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Sample records for avian lymphocyte lines

  1. MicroRNA-26a-mediated regulation of interleukin-2 expression in transformed avian lymphocyte lines

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    Smith Lorraine P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro(miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in the induction of various cancers, including lymphomas induced by oncogenic viruses. While some of the miRNAs are oncogenic, miRNAs such as miR-26a are consistently downregulated in a number of cancers, demonstrating their potential tumor suppressor functions. Global miRNA expression profiles of a number of virus-transformed avian lymphoma cell lines have shown downregulation of gga-miR-26a expression, irrespective of molecular mechanisms of transformation or the viral aetiology. The neoplastic transformation of lymphocytes by many viruses accompanies high levels of proliferative responses, mostly mediated through cytokines such as IL-2. Chicken IL-2 can modulate T-cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo and dysregulation of IL-2 expression is observed in diseases such as leukaemia. Results The expression levels of gga-miR-26a in chicken lymphoma cells transformed by 3 distinct avian oncogenic viruses, viz Marek's disease virus (MDV, avian leukosis virus (ALV and Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV were consistently downregulated compared to the levels in the normal lymphocytes. This downregulation of miR-26a regardless of the viral etiology and molecular mechanisms of transformation was consistent with the tumor suppressor role of this miRNA. Notwithstanding this well-established role in cancer, we demonstrate the additional role of this miRNA in directly targeting chicken IL-2 through reporter and biochemical assays. The downregulation of miR-26a can relieve the suppressive effect of this miRNA on IL-2 expression. Conclusions We show that miR-26a is globally downregulated in a number of avian lymphoma cells irrespective of the mechanisms of transformation, reiterating the highly conserved tumor suppressor function of this miRNA. However, with the potential for directly targeting chicken IL-2, the downregulation of miR-26a in these

  2. Nucleic acid distribution pattern in avian erythrocytes and mammalian lymphocytes: comparative studies by fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging analytical techniques.

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    Isitor, G N; Asgarali, Z; Pouching, K

    2008-12-01

    Nucleated erythrocytes of healthy domestic chicken and ducks, and lymphocytes of healthy Sprague Dawley rats were evaluated for nucleic acid distribution pattern, employing light and fluorescence microscopy procedures, as well as digital imaging analytical methods. The results demonstrate a unique organization of nuclear DNA of mature chicken and duck erythrocytes, as well as immature duck erythrocytes, as delineated spherical nuclear bodies that mostly corresponded with euchromatin zones of the cells in routine Wright-stain blood smears. The nuclear DNA of the rat lymphocytes, on the other hand, was observed as a more diffuse green fluorescing nuclear areas, with punctate variably-sized diffuse areas of RNA red fluorescence. RNA red color fluorescence was also evident in the narrow cytoplasm of the lymphocytes, especially in large lymphocytes, in comparison with the cytoplasm of the mature avian erythrocytes that completely lacked any nucleic acid fluorescence. Nuclear RNA fluorescence was lacking in the mature chicken erythrocytes, compared with those of the mature and immature duck erythrocytes as well as lymphocytes of both avian and rats blood. The significance of these findings lies in the establishment of normal benchmarks for the nuclear and cytoplasmic nucleic acid pattern in eukaryotic cells. These normal benchmarks become valuable in rapid diagnostic situations associated with pathologies, such as the presence of viral nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that can alter the nucleic acid pattern of the host cells, and in conditions of cellular abnormal protein aggregations. Variability of cellular nucleic acid pattern can also aid in prognostic assessments of neoplastic conditions.

  3. 1α,25(OH2 Vitamin D3 Modulates Avian T Lymphocyte Functions without Inducing CTL Unresponsiveness.

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    Nitish Boodhoo

    Full Text Available 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vitamin D is a naturally synthesized fat soluble vitamin shown to have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and cancer prevention properties in human and murine models. Here, we studied the effects of Vitamin D on the functional abilities of avian T lymphocytes using chicken Interferon (IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, BrdU proliferation assay, Annexin V apoptosis assay and PhosFlow for detecting phosphorylated signalling molecules. The results demonstrate that Vitamin D significantly inhibited the abilities of T lymphocytes to produce IFN-γ and proliferate in vitro (P≤0.05, but retained their ability to undergo degranulation, which is a maker for cytotoxicity of these cells. Similarly, Vitamin D did not inhibit Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, a key mediator in T cell signalling, in the stimulated T lymphocytes population, while reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels in the unstimulated cells. Our data provide evidence that Vitamin D has immuno-modulatory properties on chicken T lymphocytes without inducing unresponsiveness and by limiting immuno-pathology can promote protective immunity against infectious diseases of poultry.

  4. THE EFFECT OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON LYMPHOCYTE AND CD4 IN CHICKEN VACCINATED AGAINST Avian Influenza VIRUS

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    E.Y.W. Yuniwarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find preventing alternative of avian influenza (AI disease in broiler chickenby increasing body immune. Lymphocyte T would directly react to antigen presented to the cell surfaceby antigen presenting cell (APC. Th-CD4 interaction functioned to maintain Th-APC bond intactduring specific antigen activation. Fatty acid in virgin coconut oil (VCO was potential asimmunostimulant, which therefore could increase chicken immunity through the increase of lymphocyteT and Th-CD4. This research used 40 one-day-old broiler chickens. The method applied was CompletelyRandomized Factorial Design in which the first factor was two levels of vaccine, namely groups of AIvaccinated and unvaccinated. The second factor was four levels of VCO namely 0, 5, 10, 15 mL/kg feed.Day Old Chick (DOC were divided into eight treatment groups and repeated five times. Feed and waterwere given ad libitum for four weeks. The result showed that the number of lymphocyte and Th-CD4 inchickens given 10 mL per kg feed and vaccinated with AI was higher than that in chickens given VCOwithout AI vaccine.

  5. THE EFFECT OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON LYMPHOCYTE AND CD4 IN CHICKEN VACCINATED AGAINST Avian Influenza VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. W. Yuniwarti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find preventing alternative of avian influenza (AI disease in broiler chicken by increasing body immune. Lymphocyte T would directly react to antigen presented to the cell surface by antigen presenting cell (APC. Th-CD4 interaction functioned to maintain Th-APC bond intact during specific antigen activation. Fatty acid in virgin coconut oil (VCO was potential as immunostimulant, which therefore could increase chicken immunity through the increase of lymphocyte T and Th-CD4. This research used 40 one-day-old broiler chickens. The method applied was Completely Randomized Factorial Design in which the first factor was two levels of vaccine, namely groups of AI vaccinated and unvaccinated. The second factor was four levels of VCO namely 0, 5, 10, 15 mL/kg feed. Day Old Chick (DOC were divided into eight treatment groups and repeated five times. Feed and water were given ad libitum for four weeks. The result showed that the number of lymphocyte and Th-CD4 in chickens given 10 mL per kg feed and vaccinated with AI was higher than that in chickens given VCO without AI vaccine.

  6. Effects of dietary Fusarium mycotoxins on intestinal lymphocyte subset populations, cell proliferation and histological changes in avian lymphoid organs.

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    Girish, C K; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Anil Kumar, P; Girgis, G N

    2010-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Fusarium mycotoxins on gut immunity, cell proliferation, and histology of avian lymphoid organs. The efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Seventy-two one-day-old male turkey poults were fed corn, wheat, and soybean meal-based diets for 21 days. Diets included control grains, contaminated grains and contaminated grains +0.2% GMA. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (3.9 μg/g) with lesser amounts of zearalenone (0.67-0.75 μg/g), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (0.34 μg/g) and HT-2 toxin (0.078-0.085 μg/g). T- and B-lymphocyte populations and crypt cellular proliferation in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecal tonsil were measured immunohistochemically on day 14 and 21. Histological changes were recorded after 14 and 21 days of feeding. Feeding contaminated grains significantly increased the percentage of B-lymphocytes in ileum on day 14, and reduced (Pcontaminated diets also caused a reduction (Pcontaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins results in adverse effects on gut immunity and mucosal cell proliferation.

  7. Differential expression of alkaline phosphatase gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes and malignant lymphoid cell lines.

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    Latheef, S A A; Devanabanda, Mallaiah; Sankati, Swetha; Madduri, Ramanadham

    2016-02-01

    Alkaline Phosphatase (APase) activity has been shown to be enhanced specifically in mitogen stimulated B lymphocytes committed to proliferation, but not in T lymphocytes. APase gene expression was analyzed in proliferating murine and human primary lymphocytes and human malignant cell lines using reverse transcriptase and real time PCR. In mitogen stimulated murine splenic lymphocytes, enhancement of APase activity correlated well with an increase in APase gene expression. However, in mitogen stimulated murine T lymphocytes and human PBL despite a vigorous proliferative response, no increase in APase enzyme activity or gene expression was observed. A constitutive expression of APase activity concomitant with APase gene expression was observed inhuman myeloma cell line, U266 B1. However, neither enzyme activity nor gene expression of APase were observed in human T cell lymphoma, SUPT-1. The results suggest a differential expression of APase activity and its gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes of mice and humans. The specific expression of APase activity and its gene only in human myeloma cells, but not in proliferating primary B cells can be exploited as a sensitive disease marker.

  8. Development of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus-based vector-packaging cell lines

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    Stoker, A.W.; Bissell, M.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1988-03-01

    The authors have constructed an avian leukosis virus derivative with a 5{prime} deletion extending from within the tRNA primer binding site to a SacI site in the leader region. The aim was to remove cis-acting replicative and/or encapsidation sequences and to use this derivative, RAV-1{Psi}{sup {minus}}, to develop vector-packaging cell lines. They show that RAV-1{Psi}{sup {minus}} can be stably expressed in the quail cell line QT6 and chicken embryo fibroblasts and that it is completely replication deficient in both cell types. Moreover, they have demonstrated that QT6-derived lines expressing RAV-1{Psi}{sup {minus}} can efficiently package four structurally different replication-defective v-src expression vectors into infectious virus, with very low or undetectable helper virus release. These RAV-{Psi}{sup {minus}}-expressing cell lines comprise the first prototype avian sarcoma and leukosis virus-based vector-packaging system. The construction of our vectors has also shown us that a sequence present within gag, thought to facilitate virus packaging, is not necessary for efficient vector expression and high virus production. They show that quantitation and characterization of replication-defective viruses can be achieved with a sensitive immunocytochemical procedure, presenting an alternative to internal selectable vector markers.

  9. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity.

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    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-05-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  10. The Avian Transcription Factor c-Rel is Expressed in Lymphocyte Precursor Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells During Thymus Development

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    Huguet, C.; Bouali, F.; Enrietto, P. J.; Stehelin, D.; B. Vandenbunder; Abbadie, C

    1998-01-01

    Transcription factors of the Rel/NF-κB family are widely involved in the immune system. In this study, we investigate the in vivo expression of the avian protein c-Rel in the T-cell lineage during thymus development. The majority of thymocytes do not express the c-Rel protein. However, lymphocyte precursor cells that colonize the thymus express the c-Rel protein shortly after their homing in the organ and before they begin to differentiate, c-Rel is also detected in different subsets of,antig...

  11. Development of an endogenous virus-free line of chickens susceptible to all subgroups of avian leukosis virus

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    Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special specific pathogen free chicken lines are normally used for detection of contamination with avian leukosis viruses (ALV). The suitability and efficiency of such tests mostly depend on the susceptibility of CEF to varied subgroups of ALV. The ideal...

  12. Identification of two novel multiple recombinant avian leukosis viruses in two different lines of layer chicken.

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    Cai, Liming; Shen, Yanwei; Wang, Guihua; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Jianzhu; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2013-10-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is the most common oncogenetic retrovirus that emerges spontaneously as a result of recombination between exogenous viruses, exogenous viruses and endogenous viruses, and exogenous viruses and non-homologous cellular genes. In the present study, two natural recombinant avian leukosis viruses (rALVs) (LC110515-5 and LC110803-5) carrying a subgroup C gp85 gene, a subgroup E gp37 gene, and a subgroup J 3'UTR and 3'LTR were isolated from two different lines of layer flocks, Black-bone silky fowl (BSF) and commercial layer chicken, that suffered from myeloid leukosis. Although tumours were not observed in rALV-infected individual chickens, other non-neoplastic inflammatory lesions were evident. The two rALVs were cultured on DF-1 cells and identified by PCR, immunofluorescence assay and gene sequencing. The gp85 nucleotide sequence in the two isolates displayed a high identity (>95 %) with that of the gp85 gene in ALV-C, but the identity was less than 90 % with ALV-A/B/D/E and only 51 % with ALV-J. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences confirmed that the two isolates were recombinant between ALV-C, ALV-E and ALV-J. Subgroup C ALV is rarely found in field cases. This report is the first to provide evidence that ALV-C has recombined with ALV-E and ALV-J in two different chicken lines. The source and characteristics of the two rALVs and ALV-C need to be further investigated.

  13. Avian Wings

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    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  14. Outcomes of first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with 17p deletion.

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    Strati, Paolo; Keating, Michael J; O'Brien, Susan M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan; Faderl, Stefan; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William G

    2014-08-01

    Although uncommon in treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, deletion 17p is a high-risk disease characteristic. We analyzed and reported outcomes for 63 patients with deletion 17p chronic lymphocytic leukemia who received first-line therapy at our institution; at time of first treatment, 81% had unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene and 58% had complex karyotype. Forty-nine patients (76%) received first-line fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based therapy, 6 (11%) received rituximab-based and 8 (13%) received lenalidomide-based treatment. Overall, the complete plus nodular partial remission rate was 33%; on multivariable model, higher complete plus nodular partial remission rate was observed in patients with less than 50% cells positive for deletion 17p, and a higher probability of achieving at least a partial remission was observed with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based treatment. After a median follow up of 33 months (range 1-89 months), the estimated median progression-free survival was 14 months (95% confidence interval 10-18) and estimated median overall survival was 63 months (95% confidence interval 43-83). In multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with longer progression-free survival were response to treatment and absence of complex karyotype. Achievement of complete plus nodular partial remission rate and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene were independently associated with longer overall survival in multivariable model. Complex karyotype was associated with increased risk for Richter's transformation. New first-line strategies and agents must aim at both improving response and maintaining remission in patients with deletion 17p, particularly in the presence of complex karyotype.

  15. First-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: role of alemtuzumab

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    Carmen Diana Schweighofer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Diana Schweighofer1, Clemens-Martin Wendtner21Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: The CD52-targeting antibody alemtuzumab is established in clinical practice with convincing activity in relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, particularly in patients with high-risk features and adverse prognosis. In the CAM307 study alemtuzumab was tested and finally approved as a first-line single agent, even though the hurdle with chlorambucil as the contender was not set very high. Within clinical trials, the drug demonstrated an excellent ability to eliminate minimal residual disease in blood and bone marrow, which has been correlated with a corresponding survival advantage in patients. However, in the maintenance setting, infectious complications due to severe T cell suppression have been highlighted and do not allow clinicans to use alemtuzumab outside of clinical trials. This review discusses potential therapeutic niches and future applications of alemtuzumab with a focus on CLL front-line treatment.Keywords: CLL, alemtuzumab, Campath, front-line, first-line treatment

  16. Clinical features of familial adenomas polyps in Chinese and establishment of its immortal lymphocyte cell lines

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    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhang Zhang; Shu Zheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To reserve the rare Chinese familial adenomas polyp (FAP) family resource and to investigate the clinical features of FAP in Chinese for its diagnosis.METHODS: Clinical features of patients with FAP were investigated. If there is any question, their medical records were verified. Blood sample was taken and lymphocyte immortal cell lines were established with modified EB-transformation methods. Congenital hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) was checked by an experienced ophthalmologist.RESULTS: Twenty seven families including 21 classical FAP (CFAP) families, 3 attenuated FAP (AFAP) families,and 3 suspected AFAP families were investigated. A total of 116 lymphocyte immortal cell lines were established from 26 families. In all the FAP families, colorectal cancer occurred at the mean age of 42.84 years. Of the 16 families checked, 15 (93.75%) had CHRPE. The mean number of patients suffering from colorectal neoplasm was 3.14 in CFAP families and 2.0 in AFAP families (P < 0.01). The mean oldest age at diagnosis of FAP was 41.75 years in CFAP families, and 58.67 years in AFAP families, respectively (P < 0.01). Mean age of development of colorectal cancer was 42.23 in CFAP and 57.33 years old in AFAP (P < 0.01). Mean of the earliest age at diagnosis of FAP was 29.95 years in the FAP families with a positive family history and 46.80 years in the FAP families with a negative family history (P <0.01). The ratio of extra-intestinal tumors to colorectal neoplasms was different in the two kinds of families with positive and negative family history (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Additional use of ciclosporin will effectively improve to establish lymphocyte immortal cell lines with modified EB- transformation methods. In Chinese FAP, there was a high frequency of CHRPE, and a later age at diagnosis and a later age of development of colorectal cancer in AFAP. And earlier age at diagnosis in FAP with positive family history was also found that will help to

  17. Detection of lymphoid leukosis tumors in white leghorn chickens of line ALV6 that is resistant to subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus and maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions

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    Chickens from Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line alv6 that is known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV) were vaccinated at hatch with a Marek’s disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2 and 3 MD viruses, and were maintained under specifi...

  18. Skeletal muscle characterization of Japanese quail line selectively bred for lower body weight as an avian model of delayed muscle growth with hypoplasia.

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    Choi, Young Min; Suh, Yeunsu; Shin, Sangsu; Lee, Kichoon

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to extensively characterize the skeletal muscle development in the low weight (LW) quail selected from random bred control (RBC) Japanese quail in order to provide a new avian model of impaired and delayed growth in physically normal animals. The LW line had smaller embryo and body weights than the RBC line in all age groups (Pgrowth with prolonged expression of Pax7 and lower expression levels of MyoD, Myf-5, and myogenin (Pgrowth in the LW line is accompanied by higher levels of myogenin expression at 42 d (Pcharacterized avian model for future identification of the responsible genes and for studying mechanisms of hypoplasia and delayed muscle growth.

  19. Characterization of a new chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell line for mechanistic in vitro and in vivo studies relevant to disease.

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    Erin Hertlein

    Full Text Available Studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL have yielded substantial progress, however a lack of immortalized cell lines representative of the primary disease has hampered a full understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of new treatments. Here we describe a novel CLL cell line (OSU-CLL generated by EBV transformation, which displays a similar cytogenetic and immunophenotype observed in the patient's CLL (CD5 positive with trisomy 12 and 19. A companion cell line was also generated from the same patient (OSU-NB. This cell line lacked typical CLL characteristics, and is likely derived from the patient's normal B cells. In vitro migration assays demonstrated that OSU-CLL exhibits migratory properties similar to primary CLL cells whereas OSU-NB has significantly reduced ability to migrate spontaneously or towards chemokine. Microarray analysis demonstrated distinct gene expression patterns in the two cell lines, including genes on chromosomes 12 and 19, which is consistent with the cytogenetic profile in this cell line. Finally, OSU-CLL was readily transplantable into NOG mice, producing uniform engraftment by three weeks with leukemic cells detectable in the peripheral blood spleen and bone marrow. These studies describe a new CLL cell line that extends currently available models to study gene function in this disease.

  20. HER2-Specific T Lymphocytes Kill both Trastuzumab-Resistant and Trastuzumab-Sensitive Breast Cell Lines In Vitro

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    Xiao-lin Lin; Xu Liang; Tao Shen; Jun Ren; Xiao-li Wang; Bo Ma; Jun Jia; Ying Yan; Li-jun Di; Yan-hua Yuan; Feng-ling Wan; Yuan-li Lu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Although the development of trastuzumab has improved the outlook for women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer,the resistance to anti-HER2 therapy is a growing clinical dilemma.We aim to determine whether HER2-specific T cells generated from dendritic cells (DCs) modified with HER2 gene could effectively kill the HER2-positive breast cancer cells,especially the trastuzumab-resistant cells.Methods:The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors,whose HLA haplotypes were compatible with the tumor cell lines,were transfected with reconstructive human adeno-association virus (rhAAV/HER2) to obtain the specific killing activities of T cells,and were evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)releasing assay.Results:Trastuzumab produced a significant inhibiting effect on SK-BR-3,the IC50 was 100ng/ml.MDA-MB-453 was resistant to trastuzumab even at a concentration of 10,000 ng/ml in vitro.HER2-specific T lymphocytes killed effectively SK-BR-3 [(69.86±13.41)%] and MDA-MB-453 [(78.36±10.68)%] at 40:1 (effector:target ratio,E:T),but had no significant cytotoxicity against HER2-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7 (less than 10%).Conclusion:The study showed that HER2-specific T lymphocytes generated from DCs modified by rhAAV/HER2 could kill HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines in a HER2-dependent manner,and result in significantly high inhibition rates on the intrinsic trastuzumab-resistant cell line MDA-MB-453 and the tastuzumab-sensitive cell line SK-BR-3.These results imply that this immunotherapy might be a potential treatment to HER2-positive breast cancer.

  1. Cross-recognition of avian H5N1 influenza virus by human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte populations directed to human influenza A virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.C.M. Kreijtz (Joost); G. de Mutsert (Gerrie); C.A. van Baalen (Carel); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSince the number of human cases of infection with avian H5N1 influenza viruses is ever increasing, a pandemic outbreak caused by these viruses is feared. Therefore, in addition to virus-specific antibodies, there is considerable interest in immune correlates of protection against these v

  2. Avian cardiology.

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    Strunk, Anneliese; Wilson, G Heather

    2003-01-01

    The field of avian cardiology is continually expanding. Although a great deal of the current knowledge base has been derived from poultry data, research and clinical reports involving companion avian species have been published. This article will present avian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, history and physical examination considerations in the avian cardiac disease patient, specific diagnostic tools, cardiovascular disease processes, and current therapeutic modalities.

  3. Individual radiosensitivity does not correlate with radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphoblastoid cell lines or CD{sup 3+} lymphocytes

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    Wistop, A.; Keller, U.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Sauer, R.; Distel, L.V.R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander Univ. Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Sprung, C.N. [Div. of Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2005-05-01

    Background and purpose: spontaneous and radiation-induced apoptosis of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from healthy donors, cancer patients and donors with radiosensitivity syndromes as well as CD{sup 3+} lymphocytes from patients with {>=} grade 3 late toxicity were investigated as a possible marker for the detection of individual radiosensitivity. These investigations are based on the hypothesis that hypersensitive patients have reduced levels of apoptosis after in vitro irradiation as a result of a defect in the signaling pathway. Material and methods: Epstein-Barr virus-(EBV-)transformed LCLs derived from five healthy donors, seven patients with heterozygous or homozygous genotype for ataxia-telangiectasia or Nijmegen breakage syndrome and five patients with {>=} grade 3 late toxicity (RTOG) were investigated. In addition, CD{sup 3+} lymphocytes from 21 healthy individuals and 18 cancer patients including five patients with a proven cellular hypersensitivity to radiation were analyzed. Cells were irradiated in vitro with a dose of 2 and 5 Gy and were incubated for 48 h. Apoptotic rates were measured by the TUNEL assay followed by customized image analysis. Results: four out of seven radiosensitivity syndrome patients were identified to have an increased cellular radiosensitivity as determined by reduced apoptotic rates after irradiation of their respective LCLs. Comparatively, only two of the five hypersensitive cancer patients were clearly identified by reduced apoptotic rates. Spontaneous apoptotic rates were very homogeneous among all 39 samples from controls and patients, while lymphocytes of all cancer patients showed significantly lower radiation-induced rates. Conclusion: only a subgroup of hypersensitive patients may be identified by reduction of radiation-induced apoptotic rate. It is concluded that the hypothesis according to which hypersensitive cells have reduced levels of apoptosis is only conditionally true. The authors suggest that this

  4. Pathologic Research of Lymphocytic Subgroup J-Avian Leukosis in Qingyuan Local Chicken%淋巴细胞性J亚群禽白血病病理学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓桦; 武云飞; 卢玉葵; 王政富; 杨鸿; 马春全

    2011-01-01

    本研究旨在探讨日益复杂和多样的J亚群禽白血病的肿瘤病理表现.在流行病学调查基础上,对广东省4个集约型清远麻鸡种鸡场的禽白血病病原进行了分离鉴定和PCR检测,确诊其病原为禽白血病毒J亚群(ALV-J).通过病理组织学研究发现,这些鸡场ALV-J的主要病理表现为淋巴细胞性肿瘤(82.9%),其次为血管瘤型肿瘤(11.4%),髓细胞性肿瘤仅为5.7%.淋巴细胞性肿瘤主要出现在内脏实质器官,肝脏、脾脏、肾脏、肺脏、腺胃和胰腺等器官明显肿胀,实质中可见大小不一的灰白色肿瘤结节,切面均质柔软.肿瘤的实质主要由典型的成淋巴细胞和淋巴样瘤细胞构成,病理性核分裂像多见.研究结果证实,清远麻鸡出现了一种新的J亚群禽白血病表现形式,即淋巴细胞性J亚群禽白血病,在国内外尚属首次报道.%This experiment was conducted to explore the complicated tumor manifestation of avian leucosis subgroup J. On the basis of epidemiology survey of four Qingyuan local layer chicken farms in Guangdong province, then the avian leucosis virus was isolated and detected by PCR test, and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was definite diagnosed as the pathogen. The histopathologic study showed that the most tumorous manifestation was lymphocytic leucosis (82. 9%), and then was hemangioma (11. 4%), myeloid leukosis was 5. 7%. Abnormal proliferation of lymphocytic leukosis was occurred mainly in parenchymatous organs, including heavy swollen of liver, spleen, kidney, lung, proventriculus and pancreas. There were many ivory-white tumors and nodules occurred in the parenchyma, and the sections were homogeneous and soft. The solid components of tumors were typical lymphoblast and neoplastic lymphoid cells, and many phanerous pathologic nuclear mitotic figures were observed. Those results confirmed that there appeared a novel tumorous manifestation in Qingyuan local chicken, lymphocytic

  5. Molecular characterization of neoplastic and normal "sister" lymphoblastoid B-cell lines from chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanemo Myhrinder, Anna; Hellqvist, Eva; Bergh, Ann-Charlotte;

    2013-01-01

    /short tandem repeat (STR) fingerprinting. Innate B-cell features, i.e. natural Ab production and CD5 receptors, were present in most CLL cell lines, but in none of the normal LCLs. This panel of immortalized CLL-derived cell lines is a valuable reference representing a renewable source of authentic Abs and DNA....

