possibility for BCG measurement. A small permanent magnet is attached tightly to the surface of an incubated egg, and then the egg with the magnet is placed in a solenoid. Preliminary model analysis is made to design a setup of the egg, magnet and solenoid coupling system. Then, simultaneous measurement with a laser displacement measuring system, developed previously, is made for chicken eggs, indicating that the solenoid detects the minute cardiogenic ballistic movements and that the BCG determined is a measure of the velocity of egg movements. PMID:9327626

  16. Urbanisation tolerance and the loss of avian diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Daniel; González-Lagos, Cesar; Moreira, Darío; Maspons, Joan; Lapiedra, Oriol

    2014-08-01

    Urbanisation is considered an important driver of current biodiversity loss, but the underlying causes are not fully understood. It is generally assumed that this loss reflects the fact that most organisms do not tolerate well the environmental alterations associated with urbanisation. Nevertheless, current evidence is inconclusive and the alternative that the biodiversity loss is the result of random mechanisms has never been evaluated. Analysing changes in abundance between urbanised environments and their non-urbanised surroundings of > 800 avian species from five continents, we show here that although random processes account for part of the species loss associated with urbanisation, much of the loss is associated with a lack of appropriate adaptations of most species for exploiting resources and avoiding risks of the urban environments. These findings have important conservation implications because the extinction of species with particular features should have higher impact on biodiversity and ecosystem function than a random loss. PMID:24835452

  17. Detection of avian nephritis virus in Australian chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Kylie A; O'Rourke, Denise; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2010-09-01

    Avian nephritis virus (ANV) is thought to infect poultry flocks worldwide, but no confirmed case has been reported in Australia. The first such case is described in this study. Cases of young chickens with clinical signs of dehydration and diarrhea were submitted to our laboratory and histopathology detected interstitial nephritis. Vaccine strains of infectious bronchitis virus were detected in some of these cases but were not considered to be the causative agent. A total of seven fresh submissions from broiler chicken flocks were collected at 8-11 days of age. Degenerate PCR primers were designed based on published ANV polymerase gene sequences and used to analyze historic cases as well as the fresh submissions. Six of the seven fresh submissions, and one historic case, were positive for ANV with nucleotide sequencing confirming these results. These results establish ANV as an infectious pathogen circulating in Australian poultry.

  18. Phylogenomic analyses data of the avian phylogenomics project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvis, Erich D; Mirarab, Siavash; Aberer, Andre J;

    2015-01-01

    , amino acids, indels, and transposable elements, as well as tree files containing gene trees and species trees. Inferring an accurate phylogeny required generating: 1) A well annotated data set across species based on genome synteny; 2) Alignments with unaligned or incorrectly overaligned sequences...... filtered out; and 3) Diverse data sets, including genes and their inferred trees, indels, and transposable elements. Our total evidence nucleotide tree (TENT) data set (consisting of exons, introns, and UCEs) gave what we consider our most reliable species tree when using the concatenation-based Exa......ML algorithm or when using statistical binning with the coalescence-based MP-EST algorithm (which we refer to as MP-EST*). Other data sets, such as the coding sequence of some exons, revealed other properties of genome evolution, namely convergence. CONCLUSIONS: The Avian Phylogenomics Project is the largest...

  19. Toxicological perspectives on perfluorinated compounds in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, J.; Jones, P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals have been widely used in commerce for the last few decades. Until recently little was known about their environmental fate and even less was known about their potential environmental effects. Since Giesy and co-workers first demonstrated the widespread occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in wildlife there has been renewed interest in determining the biological and possible ecological effects of these compounds. The assessment of possible effects of these chemicals has been hampered by a limited understanding of their mode of action and by a lack of toxicological data for wildlife species. Here we summarize recently obtained toxicological studies available for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in two avian species and use this information and environmental concentration data to evaluate the potential for environmental risk that these compounds pose.

  20. Control of Avian Coccidiosis: Future and Present Natural Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herbal extracts, and immune response modulators with proven anticoccidial activity, many of which exist as dietary supplements. Additionally, we offer an overview of the poultry industry and the economic cost of coccidiosis as well as the classical strategies used to control the disease.

  1. Expression analysis of TALE family transcription factors during avian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Sarah E; Borycki, Anne-Gaëlle

    2010-04-01

    The TALE family of homeodomain containing transcription factors consists of the Meis, Prep and Tgif, and the Pbx subfamily of proteins. Several TALE orthologues have been identified in amniotes, but no comprehensive analysis of their expression pattern during embryogenesis has been performed. Here, we report on TALE gene expression in the avian embryo. During embryonic development, Pbx genes are predominantly expressed in the neural ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm, although Pbx3 is restricted to the intermediate and lateral mesoderm, and anterior central nervous system. Members of the Meis, Prep, and Tgif subfamilies are expressed at high levels in the paraxial mesoderm, and display differential expression along the anterior-posterior and dorsoventral axes of the developing neural tube. Overall the expression patterns reported in this study are consistent with the known function of the TALE gene family in controlling early patterning of limb, neural tube and paraxial mesoderm tissues during embryogenesis.

  2. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Bahl, Justin; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Killian, Mary Lea; Ip, Hon S.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. PMID:27314845

  3. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Bahl, Justin; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Killian, Mary Lea; Ip, Hon S; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Swayne, David E

    2016-07-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. PMID:27314845

  4. Risk maps for the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry.

    OpenAIRE

    Gert Jan Boender; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Annemarie Bouma; Gonnie Nodelijk; Elbers, Armin R. W; De Jong, Mart C. M.; Michiel van Boven

    2007-01-01

    Devastating epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases such as avian influenza, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease underline the need for improved understanding of the factors promoting the spread of these pathogens. Here the authors present a spatial analysis of the between-farm transmission of a highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus that caused a large epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003. The authors developed a method to estimate key parameters determining the spr...