  6. Malt1-dependent RelB cleavage promotes canonical NF-kappaB activation in lymphocytes and lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Nogai, Hendrik; Pelzer, Christiane; Jaworski, Maike; Cabalzar, Katrin; Charton, Jean-Enno; Guzzardi, Montserrat; Décaillet, Chantal; Grau, Michael; Dörken, Bernd; Lenz, Peter; Lenz, Georg; Thome, Margot

    2011-08-30

    The protease activity of the paracaspase Malt1 contributes to antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation and lymphomagenesis. Malt1 activity is required for optimal NF-κB activation, but little is known about the responsible substrate(s). Here we report that Malt1 cleaved the NF-κB family member RelB after Arg-85. RelB cleavage induced its proteasomal degradation and specifically controlled DNA binding of RelA- or c-Rel-containing NF-κB complexes. Overexpression of RelB inhibited expression of canonical NF-κB target genes and led to impaired survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines characterized by constitutive Malt1 activity. These findings identify a central role for Malt1-dependent RelB cleavage in canonical NF-κB activation and thereby provide a rationale for the targeting of Malt1 in immunomodulation and cancer treatment.

  7. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzel T Gotia

    Full Text Available Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF. ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer, and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1 or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1 are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field.

  8. Up-Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokine Production in Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus-Infected Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Hamidreza; Toroghi, Reza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Influenza H9N2 virus mostly infects avian species but poses a potential health risk to humans. Little is known about the mammalian host immune responses to H9N2 virus. To obtain insight into the innate immune responses of human lung epithelial cells to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in the human airway epithelial cells infected with avian H9N2 virus were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). H9N2 virus was able to cultivate in the human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). Expressions of cytokine genes were up-regulated to a significantly higher level for IL-1β (p cytokines and chemokine. The findings in this study will broaden our understanding of host innate immune mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.

  9. Combined Treatment with Low Concentrations of Decitabine and SAHA Causes Cell Death in Leukemic Cell Lines but Not in Normal Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Brodská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic therapy reverting aberrant acetylation or methylation offers the possibility to target preferentially tumor cells and to preserve normal cells. Combination epigenetic therapy may further improve the effect of individual drugs. We investigated combined action of demethylating agent decitabine and histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA (Vorinostat on different leukemic cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood lymphocytes. Large decrease of viability, as well as huge p21WAF1 induction, reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptotic features due to combined decitabine and SAHA action were detected in leukemic cell lines irrespective of their p53 status, while essentially no effect was observed in response to the combined drug action in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors. p53-dependent apoptotic pathway was demonstrated to participate in the wtp53 CML-T1 leukemic cell line response, while significant influence of reactive oxygen species on viability decrease has been detected in p53-null HL-60 cell line.

  10. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors produced by a superinfection-resistant stable packaging cell line allow genetic modification of primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labenski, Verena; Suerth, Julia D; Barczak, Elke; Heckl, Dirk; Levy, Camille; Bernadin, Ornellie; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Williams, David A; Fehse, Boris; Verhoeyen, Els; Schambach, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Primary human T lymphocytes represent an important cell population for adoptive immunotherapies, including chimeric-antigen and T-cell receptor applications, as they have the capability to eliminate non-self, virus-infected and tumor cells. Given the increasing numbers of clinical immunotherapy applications, the development of an optimal vector platform for genetic T lymphocyte engineering, which allows cost-effective high-quality vector productions, remains a critical goal. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors (ARV) have several advantages compared to other vector platforms, including a more random genomic integration pattern and reduced likelihood for inducing aberrant splicing of integrated proviruses. We developed an ARV platform for the transduction of primary human T lymphocytes. We demonstrated functional transgene transfer using the clinically relevant herpes-simplex-virus thymidine kinase variant TK.007. Proof-of-concept of alpharetroviral-mediated T-lymphocyte engineering was shown in vitro and in a humanized transplantation model in vivo. Furthermore, we established a stable, human alpharetroviral packaging cell line in which we deleted the entry receptor (SLC1A5) for RD114/TR-pseudotyped ARVs to prevent superinfection and enhance genomic integrity of the packaging cell line and viral particles. We showed that superinfection can be entirely prevented, while maintaining high recombinant virus titers. Taken together, this resulted in an improved production platform representing an economic strategy for translating the promising features of ARVs for therapeutic T-lymphocyte engineering.

  11. Avian anemia's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raukar Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with avian anemia's classified by MCHC/MCV and with types of anemia's. Father hematological and immunological research is needed to secure information on hematological parameters in different avian species at their earliest age. Anemia is a common clinical finding in birds because the avian erythrocyte half - life is much shorter than the mammalian. Therefore anemia should be determined as soon as possible. Researchers should standardize hematological parameters for every single avian species.

  12. The prognostic impact of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia requiring first-line therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Rodrigo; Villamor, Neus; Aymerich, Marta; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; López, Cristina; Navarro, Alba; Rozman, María; Beà, Sílvia; Royo, Cristina; Cazorla, Maite; Colomer, Dolors; Giné, Eva; Pinyol, Magda; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías; López-Guillermo, Armando; Delgado, Julio

    2014-05-01

    A proportion of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia achieve a minimal residual disease negative status after therapy. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of minimal residual disease on the outcome of 255 consecutive patients receiving any front-line therapy in the context of a detailed prognostic evaluation, including assessment of IGHV, TP53, NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations. The median follow-up was 73 months (range, 2-202) from disease evaluation. The median treatment-free survival durations for patients achieving a complete response without or with minimal residual disease, a partial response and no response were 76, 40, 11 and 11 months, respectively (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that three variables had a significant impact on treatment-free survival: minimal residual disease (P<0.001), IGHV status (P<0.001) and β2-microglobulin levels (P=0.012). With regards to overall survival, factors predictive of an unfavorable outcome were minimal residual disease positivity (P=0.014), together with advanced age (P<0.001), unmutated IGHV status (P=0.001), TP53 mutations (P<0.001) and elevated levels of β2-microglobulin (P=0.003). In conclusion, for patients requiring front-line therapy, achievement of minimal residual disease negativity is associated with significantly prolonged treatment-free and overall survival irrespective of other prognostic markers or treatment administered.

  13. Zoledronic acid enhances Vδ2 T-lymphocyte antitumor response to human glioma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, E; Piacentini, P; Sacchi, A; Gioia, C; Leone, S; Lauro, G M; Martini, F; Agrati, C

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in humans, responds modestly to treatment: most patients survive less than one year after diagnosis, despite both classical and innovative treatment approaches. A recent paper focused on γδ T-cell response in GBM patients, suggesting the application of an immunomodulating strategy based on γδ T-cells which is already in clinical trials for other tumors. Human Vγ2 T-cells recognize changes in the mevalonate metabolic pathway of transformed cells by activating cytotoxic response, and by cytokine and chemokine release. Interestingly, this activation may also be induced in vivo by drugs, such as zoledronic acid, that induce the accumulation of Vγ2 T-cell ligand Isopentenyl-pyrophosphate by blocking the farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase enzyme. The aim of our work is to confirm whether bisphosphonate treatment would make glioma cell lines more susceptible to lysis by in vitro expanded γδ T-cells, improving their antitumor activity. We expanded in vitro human Vγ2 T-cells by phosphoantigen stimulation and tested their activity against glioma cell lines. Co-culture with glioma cells induced Vγ2 T-cell differentiation in effector/memory cells, killing glioma cells by the release of perforin. Interestingly, glioma cells were directly affected by zoledronic acid; moreover, treatment increased their activating ability on Vγ2 T-cells, inducing an effective antitumor cytotoxic response. Taken together, our results show that aminobisphosphonate drugs may play a dual role against GBM, by directly affecting tumor cells, and by enhancing the antitumor response of Vγ2 T-cells. Our results confirm the practicability of this approach as a new immunotherapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.

  14. Proviral integrations and expression of endogenous Avian leucosis virus during long term selection for high and low body weight in two chicken lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornold Lina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term selection (> 45 generations for low or high juvenile body weight from a common founder population of White Plymouth Rock chickens has generated two extremely divergent lines, the LWS and HWS lines. In addition to a > 9-fold difference between lines for the selected trait, large behavioural and metabolic differences between the two lines evolved during the course of the selection. We recently compared gene expression in brain tissue from birds representing these lines using a global cDNA array analysis and the results showed multiple but small expression differences in protein coding genes. The main differentially expressed transcripts were endogenous retroviral sequences identified as avian leucosis virus subgroup-E (ALVE. Results In this work we confirm the differential ALVE expression and analysed expression and number of proviral integrations in the two parental lines as well as in F9 individuals from an advanced intercross of the lines. Correlation analysis between expression, proviral integrations and body weight showed that high ALVE levels in the LWS line were inherited and that more ALVE integrations were detected in LWS than HWS birds. Conclusion We conclude that only a few of the integrations contribute to the high expression levels seen in the LWS line and that high ALVE expression was significantly correlated with lower body weights for the females but not males. The conserved correlation between high expression and low body weight in females after 9 generations of intercrosses, indicated that ALVE loci conferring high expression directly affects growth or are very closely linked to loci regulating growth.

  15. Effect of cisplatin alone or combined with monoclonal anti-programmed death ligand-1 anti-body on lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPCA-1 and T lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘雪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of cisplatin alone or combined with anti-programmed death ligand 1 monoclonal antibody(anti-PD-L1 mA b)on the co-culture system of lung adenocarcinoma SPCA-1 cells and T lymphocytes,and therefore to study the immunotherapeutic effect of anti-PD-L1 mA b on lung cancer.Methods Human adenocarcinoma SPCA-1 cell line was selected by

  16. Avian mortalities due to transmission line collisions: a review of current estimates and field methods with an emphasis on applications to the Canadian electric network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Rioux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Birds are vulnerable to collisions with human-made fixed structures. Despite ongoing development and increases in infrastructure, we have few estimates of the magnitude of collision mortality. We reviewed the existing literature on avian mortality associated with transmission lines and derived an initial estimate for Canada. Estimating mortality from collisions with power lines is challenging due to the lack of studies, especially from sites within Canada, and due to uncertainty about the magnitude of detection biases. Detection of bird collisions with transmission lines varies due to habitat type, species size, and scavenging rates. In addition, birds can be crippled by the impact and subsequently die, although crippling rates are poorly known and rarely incorporated into estimates. We used existing data to derive a range of estimates of avian mortality associated with collisions with transmission lines in Canada by incorporating detection, scavenging, and crippling biases. There are 231,966 km of transmission lines across Canada, mostly in the boreal forest. Mortality estimates ranged from 1 million to 229.5 million birds per year, depending on the bias corrections applied. We consider our most realistic estimate, taking into account variation in risk across Canada, to range from 2.5 million to 25.6 million birds killed per year. Data from multiple studies across Canada and the northern U.S. indicate that the most vulnerable bird groups are (1 waterfowl, (2 grebes, (3 shorebirds, and (4 cranes, which is consistent with other studies. Populations of several groups that are vulnerable to collisions are increasing across Canada (e.g., waterfowl, raptors, which suggests that collision mortality, at current levels, is not limiting population growth. However, there may be impacts on other declining species, such as shorebirds and some species at risk, including Alberta's Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator and western Canada's endangered Whooping

  17. HIV-1 infection and first line ART induced differential responses in mitochondria from blood lymphocytes and monocytes: the ANRS EP45 "Aging" study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Perrin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ANRS EP45 "Aging" study investigates the cellular mechanisms involved in the accelerated aging of HIV-1 infected and treated patients. The data reported focus on mitochondria, organelles known to be involved in cell senescence. METHODS: 49 HIV-1 infected patients untreated with antiretroviral therapy, together with 49 seronegative age- and sex-matched control subjects and 81 HIV-1 infected and treated patients, were recruited by 3 AIDS centres (Marseille, Montpellier, Nice; France; http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01038999. In more than 88% of treated patients, the viral load was 500/mm(3. ROS (reactive oxygen species production and ΔΨm (inner membrane potential were measured by flow cytometry in blood lymphocytes and monocytes (functional parameters. Three mitochondrial network quantitative morphological parameters were computed using confocal microscopy and image analysis. Three PBMC mitochondrial proteins (porin and subunits 2 and 4 of cytochrome C oxidase encoded by mtDNA or nuclear DNA, respectively were analysed by western blotting. RESULTS: Quantitative changes in PBMC mitochondrial proteins were not induced by either HIV-1 infection or ART. Discriminant analysis integrating functional (ROS production and ΔΨm or morphological (network volume density, fragmentation and branching parameters revealed HIV-1 infection and ART differential effects according to cell type. First line ART tended to rescue lymphocyte mitochondrial parameters altered by viral infection, but induced slight changes in monocytes. No statistical difference was found between the effects of three ART regimens on mitochondrial parameters. Correlations between functional parameters and viral load confirmed the damaging effects of HIV-1 in lymphocyte mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS: In patients considered to be clinically stable, mitochondria exhibited functional and morphological modifications in PBMCs resulting from either direct or indirect effects of HIV-1

  18. miRNA-mediated relationships between Cis-SNP genotypes and transcript intensities in lymphocyte cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Zhang

    Full Text Available In metazoans, miRNAs regulate gene expression primarily through binding to target sites in the 3' UTRs (untranslated regions of messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Cis-acting variants within, or close to, a gene are crucial in explaining the variability of gene expression measures. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the 3' UTRs of genes can affect the base-pairing between miRNAs and mRNAs, and hence disrupt existing target sites (in the reference sequence or create novel target sites, suggesting a possible mechanism for cis regulation of gene expression. Moreover, because the alleles of different SNPs within a DNA sequence of limited length tend to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD, we hypothesize the variants of miRNA target sites caused by SNPs potentially function as bridges linking the documented cis-SNP markers to the expression of the associated genes. A large-scale analysis was herein performed to test this hypothesis. By systematically integrating multiple latest information sources, we found 21 significant gene-level SNP-involved miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation modules (SNP-MPRMs in the form of SNP-miRNA-mRNA triplets in lymphocyte cell lines for the CEU and YRI populations. Among the cognate genes, six including ALG8, DGKE, GNA12, KLF11, LRPAP1, and MMAB are related to multiple genetic diseases such as depressive disorder and Type-II diabetes. Furthermore, we found that ~35% of the documented transcript intensity-related cis-SNPs (~950 in a recent publication are identical to, or in significant linkage disequilibrium (LD (p<0.01 with, one or multiple SNPs located in miRNA target sites. Based on these associations (or identities, 69 significant exon-level SNP-MPRMs and 12 disease genes were further determined for two populations. These results provide concrete in silico evidence for the proposed hypothesis. The discovered modules warrant additional follow-up in independent laboratory studies.

  19. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  20. Avian Influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a letter from a professor at Clemson University about waterfowl that had been tested for avian influenza at Santee National Wildlife Refuge

  1. Avian hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Avian veterinarians often rely heavily on the results of various diagnostic tests, including hematology results. As such, cellular identification and evaluation of the cellular response are invaluable tools that help veterinarians understand the health or condition of their patient, as well as to monitor severity and clinical progression of disease and response to treatment. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly understand how to identify and evaluate changes in the avian erythron and leukon, as well as to interpret normal and abnormal results.

  2. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  3. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish

  4. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  5. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most signi cant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish

  6. Wire marking results in a small but significant reduction in avian mortality at power lines: a BACI designed study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barrientos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Collision with electric power lines is a conservation problem for many bird species. Although the implementation of flight diverters is rapidly increasing, few well-designed studies supporting the effectiveness of this costly conservation measure have been published. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provide information on the largest worldwide marking experiment to date, including carcass searches at 35 (15 experimental, 20 control power lines totalling 72.5 km, at both transmission (220 kV and distribution (15 kV-45 kV lines. We found carcasses of 45 species, 19 of conservation concern. Numbers of carcasses found were corrected to account for carcass losses due to removal by scavengers or being overlooked by researchers, resulting in an estimated collision rate of 8.2 collisions per km per month. We observed a small (9.6% but significant decrease in the number of casualties after line marking compared to before line marking in experimental lines. This was not observed in control lines. We found no influence of either marker size (large vs. small spirals, sample of distribution lines only or power line type (transmission vs. distribution, sample of large spirals only on the collision rate when we analyzed all species together. However, great bustard mortality was slightly lower when lines were marked with large spirals and in transmission lines after marking. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the overall effectiveness of wire marking as a way to reduce, but not eliminate, bird collisions with power lines. If raw field data are not corrected by carcass losses due to scavengers and missed observations, findings may be biased. The high cost of this conservation measure suggests a need for more studies to improve its application, including wire marking with non-visual devices. Our findings suggest that different species may respond differently to marking, implying that species-specific patterns should be explored, at least for species

  7. Pathology of a H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, in two Indian native chicken breeds and a synthetic broiler line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, S; Nagarajan, S; Saxena, V K; Kumar, M; Vanamayya, P R; Rajukumar, K; Gowthaman, V; Jain, V; Singh, D P; Dubey, S C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, susceptibility to H5N1 virus infection was studied in two Indian native chicken breeds viz. Kadaknath and Aseel (Peela) and an Indian synthetic broiler strain (Synthetic dam line (SDL-IC). Fifty birds from each genetic group were infected intra-nasally with 1000 EID50 of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/chicken/Navapur/India/7972/ 06 (H5N1) and observed for a period of 10 days. Significant differences in severity of clinical signs, gross lesions and time for onset of symptoms were observed. The overall severity of clinical signs and gross lesions was less in SDL-IC broilers as compared to the other two genetic groups. The mortality percentages were 100, 98 and 92% with Mean Death Time (MDT) of 3.12, 5.92 and 6.96 days, respectively for the two native breeds Kadaknath and Aseel (Peela), the and SDL-IC broiler strain. Comparison of histological lesions revealed differences in disease progression among the genetic groups. Vascular lesions such as disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) were predominant on 3 days post infection (dpi) in Kadaknath, and on 5 and 6 dpi in Aseel (Peela) and SDL-IC broiler. The mean log2 HA titres of the re-isolated virus from various organs of H5N1 AIV infected birds of the three genetic groups ranged from 2.32 (lung, trachea and bursa) to 5.04 (spleen) in Kadaknath; 2.32 (lung) to 6.68 (brain) in Aseel (Peela); and 2.06 (liver) to 7.01 (lungs and kidney) in SDL-IC broiler. These results suggest that the susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection differed among the three breeds; Kadaknath being highest followed by Aseel (Peela) and synthetic SDL-IC broiler. This is possibly the first report on the differences in the susceptibility of the India native breeds to H5N1 virus infection and its severity.

  8. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  9. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  10. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  11. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  12. REARRANGEMENT AND EXPRESSION OF T CELL RECEPTOR β GENE IN HUMAN HEMOPOIETIC CELL LINES AND PRIMARY CELLS FROM ACUTE LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇一华; 陈诗书

    1992-01-01

    Using Southern blot, Northern blot and Quick blot methods, we examined the rearrangement and expression of TCR βgene in four early differentiation stage cell lines from human hemopoietic system, namely HL-60, Jurkat, Daudi and Raji cells as well as lymphocytes from 17 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients. The results showed. Ⅰ) Rearrangement of TCR βgene was seen in Jurkat cells. A germline pattern was observed in HL-60, Daudi and Raji cells. 2) Eight of 9 patients with T-ALL had cells with rearranged TCR βgene. But two of 3 patients with B-ALL and three of 5 patients with nonT, nonB-ALL also had cells with rearranged TCR βgene. 3) A 1.3 kb full-length transcript and a 1.0 kb truncated transcript were detected in Jurkat cells by probing with 32P-TCR βcDNA. But some leukemic B cells also expressed an incompleted transcript. 4) TCR βmRNA was detected in six of 8 patients with T-ALL, four of 5 patients with nonT, nonB-ALL and one of 3 patients with B-ALL. But the level of expression was quite differ ent. The dual-rearrangement and the abnormal expression may give us a new clue for researching leukemogenesis.

  13. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... illness. Top of Page Avian Influenza in Wild Birds Avian influenza A viruses have been isolated from ...

  14. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    Obinutuzumab is the second next-generation monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (after ofatumumab) to enter clinical practice in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its superiority in association with chlorambucil as compared with chlorambucil alone has led to its approval as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for patients who are not candidates for a more intensive treatment.

  15. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  16. Economic implications of using bendamustine, alemtuzumab, or chlorambucil as a first-line therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the US: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongnakorn T

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thitima Kongnakorn,1 James A Sterchele,2 Christopher G Salvador,3 Denis Getsios,4 Mkaya Mwamburi51Evidera, Bangkok, Thailand; 2formerly of Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R&D, Inc, Frazer, PA, 3Oncology Market Research, Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R&D, Inc, Frazer, PA, 4Evidera, Lexington, MA, 5Tufts University School of Medicine, Public Health and Community Medicine, Boston, MA, USABackground: The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using bendamustine versus alemtuzumab or bendamustine versus chlorambucil as a first-line therapy in patients with Binet stage B or C chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL in the US.Methods: A discrete event simulation of the disease course of CLL was developed to evaluate the economic implications of single-agent treatment with bendamustine, alemtuzumab, or chlorambucil, which are indicated for a treatment-naïve patient population with Binet stage B or C CLL. Data from clinical trials were used to create a simulated patient population, risk equations for progression-free survival and survival post disease progression, response rates, and rates of adverse events. Costs from a US health care payer perspective in 2012 US dollars, survival (life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs were estimated over a patient's lifetime; all were discounted at 3% per year.Results: Compared with alemtuzumab, bendamustine was considered to be a dominant treatment providing greater benefit (6.10 versus 5.37 life years and 4.02 versus 3.45 QALYs at lower cost ($78,776 versus $121,441. Compared with chlorambucil, bendamustine was associated with higher costs ($78,776 versus $42,337 but with improved health outcomes (6.10 versus 5.21 life years and 4.02 versus 3.30 QALYs, resulting in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $40,971 per life year gained and $50,619 per QALY gained.Conclusion: Bendamustine is expected to provide cost savings and greater health benefit than alemtuzumab in

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON): New mechanistic insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katika, Madhumohan R. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Hendriksen, Peter J.M. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Shao, Jia [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University (Netherlands); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands); Peijnenburg, Ad, E-mail: ad.peijnenburg@wur.nl [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) or vomitoxin is a commonly encountered type-B trichothecene mycotoxin, produced by Fusarium species predominantly found in cereals and grains. DON is known to exert toxic effects on the gastrointestinal, reproductive and neuroendocrine systems, and particularly on the immune system. Depending on dose and exposure time, it can either stimulate or suppress immune function. The main objective of this study was to obtain a deeper insight into DON-induced effects on lymphoid cells. For this, we exposed the human T-lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to various concentrations of DON for various times and examined gene expression changes by DNA microarray analysis. Jurkat cells were exposed to 0.25 and 0.5 μM DON for 3, 6 and 24 h. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicated that DON affects various processes in these cells: It upregulates genes involved in ribosome structure and function, RNA/protein synthesis and processing, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium-mediated signaling, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, the NFAT and NF-κB/TNF-α pathways, T cell activation and apoptosis. The effects of DON on the expression of genes involved in ER stress, NFAT activation and apoptosis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Other biochemical experiments confirmed that DON activates calcium-dependent proteins such as calcineurin and M-calpain that are known to be involved in T cell activation and apoptosis. Induction of T cell activation was also confirmed by demonstrating that DON activates NFATC1 and induces its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. For the gene expression profiling of PBMCs, cells were exposed to 2 and 4 μM DON for 6 and 24 h. Comparison of the Jurkat microarray data with those obtained with PBMCs showed that most of the processes affected by DON in the Jurkat cell line were also affected in the PBMCs. -- Highlights: ► The human T cell line Jurkat and human

  18. Inferring polymorphism-induced regulatory gene networks active in human lymphocyte cell lines by weighted linear mixed model analysis of multiple RNA-Seq datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contribute to the between-individual expression variation of many genes. A regulatory (trait-associated SNP is usually located near or within a (host gene, possibly influencing the gene's transcription or/and post-transcriptional modification. But its targets may also include genes that are physically farther away from it. A heuristic explanation of such multiple-target interferences is that the host gene transfers the SNP genotypic effects to the distant gene(s by a transcriptional or signaling cascade. These connections between the host genes (regulators and the distant genes (targets make the genetic analysis of gene expression traits a promising approach for identifying unknown regulatory relationships. In this study, through a mixed model analysis of multi-source digital expression profiling for 140 human lymphocyte cell lines (LCLs and the genotypes distributed by the international HapMap project, we identified 45 thousands of potential SNP-induced regulatory relationships among genes (the significance level for the underlying associations between expression traits and SNP genotypes was set at FDR < 0.01. We grouped the identified relationships into four classes (paradigms according to the two different mechanisms by which the regulatory SNPs affect their cis- and trans- regulated genes, modifying mRNA level or altering transcript splicing patterns. We further organized the relationships in each class into a set of network modules with the cis- regulated genes as hubs. We found that the target genes in a network module were often characterized by significant functional similarity, and the distributions of the target genes in three out of the four networks roughly resemble a power-law, a typical pattern of gene networks obtained from mutation experiments. By two case studies, we also demonstrated that significant biological insights can be inferred from the identified network modules.