  5. Risk maps for the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Boender, G.J.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Bouma, A.; Nodelijk, G.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Jong, de, D.; Boven, van, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Devastating epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases such as avian influenza, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease underline the need for improved understanding of the factors promoting the spread of these pathogens. Here the authors present a spatial analysis of the between-farm transmission of a highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus that caused a large epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003. The authors developed a method to estimate key parameters determining the spr...

  6. Cambodia’s patient zero: The political economy of foreign aid and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2009-01-01

    The article of record may be found at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/21825/ What happens when a developing country with poor health infrastructure and even poorer animal health surveillance is thought to be a potential source for the next emerging infectious disease? This is the story of Cambodia and Avian Influenza. This paper undertakes a review of the relevant literature and analyzes the results of detailed semi-structured interviews of individuals highly engaged in Avian I...

  7. Food plant diversity as broad-scale determinant of avian frugivore richness

    OpenAIRE

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Rahbek, Carsten; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    The causes of variation in animal species richness at large spatial scales are intensively debated. Here, we examine whether the diversity of food plants, contemporary climate and energy, or habitat heterogeneity determine species richness patterns of avian frugivores across sub-Saharan Africa. Path models indicate that species richness of Ficus (their fruits being one of the major food resources for frugivores in the tropics) has the strongest direct effect on richness of avian frugivores, w...

  8. Avian myeloblastosis virus-induced lymphosarcoma producing erythroblastic leucosis in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki,Yoshito

    1975-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloblastosis and several forms of tumor, including one case of lymphosarcoma occurred when avian myeloblastosis virus (BAI-A strain was inoculated into newly hatched chicks (SPF. The homogenate of lymphosarcoma inoculated intraperitoneally into other newly hatched chicks induced a high incidence of erythroblastic leucosis. Electron microscopy did not reveal the presence of C-type virus particles in the tumor tissue. The relationship between avian myeloblastosis virus, lymphosarcoma and erythroblastic leucosis is discussed.

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and generation of novel reassortants,United States, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Hun Lee; Justin Bahl; Mia Kim Torchetti; Mary Lea Killian; Ip, Hon S.; David E Swayne

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Bornavirus Genotype 1 from a Macaw with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L.; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1).

  11. Complete genome sequence of avian bornavirus genotype 1 from a Macaw with proventricular dilatation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1). PMID:22628404

  12. Peningkatan Titer Antibodi Terhadap Avian Influenza Dalam Serum Ayam Petelur yang Divaksin Dengan Vaksin Komersial

    OpenAIRE

    Ummu Balqis; Muhammad Hambal; Mulyadi Mulyadi; Samadi Samadi; Darmawi Darmawi

    2011-01-01

    Increasing of antibody titre against avian influenza in serum of vaccinated laying hens with commercial vaccine ABSTRACT. The advantages of vaccination are that it reduces the risk of infection, and concurrently reduces morbidity, mortality and shedding of virus. The goal of the present study was to evaluate efficacy of Avian Influenza commercial vaccine based on humoral immunity responses of laying hens. Totally, 20 breakel silver layer hens were used in this research. The laying hens we...

  13. Avian brood parasitism——a growing research area in behavioral ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eivin; RSKAFT; Wei; LIANG; Brd; G.STOKKE

    2012-01-01

    正We are pleased to be responsible guest editors for the two special issues of Chinese Birds(Vol.3,No.4,2012 and Vol.4,No.1,2013),entitled "Avian Brood Parasitism — a Growing Research Area in Behavioral Ecology".The goal of the two special issues is to publish accumulated knowledge and some of the recent developments in the fascinating research occurring in avian

  14. How Predation Risk Shapes Avian Nest Site Selection and Processes Underlying Nest Predation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Quresh Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    Given the importance of nest predation to avian fitness, ornithologists expect birds to select nest sites that minimize predation risk. Despite numerous studies contributing to a large body of literature, how predation shapes avian nest site selection is not well understood largely because studies rarely examine the processes underlying either nest site selection or predation risk. I investigated how predation shapes nest site selection for a population of Yellow Warblers with an eye for the ...

  15. Avian brood parasitism — a growing research area in behavioral ecology (part Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eivin; RΦSKAFT; Wei; LIANG; Brd; G.STOKKE

    2013-01-01

    正We are pleased to publish the second special issue on avian brood parasitism and to be responsible guest editors for the two special issues of Chinese Birds (Vol. 3, No. 4, 2012 and Vol. 4, No. 1, 2013), entitled "Avian Brood Parasitism - A Growing Research Area in Behavioral Ecology". The first issue was published in December 2012. The goal of the two special issues is to publish accumulated knowledge and some of the recent developments in

  16. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  17. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  18. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gilbert

    Full Text Available Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005-2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks, or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans, while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2, or 2009 and 2010 (clade 2.3.2.1; all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 2.3.2.1 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study.

  19. Avian Field guide and checklist for Kunsan Air Base, Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, J. B.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Kunsan Air Base (AB). This on-going survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Kunsan AB, and the 8th Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred sixteen bird species representing 34 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Cultural Property Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Six species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's(KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, only ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected because the Eurasian Spoonbill, Peregrine Falcon, and Eurasian Oystercatcher are listed by both agencies. The primary objective of the avian survey at Kunsan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex C.4.a.(1-4) of the 8th Fighter Wing BASH Plan(8FWOPLAN 91-202). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Kunsan AB throughout the year, and from the survey results determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Kunsan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Kunsan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a and also that are favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  20. Control strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubroth, J