  19. First-line chemoimmunotherapy with bendamustine and rituximab versus fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL10)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorst, Barbara; Fink, Anna-Maria; Bahlo, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab is the standard therapy for physically fit patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. This international phase 3 study compared the efficacy and tolerance of the standard therapy with a potentially less to...

  20. Avian host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  1. Establishment of Immortalized Human Lymphocytes Cell Lines with Multiple SNP Genotyping in Chinese Han Population%中国汉族人群代谢酶基因分型永生化淋巴细胞库的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 熊梦祯; 尹立红; 浦跃朴

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立汉族人群代谢酶基因分型的永生化淋巴细胞库,为单核苷酸多态(SNP)结构对毒物诱导的基因功能表达的影响建立研究平台.方法 用EB病毒(Epstein-Barr Virus,EBV)转化中国汉族健康成人外周血B淋巴细胞,通过对中国汉族人群CYP2E1和NQ01的单核苷酸多态(SNP)位点信息分析,选择中国人群特异性CYP2EI、NQ01基因SNP位点CYP2E1rs2070673,CYP2E1rs2031921,CYP2E13813866,NQO1rs 1800566,NQO1rs10517,应用适配器连接介导的等位基因特异性扩增法(ALM-SAS)对上述位点进行基因分型.将供体信息和细胞株基因分型的信息录入,构建中国汉族基因分型的永生化淋巴细胞库.结果 通过对细胞株进行上述5个SNP位点的基因分型,获得每株细胞的基因分型信息,获得CYP2E1rs2070673,CYP2E1rs2031921,CYP2E13813866,NQO1rs 1800566,NQO1rs10517不同基因分型的永生化淋巴细胞株.结论 通过永生化细胞库的建立、基因分型,初步建立中国的汉族人群代谢酶基因分型永生化淋巴细胞库,该细胞库的进一步建设,可以为研究中国人群环境毒物和药物代谢酶基因结构和功能的关系提供技术平台.%Objective To establish immortalized human lymphocytes cell lines with multiple SNP genotyping of Chinese Han population which could afford a platform to study gene function expression influenced by SNPs structure induced by chemical Methods EBV (Epstein-Bart Virus) were used to immortalize peripheral B lymphocytes derived from Chinese Hah population. After analyzing CYP2EI、NQOI SNP database of Chinese population, the five Chinese specific SNP sites: CYP2EIrs2070673,CYP2Elrs2031921, CYP2E13813866,NQOlrs 1800566, NQOl rs10517 were genotyped by an adapter-ligation mediated allele specific amplification (ALM-ASA) method. The information of providers and genotypes of cell lines were input to establish the database of immortalized human lymphocytes cell lines with multiple SNP genotyping

  2. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Avian and other zoonotic influenza Fact sheet Updated November 2016 Key ... A(H3) subtypes. Clinical features of avian and other zoonotic influenza infections in humans Avian and other ...

  3. Avian Chlamydiosis Zoonotic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This review presents recent data about avian chlamydiosis. Chlamydia psittaci has been considered to be the main causative agent of chlamydiosis in birds; however, two new Chlamydia species have been detected recently-C. gallinacea in breeding birds and C. avium in wild birds. We discuss the zoonotic potential of avian Chlamydia species.

  4. 稳定表达新城疫病毒V蛋白禽源细胞系的建立%Establishment of stable avian cell line expressing V protein of Newcastle disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文雅; 王兴龙; 张渭东; 杜恩岐; 陈胜利; 王丹阳; 党如意; 张淑霞; 杨增岐

    2012-01-01

    为获得可以稳定表达新城疫病毒V蛋白的DF-1细胞系,以质粒载体为模板,用PCR方法扩增新城疫病毒V基因并引入酶切位点(EcoRⅠ和BamHⅠ),以同尾酶相连的方式与用EcoRⅠ和BglⅡ酶切的piggyBac转座子系统克隆质粒pTKL1-CMV-Puro-EGFP相连接,经酶切鉴定、测序分析正确后,用Lipo-fectamineTM2000将重组质粒pTKL1-CMV-Puro-EGFP-V和辅助质粒mPB共转染DF-1细胞,通过绿色荧光观察、嘌呤霉素筛选及蛋白表达的Western-blot检测,结果表明,稳定表达新城疫病毒V蛋白的DF-1细胞系已成功建立。证实piggyBac转座子系统能够用于稳定表达外源基因的禽源细胞系的构建,为piggy-Bac转座子系统在禽源细胞的应用和新城疫病毒V蛋白的研究提供了一定的参考资料。%In order to obtain the stable DF-1 cell lines expressing Newcastle disease virus(NDV) V protein,NDV V gene from the recombinant plasmid pEGFT-N1-V was amplified, the restriction sites of EcoR l and BamH I were inducted into the amplicon. The amplicon were then connected into the piggy- Bac transposon cloning plasmid pTKL1-CMV-Puro-EGFP vector,which was checked by enzyme digestion and sequence analysis. The recombinant plasmids were co-transfected with the helper plasmid mPB into DF-1 cells using LipofectamineTM2000. The cell line was selected with puromycin and detected with green fluorescent protein observation, and V protein expression was detected by Western-blot. Results showed that the stable monoclonal cell lines expressing V protein was constructed successfully. The results revealed that piggyBac transposon system can be used for the construction of avian stable cell lines and the DF-1 cell line(DF-1-V) expressing NDV V protein was established successfully. The present study provided reference materials for application of the piggyBac transposon system in avian cell and research of NDV V protein.

  5. γδ T LYMPHOCYTES AS A FIRST LINE OF IMMUNE DEFENSE: OLD AND NEW WAYS OF ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raffaella eZocchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Among γδT cells, the Vδ1 subset, resident in epithelial tissues, is implied in the defense against viruses, fungi and certain hematological malignancies, while the circulating Vδ2 subpopulation mainly respond to mycobacteria and solid tumors. Both subsets can be activated by stress-induced molecules (MIC-A, MIC-B, ULBPs to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and lytic enzymes and destroy bacteria or damaged cells. γδT lymphocytes can also recognize lipids, as those associated to M. tuberculosis, presented by the CD1 molecule, or phosphoantigens (P-Ag, either autologous, which accumulates in virus-infected cells, or microbial produced by prokaryotes and parasites. In cancer cells P-Ag accumulate due to alterations in the mevalonate pathway; recently, butyrophilin 3A1 has been shown to be the presenting molecule for P-Ag. Of interest, aminobisphosphonates indirectly activate Vδ2 T cells inducing the accumulation of P-Ag. Based on these data, γδT lymphocytes are attractive effectors for cancer immunotherapy. However, the results obtained in clinical trials so far have been disappointing: this review will focus on the possible reasons of this failure as well as on suggestions for implementation of the therapeutic strategies.

  6. Editorial: Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Wang; Guangmei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    <正>Welcome to Avian Research!This new journal is a continuation and enhancement of Chinese Birds,which has been and continues to be sponsored by the China Ornithological Society and Beijing Forestry University.In the four years since its inception,the original journal—the only one in China focusing on avian research—has published over 130 manuscripts,with authors from all continents across the world,garnering global respect in

  7. Economic evaluation of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil in first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado LF

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Luis Felipe Casado,1 Amparo Burgos,2 Eva González-Haba,3 Javier Loscertales,4 Tania Krivasi,5 Javier Orofino,6 Carlos Rubio-Terres,7 Darío Rubio-Rodríguez7 1Hematology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain; 2Pharmacy Department, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain; 3Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 4Hematology Deparment, Hospital Universitario De La Princesa, Madrid, Spain; 5Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland; 6Roche Farma SA, Madrid, Spain; 7Health Value, Madrid, Spain Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil (GClb versus rituximab plus chlorambucil (RClb in the treatment of adults with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and with comorbidities that make them unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System.Methods: A Markov model was developed with three mutually exclusive health states: progression-free survival (with or without treatment, progression, and death. Survival time for the two treatments was modeled based on the results of CLL11 clinical trial and external sources. Each health state was associated with a utility value and direct medical costs. The utilities were obtained from a utility elicitation study conducted in the UK. Costs and general background mortality data were obtained from published Spanish sources. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were conducted, with a time frame of 20 years. The health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained. Efficiency was measured as the cost per LY or per QALY gained of the most effective regimen.Results: In the deterministic base case analysis, each patient treated with GClb resulted in 0.717 LYs gained and 0.673 QALYs gained versus RClb. The cost per LY and per QALY gained with GClb versus RClb was

  8. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  9. Accumulation of Cholesterol Esters in ex vivo Lymphocytes from Scrapie-susceptible Sheep and in Scrapie-infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our studies on the role of cholesterol homeostasis in the pathogenesis of scrapie in sheep, revealed abnormal accumulation of cholesterol esters in brains and in ex vivo skin fibroblasts from genetically scrapie-susceptible, as compared to sheep with resistant genotype. We now report that PBMCs isolated from scrapie-susceptible sheep, as well as mouse neuroblastoma cell lines persistently infected with two different mouse-adapted strains of scrapie, showed similar alterations with up to 3-fold higher cholesterol ester levels than their resistant or uninfected counterparts. Treatments with drugs that interfere with intracellular cholesterol metabolism strongly reduced accumulation of cholesterol esters in scrapie-infected cell lines, whereas had significantly lower, or no effect, in uninfected cell line. These data add support to our hypothesis that accumulation of cholesterol esters may represent a biological marker of susceptibility to prion infection and a potential molecular target for prion inhibitors.

  10. Up-regulation of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex expression in side-population cells derived from a human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tetsunori; Kusunoki, Soshi; Tabu, Kouichi; Okabe, Hitomi; Yamada, Izumi; Taga, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Akemi; Makino, Shintaro; Takeda, Satoru; Kato, Kiyoko

    2016-01-01

    The continual proliferation and differentiation of trophoblasts are critical for the maintenance of pregnancy. It is well known that the tissue stem cells are associated with the development of tissues and pathologies. It has been demonstrated that side-population (SP) cells identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) are enriched with stem cells. The SP cells in HTR-8/SVneo cells derived from human primary trophoblast cells were isolated by FACS. HTR-8/SVneo-SP cell cultures generated both SP and non-SP (NSP) subpopulations. In contrast, NSP cell cultures produced NSP cells and failed to produce SP cells. These SP cells showed self-renewal capability by serial colony-forming assay. Microarray expression analysis using a set of HTR-8/SVneo-SP and -NSP cells revealed that SP cells overexpressed several stemness genes including caudal type homeobox2 (CDX2) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus D (LY6D) gene was the most highly up-regulated in HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. LY6D gene reduced its expression in the course of a 7-day cultivation in differentiation medium. SP cells tended to reduce its fraction by treatment of LY6D siRNA indicating that LY6D had potential to maintain cell proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. On ontology analysis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway was involved in the up-regulated genes on microarray analysis. HTR-SVneo-SP cells showed enhanced migration. This is the first report that LY6D was important for the maintenance of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. EMT was associated with the phenotype of these SP cells.

  11. Economic evaluation of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil in first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Luis Felipe; Burgos, Amparo; González-Haba, Eva; Loscertales, Javier; Krivasi, Tania; Orofino, Javier; Rubio-Terres, Carlos; Rubio-Rodríguez, Darío

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil (GClb) versus rituximab plus chlorambucil (RClb) in the treatment of adults with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and with comorbidities that make them unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. Methods A Markov model was developed with three mutually exclusive health states: progression-free survival (with or without treatment), progression, and death. Survival time for the two treatments was modeled based on the results of CLL11 clinical trial and external sources. Each health state was associated with a utility value and direct medical costs. The utilities were obtained from a utility elicitation study conducted in the UK. Costs and general background mortality data were obtained from published Spanish sources. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were conducted, with a time frame of 20 years. The health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs) gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Efficiency was measured as the cost per LY or per QALY gained of the most effective regimen. Results In the deterministic base case analysis, each patient treated with GClb resulted in 0.717 LYs gained and 0.673 QALYs gained versus RClb. The cost per LY and per QALY gained with GClb versus RClb was €23,314 and €24,838, respectively. The results proved stable in most of the univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, with a probabilistic cost per QALY gained of €24,734 (95% confidence interval: €21,860–28,367). Conclusion Using GClb to treat patients with previously untreated CLL for whom full-dose fludarabine-based therapy is unsuitable allows significant gains in terms of LYs and QALYs versus treatment with RClb. Treatment with GClb versus RClb can be regarded as efficient when considered the willingness to pay thresholds commonly used in Spain. PMID:27703384

  12. Avian influenza control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control strategies for avian influenza in poultry vary depending on whether the goal is prevention, management, or eradication. Components used in control programs include: 1) education which includes communication, public awareness, and behavioral change, 2) changes to production and marketing sys...

  13. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  14. Distribution of viral antigen gp85 and provirus in various tissues from commercial meat-type and experimental white leghorn line 0 chickens with different subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to test for the presence of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV J) envelope antigen gp85 and provirus, respectively in various tissues (adrenal gland, bone marrow, gonad, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, proventriculus, s...

  15. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds.

  16. Antiprion activity of cholesterol esterification modulators: a comparative study using ex vivo sheep fibroblasts and lymphocytes and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Alessandra; Norfo, Claudia; Abete, Claudia; Mulas, Claudia; Putzolu, Marirosa; Laconi, Sergio; Orrù, Christina Doriana; Cannas, M Dolores; Vascellari, Sarah; La Colla, Paolo; Dessì, Sandra

    2007-11-01

    Our studies on the role of cholesterol homeostasis in the pathogenesis of scrapie revealed abnormal accumulation of cholesterol esters in ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and skin fibroblasts from healthy and scrapie-affected sheep carrying a scrapie-susceptible genotype compared to sheep with a resistant genotype. Similar alterations were observed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cell lines persistently infected with mouse-adapted 22L and RML strains of scrapie that showed up to threefold-higher cholesterol ester levels than parental N2a cells. We now report that proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPres)-producing cell populations of subclones from scrapie-infected cell lines were characterized by higher cholesterol ester levels than clone populations not producing PrPres. Treatments with a number of drugs known to interfere with different steps of cholesterol metabolism strongly reduced the accumulation of cholesterol esters in ex vivo PBMCs and skin fibroblasts from scrapie-affected sheep but had significantly less or no effect in their respective scrapie-resistant or uninfected counterparts. In scrapie-infected N2a cells, inhibition of cholesterol esters was associated with selective antiprion activity. Effective antiprion concentrations of cholesterol modulators (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] range, 1.4 to 40 microM) were comparable to those of antiprion reference compounds (EC(50) range, 0.6 to 10 microM). These data confirm our hypothesis that abnormal accumulation of cholesterol esters may represent a biological marker of susceptibility to prion infection/replication and a novel molecular target of potential clinical importance.

  17. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens.

  18. Development of an Immunoperoxidase Monolayer Assay for the Detection of Antibodies against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Based on BHK-21 Cell Line Stably Expressing the Goat Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiye; Li, Cuicui; Xie, Meimei; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-01-01

    From 2013 to 2015, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) broke out in more than half of the provinces of China; thus, the application and development of diagnostic methods are very important for the control of PPR. Here, an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was developed to detect antibodies against PPR. However, during IPMA development, we found that Vero cells were not the appropriate choice because staining results were not easily observed. Therefore, we first established a baby hamster kidney-goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (BHK-SLAM) cell line that could stably express goat SLAM for at least 20 generations. Compared with Vero cells, the PPR-mediated cytopathic effect occurred earlier in BHK-SLAM cells, and large syncytia appeared after virus infection. Based on this cell line and recombinant PPR virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) (rPPRV-GFP), an IPMA for PPR diagnosis was developed. One hundred and ninety-eight PPR serum samples from goats or sheep were tested by the IPMA and virus neutralization test (VNT). Compared with the VNT, the sensitivity and specificity of the IPMA were 91% and 100%, respectively, and the coincidence rate of the two methods was 95.5%. The IPMA assay could be completed in 4 h, compared with more than 6 d for the VNT using rPPRV-GFP, and it is easily performed, as the staining results can be observed under a microscope. Additionally, unlike the VNT, the IPMA does not require antigen purification, which will reduce its cost. In conclusion, the established IPMA will be an alternative method that replaces the VNT for detecting antibodies against PPRV in the field. PMID:27768770

  19. Unsuitability of lymphoblastoid cell lines as surrogate of cryopreserved isolated lymphocytes for the analysis of DNA double-strand break repair activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zijno, Andrea [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Porcedda, Paola [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy); Saini, Francesca [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Allione, Alessandra [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Villa Gualino, Turin (Italy); Garofalo, Bruno; Marcon, Francesca [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Guarrera, Simonetta [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Villa Gualino, Turin (Italy); Turinetto, Valentina; Minieri, Valentina [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy); Funaro, Ada [Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Turin (Italy); Crebelli, Riccardo [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Giachino, Claudia [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy); Matullo, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.matullo@unito.it [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Villa Gualino, Turin (Italy); Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Turin (Italy)

    2010-02-03

    As first task of a comprehensive investigation on DNA repair genotype-phenotype correlations, the suitability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as surrogate of cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in DNA repair phenotypic assays was evaluated. To this aim the amount of DNA damage induced by {gamma}-rays and DNA repair capacity were evaluated in unstimulated (G{sub 0}) and mitogen-simulated (G{sub 2}) PBMC from 20 healthy subjects and in EBV-transformed LCL obtained from the same individuals. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations were the end-points investigated. The results obtained show higher basal frequencies of binucleated cells bearing micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) in LCL with respect to PBMC, suggesting that EBV transformation may be associated with chromosomal instability. After irradiation, higher levels of micronuclei were induced in G{sub 0}-treated PBMC compared to cycling LCL; conversely, NPB were more frequent in LCL than in PBMC. Moreover, higher levels of chromosomal aberrations were observed in G{sub 2}-treated PBMC compared to LCL. Concerning {gamma}-H2AX measurements, phosphorylation levels 1 h after treatment and dephosphorylation kinetics were basically similar in LCL and in PBMC. However, while Spearman's test showed a strong correlation between the results obtained in replicated experiments with PBMC, high inter-experimental variability and poor reproducibility was observed in the experiments performed with LCL, possibly due to the intrinsic instability of LCL. In summary, both the analysis of {gamma}-H2AX and the evaluation of chromosome damage highlighted a larger inter-experimental variability in the results obtained with LCL compared to PBMC. Noteworthy, the two set of results proved to lack any significant correlation at the individual level. These results indicate that LCL may be unsuitable for investigating genotype

  20. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  1. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  2. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  3. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  4. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielink, van R.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce inf

  5. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information in your local library and on the Internet. Good sources include the National Cancer Institute, the ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/basics/definition/CON-20042915 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  6. Cloning and functional characterisation of avian transcription factor E2A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Kerstin B

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During B lymphocyte development the E2A gene is a critical regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. With regards to the immunoglobulin genes the E2A proteins contribute to the regulation of gene rearrangement, expression and class switch recombination. We are now using the chicken cell line DT40 as a model system to further analyse the function of E2A. Results Here we report the cloning and functional analysis of the transcription factor E2A from chicken. Using RACE PCR on the chicken lymphoma cell line DT40 we have isolated full-length clones for the two E2A splice variants E12 and E47. Sequence conservation between the human and chicken proteins is extensive: the basic-helix-loop-helix DNA binding domain of human and chicken E47 and E12 are 93% and 92% identical, respectively. In addition high levels of conservation are seen in activation domain I, the potential NLS and the ubiquitin ligase interaction domain. E2A is expressed in a variety of tissues in chicken, with higher levels of expression in organs rich in immune cells. We demonstrate that chicken E12 and E47 proteins are strong transcriptional activators whose function depends on the presence of activation domain I. As in mammals, the dominant negative proteins Id1 and Id3 can inhibit the function of chicken E47. Conclusions The potential for homologous recombination in DT40 allows the genetic dissection of biochemical pathways in somatic cells. With the cloning of avian E2A and the recent description of an in vitro somatic hypermutation assay in this cell line, it should now be possible to dissect the potential role of E2A in the regulation of somatic hypermutation and gene conversion.

  7. Koyukuk NWR 1985 avian checklist

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An avian checklist survey was conducted within the boundaries of the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge and Kaiyuh Flats unit of the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge...

  8. Koyukuk NWR 1986 avian checklist

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An avian checklist survey was conducted within the boundaries of the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge and Kaiyuh Flats unit of the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge in...

  9. Simulating avian wingbeat kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslew, Ben; Crowther, William J

    2010-12-01

    Inverse dynamics methods are used to simulate avian wingbeats in varying flight conditions. A geometrically scalable multi-segment bird model is constructed, and optimisation techniques are employed to determine segment motions that generate desired aerodynamic force coefficients with minimal mechanical power output. The results show that wingbeat kinematics vary gradually with changes in cruise speed, which is consistent with experimental data. Optimised solutions for cruising flight of the pigeon suggest that upstroke wing retraction is used as a method of saving energy. Analysis of the aerodynamic force coefficient variation in high and low speed cruise leads to the proposal that a suitable gait metric should include both thrust and lift generation during each half-stroke.

  10. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  11. Growth patterns in brooding dinosaurs reveals the timing of sexual maturity in non-avian dinosaurs and genesis of the avian condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M; Curry Rogers, Kristina; Varricchio, David J; Norell, Mark A; Xu, Xing

    2007-10-22

    The timing of sexual maturation in non-avian dinosaurs is not known. In extant squamates and crocodilians it occurs in conjunction with the initial slowing of growth rates as adult size is approached. In birds (living dinosaurs) on the other hand, reproductive activity begins well after somatic maturity. Here we used growth line counts and spacing in all of the known brooding non-avian dinosaurs to determine the stages of development when they perished. It was revealed that sexual maturation occurred well before full adult size was reached-the primitive reptilian condition. In this sense, the life history and physiology of non-avian dinosaurs was not like that of modern birds. Palaeobiological ramifications of these findings include the potential to deduce reproductive lifespan, fecundity and reproductive population sizes in non-avian dinosaurs, as well as aid in the identification of secondary sexual characteristics.

  12. Protection of chickens against avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) infection by immunization with recombinant avian HEV capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X J

    2007-04-12

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is an emerging virus associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens in North America. Avian HEV is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV, the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans. In the lack of a practical animal model, avian HEV infection in chickens has been used as a model to study human HEV replication and pathogenesis. A 32 kDa recombinant ORF2 capsid protein of avian HEV expressed in Escherichia coli was found having similar antigenic structure as that of human HEV containing major neutralizing epitopes. To determine if the capsid protein of avian HEV can be used as a vaccine, 20 chickens were immunized with purified avian HEV recombinant protein with aluminum as adjuvant and another 20 chickens were mock immunized with KLH precipitated in aluminum as controls. Both groups of chickens were subsequently challenged with avian HEV. All the tested mock-immunized control chickens developed typical avian HEV infection characterized by viremia, fecal virus shedding and seroconversion to avian HEV antibodies. Gross hepatic lesions were also found in portion of these chickens. In contrast, none of the tested chickens immunized with avian HEV capsid protein had detectable viremia, fecal virus shedding or observable gross hepatitis lesions. The results from this study suggested that immunization of chickens with avian HEV recombinant ORF2 capsid protein with aluminum as adjuvant can induce protective immunity against avian HEV infection. Chickens are a useful small animal model to study anti-HEV immunity and pathogenesis.

  13. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  14. Cytotoxicity of lymphocytes from melanoma patients against autologous tumor cells and its potentiation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovskaya, S.N.; Iobadze, M.S.; Kupriyanova, T.A.; Demidov, L.V.

    1987-06-01

    The specific and natural cytotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with melanomas was compared and stimulation with autologous tumor cells or a pool of allogeneic lymphocytes from five healthy blood donors also was used to potentiate the specific antitumor activity of the patients' lymphocytes. To assess cytolytic ability, cells of an autologous tumor, cells of the K-562 line, autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes, and blast cells obtained from these lymphocytes after stimulation by phytohemagglutinin were used as the target cells. The target cells were incubated in a medium containing sodium chromate and were labelled with the chromium 51 isotope.

  15. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  16. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  17. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  18. Avian influenza : a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalda

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1, that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO , world organization for animal health (OIE , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO information and recommendations and review of the published literature about avian influenza. Since December 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have swept through poultry populations across Asia and parts of Europe. The outbreaks are historically unprecedented in scale and geographical spread. Their economic impact on the agricultural sector of the affected countries has been large. Human cases, with an overall fatality rate around 50%, have also been reported and almost all human infections can be linked to contact with infected poultry. Influenza viruses are genetically unstable and their behaviour cannot be predicted so the risk of further human cases persists. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a re-assortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic.