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive programmes for the prevention, detection and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) require a national dimension and relevant national legislation in which veterinary services can conduct surveillance, competent diagnosis and rapid response. Avian influenza was controlled and prevented by vaccination long before the current H5N1 crisis. The use of vaccine cannot be separated from other essential elements of a vaccination campaign, which include education in poultry production practices, such as hygiene, all in-all out production concepts, separation of species, biosecurity (bio-exclusion to keep the disease out and biocontainment to keep the disease from spreading once suspected or detected), competence in giving the vaccine and the role of vaccination teams, post-vaccination monitoring to ensure efficacy and to detect the circulation of wild-type virus, surveillance and buffer zones in outbreak areas, and performance indicators to determine when vaccination can cease. Reporting of disease can be improved through well-structured, adequately financed veterinary services and also by fair compensation for producers who suffer financial loss. A rapid response to suspected cases of HPAI should be ensured in simulation exercises involving various sectors of the food production and marketing chain, policy-makers, official veterinary structures and other government personnel. As for other transboundary animal diseases, national approaches must be part of a regional strategy and regional networks for cooperation and information sharing, which in turn reflect global policies and international standards, such as the quality of vaccines, reporting obligations, humane interventions, cleaning and disinfection methods, restocking times, monitoring and safe trade. PMID:18411931

  1. Homoplastic microinversions and the avian tree of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Ben D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microinversions are cytologically undetectable inversions of DNA sequences that accumulate slowly in genomes. Like many other rare genomic changes (RGCs, microinversions are thought to be virtually homoplasy-free evolutionary characters, suggesting that they may be very useful for difficult phylogenetic problems such as the avian tree of life. However, few detailed surveys of these genomic rearrangements have been conducted, making it difficult to assess this hypothesis or understand the impact of microinversions upon genome evolution. Results We surveyed non-coding sequence data from a recent avian phylogenetic study and found substantially more microinversions than expected based upon prior information about vertebrate inversion rates, although this is likely due to underestimation of these rates in previous studies. Most microinversions were lineage-specific or united well-accepted groups. However, some homoplastic microinversions were evident among the informative characters. Hemiplasy, which reflects differences between gene trees and the species tree, did not explain the observed homoplasy. Two specific loci were microinversion hotspots, with high numbers of inversions that included both the homoplastic as well as some overlapping microinversions. Neither stem-loop structures nor detectable sequence motifs were associated with microinversions in the hotspots. Conclusions Microinversions can provide valuable phylogenetic information, although power analysis indicates that large amounts of sequence data will be necessary to identify enough inversions (and similar RGCs to resolve short branches in the tree of life. Moreover, microinversions are not perfect characters and should be interpreted with caution, just as with any other character type. Independent of their use for phylogenetic analyses, microinversions are important because they have the potential to complicate alignment of non-coding sequences. Despite their low

  2. Estimates of Avian Mortality Attributed to Vehicle Collisions in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bishop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although mortality of birds from collisions with vehicles is estimated to be in the millions in the USA, Europe, and the UK, to date, no estimates exist for Canada. To address this, we calculated an estimate of annual avian mortality attributed to vehicular collisions during the breeding and fledging season, in Canadian ecozones, by applying North American literature values for avian mortality to Canadian road networks. Because owls are particularly susceptible to collisions with vehicles, we also estimated the number of roadkilled Barn owls (Tyto alba in its last remaining range within Canada. (This species is on the IUCN red list and is also listed federally as threatened; Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 2010, International Union for the Conservation of Nature 2012. Through seven Canadian studies in existence, 80 species and 2,834 specimens have been found dead on roads representing species from 14 orders of birds. On Canadian 1 and 2-lane paved roads outside of major urban centers, the unadjusted number of bird mortalities/yr during an estimated 4-mo (122-d breeding and fledging season for most birds in Canada was 4,650,137 on roads traversing through deciduous, coniferous, cropland, wetlands and nonagricultural landscapes with less than 10% treed area. On average, this represents 1,167 birds killed/100 km in Canada. Adjusted for scavenging, this estimate was 13,810,906 (3,462 dead birds/100 km. For barn owls, the unadjusted number of birds killed annually on 4-lane roads during the breeding and fledging season, within the species geographic range in southern British Columbia, was estimated as 244 owls and, when adjusted for scavenging and observer bias (3.6 factor, the total was 851 owls.

  3. Map of the Anlage fields in the avian unincubated blastoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callebaut, M; van Nueten, E; Bortier, H; Harrisson, F; van Nassauw, L

    1996-12-01

    By excision at different sites of rectangular fragments from unincubated chicken blastoderms and replacement by isotopic fragments from unincubated quail blastoderms, we could make the first complete map of the Anlage fields in the freshly laid avian blastoderm. All the Anlage fields (Fig. 11) are found in the upper layer (UL) of the caudal half of the area centralis (bordered by the Rauber-Koller's sickle). In the UL of the area marginalis, peripheral to Rauber-Koller's sickle, neither gastrulation nor neurulation phenomena could be observed. Similar heterotopic replacement experiments indicate that before incubation, the different parts of the UL of the area centralis are still uncommitted or reversibly committed. The Anlage fields of chordamesoblast and definitive endoderm (gut endoderm) in unincubated avian blastoderms appeared to be disposed caudally in the caudal half of the area centralis. As far as we know we are the first to demonstrate that the Anlage field of the definitive gut endoderm (which is derived from the upper layer: Hunt, 1937; Vakaet, 1962b) is localized in the most caudal upper layer part of the area centralis just centrally to the Rauber-Koller's sickle. The Anlage field of the neural plate is localized in the upper layer over the more cranial endophyll. The Anlage of the brain is shield-shaped, whilst the other Anlage fields are sickle-shaped, parallel with the Rauber-Koller's sickle. Their general hemicircular disposition and form still seem to reflect (together with the Rauber-Koller's sickle) the original ooplasmic radial symmetry (Callebaut, 1972) combined with the eccentricity of the deep layer components, which was observed during early symmetrization by gravitational orientation of the egg yolk (Callebaut, 1993a,b). The Rauber-Koller's sickle might be homologous with the vegetal dorsalizing cells or centre of Nieuwkoop (1973) in amphibian blastulas.