  19. LYMPHOCYTE APOPTOSIS IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. M. Kapuler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Forty-two patients with progressive vulgar psoriasis (PASI = 19.7 ± 1.5 and 40 healthy volunteers were under investigation. Psoriatic patients were characterized by increased number of CD4+ CD95+ peripheral blood T lymphocytes, which correlates with clinical psoriatic score, and by increased levels of soluble Fas (sFas in serum, as compared to controls (resp., 1868.1 ± 186.8 pg/ml vs. 1281.4 ± 142.5 pg/ml, PLSD = 0.019. The levels of spontaneous lymphocyte apoptosis and anti-Fas (Mab-induced apoptosis in psoriatic patients did not differ from the controls. However, apoptosis induced by “oxidative stress” (50 M Н202, 4 hrs was depressed in the patients. Moreover, a simultaneous assessment of cell cycle structure (metachromatic staining with Acridine Orange, apoptosis and Fas receptor expression (AnnV-FITC/antiFas mAbs-PE staining following a short-term mitogenic stimulation (PHA-P, 5 µg/ml, 24 hrs were performed. We found no marked differences in mitogenic reactivity, activation-induced apoptosis, and activation-induced Fas receptor expression when studying lymphocytes from healthy donors and psoriatic patients. However, PHA-activated lymphocytes from psoriatic patients displayed a significantly decreased ratio of AnnV+CD95+ to the total AnnV+ subpopulation, thus suggesting a decreased role of Fas-dependent mechanisms of apoptosis during the cell activation. The data obtained confirm a view, that an abnormal lymphocyte “apoptotic reactivity”, which plays a crucial role in the mechanisms of autoimmunity, may also of importance in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  20. Subclinical avian hepatitis E virus infection in layer flocks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Trampel, Darrell W; Willinghan, Eric M; Billam, Padma; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine patterns of avian HEV infection in naturally infected chicken farms. A total of 310 serum samples and 62 pooled fecal samples were collected from 62 chicken flocks on seven commercial in-line egg farms in the Midwestern United States and tested for avian HEV circulation. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-avian HEV IgY antibodies by a fluorescent microbead immunoassay (FMIA) which was developed for this study. The FMIA was validated using archived samples of chickens with known exposure (n = 96) and compared to the results obtained with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the same capture antigen. There was an overall substantial agreement between the two assays (κ = 0.63) with earlier detection of positive chickens by the FMIA (P = 0.04). On the seven farms investigated, the overall prevalence of anti-avian HEV IgY antibodies in serum samples from commercial chickens was 44.8% (20-82% per farm). Fecal samples were tested for avian HEV RNA by a nested reverse-transcriptase PCR. The overall detection rate of avian HEV RNA in fecal samples was 62.9% (0-100% per farm). Sequencing analyses of partial helicase and capsid genes showed that different avian HEV genotype 2 strains were circulating within a farm. However, no correlation was found between avian HEV RNA detection and egg production, egg weight or mortality. In conclusion, avian HEV infection is widespread among clinically healthy laying hens in the United States.

  1. Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek'...

  2. Role of endogenous avian leukosis virus and serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus in enhancement of spontaneous lymphoid-leukosis-like tumors in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of endogenous subgroup E avian Leukosis virus (ALV-E) and strain SB-1 of serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus (MDV) on the enhancement of spontaneous lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like tumors was studied in chickens of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line named 0.TVB*S1, or RFS. This...

  3. Spontaenous Avian Leukosis Virus-like lymphomas in specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated with serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickens of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line alv6, known to develop spontaneous avian leukosis virus (ALV)-like lymphomas at two years of age or older, were inoculated either in-ovo, or at 1 day of age with strain SB-1 of serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Inoculated and uninoc...

  4. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  5. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  6. Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek’s disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

  7. Avian Paramyxovirus: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, P; Ganar, K; Kumar, S

    2017-02-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) have been reported from a wide variety of avian species around the world. Avian paramyxoviruses are economically significant because of the huge mortality and morbidity associated with it. Twelve different serotypes of APMV have been reported till date. Avian paramyxoviruses belong to the family Paramyxoviridae under genus Avulavirus. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most characterized members among the APMV serotypes. Complete genome sequence of all twelve APMV serotypes has been published recently. In recent years, APMV-1 has attracted the virologists for its oncolytic activity and its use as a vaccine vector for both animals and humans. The recombinant APMV-based vaccine offers a pertinent choice for the construction of live attenuated vaccine due to its minimum recombination frequency, modular nature of transcription and lack of DNA phase during its replication. Although insufficient data are available regarding other APMV serotypes, our understanding about the APMV biology is expanding rapidly because of the availability of modern molecular biology tools and high-throughput complete genome sequencing.

  8. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  9. Avian host defense peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, M.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense

  10. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. II. A hybridoma secreting antibody against an antigen expressed by human B and null lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Thomas, M E; Zola, H

    1980-06-01

    A hybridoma (FMC4) has been derived which secretes antibody showing selective reaction with human B lymphocytes, monocytes and some null lymphocytes. Few, if any, T lymphocytes in normal blood are stained, although stimulation of lymphocytes with PHA leads to an increase in the proportion of cells reacting with the hybridoma antibody. The antibody reacts with B and null lymphoblastoid cell lines but not with T cell lines. B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells but not T-CLLs are stained and null-type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells but not T-type ALL also react. Normal blood myeloid cells do not react with FMC4 supernatant whilst some myeloid leukaemias do. The expression of the antigen reacting with FMC4 supernatant suggests that FMC4 may secrete an antibody against the human equivalent of the Ia antigen.

  11. How the avian model has pioneered the field of hematopoietic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffredo, Thierry; Yvernogeau, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    The chicken embryo has a long history as a key model in developmental biology. Because of its distinctive developmental characteristics, it has contributed to major breakthroughs in the field of hematopoiesis. Among these, the discovery of B lymphocytes and the three rounds of thymus colonization; the embryonic origin of hematopoietic stem cells and the traffic between different hematopoietic organs; and the existence of two distinct endothelial cell lineages one angioblastic, restricted to endothelial cell production, and another, hemangioblastic, able to produce both endothelial and hematopoietic cells, should be cited. The avian model has also contributed to substantiate the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition associated with aortic hematopoiesis and the existence of the allantois as a hematopoietic organ. Because the immune system develops relatively late in aves, the avian embryo is used to probe the tissue-forming potential of mouse tissues through mouse-into-chicken chimeras, providing insights into early mouse development by circumventing the lethality associated with some genetic strains. Finally, the avian embryo can be used to investigate the differentiation potential of human ES cells in the context of a whole organism. The combinations of classic approaches with the development of powerful genetic tools make the avian embryo a great and versatile model.

  12. Inactivated vaccine with adjuvants consisting of pattern recognition receptor agonists confers protection against avian influenza viruses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinghua; Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Zhenxing; Tian, Zhen; Zha, Guofei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Qiaoxiu; Hou, Fengxiang; Kang, Sang-Moo; Hou, Jibo

    2014-08-01

    Use of adjuvant containing pathogen pattern recognition receptor agonists is one of the effective strategies to enhance the efficacy of licensed vaccines. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines containing an adjuvant (CVCVA5) which was composed of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic, resiquimod, imiquimod, muramyl dipeptide and levomisole. Avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with CVCVA5 were found to induce significantly higher titers of hemagglutiniton inhibition antibodies (P≤0.01) than those of commercial vaccines at 2-, 3- and 4-week post vaccination in both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and field application. Furthermore, virus shedding was reduced in SPF chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine after H9 subtype heterologous virus challenge. The ratios of both CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes were slowly elevated in chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine. Lymphocytes adoptive transfer study indicates that CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation might have contributed to improved protection against heterologous virus challenge. Results of this study suggest that the adjuvant CVCVA5 was capable of enhancing the potency of existing avian influenza vaccines by increasing humoral and cellular immune response.

  13. Lymphocyte Trafficking to Mucosal Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikhak, Zamaneh; Agace, William Winston; Luster, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes are the key cells of the adaptive immune system that provide antigen-specific responses tailored to the context of antigen exposure. Through cytokine release and antibody production, lymphocytes orchestrate and amplify the recruitment and function of other immune cells and contribute...... to host defense against invading pathogens and the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Lymphocyte function is critically dependent on their ability to traffic into the correct anatomic locations at the appropriate times. This process is highly regulated and requires that lymphocytes interact...

  14. Lymphocyte 'homing' and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.

  15. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  16. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process.

  17. Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Wen, Jun; Nguyen, John; Cachia, Mark A.; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first study of stiffness/deformability changes of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, demonstrating that at the single cell level, leukemic metastasis progresses are accompanied by biophysical property alterations. A microfluidic device was utilized to electrically measure cell volume and transit time of single lymphocytes from healthy and CLL patients. The results from testing thousands of cells reveal that lymphocytes from CLL patients have higher stiffness (i.e., lower deformability), as compared to lymphocytes in healthy samples, which was also confirmed by AFM indentation tests. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known knowledge on other types of metastatic cells (e.g., breast and lung cancer cells) whose stiffness becomes lower as metastasis progresses.

  18. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  19. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  20. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, E; Rozman, C

    1995-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the form of leukemia which occurs most frequently in Western countries. Its etiology is unknown, and no relationship with viruses or genes has been demonstrated. Epidemiological data suggest that genetic and ambiental factors might be of some significance. Clinical features of CLL are due to the accumulation of leukemic cells in bone marrow and lymphoid organs as well as the immune disturbances that accompany the disease. The prognosis of patients with CLL varies. Treatment is usually indicated by the risk of the individual patient, which is clearly reflected by the stage of the disease. In the early stage (Binet A, Rai O) it is reasonable to defer therapy until disease progression is observed. By contrast, because their median survival is less than five years, patients with more advanced stages require therapy. For almost 50 years, no major advances in the management of CLL, which has revolved around the use of alkylating agents, have been made. In recent years, the therapeutic approach in patients with CLL has changed as a result of the introduction of combination chemotherapy regimens and, in particular, purine analogues. The latter are already the treatment of choice for patients not responding to standard therapies, and their role as front-line therapy is being investigated. Bone marrow transplants are also being increasingly used. It is to be hoped that in years to come the outcome of patients with CLL will be improved by these advances.

  1. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R

    2014-07-01

    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand.

  2. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  3. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  4. 用SILAC技术研究感染H5N1禽流感病毒后A549肺癌细胞蛋白质组的表达变化%Cellular Proteome Alterations in Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian In-fluenza Virus-Infected Human Lung Cell Line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继峰; 李靖; 康晓平; 吴晓燕; 钱小红; 应万涛; 杨银辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cellular proteome responses of human lung A549 cell lines to the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection, explore changes of specific molecular pathways and identify the key proteins involved in the infection. Methods: By using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) method to obtain“heavy”labeled cell lines which were infected with H5N1 virus and“light”labeled cell lines which were not infected, from which the cellular proteins were extracted and mixed in even amounts. Then the peptides derived from the mixed proteins digestion were identified by orthogonal reversed-phase chroma-tography coupled with mass spectroscopy and performed qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results: Of the total 3504 identified proteins and 2469 proteins with quantitative information, 72 were significantly up-regulated, 66 were significantly down-regulated. These proteins were involved in several molecular regulation pathways, including RNA splicesome, interferon inducible pathways, ubiquitin degradation pathway, insulin pathway and so on. Conclu-sion: We successfully established a strategy to explore the virus-host cell interactions with SILAC method. The identification of the key proteins involved in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection, providedthe theoretical basis forunderstanding the molecular pathogenesis of H5N1 infection.%目的:鉴定高致病性H5N1禽流感病毒感染A549肺癌细胞后,细胞蛋白质组的表达变化,并鉴定特异分子通路的改变及其涉及的关键蛋白质分子。方法:利用稳定同位素标记氨基酸技术(SILAC)标记A549细胞,得到“重标”或“轻标”的A549细胞;“重标”细胞感染高致病性H5N1禽流感病毒24 h后提取细胞总蛋白,与从未感染病毒的“轻标”细胞中提取的总蛋白等量混合,酶解肽段,经正交反相色谱分离后用质谱鉴定,对数据进行定性和定量

  5. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  6. Carbon nanotubes enhance cytotoxicity mediated by human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Sun

    Full Text Available With the expansion of the potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT in biomedical fields, the toxicity and biocompatibility of CNT have become issues of growing concern. Since the immune system often mediates tissue damage during pathogenesis, it is important to explore whether CNT can trigger cytotoxicity through affecting the immune functions. In the current study, we evaluated the influence of CNT on the cytotoxicity mediated by human lymphocytes in vitro. The results showed that while CNT at low concentrations (0.001 to 0.1 µg/ml did not cause obvious cell death or apoptosis directly, it enhanced lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against multiple human cell lines. In addition, CNT increased the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α by the lymphocytes. CNT also upregulated the NF-κB expression in lymphocytes, and the blockage of the NF-κB pathway reduced the lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity triggered by CNT. These results suggest that CNT at lower concentrations may prospectively initiate an indirect cytotoxicity through affecting the function of lymphocytes.

  7. MicroRNA expression profiles in avian haemopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu eYao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, abundant, non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression by interfering with translation or stability of mRNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. A total of 734 precursor and 996 mature miRNAs have so far been identified in the chicken genome. A number of these miRNAs are expressed in a cell type-specific manner, and understanding their function requires detailed examination of their expression in different cell types. We carried out deep sequencing of small RNA populations isolated from stimulated or transformed avian haemopoietic cell lines to determine the changes in the expression profiles of these important regulatory molecules during these biological events. There were significant changes in the expression of a number of miRNAs, including miR-155, in chicken B cells stimulated with CD40 ligand. Similarly, avian leukosis virus (ALV-transformed DT40 cells also showed changes in miRNA expression in relation to the naïve cells. Embryonic stem cell line BP25 demonstrated a distinct cluster of upregulated miRNAs, many of which were shown previously to be involved in embryonic stem cell development. Finally, chicken macrophage cell line HD11 showed changes in miRNA profiles, some of which are thought to be related to the transformation by v-myc transduced by the virus. This work represents the first publication of a catalog of microRNA expression in a range of important avian cells and provides insights into the potential roles of miRNAs in the hematopoietic lineages of cells in a model non-mammalian species.

  8. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    The avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is a specialized structure located rather inaccessibly in an air sac close to the heart where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi. The syrinx of different avian taxa varies so much in position and morphology that it has been used for taxonomy. It...

  9. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  10. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  11. Analysis of Avian Hepatitis E Virus from Chickens, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-01-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  12. Analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chickens, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-09-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  13. Leucocyte and lymphocyte count in cases of bird flu infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-03-01

    Bird flu or avian flu is a new emerging Infectious disease. The H5N1 virus has not only affected the fowls but also the human beings. Severe disease with high mortality in humans in Vietnam and Thailand are reported. This mini-study was undertaken in order to document the Impact of bird flu infection on leucocyte and lymphocyte counts among patients of Thailand. This study was designed as a descriptive retrospective study. A literature review on the papers concerning human bird flu in Thailand was performed. According to this study, there are 6 cases covering 12 Thai patients with confirmed diagnosis of bird flu. However, the complete data were available on only 6 patients. The reported leucocyte count ranges from 1,200 cells/cmm to 5,680 cells/cmm and the lymphocyte count ranges from 454 cells/ cmm to 1,440 cells/cmm. The average leucocyte and lymphocyte counts equalled to 3,230.0 +/- 1,552.7 cells/cmm and 748.7 +/- 348.5 cells/cmm, respectively. According to this study, low lymphocyte count is common. This can support the previous observation for the lymphocyte suppression effect of H5N1 virus.

  14. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  15. Two new Trypanosoma species from African birds, with notes on the taxonomy of avian trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Carlson, Jenny S; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2011-10-01

    Trypanosoma anguiformis n. sp. and Trypanosoma polygranularis n. sp. are described from the African olive sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea, and Latham's forest francolin, Francolinus lathami, respectively, based on the morphology of their hematozoic trypomastigotes and partial sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Both new species belong to the group of small non-striated avian trypanosomes (Trypanosoma anguiformis can be readily distinguished from other small avian trypanosomes due to its markedly attenuated (snake-shaped) form of the hematozoic trypomastigotes and the dumbbell-shaped nucleus of the parasite. Trypanosoma polygranularis is readily distinguishable due to the markedly off-center (anteriorly) located nucleus, numerous azurophilic granules that are arranged in a line following the undulating membrane, and the large kinetoplast (with an area up to 1.7 µm(2) [1.1 µm(2) on average]). Illustrations of hematozoic trypomastigotes of the new species are given, and DNA lineages associated with these parasites are reported. The current situation in species taxonomy of avian trypanosomes is discussed. We call for the redescription of valid species of avian trypanosomes from their type vertebrate hosts and type localities by using morphological and polymerase chain reaction-based techniques as an initial essential step towards revising the species composition of avian trypanosomes and reconstructing the taxonomy of these organisms.

  16. Lymphocytes prime activation is required for nicotine-induced calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, Emilie; Liautaud-Roger, Francoise; Antonicelli, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Lymphocytes are reported to express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). However, no data are available on the expression of these nAChR on activated lymphocyte relatively to resting lymphocytes. In this study, we examined nAChR subunits expression in PHA-stimulated versus un-stimulated lymphocytes, and four leukemic cell lines. Cell stimulation with nicotine triggered calcium responses only in some experiments conducted with PHA-stimulated lymphocytes. Likewise, only the Jurkat and HL-60 cell lines displayed calcium waves upon nicotine stimulation, whereas the Raji and CCRF-CEM did not. All responding cells displayed an active form of the nicotinic a-7 nAChR. Indeed, use of 2 different sets of primers for the corresponding mRNA showed that expression of the full-length a-7 subunit mRNA was only present in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes for which calcium waves had been evidenced. Microscopy analysis of lymphocytes structure showed a direct relationship between their size, their a-7 nAChR expression, and calcium release upon nicotine stimulation. Then, this relationship suggested that lymphocytes need a prime activation to express the a-7 nAChR, and therefore to release calcium in response to nicotine.

  17. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

  18. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: case-based session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K R; Döhner, H; Keating, M J; Montserrat, E

    2001-01-01

    Drs. Hartmut Döhner, Michael J. Keating, Kanti R. Rai and Emili Montserrat form the panel to review chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) while focusing on the clinical features of a particular patient. The pace of progress in CLL has accelerated in the past decade. The pathophysiological nature of this disease, as had been known in the past, was based largely on the intuitive and empiric notions of two leaders in hematology, William Dameshek and David Galton. Now the works of a new generation of leaders are providing us with the scientific explanations of why CLL is a heterogeneous disease, perhaps consisting of at least two separate entities. In one form of CLL, the leukemic lymphocytes have a surface immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region gene that has undergone somatic mutations, with tell-tale markers suggesting that these cells had previously traversed the germinal centers. Such patients have a distinctly superior prognosis than their counterparts whose leukemic lymphocytes IgV genes have no mutations (these are indeed immunologically naive cells), who have a worse prognosis. The introduction of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique has provided us with new insights into the diverse chromosomal abnormalities that can occur in CLL, and which have significant impact on the clinical behavior and prognosis of patients with this disease. Major advances in therapeutics of CLL also have occurred during the past decade. Two monoclonal antibodies, Campath-1H (anti-CD52) and rituximab (anti-CD20), and one nucleoside analogue, fludarabine, have emerged as three agents of most promise in the front-line treatment of this disease. Studies currently in progress reflect our attempts to find the most effective manner of combining these agents to improve the overall survival statistics for CLL patients. As in many other hematological malignancies, high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous or HLA-compatible allogeneic stem cells rescue strategies are under study as

  19. Desensitization oft lymphocyte function by CXCR3 ligands in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing Liu; Ronnie T. Poon; Jeremy Hughes; Qin-Yu Li; Wan-Ching Yu; Sheung-Tat Fan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Despite the presence of lymphocyte infiltration, human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is typically a rapidly progressive disease. The mechanism of regulation of lymphocyte migration is poorly understood. In this study,we investigated various factors regulating T cell migration in HCC patients. We examined serum CXC chemokine levels in HCC patients and demonstrated the production of CXC chemokines by HCC cell lines. We determined the effect of both HCC patient serum and tumor cell conditioned supernatant upon lymphocyte expression of chemokine receptor CXCR3 as well as lymphocyte migration. Lastly,we examined the chemotactic responses of lymphocytes derived from HCC patients.METHODS: The serum chemokines IP-10 (CXCL10) and Mig (CXCL9) levels were measured by cytometric bead array (CBA) and the tumor tissue IP-10 concentration was measured by ELISA. The surface expression of CXCR3 on lymphocytes was determined by flow cytometry. The migratory function of lymphocytes to the corresponding chemokines was assessed using an in vitro chemotactic assay. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was determined by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: Increased levels of IP-10 and Mig were detected in HCC patient serum and culture supernatants of HCC cell lines. The IP-10 concentration in the tumor was significantly higher than that in the non-involved adjacent liver tissues.HCC cell lines secreted functional chemokines that induced a CXCR3-specific chemotactic response of lymphocytes.Furthermore, tumor-cell-derived chemokines induced initial rapid phosphorylation of lymphocyte ERK followed by later inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. The culture of normal lymphocytes with HCC cell line supernatants or medium containing serum from HCC patients resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of lymphocytes exhibiting surface expression of CXCR3. The reduction in T cell expression of CXCR3 resulted in reduced migration toward the ligand IP-10, and both

  20. Montana 2006 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated a nationwide avian influenza...

  1. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys at...

  2. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  3. Avian protection plan : Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (LNWR) initiated this Avian Protection Plan (APP) in 2003 to protect birds from potential electrocution hazards on the...

  4. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  5. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their saliva, mucous and feces. Human infections with bird flu viruses can happen when enough virus gets into ... Virus (CVV) for a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Virus ” for more information on this process. ...

  6. Benzene metabolites induce apoptosis in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Velázquez, M; Maldonado, V; Ortega, A; Meléndez-Zajgla, J; Albores, A

    2006-08-01

    Benzene is an important environmental pollutant with important health implications. Exposure to this aromatic hydrocarbon is associated with hematotoxicity, and bone marrow carcinogenic effects. It has been shown that benzene induces oxidative stress, cell cycle alterations, and programmed cell death in cultured cells. Hepatic metabolism of benzene is thought to be a prerequisite for its bone marrow toxicity. Nevertheless, there are no reports on the cellular effects of reactive intermediates derived from hepatic metabolism of benzene. Thus, the goal of this project was to determine the cellular alterations of benzene metabolites produced by the cultured hepatic cell line HepG2. Supernatants collected from these cells were applied to a culture of freshly isolated lymphocytes. A higher decrease in cell viability was found in cells exposed to these supernatants than to unmetabolized benzene. This viability decrease was due to apoptosis, as determined by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay and internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA. When supernatants were analyzed by HPLC, we found that not all the hydrocarbon was biotransformed, since a 28 microM concentration (37%) remained. The only metabolite found in the culture medium was muconic acid. The present results show that muconic acid derived from benzene metabolism is able to cooperate with the pollutant for the induction of apoptosis in rat lymphocytes.

  7. Cell killing by avian leukosis viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, S K; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Infection of chicken cells with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus resulted in the detachment of killed cells from the culture dish. The detached, dead cells contained more unintegrated viral DNA than the attached cells. These results confirm the hypothesis that cell killing after infection with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus is associated with accumulation of large amounts of unintegrated viral DNA. No accumulation of large amounts of integrated viral DNA was found in cells infected with c...

  8. Report of the Avian Development Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The anteroposterior axis of the avian embryo is established before it is laid. Baer's rule states that the cephalic end of the avian embryo will be away from the observer when the pointed end of the shell is on the observer's right. There are experimental data available which indicate gravity has a role in the establishment of the anteroposterior axis while the egg is in the uterus; this results in Baer's rule. The influence of gravity on egg development is studied.

  9. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  10. Local glucocorticoid production in lymphoid organs of mice and birds: Functions in lymphocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taves, Matthew D; Hamden, Jordan E; Soma, Kiran K

    2017-02-01

    Circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) are powerful regulators of immunity. Stress-induced GC secretion by the adrenal glands initially enhances and later suppresses the immune response. GC targets include lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system, which are well known for their sensitivity to GCs. Less appreciated, however, is that GCs are locally produced in lymphoid organs, such as the thymus, where GCs play a critical role in selection of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we review the roles of systemic and locally-produced GCs in T lymphocyte development, which has been studied primarily in laboratory mice. By antagonizing TCR signaling in developing T cells, thymus-derived GCs promote selection of T cells with stronger TCR signaling. This results in increased T cell-mediated immune responses to a range of antigens. We then compare local and systemic GC patterns in mice to those in several bird species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a combination of adrenal and lymphoid GC production might function to adaptively regulate lymphocyte development and selection, and thus antigen-specific immune reactivity, to optimize survival under different environmental conditions. Future studies should examine how lymphoid GC patterns vary across other vertebrates, how GCs function in B lymphocyte development in the bone marrow, spleen, and the avian bursa of Fabricius, and whether GCs adaptively program immunity in free-living animals.