  4. [Cross-species Transmission of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanwei; He, Menglian; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Manda; Wang, Guihua; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that can induce myelocytomas. A high-frequency mutation in gene envelope endows ALV-J with the potential for cross-species transmission. We wished to ascertain if the ALV-J can spread across species under selection pressure in susceptible and resistant hosts. First, we inoculated (in turn) two susceptible host birds (specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and turkeys). Then, we inoculated three resistant hosts (pheasants, quails and ducks) to detect the viral shedding, pathologic changes, and genetic evolution of different isolates. We found that pheasants and quails were infected under the selective pressure that accumulates stepwise in different hosts, and that ducks were not infected. Infection rates for SPF chickens and turkeys were 100% (16/16), whereas those for pheasants and quails were 37.5% (6/16) and 11.1% (3/27). Infected hosts showed immune tolerance, and inflammation and tissue damage could be seen in the liver, spleen, kidneys and cardiovascular system. Non-synonymous mutation and synonymous ratio (NS/S) analyses revealed the NS/S in hypervariable region (hr) 2 of pheasants and quails was 2.5. That finding suggested that mutation of isolates in pheasants and quails was induced by selective pressure from the resistant host, and that the hr2 region is a critical domain in cross-species transmission of ALV-J. Sequencing showed that ALV-J isolates from turkeys, pheasants and quails had moved away from the original virus, and were closer to the ALV-J prototype strain HPRS-103. However, the HPRS-103 strain cannot infect pheasants and quails, so further studies are needed.

  5. DISTANCE-BASED UPDATE STRATEGY IN LDCQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yi; Edward Chan; Huang Zailu

    2004-01-01

    A new update strategy, distance-based update strategy, is presented in Location Dependent Continuous Query (LDCQ) under error limitation. There are different possibilities to intersect when the distances between moving objects and the querying boundary are different.Therefore, moving objects have different influences to the query result. We set different deviation limits for different moving objects according to distances. A great number of unnecessary updates are reduced and the payload of the system is relieved.

  6. Updating systematic reviews: an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Garritty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack

  7. A Provenance Tracking Model for Data Updates

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Ciobanu; Ross Horne

    2012-01-01

    For data-centric systems, provenance tracking is particularly important when the system is open and decentralised, such as the Web of Linked Data. In this paper, a concise but expressive calculus which models data updates is presented. The calculus is used to provide an operational semantics for a system where data and updates interact concurrently. The operational semantics of the calculus also tracks the provenance of data with respect to updates. This provides a new formal semantics extend...

  8. The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiteng [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kais, Sabre [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on 1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and 2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects of noise. We believe that the quantum avian compass can play an important role in avian navigation and can also provide the foundation for a new generation of sensitive and selective magnetic-sensing nano-devices.

  9. Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S; Baroch, John A; Nolting, Jacqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L; Pharr, G Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts, including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammal species. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here, we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about four units, and each unit corresponds to a 2 log 2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable. PMID:27309078

  10. Antigenic characterization of H3 subtypes of avian influenza A viruses from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Pong; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Baroch, John A; Nolting, Jaqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L; Pharr, G Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts, including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammal species. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here, we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about four units, and each unit corresponds to a 2 log 2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable.

  11. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François; Ridgely, Ryan C; McGee, Amanda R; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2011-12-22

    Little is known about the olfactory capabilities of extinct basal (non-neornithine) birds or the evolutionary changes in olfaction that occurred from non-avian theropods through modern birds. Although modern birds are known to have diverse olfactory capabilities, olfaction is generally considered to have declined during avian evolution as visual and vestibular sensory enhancements occurred in association with flight. To test the hypothesis that olfaction diminished through avian evolution, we assessed relative olfactory bulb size, here used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capabilities, in 157 species of non-avian theropods, fossil birds and living birds. We show that relative olfactory bulb size increased during non-avian maniraptoriform evolution, remained stable across the non-avian theropod/bird transition, and increased during basal bird and early neornithine evolution. From early neornithines through a major part of neornithine evolution, the relative size of the olfactory bulbs remained stable before decreasing in derived neoavian clades. Our results show that, rather than decreasing, the importance of olfaction actually increased during early bird evolution, representing a previously unrecognized sensory enhancement. The relatively larger olfactory bulbs of earliest neornithines, compared with those of basal birds, may have endowed neornithines with improved olfaction for more effective foraging or navigation skills, which in turn may have been a factor allowing them to survive the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

  12. Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Baroch, John A.; Nolting, Jacqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L.; Pharr, G. Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammals. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other, and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about 4 units, and each unit corresponds to a 2log2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable. PMID:27309078

  13. Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released the "China Industry Competitiveness Report (2012) NO.2", Guo Chaoxian, deputy director of Industrial Organization Office of Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Industrial Economics, said that textile and garmentindustry was China's most competitive industries, product market share ranked the second in the world, while productivity was 14 times of the United States. Guo Chaoxian noted that China's textile and garment industry was the most competitive national industry, no matter in terms of international market share, trade competitiveness index, the real index of comparative advantage, all were regarded as the strongest in the world. China's textile and garment industry's market share came in the second in the world, six times of Italy, seven times of Germany and twelve times of the United States.

  14. Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's middle and low textile export situation remains grim. India's ban on cotton exports is to improve the competitiveness of the terminal textiles in the international market. In recent years, India has become the opponent of the Chinese textile exports in the international market, especially in the low-end textiles. India relies on the advantages of raw material and labor cost to continue to erode China's international market share. Though the overall technical level of the domestic textile industry and transport conditions are not as good as China, its current price advantage pose a large threat to China's low-end textile and garment exports.

  15. Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    2011 Chinese online shopping industry continues the momentum of rapid development in 2010, gradually narrowing the gap of the online shopping environment in the region, online shopping growth in some of the second and third tier provinces performed outstandingly. According to the iResearch ECPlus monitoring data,

  16. UPDATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s Inflation to Continue Easing in August China’s consumer price index (CPI), a key measure of inflation, was expected to show a rise of about 5 percent in August from a year earlier, said analysts on Thursday.

  17. Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China National Textile and Apparel Council recently announced the evaluation result of 2010-2011 most competitive textile enterprises. Meanwhile it also announced this year's top 10 (20) most competitive enterprises candidate list for individual industry; top 500 comprehensive competitive enterprises candidate list for all industries; top 100 enterprises candidate list for main business revenue and export value.

  18. Eczema and ceramides: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Agner, Tove

    2013-01-01

    mutations in almost 50% of patients with moderate/severe atopic dermatitis, and lipid disturbances, mainly expressed as insufficient ceramides. In this review, with an emphasis on human studies, we consider the latest research on ceramides, on ceramides in different types of eczema and following various...... types of treatment. We also consider the genetic influence on stratum corneum lipids. The review is an update on research indexed in PubMed following the discovery of the filaggrin mutations in atopic dermatitis in 2006, but when newer publications cannot stand alone, we include publications from before...

  19. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  20. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2014-01-01

    A classic now in its 14th edition, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best resource for students and professionals looking to brush up on how these technologies have developed, grown, and converged, as well as what's in store for the future. It begins by developing the communication technology framework-the history, ecosystem, and structure-then delves into each type of technology, including everything from mass media, to computers and consumer electronics, to networking technologies. Each chapter is written by faculty and industry experts who p

  1. Update of Thyroid Developmental Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupa, Athanasia; Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Carré, Aurore; Polak, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient regions and includes a spectrum of developmental anomalies. The genetic components of TD are complex. Although a sporadic disease, advances in developmental biology have revealed monogenetic forms of TD. Inheritance is not based on a simple Mendelian pattern and additional genetic elements might contribute to the phenotypic spectrum. This article summarizes the key steps of normal thyroid development and provides an update on responsible genes and underlying mechanisms of TD. Up-to-date technologies in genetics and biology will allow us to advance in our knowledge of TD. PMID:27241962

  2. Nordic MCL2 trial update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Christian H; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogenic non-Hodgkin lymphoma entity, with a median survival of about 5 years. In 2008 we reported the early - based on the median observation time of 4 years - results of the Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL2 study of frontline intensive induction immunochemotherapy...... and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), with more than 60% event-free survival at 5 years, and no subsequent relapses reported. Here we present an update after a median observation time of 6·5 years. The overall results are still excellent, with median overall survival and response duration longer than...

  3. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology by adopting the flight data with...

  4. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology (ZONA) proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology that utilizes flight data with...

  5. Assessing Arboreal Adaptations of Bird Antecedents: Testing the Ecological Setting of the Origin of the Avian Flight Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    T Alexander Dececchi; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of avian flight is a classic macroevolutionary transition with research spanning over a century. Two competing models explaining this locomotory transition have been discussed for decades: ground up versus trees down. Although it is impossible to directly test either of these theories, it is possible to test one of the requirements for the trees-down model, that of an arboreal paravian. We test for arboreality in non-avian theropods and early birds with comparisons to extant avian,...

  6. The financial cost implications of the highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza H5N1 in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fasina, F.O.; M.M. Sirdar; S.P.R. Bisschop

    2008-01-01

    Nigeria and several other nations have recently been affected by outbreaks of the Asian H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (HPNAI) virus, which affects the poultry sector most heavily. This study analysed previous methods of assessing losses due to avian influenza, and used a revised economic model to calculate costs associated with the current avian influenza outbreaks. The evaluation used epidemiological data, production figures and other input parameters to d...

  7. First detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in common kestrel falcon (Falco tinnunculus) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    ElBakrey, Reham M.; Mansour, Shimaa M. G.; Ali, Haytham; Knudsen, David E. B.; Eid, Amal A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) poses threats to animal and human health worldwide. A common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) was submitted to Avian and Rabbit Medicine Department, Zagazig University, Egypt. It exhibited torticollis, incoordination, and inability to stand. Conjunctivitis and crust formation were seen. Postmortem findings revealed congestion in internal organs and greenish content in gizzard. No avian pox virus was detected in cutaneous lesions neither in histopatho...

  8. Outbreak of Avian Malaria Associated to Multiple Species of Plasmodium in Magellanic Penguins Undergoing Rehabilitation in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K.M.; Sandro Sandri; Patrícia Silveira; Belo, Nayara O.; Francisco C Ferreira Junior; Sabrina Epiphanio; Mário Steindel; Érika M. Braga; José Luiz Catão-Dias

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic pen...

  9. Analysis of hematologic and serum chemistry values of Spheniscus magellanicus with molecular detection of avian malarial parasites (Plasmodium spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina D.E. Campos; Jeferson R. Pires; Cristiane L. Nascimento; Gustavo Dutra; Rodolpho A. Torres-Filho; Helena K. Toma; Beatriz Brener; Nádia R.P. Almosny

    2014-01-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) routinely migrate from their breeding colonies to Southern Brazil often contracting diseases during this migration, notably avian malaria, which has been already reported in Brazil and throughout the world. Detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood smears is the routine diagnostic method of avian malaria, however it has a low sensitivity rate when compared to molecular methods. Considering the negative impact of avian malaria on penguins, the aim of t...