  11. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  12. Studies on rabbit lymphocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1969-01-01

    Anti-allotypic sera that have no known allotypic determinants other than those also present in the genotype of the lymphocyte donor are as able to induce lymphocyte `blast' transformation in vitro as are anti-allotypic sera that do have allotypic determinants that are not present in the lymphocyte donor. Therefore, anti-allotypic sera do not appear to function in the stimulation of blast transformation by providing access for any of the known allotypic determinants into lymphocytes. PMID:5769980

  13. Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells promote intracellular crawling of lymphocytes during recruitment: A new step in migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Daniel A; Wilson, Garrick K; Bailey, Dalan; Shaw, Robert K; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Salmi, Marko; Rot, Antal; Weston, Chris J; Adams, David H; Shetty, Shishir

    2017-01-01

    The recruitment of lymphocytes via the hepatic sinusoidal channels and positioning within liver tissue is a critical event in the development and persistence of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. The hepatic sinusoid is a unique vascular bed lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs), a functionally and phenotypically distinct subpopulation of endothelial cells. Using flow-based adhesion assays to study the migration of lymphocytes across primary human HSECs, we found that lymphocytes enter into HSECs, confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating clear intracellular localization of lymphocytes in vitro and by studies in human liver tissues. Stimulation by interferon-γ increased intracellular localization of lymphocytes within HSECs. Furthermore, using confocal imaging and time-lapse recordings, we demonstrated "intracellular crawling" of lymphocytes entering into one endothelial cell from another. This required the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and stabilin-1 and was facilitated by the junctional complexes between HSECs.

  14. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  15. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Treatment options for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia have changed over the past two decades. This article reviews the experience accumulated with the use of alkylating agents alone and in combination; purine analogues alone and in combination and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, and alemtuzumab alone and in combination. The results obtained with different treatment strategies are summarized, compared, and reviewed.

  16. Rapid exacerbation of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibue, Kimitaka; Fujii, Toshihito; Goto, Hisanori; Yamashita, Yui; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Tanji, Masahiro; Yasoda, Akihiro; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a relatively rare autoimmune disease defined by lymphocytic infiltration to the pituitary. Its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical manifestations make clarification of the pathology difficult. Here, we describe a case we examined from the primary diagnosis to final discharge, showing the serial progression of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH) to panhypopituitarism with extrapituitary inflammatory invasion in a short period, and responding favorably to high-dose glucocorticoid treatment. Patient concerns: Polyuria, General fatigue and Nausea/Vomiting. Diagnoses: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH). Interventions: Desmopressin acetate, High-dose glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Outcomes: He was prescribed desmopressin acetate and subsequently discharged. A month later, he revisited our hospital with general fatigue and nausea/vomiting. A screening test disclosed hypopituitarism with adrenal insufficiency. MRI revealed expanded contrast enhancement to the peripheral extrapituitary lesion. He received high-dose GC treatment and the affected lesion exhibited marked improvement on MRI, along with the recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Lessons: This case demonstrates the potential for classical LINH to develop into panhypopituitarsim. We consider this is the first documentation of approaching the cause of atypical LINH with progressive clinical course from the pathological viewpoint. PMID:28248860

  17. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  18. Differential regulation of microRNA transcriptome in chicken lines resistant and susceptible to necrotic enteritis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeong Ho; Dinh, Hue; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Song, Ki-Duk; Oh, Jae-Don

    2014-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a re-emerging disease as a result of increased restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of NE are unclear. Small RNA transcriptome analysis was performed using spleen and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from 2 inbred chicken lines selected for resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in an experimentally induced model of avian NE to investigate whether microRNA (miRNA) control the expression of genes associated with host response to pathogen challenge. Unique miRNA represented only 0.02 to 0.04% of the total number of sequences obtained, of which 544 were unambiguously identified. Hierarchical clustering revealed that most of miRNA in IEL were highly expressed in the MD-susceptible line 7.2 compared with MD-resistant line 6.3. Reduced CXCL14 gene expression was correlated with differential expression of several unique miRNA in MD-resistant chickens, whereas TGFβR2 gene expression was correlated with altered gga-miR-216 miRNA levels in MD-susceptible animals. In conclusion, miRNA profiling and deep sequencing of small RNA in experimental models of infectious diseases may be useful for further understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and for providing insights into genetic markers of disease resistance.

  19. Determination and analysis of the complete genomic sequence of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) and attempts to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F F; Sun, Z F; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Shivaprasad, H L; Pierson, F W; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2004-06-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), recently identified from a chicken with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States, is genetically and antigenically related to human and swine HEVs. In this study, sequencing of the genome was completed and an attempt was made to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. The full-length genome of avian HEV, excluding the poly(A) tail, is 6654 bp in length, which is about 600 bp shorter than that of human and swine HEVs. Similar to human and swine HEV genomes, the avian HEV genome consists of a short 5' non-coding region (NCR) followed by three partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and a 3'NCR. Avian HEV shares about 50 % nucleotide sequence identity over the complete genome, 48-51 % identity in ORF1, 46-48 % identity in ORF2 and only 29-34 % identity in ORF3 with human and swine HEV strains. Significant genetic variations such as deletions and insertions, particularly in ORF1 of avian HEV, were observed. However, motifs in the putative functional domains of ORF1, such as the helicase and methyltransferase, were relatively conserved between avian HEV and mammalian HEVs, supporting the conclusion that avian HEV is a member of the genus Hepevirus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that avian HEV represents a branch distinct from human and swine HEVs. Swine HEV infects non-human primates and possibly humans and thus may be zoonotic. An attempt was made to determine whether avian HEV also infects across species by experimentally inoculating two rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. Evidence of virus infection was not observed in the inoculated monkeys as there was no seroconversion, viraemia, faecal virus shedding or serum liver enzyme elevation. The results from this study confirmed that avian HEV is related to, but distinct from, human and swine HEVs; however, unlike swine HEV, avian HEV is probably not transmissible to non-human primates.

  20. A Synthesis of Human-related Avian Mortality in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many human activities in Canada kill wild birds, yet the relative magnitude of mortality from different sources and the consequent effects on bird populations have not been systematically evaluated. We synthesize recent estimates of avian mortality in Canada from a range of industrial and other human activities, to provide context for the estimates from individual sources presented in this special feature. We assessed the geographic, seasonal, and taxonomic variation in the magnitude of national-scale mortality and in population-level effects on species or groups across Canada, by combining these estimates into a stochastic model of stage-specific mortality. The range of estimates of avian mortality from each source covers several orders of magnitude, and, numerically, landbirds were the most affected group. In total, we estimate that approximately 269 million birds and 2 million nests are destroyed annually in Canada, the equivalent of over 186 million breeding individuals. Combined, cat predation and collisions with windows, vehicles, and transmission lines caused > 95% of all mortality; the highest industrial causes of mortality were the electrical power and agriculture sectors. Other mortality sources such as fisheries bycatch can have important local or species-specific impacts, but are relatively small at a national scale. Mortality rates differed across species and families within major bird groups, highlighting that mortality is not simply proportional to abundance. We also found that mortality is not evenly spread across the country; the largest mortality sources are coincident with human population distribution, while industrial sources are concentrated in southern Ontario, Alberta, and southwestern British Columbia. Many species are therefore likely to be vulnerable to cumulative effects of multiple human-related impacts. This assessment also confirms the high uncertainty in estimating human-related avian mortality in terms of species

  1. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-18

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  2. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  3. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  4. Walking like dinosaurs: chickens with artificial tails provide clues about non-avian theropod locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Grossi

    Full Text Available Birds still share many traits with their dinosaur ancestors, making them the best living group to reconstruct certain aspects of non-avian theropod biology. Bipedal, digitigrade locomotion and parasagittal hindlimb movement are some of those inherited traits. Living birds, however, maintain an unusually crouched hindlimb posture and locomotion powered by knee flexion, in contrast to the inferred primitive condition of non-avian theropods: more upright posture and limb movement powered by femur retraction. Such functional differences, which are associated with a gradual, anterior shift of the centre of mass in theropods along the bird line, make the use of extant birds to study non-avian theropod locomotion problematic. Here we show that, by experimentally manipulating the location of the centre of mass in living birds, it is possible to recreate limb posture and kinematics inferred for extinct bipedal dinosaurs. Chickens raised wearing artificial tails, and consequently with more posteriorly located centre of mass, showed a more vertical orientation of the femur during standing and increased femoral displacement during locomotion. Our results support the hypothesis that gradual changes in the location of the centre of mass resulted in more crouched hindlimb postures and a shift from hip-driven to knee-driven limb movements through theropod evolution. This study suggests that, through careful experimental manipulations during the growth phase of ontogeny, extant birds can potentially be used to gain important insights into previously unexplored aspects of bipedal non-avian theropod locomotion.

  5. Walking like dinosaurs: chickens with artificial tails provide clues about non-avian theropod locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Bruno; Iriarte-Díaz, José; Larach, Omar; Canals, Mauricio; Vásquez, Rodrigo A

    2014-01-01

    Birds still share many traits with their dinosaur ancestors, making them the best living group to reconstruct certain aspects of non-avian theropod biology. Bipedal, digitigrade locomotion and parasagittal hindlimb movement are some of those inherited traits. Living birds, however, maintain an unusually crouched hindlimb posture and locomotion powered by knee flexion, in contrast to the inferred primitive condition of non-avian theropods: more upright posture and limb movement powered by femur retraction. Such functional differences, which are associated with a gradual, anterior shift of the centre of mass in theropods along the bird line, make the use of extant birds to study non-avian theropod locomotion problematic. Here we show that, by experimentally manipulating the location of the centre of mass in living birds, it is possible to recreate limb posture and kinematics inferred for extinct bipedal dinosaurs. Chickens raised wearing artificial tails, and consequently with more posteriorly located centre of mass, showed a more vertical orientation of the femur during standing and increased femoral displacement during locomotion. Our results support the hypothesis that gradual changes in the location of the centre of mass resulted in more crouched hindlimb postures and a shift from hip-driven to knee-driven limb movements through theropod evolution. This study suggests that, through careful experimental manipulations during the growth phase of ontogeny, extant birds can potentially be used to gain important insights into previously unexplored aspects of bipedal non-avian theropod locomotion.

  6. Adjuvant Activity of Sargassum pallidum Polysaccharides against Combined Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jie Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND, infectious bronchitis (IB and avian influenza (AI was investigated by examining the antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation following immunization in chickens. The chickens were administrated combined ND, IB and AI inactivated vaccines containing SPP at 10, 30 and 50 mg/mL, using an oil adjuvant vaccine as a control. The ND, IB and AI antibody titers and the lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 30 mg/mL SPP. In conclusion, an appropriate dose of SPP may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate that is suitable for vaccines to produce early and persistent prophylaxis.

  7. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  8. Economic effects of avian influenza on egg producers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Demircan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the economic effects of avian influenza on the egg-production sector of Afyon Province, Turkey. Economic indicators were compared before and during the avian influenza outbreak. A questionnaire was conducted with 75 poultry farmers. Farms were divided into three groups according to their size. The profitability of the three farm size groups was compared during two study periods: before and during the avian influenza outbreak. The results indicate that, as compared to previous levels, farms experienced significantly reduced incomes during the avian influenza episode. While net income and profit margin were found to be negative in all three farm groups during the avian influenza period, only group I showed economic loss prior to avian influenza. Average net income per group was -19,576.14, -39,810.11, and -112,035.33 YTL respectively during the avian influenza outbreak, compared with prior incomes of -5,665.51, 8,422.92, and 16,3873.71 YTL (1 USD=1.43 YTL. The profit margin per egg during avian influenza was -0.029, -0.016, -0.010 YTL in group I, II, III, respectively, as compared to -0.007, 0.003, and 0.014 YTL/egg before avian influenza. It was found that, whereas larger farms were more profitable than small farms prior to the avian influenza period, larger farms suffered greater economic losses than small farms during avian influenza outbreak in the participating farms.

  9. mM-CSF 及其剪切体对淋巴细胞白血病Ramos 细胞增殖的抑制作用%Inhibitory effect of mM-CSF and its spliceosome on proliferation of lymphocytic leukemia cell line Ramos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马翠花; 种靖慧; 廖金凤; 林永敏; 卫佳; 郑国光

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨膜结合型巨噬细胞集落刺激因子( mM-CSF)及其剪切体( mM-CSF-Δ)对淋巴细胞白血病Ramos细胞增殖的抑制作用。方法采用Overlap PCR法构建带有mM-CSF的真核表达质粒pTARGET-mM-CSF,再进一步构建胞内区截短30个氨基酸的表达质粒pTARGET-mM-CSF-Δ,并进行PCR及DNA双向测序鉴定。将空载体pTARGET、pTARGET-mM-CSF、pTARGET-mM-CSF-Δ质粒分别转染Ramos细胞,经G418筛选稳定表达细胞株,并用RT-PCR、Western blotting进行鉴定;MTT法检测细胞增殖,流式细胞仪检测细胞周期。结果成功构建了mM-CSF和 mM-CSF-Δ的真核表达载体,获得了稳定转染细胞株 Ramos-V、Ramos-M 和 Ramos-Δ。 Ramos-M、Ramos-Δ、Ramos-V细胞增殖能力的OD值分别为0.413±0.014、0.384±0.019、0.463±0.037,Ramos-M细胞与Ramos-Δ细胞比较,Ramos-M、Ramos-Δ细胞分别与Ramos-V细胞比较,P<0.05或<0.01。 Ramos-M、Ramos-Δ、Ramos-V细胞处于G0/G1期的比例分别为41.54%±1.22%、45.60%±1.09%、39.20%±1.53%,Ramos-M细胞与Ramos-Δ细胞比较, Ramos-M、Ramos-Δ细胞分别与 Ramos-V 细胞比较, P <0.05或<0.01。结论 mM-CSF、mM-CSF-Δ均能抑制淋巴细胞白血病Ramos细胞增殖,且后者抑制作用更强。%Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of membrane-bound macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( mM-CSF) and its spliceosome ( mM-CSF-Δ) on proliferation of lymphocytic leukemia cell line Ramos.Methods The eukaryotic expression plasmid of pTARGET-mM-CSF with mM-CSF was constructed with Overlap PCR, and then pTAR-GET-mM-CSF-Δof 30 amino acide located in the intracellular region of brachytmema mutation was obtained; and mean-while, they were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing.The empty vector pTARGET, pTARGET-mM-CSF and pTAR-GET-mM-CSF-Δplasmid were transfected into Ramos cells, the cell line with stable expression was screened by G418 and

  10. 表面增强激光解吸/电离-飞行时间质谱技术检测不同来源淋巴瘤细胞株及健康人外周淋巴细胞的差异蛋白质%Detection of protein expression in lymphoma cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocyte of health persons by SELDI-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 陶朝晖; 景莉; 韩丽英

    2010-01-01

    Objective To look for different expression of proteins between T and B lymphoma cell lines and normal peripheral blood lymphocytes by surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flightmass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology. Methods T and B lymphoma cells were conventionally cultivated, and logarithmic phase cells were collected for experiment. The normal lymphocytes were separated from peripheral blood of healthy persons. Proteins were extracted from the total protein of various cells, and were detected by SELDI-TOF-MS technology. SPSS 13.0 statistical software was used to statistical analysis and P <0.05 was considered as statistically difference. Results There are six differentially expressed proteins between T/B lymphoma cell lines and health human peripheral lymphocyte. There are seven differentially expressed proteins between B and T lymphoma cell lines. Conclusion The levels of proteomics were significantly different among T, B lymphoma cell line and normal lymphocyte. Application of SELDI-TOF-MS technology probably is some benefit on screening molecular markers of lymphoma. Moreover it is possible to lay the preliminary foundation for pathogenesis and targeted treatment of lymphoma.%目的 应用表面增强激光解吸/电离-飞行时间质谱(SELDI-TOF-MS)技术对体外培养的人类T、B淋巴瘤细胞株和健康人外周血淋巴细胞的蛋白质进行检测,寻找差异蛋白.方法 常规培养人类T、B淋巴瘤细胞株,并从健康人外周血中分离出淋巴细胞培养,取对数生长期的细胞进行试验,使用蛋白提取液提取蛋白质,应用SELDI-TOF-MS技术进行检测,采用SPSS 13.0统计软件包进行统计学分析.结果 T、B淋巴瘤细胞株与健康人外周淋巴细胞比较,均有6个差异蛋白质.T淋巴瘤细胞株与B淋巴瘤细胞株比较有7个差异蛋白质.结论 T、B淋巴瘤细胞间及二者与健康人外周淋巴细胞比较,蛋白质组学水平均有差异.应用SELDl-TOF-MS技

  11. Integration and Validation of Avian Radars (IVAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    operations; 1-year visual census; multiple eBirdRad radars; fiber- optic wired LAN (planned) NAS Patuxent River, MD X B X Medium-sized air station...introduced a multibeam avian radar antenna that purports to double the beam width (from 4° to 8°), while at the same time increasing the precision of the

  12. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  13. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan;

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  14. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, N; Groothuis, TGG; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  15. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  16. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  17. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  18. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  19. [Avian influenza and oseltamivir; a retrospective view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The outbreak of avian influenza A due to an H7N7 virus in Dutch poultry farms turned out to have public-health effects for those who were involved in the management of the epidemic and who were thus extensively exposed to contaminated excreta and dust. An outbreak-management team (OMT) of experts in

  20. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  1. Detection of Avian Antigen-Specific T Cells Induced by Viral Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated viral vaccines are widely used in commercial poultry production, but the development of new effective inactivated/subunit vaccines is needed. Studies of avian antigen-specific T cells are primarily based on analyses ex vivo after activating the cells with recall antigen. There is a particular interest in developing robust high-throughput assays as chicken vaccine trials usually comprise many individuals. In many respects, the avian immune system differs from the mammalian, and T cell assessment protocols must be adjusted accordingly to account for, e.g., differences in leukocyte subsets.The carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) method described in this chapter has been adapted to chicken cells. In this test, cells of interest are stained with CFSE. The succinimidyl ester group covalently binds to cellular amines forming fluorescent conjugates that are retained in the cells even throughout division. This leads to daughter cells containing half the fluorescence of their parents. When lymphocytes are loaded with CFSE prior to ex vivo stimulation with specific antigen, the measurement of serial halving of its fluorescence by flow cytometry identifies the cells responding to the stimulation. This method has been successfully applied to studies of chicken antigen-specific T cells.

  2. Lymphocyte subpopulations in Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Hulusi; Araslı, Mehmet; Yazıcı, Zihni Acar; Armutçu, Ferah; Tekin, Ishak Özel

    2013-06-01

    The role of autoimmunity in the development of Sheehan's syndrome is obscure. There are a limited number of studies investigating the immunological alterations accompanying Sheehan's Syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate lymphocyte subsets in these patients. We conducted a cross-sectional clinical study. Cytofluorometry was used for the immunophenotyping of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with Sheehan's syndrome followed up in the endocrine clinic during 2005-2009. Fifteen consecutive patients (mean age 61.6 ± 11.3, range 34-75 years) and 25 healthy controls (mean age 56.7 ± 10.6, range 34-80 years) were included. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of mean age. The percentages of CD19(+), CD16(+)/56(+), CD8(+)28(-), γδTCR(+), CD8(+); the total lymphocyte counts; and the ratio of CD8(+)28(-)/CD8(+)28(+) were similar (p > 0.05) between patients and controls. Whereas the leucocyte counts (p = 0.003), the percentage of CD3 (+) DR (+) (p Sheehan's syndrome compared to healthy controls. There was a positive correlation between the duration of illness and the percentage of CD3(+)DR(+) (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) expression. Some peripheral lymphocyte cell subsets show marked variation in patients with Sheehan's syndrome in comparison to matched healthy subjects, which may have implications for altered immune regulation in these patients. High CD3 (+) DR (+) expression that correlates with the duration of illness in Sheehan's patients is suggestive of an ongoing inflammation accompanying the slow progression of pituitary dysfunction in Sheehan's syndrome. It is not clear if these cellular alterations contribute to the cause or consequence of pituitary deficiency in Sheehan's syndrome.

  3. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  4. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  5. Avian personalities : characterization and epigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, TGG; Carere, C; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented here aims at understanding the nature, epigenesis and function of personality types (here called behavioral profiles) in birds, focusing on a wild bird species, the great tit (Parus major). Lines bidirectionally selected for exploration show a wide array of social and non-social b

  6. Changes of lymphocyte kinetics in the normal rat, induced by the lymphocyte mobilizing agent polymethacrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormai, S.; Hagenbeek, A.; Palkovits, M.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1973-01-01

    The changes in lymphocyte kinetics induced by the lymphocyte mobilizing agent polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) were studied in the normal rat. Quantitative data are presented concerning the degree of lymphocyte mobilization in the spleen and in various lymph nodes at different times after PMAA administra

  7. Deteksi Antibodi Serum Terhadap Virus Avian influenza pada Ayam Buras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi Darmawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection on Serum Antibodies of Native Chickens to Avian influenza Virus ABSTRACT.  An important approach of controlling against Avian Influenza should be determined to detect the antibody titres of bird flu caused by Influenza virus H5N1 in Indonesia. The aim of the present study was to detect the antibodies to Avian Influenza in serum of native chickens. This study utilized 123 serum samples collected from the axilaris vein (left or right of native chickens. Antibody titres were examined using Hemaglutination Inhibition (HI. The result showed that indication of natural infection by Avian Influenza (H5N1 in native chickens, as shown that out of 123 serum samples, 16 (13,01% were tested positive by HI, while only 10 (8,13% were tested protective to Avian influenza infection. Based on the results we obtained, a conclusion that natural infection by Avian influenza virus stimulated variety level of formation antibody titres in native chickens.

  8. Control of T lymphocyte morphology by the GTPase Rho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudell Eva G

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rho family GTPase regulation of the actin cytoskeleton governs a variety of cell responses. In this report, we have analyzed the role of the GTPase Rho in maintenance of the T lymphocyte actin cytoskeleton. Results Inactivation of the GTPase Rho in the human T lymphocytic cell line HPB-ALL does not inhibit constitutively high adhesion to the integrin β1 substrate fibronectin. It did however result in the aberrant extension of finger-like dendritic processes on the substrates VCAM-1, Fn, and mAb specific to β1 integrins. Time-lapse video microscopy demonstrated that C3 induced extensions were primarily the result of an altered pseudopod elongation rather than retraction. Once the stellate pseudopodia extended, none retracted, and cells became completely immobile. Filipodial structures were absent and the dendritic-like processes in C3 treated cells were rich in filamentous actin. Immunolocalization of RhoA in untreated HPB-ALL cells spreading on fibronectin demonstrated a diffuse staining pattern within the pseudopodia. In C3 treated cells, clusters of RhoA were pronounced and localized within the altered extensions. Conclusions GTPase Rho is actively involved in the regulation of T lymphocyte morphology and motility.

  9. An Efficient Low Cost Method for Gene Transfer to T Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicaybam, Leonardo; Sodre, Andressa Laino; Curzio, Bianca Azevedo; Bonamino, Martin Hernan

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer to T lymphocytes has historically relied on retro and lentivirus, but recently transposon-based gene transfer is rising as a simpler and straight forward approach to achieve stable transgene expression. Transfer of expression cassettes to T lymphocytes remains challenging, being based mainly on commercial kits. Aims We herein report a convenient and affordable method based on in house made buffers, generic cuvettes and utilization of the widely available Lonza nucleofector II device to promote efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes. Results This approach renders high transgene expression levels in primary human T lymphocytes (mean 45%, 41–59%), the hard to transfect murine T cells (mean 38%, 36–42% for C57/BL6 strain) and human Jurkat T cell line. Cell viability levels after electroporation allowed further manipulations such as in vitro expansion and Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) mediated gain of function for target cell lysis. Conclusions We describe here an efficient general protocol for electroporation based modification of T lymphocytes. By opening access to this protocol, we expect that efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes, for transient or stable expression, may be achieved by an increased number of laboratories at lower and affordable costs. PMID:23555950

  10. An efficient low cost method for gene transfer to T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Chicaybam

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Gene transfer to T lymphocytes has historically relied on retro and lentivirus, but recently transposon-based gene transfer is rising as a simpler and straight forward approach to achieve stable transgene expression. Transfer of expression cassettes to T lymphocytes remains challenging, being based mainly on commercial kits. AIMS: We herein report a convenient and affordable method based on in house made buffers, generic cuvettes and utilization of the widely available Lonza nucleofector II device to promote efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes. RESULTS: This approach renders high transgene expression levels in primary human T lymphocytes (mean 45%, 41-59%, the hard to transfect murine T cells (mean 38%, 36-42% for C57/BL6 strain and human Jurkat T cell line. Cell viability levels after electroporation allowed further manipulations such as in vitro expansion and Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR mediated gain of function for target cell lysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe here an efficient general protocol for electroporation based modification of T lymphocytes. By opening access to this protocol, we expect that efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes, for transient or stable expression, may be achieved by an increased number of laboratories at lower and affordable costs.

  11. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Escobar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance.

  12. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  13. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  14. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  15. Seasonal change in the avian hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds.

  16. Lymphocyte activation by purified HLA-DR molecules fused into autochthonous "stimulating cells".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, A; Abikar, K; Rode, H N; Gordon, J

    1985-08-01

    Affinity-purified Ia molecules derived from the Daudi cell line were reconstituted into vesicles with Sendai virus envelope glycoproteins. These vesicles inserted into human peripheral leukocytes could induce stimulation of autologous lymphocytes, as measured by thymidine uptake, 6 days later. It is suggested that this method could provide a means to study allostimulation at the molecular level.