  10. The Dynamics of Avian Influenza: Individual-Based Model with Intervention Strategies in Traditional Trade Networks in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiwat Wilasang; Anuwat Wiratsudakul; Sudarat Chadsuthi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic to Southeast Asia. In Thailand, avian influenza viruses continue to cause large poultry stock losses. The spread of the disease has a serious impact on poultry production especially among rural households with backyard chickens. The movements and activities of chicken traders result in the spread of the disease through traditional trade networks. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of avian influenza in the traditional trade network in Phit...

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Neuraminidase gene of avian influenza H5N1 subtype detected in Iran in 1390(2011)

    OpenAIRE

    E Kord; Shoushtari, A.; H Ghadakchi; MOHAMMADI, R.; A ,Hadinia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Among the various subtypes of avian influenza viruses, an H5N1 subtype virus with high pathogenicity is of great importance. The aim of this study was to determine the Phylogenetic analysis of neuraminidase gene of avian influenza virus subtype of the H5N1 in Iran in 1390. Methods: In this experimental study, two swab samples from chickens with suspected symptoms of avian influenza were tested by the World Health Organization recommendation. The neuraminidase...

  12. China makes an impressive breakthrough in avian influenza virus research - Discovering the "heart" of avian infl uenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y G; Wu, J F; Li, X

    2009-02-01

    The successive appearance of strains of epizootic avian influenza A virus with the subtype H5N1 in China has attracted considerable concern from the public and Chinese authorities. According to the latest WHO estimates as of February 2, 2009, the number of H5N1 virus deaths in China totaled 25, second only to Indonesia and Viet Nam (http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases_table_2009_02_02/en/index.html). The H5N1 virus is highly contagious among birds and is fatal when transmitted to humans, though the means by which this occurs is still unknown. Owing to the possible variation of the H5N1 prototype virus, together with the fact that it has the propensity to exchange genes with influenza viruses from other species, humans have no natural immunity to the virus. Despite years of efforts, the exact pathogenesis of H5N1 transmission to humans is still not completely clear, nor is potential human-tohuman transmission as could lead to an epidemic or even worldwide pandemic (Enserink M. Science. 2009; 323:324). Unfortunately, current antiviral treatment and therapeutic measures cannot effectively overcome this virulent virus that causes highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Researchers from around the world are working to study the virology of influenza viruses, including their methods of infiltration, replication, and transcription, to elucidate the mechanisms of unremitting viral infection in terms of aspects such as the virus, host, and environment. These researchers are also working to identify potential molecular targets related to H5N1 for anti-influenza drug intervention. A recent H5N1-related study from China provides encouraging information. According to the People's Daily (Renmin Ribao), a newspaper out of Beijing, professor Liu Yingfang, academician Rao Zihe, and fellow researchers from more than 6 research centers, including the Institute of Biophysics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nankai University, and Tsinghua University, have

  13. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  14. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  15. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  16. 40 CFR 68.190 - Updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Updates. 68.190 Section 68.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.190 Updates. (a) The owner or operator...

  17. 34 CFR 668.55 - Updating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Updating information. 668.55 Section 668.55 Education... Information § 668.55 Updating information. (a)(1) Unless the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this... applicant to verify the information contained in his or her application for assistance in an award year...

  18. Better Plants Progress Update Fall 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-23

    This Progress Update summarizes the significant energy saving achievements and cumulative cost savings made by these industry leaders from 2010-2012. The update also shares the plans and priorities over the next year for the Better Plants Program to continue to advance energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  19. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Proposed FOIA Fee Schedule, 77 FR 32433. No comments were received in response to that notice, and the... Schedule Update went into effect on July 29, 2011. 76 FR 43819. Board Action Accordingly, the Board issues... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  20. Landscape attributes driving avian influenza virus circulation in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Guerrini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has been studied throughout Southeast Asia, little is known on the spatial risk factors for avian influenza in Africa. In the present paper, we combined serological data from poultry and remotely sensed environmental factors in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar to explore for any association between avian influenza and landscape variables. Serological data from cross-sectional surveys carried out on poultry in 2008 and 2009 were examined together with a Landsat 7 satellite image analysed using supervised classification. The dominant landscape features in a 1-km buffer around farmhouses and distance to the closest water body were extracted. A total of 1,038 individual bird blood samples emanating from 241 flocks were analysed, and the association between avian influenza seroprevalence and these landcape variables was quantified using logistic regression models. No evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 avian influenza subtypes was found, suggesting that only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI circulated. Three predominant land cover classes were identified around the poultry farms: grassland savannah, rice paddy fields and wetlands. A significant negative relationship was found between LPAI seroprevalence and distance to the closest body of water. We also found that LPAI seroprevalence was higher in farms characterised by predominant wetlands or rice landscapes than in those surrounded by dry savannah. Results from this study suggest that if highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus were introduced in Madagascar, the environmental conditions that prevail in Lake Alaotra region may allow the virus to spread and persist.

  1. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents. The majority (90% of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3% than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%. Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia.

  2. Mercury risk to avian piscivores across western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Josh; Willacker, James J.; Elliott, John E.; Lepak, Jesse M; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    The widespread distribution of mercury (Hg) threatens wildlife health, particularly piscivorous birds. Western North America is a diverse region that provides critical habitat to many piscivorous bird species, and also has a well-documented history of mercury contamination from legacy mining and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of landscapes in the west limits the distribution of avian piscivore species, complicating broad comparisons across the region. Mercury risk to avian piscivores was evaluated across the western United States and Canada using a suite of avian piscivore species representing a variety of foraging strategies that together occur broadly across the region. Prey fish Hg concentrations were size-adjusted to the preferred size class of the diet for each avian piscivore (Bald Eagle = 36 cm, Osprey = 30 cm, Common and Yellow-billed Loon = 15 cm, Western and Clark's Grebe = 6 cm, and Belted Kingfisher = 5 cm) across each species breeding range. Using a combination of field and lab-based studies on Hg effect in a variety of species, wet weight blood estimates were grouped into five relative risk categories including: background ( 3 μg/g). These risk categories were used to estimate potential mercury risk to avian piscivores across the west at a 1 degree-by-1 degree grid cell resolution. Avian piscivores foraging on larger-sized fish generally were at a higher relative risk to Hg. Habitats with a relatively high risk included wetland complexes (e.g., prairie pothole in Saskatchewan), river deltas (e.g., San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, Columbia River), and arid lands (Great Basin and central Arizona). These results indicate that more intensive avian piscivore sampling is needed across Western North America to generate a more robust assessment of exposure risk.

  3. Investigation of avian haemosporidian parasites from raptor birds in Turkey, with molecular characterisation and microscopic confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciloglu, Arif; Yildirim, Alparslan; Duzlu, Onder; Onder, Zuhal; Dogan, Zafer; Inci, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Avian haemosporidians are common vector-borne blood parasites that have been reported in birds all over the world. Investigations of avian haemosporidian parasites are conducted mainly on passerine birds. However, studies that focus on non-passerine avian hosts are important for our understanding of the true diversity, host specificity and genetic variability among these widespread parasites. In the present study, blood samples from a total of 22 raptor birds belonging to two orders, two families and six species from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were investigated for three genera of avian haemosporidians (Plasmodium Marchiafava et Celli, 1885, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890 and Leucocytozoon Sambon, 1908) using a combination of microscopic examination of blood films and nested PCR targeting the parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt-b). In total, six individual raptor birds identified positive for species of Plasmodium or Leucocytozoon and one individual was found co-infected with all three haemosporidian genera. We identified five parasite cyt-b haplotypes, three of which were reported for the first time. Among these, one Plasmodium haplotype is linked to a corresponding morphospecies (P-TURDUS1, Plasmodium circumflexum Kikuth, 1931). All haplotypes were clearly distinguishable in phylogenetic analyses. As one of the first studies to investigate blood parasites from non-passerine birds in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, this study provides important new information on the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of avian haemosporidian parasites from raptor birds. We discuss these findings in the context of avian haemosporidian host-parasite relationships and we draw attention to the need for microscopy to detect parasite sexual development stages in surveys of avian haemosporidians. PMID:27507297

  4. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  5. Susceptibility and Status of Avian Influenza in Ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolnik, Celia; Olivier, Adriaan; Reynolds, Chevonne; Henry, Dominic; Cumming, Graeme; Rauff, Dionne; Romito, Marco; Petty, Deryn; Falch, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    The extensive nature of ostrich farming production systems bears the continual risk of point introductions of avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild birds, but immune status, management, population density, and other causes of stress in ostriches are the ultimate determinants of the severity of the disease in this species. From January 2012 to December 2014, more than 70 incidents of AIV in ostriches were reported in South Africa. These included H5N2 and H7N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in 2012, H7N7 LPAI in 2013, and H5N2 LPAI in 2014. To resolve the molecular epidemiology in South Africa, the entire South African viral repository from ostriches and wild birds from 1991 to 2013 (n = 42) was resequenced by next-generation sequencing technology to obtain complete genomes for comparison. The phylogenetic results were supplemented with serological data for ostriches from 2012 to 2014, and AIV-detection data from surveillance of 17 762 wild birds sampled over the same period. Phylogenetic evidence pointed to wild birds, e.g., African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus), in the dissemination of H7N1 LPAI to ostriches in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces during 2012, in separate incidents that could not be epidemiologically linked. In contrast, the H7N7 LPAI outbreaks in 2013 that were restricted to the Western Cape Province appear to have originated from a single-point introduction from wild birds. Two H5N2 viruses detected in ostriches in 2012 were determined to be LPAI strains that were new introductions, epidemiologically unrelated to the 2011 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks. Seventeen of 27 (63%) ostrich viruses contained the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) E627K marker, and 2 of the ostrich isolates that lacked E627K contained the compensatory Q591K mutation, whereas a third virus had a D701N mutation. Ostriches maintain a low upper- to midtracheal temperature as part of their adaptive physiology for desert survival, which may

  6. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism"). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

  7. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Martin Sander

    Full Text Available Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM. This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism". Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

  8. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism"). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size. PMID:24205267

  9. Assessment of national strategies for control of high pathogenicity avian influenza and low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza in poultry, with emphasis on vaccines and vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-nine distinct epizootics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred since 1959. The H5N1 HPAI panzootic affecting Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe has been the largest among these, affecting poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. Historically, control strategies have focus...

  10. Protection of poultry against the 2012 Mexican H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus with inactivated H7 avian influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June of 2012, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 was reported poultry in Jalisco, Mexico. Since that time the virus has spread to the surrounding States of Guanajuato and Aguascalientes and new outbreaks continue to be reported. To date more than 25 million birds have di...

  11. Forward scanning in verbal working memory updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Effective use of working memory (WM) for high-level cognitive tasks requires coordinating two conflicting requirements: robust maintenance and rapid updating. Models of WM suggest that these demands are coordinated by a gate between perceptual input and WM. Previous work with a letter-updating paradigm (Kessler & Oberauer, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 738-754, 2014) supported a scanning and gate-switching (SGS) model of WM updating. The present work provides further evidence for the SGS model. Participants were required to keep track of the last letter that appeared in each of a row of frames on the screen. On each updating step, a variable subset of letters in varying positions in the row had to be updated. The SGS model assumes that on each updating step, participants scan through the memory set sequentially, opening the gate when a letter requires updating, and closing the gate when the next letter needs to be maintained. As is predicted by the SGS model, the reaction times for each updating step increased with the number of updated items and with the number of gate switches. In addition, the present experiment provides direct evidence supporting the scanning assumption of the model. Hebrew-speaking participants performed the task with either Hebrew or English letter stimuli, in different blocks. As was predicted, the scanning direction of the stimulus set was from left to right in English and from right to left in Hebrew. The SGS model fit the data only when the scanning direction was taken into account, establishing the role of item-based forward scanning during WM updating. PMID:25962687

  12. Impact of experimental genital mycoplasmosis on pregnancy outcome in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, D A; Brown, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) female Sprague-Dawley rats were infected by intravaginal inoculation with 3 x 10(7) CFU of Mycoplasma pulmonis X1048 in 0.1 ml of Frey's broth or with an equal volume of sterile Frey's broth. A minimum of 10 days postinfection, rats were bred to noninfected males. Rats were necropsied at days 11, 14, and 18 of gestation and within 24 h of parturition. Throughout pregnancy, at least 50% of rats remained infected in the lower genital tract. At parturition, the major...