  17. Experience with alemtuzumab in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorkom, B.A.P. van; Huisman, C.A.; Wijermans, P.W.; Schipperus, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alemtuzumab (MabCampath) is a monoclonal antibody against CD52, indicated as third-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). As most important side effect opportunistic infections are mentioned. It is, however, unknown whether these complications often lead to problems in ge

  18. In vitro radiosensitivity of human leukemia cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Greenberger, J.S.; Schmidt, A.; Karpas, A.; Moloney, W.C.; Little, J.B.

    1981-05-01

    The in vitro radiobiologic survival values (anti n, D/sub 0/) of four tumor lines derived from human hematopoietic tumors were studied. These cell lines were HL60 promyelocytic leukemia; K562 erythroleukemia; 45 acute lymphocytic leukemia; and 176 acute monomyelogenous leukemia. More cell lines must be examined before the exact relationship between in vitro radiosensitivity and clinical radiocurability is firmly established.

  19. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of I...

  20. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Hanneke J M

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  1. Seroprevalence of avian hepatitis E virus and avian leucosis virus subgroup J in chicken flocks with hepatitis syndrome, China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Liu, Baoyuan; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Chen, Yiyang; Li, Huixia; Wang, Xinjie; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2014 to 2015 in China, many broiler breeder and layer hen flocks exhibited a decrease in egg production and some chickens developed hepatitis syndrome including hepatomegaly, hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage. Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) both cause decreasing in egg production, hepatomegaly and hepatic hemorrhage in broiler breeder and layer hens. In the study, the seroprevalence of avian HEV and ALV-J in these flocks emerging the di...

  2. Involvement of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) in HIV infection: inhibition by monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the alpha- and beta-chain of lymphocyte-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) were examined for inhibition of HIV-1 infection in vitro. Infection of the T cell line MT4 and the monocytic cell line U937 by isolates HTLVIIIB and SSI-002, respectively was inhibited...

  3. Lymphocytes accelerate epithelial tight junction assembly: role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiao Tang

    Full Text Available The tight junctions (TJs, characteristically located at the apicolateral borders of adjacent epithelial cells, are required for the proper formation of epithelial cell polarity as well as for sustaining the mucosal barrier to the external environment. The observation that lymphocytes are recruited by epithelial cells to the sites of infection [1] suggests that they may play a role in the modulation of epithelial barrier function and thus contribute to host defense. To test the ability of lymphocytes to modulate tight junction assembly in epithelial cells, we set up a lymphocyte-epithelial cell co-culture system, in which Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells, a well-established model cell line for studying epithelial TJ assembly [2], were co-cultured with mouse lymphocytes to mimic an infection state. In a typical calcium switch experiment, the TJ assembly in co-culture was found to be accelerated compared to that in MDCK cells alone. This accelaration was found to be mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK activation was independent of changes in cellular ATP levels but it was found to be activated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Forced suppression of AMPK, either with a chemical inhibitor or by knockdown, abrogated the accelerating effect of lymphocytes on TJ formation. Similar results were also observed in a co-culture with lymphocytes and Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells, suggesting that the activation of AMPK may be a general mechanism underlying lymphocyte-accelerated TJ assembly in different epithelia. These results suggest that signals from lymphocytes, such as cytokines, facilitate TJ assembly in epithelial cells via the activation of AMPK.

  4. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes. Intriguingly, chickens are capable of mounting potent innate immune responses upon various stimuli in the absence of essential components of IFN pathways including retinoic acid-inducible gene I, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and possibility IRF9. Understanding these unique properties of the chicken IFN system would propose valuable targets for the development of potential therapeutics for a broader range of viruses of both veterinary and zoonotic importance. This review outlines recent developments in the roles of avian IFNs and ISGs against viruses and highlights important areas of research toward our understanding of the antiviral functions of IFN effectors against viral infections in birds. PMID:28197148

  5. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Wigley

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  6. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes. Intriguingly, chickens are capable of mounting potent innate immune responses upon various stimuli in the absence of essential components of IFN pathways including retinoic acid-inducible gene I, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and possibility IRF9. Understanding these unique properties of the chicken IFN system would propose valuable targets for the development of potential therapeutics for a broader range of viruses of both veterinary and zoonotic importance. This review outlines recent developments in the roles of avian IFNs and ISGs against viruses and highlights important areas of research toward our understanding of the antiviral functions of IFN effectors against viral infections in birds.

  7. Lenalidomide and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pilar González-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lenalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory drug used in multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome and most recently it has shown to be effective in the treatment of various lymphoproliferative disorders such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The mechanism of action of lenalidomide varies depending on the pathology, and in the case of CLL, it appears to primarily act by restoring the damaged mechanisms of tumour immunosurveillance. This review discusses the potential mechanism of action and efficacy of lenalidomide, alone or in combination, in treatment of CLL and its toxic effects such as tumor lysis syndrome (TLS and tumor flare reaction (TFR, that make its management different from other hematologic malignancies.

  8. Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Lymphocyte Proliferation of Fasciculatin, a Linear Furanosesterterpene Isolated from Ircinia variabilis Collected from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Herz; Maria São José Nascimento; Nair Nazareth; Anake Kijjoa; Pinho, Paulo M.; Aziz Fassouane; Saida Rifai

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Fasciculatin, a furanosesterterpene isolated from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco, has been evaluated for its influence on a mitogen-induced proliferation of human lymphocytes and growth of human tumor cell lines.

  9. Biological features of novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfang; Wang, Dayan; Gao, Rongbao; Zhao, Baihui; Song, Jingdong; Qi, Xian; Zhang, Yanjun; Shi, Yonglin; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wenfei; Bai, Tian; Qin, Kun; Lan, Yu; Zou, Shumei; Guo, Junfeng; Dong, Jie; Dong, Libo; Zhang, Ye; Wei, Hejiang; Li, Xiaodan; Lu, Jian; Liu, Liqi; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Xiyan; Huang, Weijuan; Wen, Leying; Bo, Hong; Xin, Li; Chen, Yongkun; Xu, Cuilin; Pei, Yuquan; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Shiwen; Feng, Zijian; Han, Jun; Yang, Weizhong; Gao, George F; Wu, Guizhen; Li, Dexin; Wang, Yu; Shu, Yuelong

    2013-07-25

    Human infection associated with a novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus has recently been identified in China. A total of 132 confirmed cases and 39 deaths have been reported. Most patients presented with severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the first epidemic has subsided, the presence of a natural reservoir and the disease severity highlight the need to evaluate its risk on human public health and to understand the possible pathogenesis mechanism. Here we show that the emerging H7N9 avian influenza virus poses a potentially high risk to humans. We discover that the H7N9 virus can bind to both avian-type (α2,3-linked sialic acid) and human-type (α2,6-linked sialic acid) receptors. It can invade epithelial cells in the human lower respiratory tract and type II pneumonocytes in alveoli, and replicated efficiently in ex vivo lung and trachea explant culture and several mammalian cell lines. In acute serum samples of H7N9-infected patients, increased levels of the chemokines and cytokines IP-10, MIG, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-α were detected. We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and current seasonal vaccination could not provide protection.

  10. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluetsch, K.M.; Sparling, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of operational use of pesticides on avian species inhabiting apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Mourning dove (Zenaida rnacroura) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests were monitored in three organic and three conventional apple orchards during 1990 and 1991. In 1991 we surveyed the avian communities of these orchards by using line transects. Organophosphorus (OP) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, phosphamidon, parathion, dimethoate), carbamate (CA) (e.g., methomyl, formetanate, oxamyl), and organochlorine (endosulfan) pesticides, known to be highly toxic to birds, were sprayed individually or in mixtures as part of routine pest management as many as 19 times during peaks in breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 86% of the nests in conventional orchards. Daily survival rates (DSRs) for nests of both species were higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards for 1991 and for years combined (p orchards (H= 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H=1.79). Repeated applications of pesticides within the conventional orchards reduced the reproductive success of doves and robins and may have lowered avian species diversity compared with organic orchards.

  11. Comparison and analysis of Wuding and avian chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H Q; Jiang, Z Q; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Xu, Z Q; Liu, L X; Gu, D H; Rong, H; Huang, Y; Chen, X B; Jois, M; Te Pas, M F W; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-10-05

    Chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells are located between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of mature muscle fibers. Avian broilers have been genetically selected based on their high growth velocity and large muscle mass. The Wuding chicken is a famous local chicken in Yunnan Province that undergoes non-selection breeding and is slow growing. In this study, we aimed to explore differences in the proliferation and differentiation properties of satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. Using immunofluorescence, hematoxylin-eosin staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we analyzed the in vitro characteristics of proliferating and differentiating satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. The growth curve of satellite cells was S-shaped, and cells from Wuding chickens entered the logarithmic phase and plateau phase 1 day later than those from Avian chicken. The results also showed that the two skeletal muscle satellite cell lines were positive for Pax7, MyoD and IGF-1. The expression of Pax7 followed a downward trend, whereas that of MyoD and IGF-1 first increased and subsequently decreased in cells isolated from the two chickens. These data indicated that the skeletal muscle satellite cells of Avian chicken grow and differentiate faster than did those of Wuding chickens. We suggest that the methods of breeding selection applied to these breeds regulate the characteristics of skeletal muscle satellite cells to influence muscle growth.

  12. [Evolution and phylogeny of B lymphocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Piedras, Fabiola; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    B lymphocytes are one of the most important cell types involved in the immune response of mammals. The origin and evolution of this cellular type is unknown, but the B lymphocyte bona fide appeared first in fish. In this review we analize the principal components of the immune response of invertebrates, their phylogenetic distribution and the permancence of some properties that allowed the emergence of the B lymphocyte. We started from the idea that many of the components that characterize the B lymphocyte are found distributed among the invertebrates, however, it is in the B lymphocyte, where all these components that give this type of cell its identity, converged. The actual knowledge we have in regards of the lymphocytes comes, in the most part, from physiological studies in mammals, being the mice the more representative. The origin of the B lymphocyte, its alternative mechanisms for generating receptor diversity, its immune effector response, and the generation of memory, require an evolutionary and multidisiplinary approach for its study.

  13. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  14. Control and prevention of avian influenza in an evolving scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, Ilaria; Marangon, Stefano

    2007-07-26

    Continuing outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) across Eurasia and in Africa, caused by a type A influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype appear out of control and represent a serious risk for animal and public health worldwide. It is known that biosecurity represents the first line of defence against AI, although in certain circumstances strict hygienic measures appear to be inapplicable for social and economic conditions. The option of using vaccination against AI viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes, has made its way in recent times--primarily as a tool to maximise the outcome of a series of control measures in countries that are currently infected, but also as a means of reducing the risk of introduction in areas at high risk of infection. In developing countries vaccination programmes in avian species have been recommended recently, however it will require concurrent management of local husbandry practices and industry compliance to eradicate the disease rather than the establishment of an endemic situation. Other key deliverables expected for this control strategy include maintaining a major source of food for rural communities and the preservation of the commercial viability of the local poultry industry. In developed countries vaccination is being used as a means of increasing resistance of susceptible animals to reduce the risk of introduction from the reservoir host or to reduce secondary spread in densely populated poultry areas. The recent joint OIE/FAO summits recommended applying vaccination, using the differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy when there is risk of major spread and depopulation is not feasible or desirable. Particularly in developing countries, stamping out of infected animals does not seem to be an appropriate means of reducing the spread of infection, if food supplies are to be guaranteed and economic consequences minimised. Crucial points to the success of a vaccination campaign are the

  15. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  16. 9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Pox Vaccine. 113.326 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.326 Avian Pox Vaccine. Fowl Pox Vaccine and Pigeon Pox Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... this section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  17. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  18. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, ...

  19. Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-01-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  20. Putative novel genotype of avian hepatitis E virus, Hungary, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-08-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  1. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  2. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Dodman, Tim; Caron, Alexandre; Balança, Gilles; Desvaux, Stephanie; Goutard, Flavie; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lamarque, François; Hagemeijer, Ward; Monicat, François

    2007-01-01

    We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa.

  3. Poultry-handling Practices during Avian Influenza Outbreak, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja J Olsen; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Pattanasin, Sarika; Prapasiri, Prabda; Scott F Dowell

    2005-01-01

    With poultry outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 continuing in Thailand, preventing human infection remains a priority. We surveyed residents of rural Thailand regarding avian influenza knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results suggest that public education campaigns have been effective in reaching those at greatest risk, although some high-risk behavior continues.

  4. Analysis of hematologic and serum chemistry values of Spheniscus magellanicus with molecular detection of avian malarial parasites (Plasmodium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina D.E. Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus routinely migrate from their breeding colonies to Southern Brazil often contracting diseases during this migration, notably avian malaria, which has been already reported in Brazil and throughout the world. Detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood smears is the routine diagnostic method of avian malaria, however it has a low sensitivity rate when compared to molecular methods. Considering the negative impact of avian malaria on penguins, the aim of this study was to detect the presence of Plasmodium spp. in Magellanic penguins using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and by verifying clinical, hematological, and biochemical alterations in blood samples as well as to verify the likely prognosis in response to infection. Blood samples were obtained from 75 penguins to determine packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels. Whole blood samples were used for PCR assays. Plasmodium spp. was detected in 32.0% of the specimens using PCR and in 29.3% using microscopic analyses. Anorexia, diarrhea and neurological disorders were more frequent in penguins with malaria and a significant weight difference between infected and non-infected penguins was detected. PCV and MCV rates showed no significant difference. RBC and WBC counts were lower in animals with avian malaria and leukopenia was present in some penguins. Basophil and lymphocyte counts were lower in infected penguins along with high monocyte counts. There was no significant difference in AST activities between infected and non-infected animals. There was a significant increase in uric acid values, however a decrease in albumin values was observed in infected penguins. Based on this study, we concluded that Plasmodium spp. occurs in Magellanic penguins of rehabilitation centers in Southeastern Brazil

  5. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  6. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, David W; Taylor, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study.

  7. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the proliferative skin lesions and oral diphtheritic lesions. Infection of the avian pox virus was confirmed by PCR using primers specific to the 4b core protein gene of avian pox virus. All cases were diagnosed with avian pox virus infection. This is believed to be the first description on natural infection of avian pox in Oriental Turtle-doves in Korea.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Multiple options are now available for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Over the last 10 years, monoclonal antibodies have become an integral part of the management of this disease. Alemtuzumab has received approval for use in patients with fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Rituximab has been investigated extensively in chronic lymphocytic leukemia both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy and other monoclonal antibodies. Epratuzumab and lumiliximab are newer monoclonal antibodies in the early phase of clinical development. This article will review the monoclonal antibodies more commonly used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the results obtained with monoclonal antibodies as single agents and in combination with chemotherapy, and other biological agents and newer compounds undergoing clinical trials.

  9. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA......) and investigated whether cobalt and chromium ions affected the lymphocyte counts. METHOD: In a randomized controlled trial, we followed 19 RHA patients and 19 THA patients. Lymphocyte subsets and chromium and cobalt ion concentrations were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years....... RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...

  10. Obinutuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioufol, Catherine; Salles, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological malignancy that is incurable using standard approaches. Two anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), rituximab and ofatumumab, have been approved for CLL treatment. A new glycoengineered type II humanized anti-CD20 mAb, obinutuzumab (GA101), has been developed and demonstrates increased activity against B-cell malignancies by inducing direct cell death and better antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In a recent randomized Phase III study in patients with newly diagnosed CLL and coexisting conditions, obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil demonstrated significant improvement in progression-free survival and several other outcome parameters, in contrast to rituximab plus chlorambucil. Grade 3-4 infusion-related reactions and neutropenia occurred more frequently in patients who received obinutuzumab compared with those who received rituximab; however, the rate of serious infections was similar. Obinutuzumab represents a promising new option for patients with CLL and must be investigated with other chemotherapy regimens or with new targeted agents.

  11. How T lymphocytes see antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2009-03-01

    Complex organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that enables us to do battle with diverse pathogens. This flexible system can also go awry, and many diseases are the direct consequence of the adaptive immune system failing to discriminate between markers of self and non-self. The orchestrators of adaptive immunity are a class of cells called T lymphocytes (T cells). T cells recognize minute numbers of molecular signatures of pathogens, and T cell recognition of these molecular markers of non-self is both specific and degenerate. The specific (yet, cross-reactive), diverse, and self-tolerant T cell repertoire is designed in the thymus. I will describe how an approach that brings together theoretical and computational studies (rooted in statistical physics) with experiments (carried out by key collaborators) has allowed us to shed light on the mechanistic principles underlying how T cells respond to pathogens in a digital fashion (``on'' or ``off''), and how this molecular machinery coupled with frustration (a la spin glasses) plays a key role in designing the special properties of the T cell repertoire during development in the thymus.

  12. Expression of tenascin in lymphocytic autoimmune thyroiditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Back, W; Heubner, C; Winter, J.; Bleyl, U

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To study the distribution of tenascin by immunocytochemistry in autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. METHODS: Thyroids from patients with inflammatory lesions of the thyroid (lymphocytic thyroiditis Hashimoto, Grave's disease, thyroiditis DeQuervain) were studied by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against tenascin, collagen III, and collagen IV. RESULTS: In autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis Hashimoto there was a characteristic corona-like staining pattern of tenascin around all act...

  13. Prenatal ontogeny of lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkora, M; Sinkora, J; Reháková, Z; Splíchal, I; Yang, H; Parkhouse, R M; Trebichavsk, I

    1998-12-01

    Although porcine lymphocytes have been classified into numerous subpopulations in postnatal animals, little is known about the ontogeny of these complex cell subsets. Using double- and triple-colour flow cytometry (FCM), we investigated the surface phenotype of fetal lymphoid cells in the thymus, cord blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes at different stages of gestation. It was found that the major lymphocyte subpopulations started to appear at the beginning of the second third of the gestation period, with B cells being the earliest lymphocyte subpopulation to appear in the periphery. The T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma delta+ cells were the earliest detectable T-cell subset, developing first in the thymus and subsequently arriving in the periphery. Later in ontogeny, however, the number of TCRalpha beta+ lymphocytes rapidly increased, becoming the predominant T cells both in the thymus and in the periphery. Cells with the phenotype of adult natural killer cells were also identified in pig fetuses, though their nature and functional roles remain to be investigated. In addition, CD2 was expressed on most B cells whilst very few CD4+ TCRalpha beta+ cells or CD2+ TCRgamma delta+ cells expressed CD8, suggesting that the expression of CD2 and CD8 may reflect the functional status of the cells in postnatal animals. Taken together, this study has provided a systematic analysis of fetal porcine lymphocyte subpopulations and may provide the base for studies to establish the physiological roles of these lymphocyte subsets.

  14. SHARPIN Regulates Uropod Detachment in Migrating Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Pouwels

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SHARPIN-deficient mice display a multiorgan chronic inflammatory phenotype suggestive of altered leukocyte migration. We therefore studied the role of SHARPIN in lymphocyte adhesion, polarization, and migration. We found that SHARPIN localizes to the trailing edges (uropods of both mouse and human chemokine-activated lymphocytes migrating on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, which is one of the major endothelial ligands for migrating leukocytes. SHARPIN-deficient cells adhere better to ICAM-1 and show highly elongated tails when migrating. The increased tail lifetime in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes decreases the migration velocity. The adhesion, migration, and uropod defects in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes were rescued by reintroducing SHARPIN into the cells. Mechanistically, we show that SHARPIN interacts directly with lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, a leukocyte counterreceptor for ICAM-1, and inhibits the expression of intermediate and high-affinity forms of LFA-1. Thus, SHARPIN controls lymphocyte migration by endogenously maintaining LFA-1 inactive to allow adjustable detachment of the uropods in polarized cells.

  15. Induction of DNA repair synthesis by ultraviolet radiation and methylmethanesulphonate in cultured mouse lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, V.; Zantedeschi, A.; Levis, A.G. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata); Ronchese, F. (Inst. of Pathological Anatomy, Padua (Italy))

    1983-02-01

    The induction of DNA repair synthesis by UV-radiation and methylmethanesulphonate (MMS) was studied in mouse lymphocytes and leukemic cells by means of autoradiography and scintillation counting, after labelling in vitro with tritiated thymidine ((/sup 3/H)dThd). Repair stimulation was detected by both procedures in LSTRA AND YC8 leukemic cell lines as well as in primary fibroblasts of BALB/c and BALB/Mo mice. No stimulation was observed in primary cultures of lymphocytes from the spleen, thymus and lymph-nodes of the same mice. In primary lymphocytes neither stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) nor pre-incubation with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) were effective in making evident DNA repair. The data put into question the reliability of the repair test for the prediction of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

  16. Entospletinib and Obinutuzumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Anemia; B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Fatigue; Fever; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Lymphadenopathy; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Night Sweats; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Splenomegaly; Thrombocytopenia; Weight Loss

  17. Current genomic editing approaches in avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sub; Kang, Kyung Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    The chicken was domesticated from Red Jungle Fowl over 8000years ago and became one of the major food sources worldwide. At present, the poultry industry is one of the largest industrial animal stocks in the world, and its economic scale is expanding significantly with increasing consumption. Additionally, since Aristotle used chicken eggs as a model to provide remarkable insights into how life begins, chickens have been used as invaluable and powerful experimental materials for studying embryo development, immune systems, biomedical processes, and hormonal regulation. Combined with advancements in efficient transgenic technology, avian models have become even more important than would have been expected.

  18. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  19. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  20. Platelet-Activating Factor Antagonists Decrease Follicular Dendritic-Cell Stimulation of Human B Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halickman Isaac

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both B-lymphoblastoid cell lines and tonsillar B lymphocytes express receptors for platelet-activating factor (PAF. In lymph node germinal centres, B lymphocytes interact with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, which present antigen-containing immune complexes to B lymphocytes. FDCs have phenotypic features that are similar to those of stromal cells and monocytes and may therefore be a source of lipid mediators. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the PAF antagonist WEB 2170 on the activation of tonsillar B lymphocytes by FDCs. FDCs were isolated from tonsils by Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA gradient centrifugation. After being cultured for 6 to 10 days, they were incubated with freshly isolated B cells in the presence or absence of the specific PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2170. B-lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and immunoglobulin (Ig G and IgM secretion was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. WEB 2170 (10-6 to 10-8 M inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation by up to 35% ± 3%. Moreover, the secretion of IgG and IgM was inhibited by up to 50% by WEB 2170 concentrations ranging from 10-6 to 10-8 M. There was no evidence of toxicity by trypan blue staining, and the addition of WEB 2170 to B cells in the absence of FDCs did not inhibit the spontaneous production of IgG or IgM. The effect of the PAF antagonist is primarily on B lymphocytes, as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detected little PAF receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA from FDCs. These data suggest that endogenous production of PAF may be important in the interaction of B lymphocytes with FDCs.

  1. The FACT complex promotes avian leukosis virus DNA integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Shelby; Larue, Ross C; Abraham, Carly M; Shkriabai, Nikolozi; Skopp, Amelie; Winkler, Duane; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Beemon, Karen L

    2017-01-25

    All retroviruses need to integrate a DNA copy of their genome into the host chromatin. Cellular proteins regulating and targeting lentiviral and gammaretroviral integration in infected cells have been discovered, but the factors that mediate alpharetroviral avian leukosis virus (ALV) integration are unknown. Here, we have identified the FACT protein complex, which consists of SSRP1 and Spt16, as a principal cellular binding partner of ALV integrase (IN). Biochemical experiments with purified recombinant proteins show that SSRP1 and Spt16 are able to individually bind ALV IN, but only the FACT complex effectively stimulates ALV integration activity in vitro Likewise, in infected cells, the FACT complex promotes ALV integration activity with proviral integration frequency varying directly with cellular expression levels of the FACT complex. An increase in 2-LTR circles in the depleted FACT complex cell line indicates that this complex regulates the ALV life cycle at the level of integration. This regulation is shown to be specific to ALV, as disruption of the FACT complex did not inhibit either lentiviral or gammaretroviral integration in infected cells.

  2. Lymphocytes from wasted mice express enhanced spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chung, Jen; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation wasted (wst/wst) display a disease pattern including faulty repair of DNA damage in lymphocytes after radiation exposure, neurologic abnormalities, and immunodeficiency. Many of the features of this mouse model have suggested a premature or increased spontaneous frequency of apoptosis in thymocytes; past work has shown an inability to establish cultured T cell lines, an abnormally high death rate of stimulated T cells in culture, and an increased sensitivity of T cells to the killing effects of ionizing radiations in wst/wst mice relative to controls. The experiments reported here were designed to examine splenic and thymic lymphocytes from wasted and control mice for signs of early apoptosis. Our results revealed enhanced expression of Rp-8 mRNA (associated with apoptosis) in thymic lymphocytes and reduced expression in splenic lymphocytes of wst/wst mice relative to controls; expression of Rp-2 and Td-30 mRNA (induced during apoptosis) were not detectable in spleen or thymus. Higher spontaneous DNA fragmentation was observed in wasted mice than in controls; however, {gamma}-ray-induced DNA fragmentation peaked at a lower dose and occurred to a greater extent in wasted mice relative to controls. These results provide evidence for high spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis in T cells of wasted mice as a mechanism underlying the observed lymphocyte and DNA repair abnormalities.

  3. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F

    2008-01-22

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of 'avian' characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  4. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis.

  5. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  6. Selective effects of alpha interferon on human T-lymphocyte subsets during mixed lymphocyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1983-01-01

    Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) cultures of human lymphocyte subsets with or without the addition of physiological doses of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared with respect to surface marker phenotypes and proliferative capacities of the responder cells. A selective depression on the T...

  7. Obinutuzumab for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K A; Jones, J A

    2014-06-01

    Obinutuzumab is a novel therapeutic anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in combination with chlorambucil as first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is distinguished from other anti-B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 (anti-CD20) therapeutic antibodies in current clinical use by its type II properties and glycoengineered Fc region. In vitro these unique properties translate into higher rates of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and direct cell death compared to rituximab, and obinutuzumab demonstrates improved efficacy in human lymphoma xenograft models and whole blood lymphocyte depletion assays. FDA approval was based upon results from a randomized phase III trial comparing treatment with single-agent chlorambucil to the combination of chlorambucil and either rituximab or obinutuzu-mab. The obinutuzumab arm resulted in higher rates of complete remission and significant improvements in progression-free survival versus either comparator regimen. The majority of patients in the obinutuzumab and chlorambucil arm finished all six planned treatment cycles, and therapy was well tolerated. Toxicities of obinutuzumab are similar to those of other anti-CD20 antibodies, although infusion-related reactions and neutropenia appear to be more common. This trial establishes chemoimmunotherapy with obinutuzumab and chlorambucil as an attractive treatment option for CLL patients, particularly those with comorbid medical illnesses or advanced age. Obinutuzumab remains under study in combination with both chemotherapy and novel agents for CLL and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, where it is expected to find additional clinical applications.

  8. Characterization of the atypical lymphocytes in African swine fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalyan, Z. A.; Ter-Pogossyan, Z. R.; Abroyan, L. O.; Hakobyan, L. H.; Avetisyan, A. S.; Karalyan, N. Yu; Karalova, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Atypical lymphocytes usually described as lymphocytes with altered shape, increased DNA amount, and larger size. For analysis of cause of genesis and source of atypical lymphocytes during African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and in vitro model were investigated. Materials and Methods: Atypical lymphocytes under the influence of ASFV were studied for morphologic, cytophotometric, and membrane surface marker characteristics and were used in vivo and in vitro models. Results: This study indicated the increased size, high metabolic activity, and the presence of additional DNA amount in atypical lymphocytes caused by ASFV infection. Furthermore, in atypical lymphocytes, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio usually decreased, compared to normal lymphocytes. In morphology, they looking like lymphocytes transformed into blasts by exposure to mitogens or antigens in vitro. They vary in morphologic detail, but most of them are CD2 positive. Conclusions: Our data suggest that atypical lymphocytes may represent an unusual and specific cellular response to ASFV infection. PMID:27536044

  9. Characterization of the atypical lymphocytes in African swine fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Karalyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Atypical lymphocytes usually described as lymphocytes with altered shape, increased DNA amount, and larger size. For analysis of cause of genesis and source of atypical lymphocytes during African swine fever virus (ASFV infection, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and in vitro model were investigated. Materials and Methods: Atypical lymphocytes under the influence of ASFV were studied for morphologic, cytophotometric, and membrane surface marker characteristics and were used in vivo and in vitro models. Results: This study indicated the increased size, high metabolic activity, and the presence of additional DNA amount in atypical lymphocytes caused by ASFV infection. Furthermore, in atypical lymphocytes, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio usually decreased, compared to normal lymphocytes. In morphology, they looking like lymphocytes transformed into blasts by exposure to mitogens or antigens in vitro. They vary in morphologic detail, but most of them are CD2 positive. Conclusions: Our data suggest that atypical lymphocytes may represent an unusual and specific cellular response to ASFV infection.

  10. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Shiota

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objectives were to compare the numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from asthmatic patients and from healthy subjects, and to determine the effect of inhaled anti-asthmatic steroid therapy on these cell numbers. Hypertonic saline inhalation was used to non-invasively induce sputum samples in 34 patients with bronchial asthma and 21 healthy subjects. The sputum samples were reduced with dithioerythritol and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were assessed by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. To assess the effect of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP on induced sputum, numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in sputum also were evaluated after 4 weeks of BDP inhalation treatment in seven asthmatic patients. An adequate sample was obtained in 85.3% of patients with asthma and in 79.2% of the healthy subjects. Induced sputum from patients with asthma had increased numbers of lymphocytes (P = 0.009; CD4+ cells (P = 0.044; CD4+ cells-bearing interleukin-2 receptor (CD25; P = 0.016; and CD4+ cells bearing human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR (P = 0.033. CD8+ cells were not increased in asthmatic patients. In patients treated with inhaled steroids, numbers of lymphocytes, CD4+ cells, CD25-bearing CD4+ cells and HLA-DR-bearing CD4+ cells in sputum decreased from pretreatment numbers (P = 0.016, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively. Analysis of lymphocytes in induced sputum by flow cytometry is useful in assessing bronchial inflammation, and activated CD4+ lymphocytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma.

  11. Natural Infection with Avian Hepatitis E Virus and Marek's Disease Virus in Brown Layer Chickens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuqing; Wang, Liyuan; Sun, Shuhong

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and serotype-1 strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV-1) were detected from a flock of 27-wk-old brown layer hens in China, accompanied by an average daily mortality of 0.44%. Postmortem examination of 25 sick hens and five apparently healthy hens selected randomly from the flock showed significant pathologic changes consistent with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS), including hepatomegaly, peritoneal fluid, and hepatic subcapsular hemorrhages. Microscopic examination of these livers showed multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and mild lymphocytic infiltration. These liver samples were investigated for HEV by reverse-transcription PCR. The overall detection rate of HEV RNA in samples of sick chickens was about 56% (14/25), while in samples from apparently healthy hens, it was 80% (4/5). Sequencing analysis of three 242-base-pair fragments of the helicase gene revealed 95.5% to 97.9% nucleotide identity compared with published avian HEV genotype 3, whereas identities demonstrated only 77.3% to 86.0% similarity when compared with genotypes 1, 2, and 4. Unexpectedly, the MDV meq gene was detected in livers from both apparently healthy chickens (2/5) and sick chickens (12/25) by PCR analysis. The meq gene (396 base pairs) was determined to belong to MDV-1 by further sequencing. The co-infection rate of avian HEV and MDV in this flock was 30% (9/30). This is the first report of dual infection of a nonenvelope RNA virus (HEV) with a herpesvirus (MDV) in chickens in China.

  12. SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN SUPPRESSES T-LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTIONS FOLLOWING BURNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤君; 黄文华; 黎鳌

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that serum immunosuppressive factors play an important role in the mechanismi of postburn immunosuppression.This study was intended to investigate the effect of haptoglobin,purified from the serum of burned patients by affinity chromatography,on the proliferation and interleukin-2(IL-2)secretion of normal nurine thymocytes induced by conA and the proliferation of IL-2 dependent cell line (CTLL-2) stimulated by recombinant human IL-2,so as to elucidate the role of serum haptoglobin in postburn T-lymphocyte dysfunction.The results showed that purified haptoglobin,at the level equivalent to the concentration found in serum of burned patients,significantly inhibited the prolifration and IL-2 secretion of normal murine thymocytes as well as CTLL-2 proliferation;wheres it exhibited no immunosuppressive effects at the level equivalent to the concentration found in serum of normal vohmteers.According to the results reported here,it is suggested that extraordinary increase in serum haptoglobin level may be an important factor of impaired T-lymphocyte responses following burns.

  13. Systematic pathogenesis and replication of avian hepatitis E virus in specific-pathogen-free adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billam, P; Huang, F F; Sun, Z F; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Elvinger, F; Guenette, D K; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2005-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. Due to the lack of a cell culture system and a practical animal model for HEV, little is known about its pathogenesis and replication. The discovery of a strain of HEV in chickens, designated avian HEV, prompted us to evaluate chickens as a model for the study of HEV. Eighty-five 60-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 chickens (n=28) were each inoculated with 5 x 10(4.5) 50% chicken infectious doses of avian HEV by the oronasal route, group 2 chickens (n=29) were each inoculated with the same dose by the intravenous (i.v.) route, and group 3 chickens (n=28) were not inoculated and were used as controls. Two chickens from each group were necropsied at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 35, and 42 days postinoculation (dpi), and the remaining chickens were necropsied at 56 dpi. Serum, fecal, and various tissue samples, including liver and spleen samples, were collected at each necropsy for pathological and virological testing. By 21 dpi, all oronasally and i.v. inoculated chickens had seroconverted. Fecal virus shedding was detected variably from 1 to 20 dpi for the i.v. group and from 10 to 56 dpi for the oronasal group. Avian HEV RNA was detected in serum, bile, and liver samples from both i.v. and oronasally inoculated chickens. Gross liver lesions, characterized by subcapsular hemorrhages or enlargement of the right intermediate lobe, were observed in 7 of 28 oronasally and 7 of 29 i.v. inoculated chickens. Microscopic liver lesions were mainly lymphocytic periphlebitis and phlebitis. The lesion scores were higher for oronasal (P=0.0008) and i.v. (P=0.0029) group birds than for control birds. Slight elevations of the plasma liver enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were observed in infected chickens. The results indicated that chickens are a useful model for studying HEV replication and pathogenesis. This is the first report of HEV transmission via its natural

  14. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  15. The Helper Activities of Different Avian Viruses for Propagation of Recombinant Avian Adeno-Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.

  16. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Kerry J; Mottok, Anja; Fanale, Michelle

    2016-07-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma with distinct clinicopathologic features. It is typified by the presence of lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells, which are CD20(+) but CD15(-) and CD30(-) and are found scattered amongst small B lymphocytes arranged in a nodular pattern. Despite frequent and often late or multiple relapses, the prognosis of NLPHL is very favorable. There is an inherent risk of secondary aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and studies support that risk is highest in those with splenic involvement at presentation. Given disease rarity, the optimal management is unclear and opinions differ as to whether treatment paradigms should be similar to or differ from those for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). This review provides an overview of the existing literature describing pathological subtypes, outcome and treatment approaches for NLPHL.

  17. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP. PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs. However, the evolution of respiratory systems in other archosaurs, especially in the lineage leading to crocodilians, is poorly documented. Here, we use µCT-scanning to investigate the vertebral anatomy of Triassic archosaur taxa, from both the avian and crocodilian lineages as well as non-archosaurian diapsid outgroups. Our results confirm previous suggestions that unambiguous evidence of PSP (presence of internal pneumatic cavities linked to the exterior by foramina is found only in bird-line (ornithodiran archosaurs. We propose that pulmonary air sacs were present in the common ancestor of Ornithodira and may have been subsequently lost or reduced in some members of the clade (notably in ornithischian dinosaurs. The development of these avian-like respiratory features might have been linked to inferred increases in activity levels among ornithodirans. By contrast, no crocodile-line archosaur (pseudosuchian exhibits evidence for unambiguous PSP, but many of these taxa possess the complex array of vertebral laminae and fossae that always accompany the presence of air sacs in ornithodirans. These laminae and fossae are likely homologous with those in ornithodirans, which suggests the need for further investigation of the hypothesis that a reduced, or non-invasive, system of pulmonary air sacs may be have

  18. The avian tectorial membrane: Why is it tapered?

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasa, Kuni H

    2015-01-01

    While the mammalian- and the avian inner ears have well defined tonotopic organizations as well as hair cells specialized for motile and sensing roles, the structural organization of the avian ear is different from its mammalian cochlear counterpart. Presumably this difference stems from the difference in the way motile hair cells function. Short hair cells, whose role is considered analogous to mammalian outer hair cells, presumably depends on their hair bundles, and not motility of their cell body, in providing the motile elements of the cochlear amplifier. This report focuses on the role of the avian tectorial membrane, specifically by addressing the question, "Why is the avian tectorial membrane tapered from the neural to the abneural direction?"

  19. Historical review of avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review historical information on avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. This report includes incidental reports of...

  20. Region 6 Avian Health Program FY2011 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities and fund allocations of the Region 6 Avian Health Program in FY2011. Activities include morbidity and mortality monitoring, disease...

  1. Avian influenza surveillance sample collection and shipment protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for mortality collection and shipment of avian influenza (AI) live bird surveillance sample collections. AI sample collections will include...

  2. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity, Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian seasonal fecundity is of interest from evolutionary, ecological, and conservation perspectives. However, direct estimation of seasonal fecundity is difficult, especially with multibrooded birds, and models representing the renesting and quitting processes are usually requi...

  3. Avian Point Transect Survey; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian point-transect survey data and habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We...

  4. The 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    正Invited participants on the 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism, sponsored by Hainan Normal University (HNU), China, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway, the Research Council of Norway, and China Ornithological Society (COS).

  5. Migratory Bird Avian Influenza Sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species common...

  6. Avian populations and habitat use in interior Alaska taiga

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian community structure, habitat occupancy levels, and species habitat use patterns were examined in the woody habitats of interior Alaska taiga. Some birds...

  7. Avian Flu (H7N9) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Avian Flu (H7N9) in China Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Warning - Level ... of H7N9 have been reported outside of mainland China but most of these infections have occurred among ...

  8. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their saliva, mucous and feces. Human infections with bird flu viruses can happen when enough virus gets into ... Virus (CVV) for a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Virus ” for more information on this process. ...

  9. Lymphocytic adenohypophysitis: skull radiographs and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiwai, S.; Miyamoto, T. [Department of Radiology, Kobe Central Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Inoue, Y.; Nemoto, Y.; Tashiro, T. [Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Medical School (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Department of Endocrinology, Kobe Central Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe Central Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Hakuba, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-5-7 Asahimachi, Abeno, Osaka, 545 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    We report the skull radiograph, CT and MRI findings in three patients with lymphocytic adenohypophysitis mimicking pituitary adenoma. All cases were associated with pregnancy. CT demonstrated a pituitary mass but did not differentiate lymphocytic adenohypophysitis from pituitary adenoma. The skull radiographs showed either a normal sella turcica or minimal abnormalities; they did not show ballooning or destruction. The MRI appearances were distinctive: relatively low signal on T1-weighted images; preservation of the bright posterior pituitary lobe despite the presence of a relatively large pituitary mass, less common in macroadenomas; marked contrast enhancement compared with pituitary macroadenomas; and dural enhancement adjacent to a pituitary mass. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 40 refs.

  10. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  11. Brachyspira pilosicoli-induced avian intestinal spirochaetosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline I. Le Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon, which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, the number of outbreaks of AIS has dramatically increased in the UK resulting in significant economic losses. This review summarises the current knowledge about AIS infection caused by B. pilosicoli and discusses various treatments and prevention strategies to control AIS.

  12. 禽流感%Avian influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学工; 龙云铸

    2005-01-01

    禽流感(avian influenza)是禽类流行性感冒的简称,是由甲型流感病毒株的某些亚型引起的急性呼吸道传染病。通常情况下,禽流感病毒并不感染人类,但自1997年禽甲型流感病毒H5N1感染人类之后,相继有H9N2、H7N7.亚型感染人类和H5N1再次感染人类的报道,引起了世人的广泛关注。

  13. 禽流感病%Avian Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先志

    1999-01-01

    @@ 禽流感病(avian influenza)是由甲型流感病毒引起的一种禽类疾病综合征.1997年5月,我国香港特别行政区1例3岁儿童死于不明原因的多器官功能衰竭,同年8月经美国疾病预防和控制中心以及WHO荷兰鹿特丹国家流感中心鉴定为禽甲型流感病毒H5N1[A(H5N1)]引起的人类流感[1~3].这是世界上首次证实A(H5N1)感染人类,因而引起医学界的广泛关注.

  14. Ribonucleoprotein of avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, H A; Dourmashkin, R R; Macnaughton, M R

    1981-03-01

    The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was examined by electron microscopy after shadowing with carbon/platinum. Linear RNP strands up to 6.7 microns in length, from three IVB strains, were sensitive to both pancreatic RNase and to proteases. These strands were obtained from spontaneously disrupted complete particles but not from disrupted incomplete particles that lacked RNP. They were also released from Nonidet P40-disrupted particles and could be isolated on sucrose density gradients at a density of 1.27 g/ml. In some cases, helical RNP complexes associated with virus particles were observed that were similar to RNPs of human coronavirus strain 229E and mouse hepatitis virus strain 3.

  15. Seroprevalence of avian pneumovirus in Minnesota turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Friendshuh, Keith; Halvorson, David A

    2003-01-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes respiratory tract infection in turkeys and was first seen in the United States in Colorado in late 1996. In early 1997, the disease was recognized in Minnesota and caused estimated losses of up to 15 million dollars per year. This virus has not been reported in the other turkey producing states. We here report the seroprevalence of APV in Minnesota from August 1998 to July 2002. The average rate of seroprevalence has been 36.3% (range = 14.2%-64.8%). A seasonal bias was observed, with peak incidences in the fall and spring. A higher rate of seropositivity was observed in counties with the highest concentration of turkeys.

  16. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  17. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  18. History of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

    2009-04-01

    The most widely quoted date for the beginning of the recorded history of avian influenza (AI) is 1878, when researchers first differentiated a disease of poultry (initially known as fowl plague but later renamed highly pathogenic avian influenza) from other diseases with high mortality rates. Current evidence indicates that highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses arise through mutation after low pathogenicity AI viruses of H5 or H7 subtype are introduced into poultry. Between 1877 and 1958, a number of epizootics of HPAI occurred in most parts of the world. From 1959 to 1995, the emergence of HPAI viruses was recorded on 15 occasions, but losses were minimal. In contrast, between 1996 and 2008, HPAI viruses emerged at least 11 times and four of these outbreaks involved many millions of birds. Events during this recent period are overshadowed by the current epizootic of HPAI due to an H5N1 virus that has spread throughout Asia and into Europe and Africa, affecting over 60 countries and causing the loss of hundreds of millions of birds. All sectors of the poultry population have been affected, but free-range commercial ducks, village poultry, live bird markets and fighting cocks seem especially significant in the spread of the virus. The role of wild birds has been extensively debated but it is likely that both wild birds and domestic poultry are responsible for its spread. Even without these H5N1 outbreaks, the period 1995 to 2008 will be considered significant in the history of HPAI because of the vast numbers of birds that died or were culled in three of the other ten epizootics during this time.

  19. Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis and lymphocytic thyroiditis in a laboratory beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takuya; Tomonari, Yuki; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Yamada, Naoaki; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2017-02-04

    Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis characterized by inflammation and atrophy in the medulla of the bilateral adrenal glands was observed in an 18-month-old male laboratory beagle dog. It might be that the present lymphocytic adrenal medullitis is an autoimmune-mediated disease as the histological characteristics are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis. However, the actual cause remains unclear as the existence of serum autoantibodies against the adrenal medulla could not be confirmed. Although this dog also contracted lymphocytic thyroiditis along with serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies, indicating that the thyroiditis occurred with an autoimmune basis; the relation between the adrenal medullitis and thyroiditis is unknown.

  20. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  1. Envelope and pre-membrane protein structural amino acid mutations mediate diminished avian growth and virulence of a Mexican West Nile virus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Stanley A; Bowen, Richard A; Ramey, Wanichaya N; Sanders, Todd A; Maharaj, Payal D; Fang, Ying; Cornelius, Jennine; Barker, Christopher M; Reisen, William K; Beasley, David W C; Barrett, Alan D T; Kinney, Richard M; Huang, Claire Y-H; Brault, Aaron C

    2011-12-01

    The hallmark attribute of North American West Nile virus (WNV) strains has been high pathogenicity in certain bird species. Surprisingly, this avian virulent WNV phenotype has not been observed during its geographical expansion into the Caribbean, Central America and South America. One WNV variant (TM171-03-pp1) isolated in Mexico has demonstrated an attenuated phenotype in two widely distributed North American bird species, American crows (AMCRs) and house sparrows (HOSPs). In order to identify genetic determinants associated with attenuated avian replication of the TM171-03-pp1 variant, chimeric viruses between the NY99 and Mexican strains were generated, and their replicative capacity was assessed in cell culture and in AMCR, HOSP and house finch avian hosts. The results demonstrated that mutations in both the pre-membrane (prM-I141T) and envelope (E-S156P) genes mediated the attenuation phenotype of the WNV TM171-03-pp1 variant in a chicken macrophage cell line and in all three avian species assayed. Inclusion of the prM-I141T and E-S156P TM171-03-pp1 mutations in the NY99 backbone was necessary to achieve the avian attenuation level of the Mexican virus. Furthermore, reciprocal incorporation of both prM-T141I and E-P156S substitutions into the Mexican virus genome was necessary to generate a virus that exhibited avian virulence equivalent to the NY99 virus. These structural changes may indicate the presence of new evolutionary pressures exerted on WNV populations circulating in Latin America or may signify a genetic bottleneck that has constrained their epiornitic potential in alternative geographical locations.

  2. Avian hepatitis E virus, vaccines and methods of protecting against avian hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome and mammalian hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel isolated avian hepatitis E virus having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or its complementary strand. The invention further concerns immunogenic compositions comprising this new virus or recombinant products such as the nucleic acid and vaccines that protect an avian or mammalian species from viral infection or hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome caused by the hepatitis E virus. Also included in the scope of the invention is a method for prop...

  3. Ibrutinib for previously untreated and relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with TP53 aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooqui, Mohammed Z H; Valdez, Janet; Martyr, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) with TP53 aberrations respond poorly to first-line chemoimmunotherapy, resulting in early relapse and short survival. We investigated the safety and activity of ibrutinib in previously untreated and relapsed or refractory CLL with TP53...

  4. In ovo and in vitro susceptibility of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to avian influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Bradley L; Finger, John W; Jones, Cheryl A; Gabbard, Jon D; Jelesijevic, Tomislav; Uhl, Elizabeth W; Hogan, Robert J; Glenn, Travis C; Tompkins, S Mark

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the most ubiquitous viruses within our biosphere. Wild aquatic birds are believed to be the primary reservoir of all influenza viruses; however, the spillover of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and the recent swine-origin pandemic H1N1 viruses have sparked increased interest in identifying and understanding which and how many species can be infected. Moreover, novel influenza virus sequences were recently isolated from New World bats. Crocodilians have a slow rate of molecular evolution and are the sister group to birds; thus they are a logical reptilian group to explore susceptibility to influenza virus infection and they provide a link between birds and mammals. A primary American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) cell line, and embryos, were infected with four, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains to assess susceptibility to infection. Embryonated alligator eggs supported virus replication, as evidenced by the influenza virus M gene and infectious virus detected in allantoic fluid and by virus antigen staining in embryo tissues. Primary alligator cells were also inoculated with the LPAI viruses and showed susceptibility based upon antigen staining; however, the requirement for trypsin to support replication in cell culture limited replication. To assess influenza virus replication in culture, primary alligator cells were inoculated with H1N1 human influenza or H5N1 HPAI viruses that replicate independent of trypsin. Both viruses replicated efficiently in culture, even at the 30 C temperature preferred by the alligator cells. This research demonstrates the ability of wild-type influenza viruses to infect and replicate within two crocodilian substrates and suggests the need for further research to assess crocodilians as a species potentially susceptible to influenza virus infection.

  5. Dual character of interaction between lymphocytes and allogeneic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, R.V.; Dozmorov, I.M.; Kochetkova, M.O.; Nikolaeva, I.S.

    1986-10-01

    The mechanisms of stimulation of colony formation by small doses of allogeneic lymphocytes were studied in mice. When interaction of lymphocytes with allogeneic stem cells was studied, bone marrow cells of mice were injected into lethally irradiated recipients in the control, and mixtures of bone marrow cells with varied numbers of lymphocytes were injected in the experiment. Dependence of the inactivation indices on the number of lymphocytes injected, based on the results of counting macro- and microcolonies in the spleen, is shown.

  6. Immunophenotypic lymphocyte profiles in human african trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Boda

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is a deadly vector-born disease caused by an extracellular parasite, the trypanosome. Little is known about the cellular immune responses elicited by this parasite in humans. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 33 HAT patients and 27 healthy controls identified during a screening campaign in Angola and Gabon. We evaluated the subsets and activation markers of B and T lymphocytes. Patients had a higher percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes and activated B lymphocytes in the blood than did controls, but lacked activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD25+. Patients displayed no increase in the percentage of activated CD8+ T cells (HLA-DR+, CD69+ or CD25+, but memory CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA2 were significantly lower in patients than in controls, as were effector CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA+CD62L2. No relationship was found between these blood immunophenotypes and disease severity (stage 1 vs 2. However, CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF increased with disease severity. The patterns of T and B cell activation in HAT patients suggest that immunomodulatory mechanisms may operate during infection. Determinations of CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF could improve disease staging.

  7. SnapShot: chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Maria; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J; Calin, George A

    2014-11-10

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia among adults in western countries. This SnapShot depicts the origins and evolution of this B cell malignancy, describes prognostic factors and CLL animal models, and illustrates therapies in preclinical and clinical development against CLL.