  13. [Update in Infectious Diseases 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, F J; García-García, A B; Peñuelas, M; García-Alvarez, A; Chiarella, F; López-González, L; García-Salguero, C; Lejárraga, C; Rodríguez-Avial, I

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance increases it health, social and economic impact. in all areas (state, regional and local), initiatives to try to contain the problem of resistance arise. In the update of this year 2016, we study microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of multi-resistant bacteria, as well as resources for therapeutic approach, from ancient to modern drugs from therapeutic combinations to optimization Stewardship programs. In the case of fungal infection, we analyze clinical scenarios with different species in yeast or new clinical settings in filamentous fungi. Taking paediatric population, homologies and differences with adults in invasive fungal infection were compared. Finally in the field of parasitology, treatment of severe malaria imported or that resistant to antimalarial drugs were reviewed. PMID:27608304

  14. Sprucing up the site - update

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As mentioned in a previous article the Bulletin will be publishing regular short updates following the consolidation work going on around the CERN sites: All internal lighting is being replaced in the office buildings on the Prevessin site. Work has started in building 866 and will move to 864 and 865 later. New energy-efficient lights are being installed, which will reduce electricity consumption by 30 -50%, and in the common areas like corridors the lighting will be switched on by motion sensors. Also in the Prevessin site, the lines in the car parks are being repainted. This will continue in the Meyrin site later. Work has started in Building 30 to completely refurbish the AT Auditorium.

  15. An update on percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tefekli, A; Cordeiro, E; de la Rosette, J J M C H;

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction in late 1970's, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) has undergone an evolution in both equipment and technique. This evolution still continues today in the era of minimally invasive treatment options, and is evidenced by the numerous publications. PNL is generally advantageous...... in the management of large renal stones (>1.5-2 cm) with high stone-free rates and considerable complication rates. However this technique is especially competing with retrograde intrarenal surgery and laparoscopic techniques. Therefore the CROES Global PNL Study Group prospectively collected data of over 5800...... patients managed with PNL worldwide and analyzed the data in detail, producing more than 25 scientific papers. And this update focuses on the lessons learned from the CROES PCNL Global Study....

  16. An Update on Radio Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Sramek, Richard A.; Weiler, Kurt W.; Montes, Marcos J.; Panagia, Nino

    The radio emission from supernovae (SNe) is nonthermal synchrotron radiation of high brightness temperature, with a ``turn-on'' delay at longer wavelengths, power-law decline after maximum with index beta, and spectral index alpha asymptotically decreasing with time to a final, optically thin value. Radio supernovae (RSNe) are best described by the Chevalier (1982) ``mini-shell'' model, with modifications by Weiler \\etal\\ (1990). RSNe observations provide a valuable probe of the SN circumstellar environment and constraints on progenitor masses. We present a progress report on a number of recent RSNe, as well as on new behavior from RSNe 1979C and 1980K, and on RSNe as potential distance indicators. In particular, we present updated radio light curves for SN 1993J in M81.

  17. Research Results and Information Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Research Results Monsoon behavior balanced by glaciers Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin Significant Progress in Water Photochemistry Research Structural signature in amorphous alloy formation and plastic deformation The neural basis of Drosophila larval light/darkness preference Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding Integrin activation and internalization on soft ECM as a mechanism of induction of stem cell differentiation by ECM elasticity Determination of electron pairing symmetry of iron-based superconductor FeSe Long-Range Topological Order in Metallic Glass Information Update List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and CNRS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and ESRC in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RSE in 2011 Funding of Major Program Projects in 2010 Funding of Key Program Projects in 2010

  18. Little evidence of subclinical avian influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C Gray

    Full Text Available In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI. Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1% were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0% had detectable antibody titers (≥ 1:10 against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6, 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1, 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2, 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9, and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5. With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these

  19. Avian cholera, a threat to the viability of an Arctic seabird colony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available Evidence that infectious diseases cause wildlife population extirpation or extinction remains anecdotal and it is unclear whether the impacts of a pathogen at the individual level can scale up to population level so drastically. Here, we quantify the response of a Common eider colony to emerging epidemics of avian cholera, one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild waterfowl. We show that avian cholera has the potential to drive colony extinction, even over a very short period. Extinction depends on disease severity (the impact of the disease on adult female survival and disease frequency (the number of annual epidemics per decade. In case of epidemics of high severity (i.e., causing >30% mortality of breeding females, more than one outbreak per decade will be unsustainable for the colony and will likely lead to extinction within the next century; more than four outbreaks per decade will drive extinction to within 20 years. Such severity and frequency of avian cholera are already observed, and avian cholera might thus represent a significant threat to viability of breeding populations. However, this will depend on the mechanisms underlying avian cholera transmission, maintenance, and spread, which are currently only poorly known.

  20. Occurrence of avian Plasmodium and West Nile virus in culex species in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T.; Irwin, P.; Hofmeister, E.; Paskewitz, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP?? WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzymebased assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for >1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions. ?? 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.