  8. Regulatory T-lymphocytes in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, AJM; Bloksma, N

    2005-01-01

    T-helper cell type (Th)2 lymphocytes play an important role in the initiation, progression and persistence of allergic diseases, including asthma. However, little is known about immunoregulatory mechanisms that determine susceptibility to, severity of, or persistence of asthma. The concept of a dist

  9. Peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1991-01-01

    Peripheral lymphocyte subsets--T-helper (CD4+), T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8+), and naive/virgin T cells/natural killer cells (CD45RA)--were studied quantitatively in 30 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) and 29 sex- and age-matched RAU-free control donors. The CD4+ percentage was s...

  10. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults from the western world. No curative treatments of CLL are presently known so the treatment strategy today is primarily to prolong patient survival,1 why we have initiated new activities towards discovery of novel compounds w...

  11. Targeting cytotoxic T lymphocytes for cancer immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, J; Davies, E. T.

    2004-01-01

    In light of their preeminent role in cellular immunity, there is considerable interest in targeting of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to cancer. This review summarises the active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches under development to achieve this goal, emphasising how recent advances in tumour immunology and gene transfer have impacted upon this field.

  12. Lymphocyte dynamics in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2009-01-01

    Following immune depletion, it is vital that the immune system recovers rapidly to avoid severe or life-threatening infections. In adults, full recovery of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, important cell types of the immune system, may take years. Similar to other lymphocytes, T cells start their develo

  13. Morphometric Characterization of Small Cell Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoi Anca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphometry in histopathology is used to characterize cell populations belonging to different tissues and to identify differences in their parameters with prognostic implications. To achieve morphometric examination were selected 6 of 24 cases identified as small cell lymphocytic lymphoma. For each case analysis was done on five fields, for each field measuring the parameters of 20 cells. The studied parameters were for cytoplasm: cytoplasmic area, maximum and minimum cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter; for nucleus were measured: nuclear area, minimum and maximum nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, nuclear contour index, nuclear ellipticity index, nuclear irregularity index. Also the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was calculated in all studied cases. Small cell lymphocytic lymphoma is characterized in morphometric terms having a small cytoplasmic area (average 29.206 and also a small nuclear area (mean 28.939 having a nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appearance suggestive for adult lymphocyte. A nuclear contour index small value (3.946, ellipticity index value also small (3.521 and small nuclear irregularity index (3.965. Standard deviations, in any of the studied morphometric categories, is around or below 1 suggesting monomorphic cell appearance. These morphometric and microscopic features characterized mainly by a small population of adult lymphocytes, monomorphic, with rounded hipercromic nuclei, dense chromatin, support the framing into indolent lymphoma group in terms of clinical outcome.

  14. Effect of chloroquine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    the response to pokeweed mitogen. The response to concanavalin A and to various antigens was suppressed, especially the response to large particulate antigens. Oral intake of 300 mg of chloroquine base/week did not affect the lymphocyte proliferative responses. 600 mg of base/week decreased the response...

  15. C1-esterase inhibitor blocks T lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Bregenholt, S; Nording, J A

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that activated C1s complement and activated T cells cleave beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in vitro leading to the formation of desLys58 beta2m. This process can specifically be inhibited by C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh). Furthermore we showed that exogenously added desLys58...... beta2m in nanomolar amounts to a one-way allogenic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) increased the endogenous production of IL-2 and the generation of allo-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. C1-inh was purified from fresh human plasma and added to human or murine MLC and mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte...... cultures grown in the presence of complement-inactivated serum. Read-outs were cell proliferation, lymphokine production and development of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that addition of C1-inh to MLC and mitogen-exposed murine and human lymphocyte cultures inhibited proliferation, the development...

  16. Rosette formation of pig T lymphocytes with sheep erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escajadillo, C; Binns, R M

    1975-01-01

    The relationship of sheep RBC rosette formation to density of thymus and blood lymphocytes was investigated. Thymocyte density was unimodal and cells of all densities rosetted equally. Blood lymphocyte density was bimodal with most rosette-forming cells in the denser ficoll layers. Papain treatment of SRBC increases rosette formation with blood lymphocytes while apparently maintaining specificity of T cells.

  17. NEUTROPHIL/LYMPHOCYTE RATIO AND PLATELET/LYMPHOCYTE RATIO IN PATIENTS WITH NSCLC

    OpenAIRE

    Cukic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to compare neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with NSCLC (Non- Small- Cell Lung Cancer): with and without metastases at the time of diagnosis to find out if there is the importance of these cell ratios in the assessment of severity NSCLC. Material and Methods: this is the retrospective analysis of NRL and PRL in patients with NSCLC at the time of the diagnosis of disease before any anti tumor treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surg...

  18. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma presenting as septic arthritis of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Andrea; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Nomikos, George [NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Garcia, Roberto A. [Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-11-15

    We report a case of a 53-year-old man presenting with shoulder pain mimicking septic arthritis. Laboratory findings were atypical. Biopsy performed to assess for possible osteomyelitis demonstrated chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Intra-articular lymphoma is a rare but important consideration in patients with atypical clinical presentation. Imaging alone may be insufficient to render diagnosis as lymphoma can mimic infection, synovial hypertrophic processes, and depositional arthropathy. (orig.)

  19. Lymphocyte transformation studies in drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, R J; Tse, K S

    1979-05-05

    In a group of patients with clinically diagnosed drug hypersensitivity the in vitro lymphocyte response to the suspected drug was assessed by the lymphocyte transformation test. The test gave positive results in all 15 patients with penicillin-induced immediate or accelerated allergic reactions and positive immediate skin-test reactivity to the major or the minor antigenic determinant of penicillin, or both, but in only 3 of the 12 patients with delayed-onset maculopapular rashes induced by penicillin, despite positive immediate reactivity to the skin-test reagents.Lymphocyte stimulation greater than five times the control level was demonstrated for five patients with penicillin-induced erythroderma, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or a serum-sickness-like illness, or with methicillin-induced interstitial nephritis, all of whom had negative reactions to the appropriate skin-test reagents. A low level of stimulation was seen in eight other skin-test-negative patients with possible allergic reactions induced by penicillins. However, in all subjects tested the stimulation was significantly greater than the mean for control subjects.For 9 of 11 patients with isoniazid-induced hepatitis or maculopapular rashes, but for only 8 of 31 patients with eruptions induced by a variety of drugs other than penicillins and isoniazid, significant stimulation occurred in the lymphocyte transformation test.It is concluded that the lymphocyte transformation test is useful in the detection of hypersensitivity to the penicillins (although in IgE-mediated reactions skin testing is clearly preferable) and isoniazid but is of limited value in the demonstration of hypersensitivity to other drugs.

  20. Lymphocytic colitis: A clue to bacterial etiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thanaa EA Helal; Naglaa S Ahmed; Osama Abo El Fotoh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To find out the role of bacteria as a possible etiological factor in lymphocytic colitis.METHODS: Twenty patients with histopathological diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis and 10 normal controls were included in this study. Colonoscopic biopsies were obtained from three sites (hepatic and splenic flexures and rectosigmoid region). Each biopsy was divided into two parts. A fresh part was incubated on special cultures for bacterial growth. The other part was used for the preparation of histologic tissue sections that were examined for the presence of bacteria with the help of Giemsa stain.RESULTS: Culture of tissue biopsies revealed bacterial growth in 18 out of 20 patients with lymphocytic colitis mostly Escherichia coli(14/18), which was found in all rectosigmoid specimens (14/14), but only in 8/14 and 6/14 of splenic and hepatic flexure specimens respectively. In two of these cases, E coliwas associated with proteus. Proteus was found only in one case, Klebsiella in two cases, and Staphylococcus aureus in one case. In the control group, only 2 out of 10 controls showed the growth of E coliin their biopsy cultures.Histopathology showed rod-shaped bacilli in the tissue sections of 12 out of 14 cases with positive E coliin their specimen's culture. None of the controls showed these bacteria in histopathological sections.CONCLUSION: This preliminary study reports an association between E coliand lymphocytic colitis, based on histological and culture observations. Serotyping and molecular studies are in process to assess the role of E coliin the pathogenesis of lymphocytic colitis.

  1. Experimental avian paramyxovirus serotype-3 infection in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Militino Dias, Flavia; Nayak, Baibaswata; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2010-01-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) are divided into nine serotypes. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two divergent strains of APMV-3, Netherlands and Wisconsin, in (i) 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, (ii) 1-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks and turkeys, and (iii) 2-week-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was 112 h for APMV-3 strain Netherlands and > 168 h for strain Wisconsin. The intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1-day-old chicks for strain Netherlands was 0.39 and for strain Wisconsin was zero. Thus, both strains are lentogenic. Both the strains replicated well in brain tissue when inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old SPF chicks, but without causing death. Mild respiratory disease signs were observed in 1-day-old chickens and turkeys when inoculated through oculonasal route with either strain. There were no overt signs of illness in 2-weeks-old chickens and turkeys by either strain, although all the birds seroconverted after infection. The viruses were isolated predominantly from brain, lungs, spleens, trachea, pancreas and kidney. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of large amount of viral antigens in both epithelial and sub-epithelial lining of respiratory and alimentary tracts. Our result suggests systemic spread of APMV-3 even though the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin proteases cleavage site. Furthermore, there was little or no disease despite systemic viral spread and abundant viral replication in all the tissues tested.

  2. Manipulation of male attractiveness induces rapid changes in avian maternal yolk androgen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Sjouke A.; Komdeur, Jan; Vedder, Oscar; Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Korsten, Peter; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain maternal androgens that may adjust offspring development to environmental conditions. We review evidence and functional explanations for the relationship between androgen concentrations in avian eggs and male attractiveness. Experimental studies in captive birds show generally pos

  3. [Detection and description of avian hepatitis E virus isolated in China--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Zhou, Enmin

    2012-03-04

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), a member of Hepeviridae family, is genetically and antigenically related with human and swine HEV in the family. Since its discovery, avian HEV infection has been investigated in many countries from serology and molecular epidemiology studies. At present, five complete or near complete genomes of avian HEV isolates were reported in GenBank and were divided into three genotypes. The complete genome of avian HEV contains 3 ORFs of which ORF2 gene encodes capsid protein containing the primary epitopes of viral particles and is target gene for serodiagnostic antigen and vaccine candidate. Because avian HEV infection has significant impact on the poultry industry and potential zoonotic transmission, the researches on avian HEV have been given much attention. We here give a broad review of the research update on the aetiology, pathogenesis and the antigenicity of capsid protein of avian HEV based on identification of Chinese avian HEV isolate.

  4. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) contingency plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Disease contingency plan to reduce avian mortality from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HAPI) outbreaks at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  5. IL-6 acts on endothelial cells to preferentially increase their adherence for lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C; Whittaker, S; Smith, N; Vora, A J; Dumonde, D C; Brown, K A

    1996-07-01

    Using a quantitative monolayer adhesion assay, the current report shows that treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with IL-6 increases their adhesiveness for blood lymphocytes, particularly CD4+ cells, but not for polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes. This effect, which was most pronounced when using low concentrations of the cytokine (0.1-1.0 U/ml) and a short incubation period (4h), was also apparent with microvascular endothelial cells and a hybrid endothelial cell line. Skin lesions from patients with mycosis fungoides contain high levels of IL-6, and blood lymphocytes from patients with this disorder also exhibited an enhanced adhesion to IL-6-treated HUVEC. The cytokine enhanced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin on endothelial cells. Antibody blocking studies demonstrated that the vascular adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin and the leucocyte integrin LFA-1 all contributed to lymphocyte binding to endothelium activated by IL-6. It is proposed that IL-6 may be involved in the recruitment of lymphocytes into non-lymphoid tissue.

  6. Lymphocyte-based model systems for allergy research: a historic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunkirchner, Alina; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Pickl, Winfried F

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, a multitude of studies applying distinct in vitro and in vivo model systems have contributed greatly to our better understanding of the initiation and regulation of inflammatory processes leading to allergic diseases. Over the years, it has become evident that among lymphocytes, not only IgE-producing B cells and allergy-orchestrating CD4(+) helper cells but also cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, γδ-T cells and innate lymphoid cells, as well as regulatory lymphocytes, might critically shape the immune response towards usually innocuous allergens. In this review, we provide a historic overview of pioneering work leading to the establishment of important lymphocyte-based model systems for allergy research. Moreover, we contrast the original findings with our currently more refined knowledge to appreciate the actual validity of the respective models and to reassess the conclusions obtained from them. Conflicting studies and interpretations are identified and discussed. The tables are intended to provide an easy overview of the field not only for scientists newly entering the field but also for the broader readership interested in updating their knowledge. Along those lines, herein we discuss in vitro and in vivo approaches to the investigation of lymphocyte effector cell activation, polarization and regulation, and describe depletion and adoptive transfer models along with gene knockout and transgenic (tg) methodologies. In addition, novel attempts to establish humanized T cell antigen receptor tg mouse models for allergy research are described and discussed.

  7. Dinamika Seroprevalensi Virus Avian Influenza H5 pada Itik di Pasar Unggas Beringkit dan Galiran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Narendra Putra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Live Bird Market (LBM has a high potential for spreading Avian Influenza Virus (AIV between fowls or from fowl to human. Up to now, a dinamic of avian flue incidents at many LBMs in Bali has not been reported. This research aimed to reveal a dynamic of seroprevalences of avian influenza in ducks at Beringkit (Badung and Galiran (Kelungkung LBMs. A total of 35 duck blood samples was collected from each of LBMs. Sampling was conducted monthly from March to August, 2012 . AIV antibody of duck serum was measured using Rapid Hemagglutination Inhibition (Rapid HI test. Seroprevalence differences were analyzes with Chi-square (?2 Nonparametric statistical test. The results showed that seroprevalences of AIV H5 in ducks at Beringkit and Galiran LBMs were very high, ranged from 68.6% to 100% and 65.7% to 97.1% respectively. A Dynamic of AIV H5 seroprevalences in ducks at Beringkit and Galiran LBM had a similar pattern, except in July 2012. This indicates that VAI H5 has been circulating for a long time and has been to be an endemic virus infection in ducks at LBMs in Bali. It can be suggested that an Avian Influenza Virus monitoring should be done continuously over a long period. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  8. Preparation and Characterization of the Monoclonal Antibodies Against p27 Protein of Avian Leukosis Virus%禽白血病病毒 p27蛋白单克隆抗体的制备及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢华丽; 邵华斌; 杨峻; 程国富; 胡薛英; 谷长勤; 张万坡; 罗青平

    2013-01-01

    The purified recombinant protein p27 of avian leukosis virus as an immunogen was used to immu-niz Balb/c mice.By cell culture and monoclonal antibody of dilution method,mAb named 2F3,5C2 and 5C7 were prepared against avian leukosis virus p27 protein by fusing myeloma cell line SP2/0 with spleen lymphocytes of immunized Balb/c mice.By biological characteristic analysis,the number of three strain hybridoma cell chromosomes was about 90.Then immunological identifications were conducted by means of ELISA/Western blot and IFA,the three mAb against p27 protein of ALV possessed high antibody ti-ters and good specificity.The result showed that the three McAbs had good reactogenicity.These three McAbs can be used as a valuable tool for avian leukosis virus epitope analysis,the detection of the virus and Kit research.%以纯化的禽白血病病毒 p27重组蛋白作为免疫原,按常规方法免疫 Balb/c 小鼠,取其脾细胞与 SP2/0细胞融合,通过细胞培养和有限稀释法制备单克隆抗体,最终获得了3株能稳定分泌禽白血病病毒 p27蛋白单克隆抗体的细胞株2F3、5C2和5C7。经生物学特性分析,3株杂交瘤细胞染色体数均为90条左右,通过 ELISA、Western blot 和间接免疫荧光等方法对所获得的3株单克隆抗体进行了鉴定,证明3株单克隆抗体细胞株所分泌的抗体效价高,而且均能够和禽白血病病毒 p27蛋白特异性发生反应。说明该3株单克隆抗体均具有与禽白血病病毒 p27蛋白发生反应的反应原性。3株单克隆抗体的成功获得为禽白血病病毒抗原表位的分析,病毒的检测以及试剂盒的研发奠定了基础。

  9. [Isolation and identification of avian leukosis virus-B from layer chickens infected with avian leukosis virus-J].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gong-Zhen; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Liu, Qing; Qiu, Bo; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Hong-Bo; Cheng, Zi-Qiang

    2009-11-01

    Two strains of Avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B) were isolated for the first time in China Hy-line White on the cultured DF-1 cells which were inoculated tissue samples from by an ELISA assay, a histopathology examination and a PCR-based diagnosis. The results from the ELISA assay indicated that the positive rate of serum antibodies to ALV-B and ALV-J virus were 16.3% (15/92) and 13% (12/92), respectively. The histopathological examination indicated that two types of tumor cells existed at same focus in liver and spleen, which mainly were myelocytoma cells and lymphosarcoma cells. The PCR-based diagnosis were performed as follows: the cellular DNA was extracted from the inoculated DF-1 cells; the specific fragments of 1100 bp and 924 bp were obtained by a PCR system with the diagnostic primers of ALV-B and ALV-J; and the PCR results for ALV-A, MDV and REV were all negative. Then, the amplified fragments of the two ALV-B stains were partially sequenced and shown an identity of 92.8%,94.7% with the prototype strain of ALV-B (RSV Schmidt-ruppin B). The identities of two ALV-J strains with the prototype strain HPRS-103 at 96.9%, 91.5%; The identities of two ALV-J strains with the American prototype strain at 85.9%, 81.5%. Our study had shown that ALV-B was isolated for the first time from the ALV-J infected commercial layer flocks in China. It also indicated that the chance of genetic recombination among various subgroups of ALV was increased.

  10. Large-Scale Network Organisation in the Avian Forebrain: A Connectivity Matrix and Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray eShanahan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many species of birds, including pigeons, possess demonstrable cognitive capacities, and some are capable of cognitive feats matching those of apes. Since mammalian cortex is laminar while the avian telencephalon is nucleated, it is natural to ask whether the brains of these two cognitively capable taxa, despite their apparent anatomical dissimilarities, might exhibit common principles of organisation on some level. Complementing recent investigations of macro-scale brain connectivity in mammals, including humans and macaques, we here present the first large-scale wiring diagram for the forebrain of a bird. Using graph theory, we show that the pigeon telencephalon is organised along similar lines to that of a mammal. Both are modular, small-world networks with a connective core of hub nodes that includes prefrontal-like and hippocampal structures. These hub nodes are, topologically speaking, the most central regions of the pigeon's brain, as well as being the most richly connected, implying a crucial role in information flow. Overall, our analysis suggests that indeed, despite the absence of cortical layers and close to 300 million years of separate evolution, the connectivity of the avian brain conforms to the same organisational principles as the mammalian brain.

  11. An optimized polymerase chain reaction assay to identify avian virus vaccine contamination with Chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Haitham M; Elzahed, Hanan M; Elabiare, Elham A; Badawy, Ahmed A; Yousef, Ausama A

    2011-01-01

    The use of embryonating chicken eggs in preparation of avian virus vaccines is the principle cause for contamination with Chicken anemia virus (CAV). Identification of CAV in contaminated vaccines relies on the expensive, tedious, and time-consuming practice of virus isolation in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The experience of the last 2 decades indicates that polymerase chain reaction is extending to replace most of the classic methods for detection of infectious agents. In the present report, a simple, rapid, and accurate polymerase chain reaction method for detection of CAV in poultry vaccines is described. Oligonucleotide primers homologous to highly conserved sequences of the VP1 gene were used to amplify a fragment of 676 bp. The developed assay was specific for detecting CAV from different sources, with no cross reactivity with many avian viruses. No inter- and intra-assay variations were observed. The analytical sensitivity of the test was high enough to detect 5 TCID(50) (50% tissue culture infective dose) of the virus per reaction; however, different factors related to the vaccine matrix showed considerable effects on the detection limit. In conclusion, this method may represent a suitable alternative to virus isolation for identification of CAV contamination of poultry virus vaccines.

  12. Selective cell targeting and lineage tracing of human induced pluripotent stem cells using recombinant avian retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Laura; Seemann, Petra; Kurtz, Andreas; Hecht, Jochen; Contzen, Jörg; Gossen, Manfred; Stachelscheid, Harald

    2015-12-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) differentiate into multiple cell types. Selective cell targeting is often needed for analyzing gene function by overexpressing proteins in a distinct population of hiPSC-derived cell types and for monitoring cell fate in response to stimuli. However, to date, this has not been possible, as commonly used viruses enter the hiPSC via ubiquitously expressed receptors. Here, we report for the first time the application of a heterologous avian receptor, the tumor virus receptor A (TVA), to selectively transduce TVA(+) cells in a mixed cell population. Expression of the TVA surface receptor via genetic engineering renders cells susceptible for infection by avian leucosis virus (ALV). We generated hiPSC lines with this stably integrated, ectopic TVA receptor gene that expressed the receptor while retaining pluripotency. The undifferentiated hiPSC(TVA+) as well as their differentiating progeny could be infected by recombinant ALV (so-called RCAS virus) with high efficiency. Due to incomplete receptor blocking, even sequential infection of differentiating or undifferentiated TVA(+) cells was possible. In conclusion, the TVA/RCAS system provides an efficient and gentle gene transfer system for hiPSC and extends our possibilities for selective cell targeting and lineage tracing studies.

  13. Development and application of real-time PCR for detection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liting; Gao, Yulong; Ni, Wei; Sun, Meiyu; Wang, Yongqiang; Yin, Chunhong; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry. The early identification and removal of virus-shedding birds are important to reduce the spread of congenital and contact infections. In this study, a TaqMan-based real-time PCR method for the rapid detection and quantification of ALV-J with proviral DNA was developed. This method exhibited a high specificity for ALV-J. Moreover, the detection limit was as low as 10 viral DNA copies. The coefficients of variation (CVs) of both interassay and intra-assay reproducibility were less than 1%. The growth curves of ALV-J in DF-1 cells were measured by real-time PCR, yielding a trend line similar to those determined by 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) and p27 antigen detection. Tissue samples suspected of ALV infection were evaluated using real-time PCR, virus isolation, and routine PCR, and the positivity rates were 60.1%, 41.6% and 44.5%, respectively. Our data indicated that the real-time PCR method provides a sensitive, specific, and reproducible diagnostic tool for the identification and quantification of ALV-J for clinical diagnosis and in laboratory research.

  14. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference site avian study, January 1, 1998--December 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, P.; Curry, R.; Ryder, R.

    2000-04-05

    This report summarizes the results of surveys completed during the period January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1998, at the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Weld County, Colorado. The surveys were conducted at two reference sites, and include a pre-construction avian abundance and use survey and raptor nesting, prey, and carcass surveys. The reference sites were situated immediately to the west of the project site in Weld County, Colorado, and 4.8 kilometers to the north of the site in Laramie County, Wyoming. The surveys were conducted along two 800-meter (m) main transects at each site with two 400-m (by 100-m) perpendicular transects. About 30 complete surveys were completed during the year, with a greater frequency of surveys in the late spring and early autumn. The surveys revealed mostly common species, with no endangered or threatened species on the sites. Small numbers of raptors were observed on or near the project and reference areas. During the winter, avian use and abundance was minimal. Prey species consisted primarily of thirteen-lined ground squirrels and northern pocket gophers. Two songbird carcasses were found. The results of these surveys, combined with data from several more months of surveys, will be compared to surveys conducted after construction of the wind farm.

  15. Honest signaling and oxidative stress: the special case of avian acoustic communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eCasagrande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Much research on animal communication has addressed how costs or constraints determined by the oxidative status of an individual can assure the honesty of visual signals, such as sexually selected color ornaments. However, acoustic communication has been largely overlooked in this respect. Here, we describe the few available studies that have considered the role of oxidative status in mediating vocal behavior in adult and nestling birds. Further, we discuss the theoretical principles of how the honesty of avian acoustic signals may be maintained by an organism’s oxidative status. We here distinguish between studies that considered songs and begging calls as indicators of oxidative status and studies where vocalizations were assumed to be the source of oxidative costs. We outline experimental and methodological issues related to the study of bird vocalizations and oxidative stress and describe opportunities for future work in this field of research. Investigating the interactions between acoustic signals and redox state may help address some unresolved questions in avian vocalization, thereby increasing our understanding of the evolutionary pressures shaping animal communication. Finally, we argue that it will be important to extend this line of research beyond birds and include other taxa as well.

  16. Chicken interferon alpha pretreatment reduces virus replication of pandemic H1N1 and H5N9 avian influenza viruses in lung cell cultures from different avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hanchun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type I interferons, including interferon alpha (IFN-α, represent one of the first lines of innate immune defense against influenza virus infection. Following natural infection of chickens with avian influenza virus (AIV, transcription of IFN-α is quickly up regulated along with multiple other immune-related genes. Chicken IFN-α up regulates a number of important anti-viral response genes and has been demonstrated to be an important cytokine to establish anti-viral immunity. However, the mechanisms by which interferon inhibit virus replication in avian species remains unknown as does the biological activity of chicken interferon in other avian species. Methods In these studies, we assessed the protective potential of exogenous chicken IFN-α applied to chicken, duck, and turkey primary lung cell cultures prior to infection with the pandemic H1N1 virus (A/turkey/Virginia/SEP-4/2009 and an established avian H5N9 virus (A/turkey/Wisconsin/1968. Growth kinetics and induction of select immune response genes, including IFN-α and myxovirus-resistance gene I (Mx, as well as proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6, were measured in response to chicken IFN-α and viral infection over time. Results Results demonstrate that pretreatment with chicken IFN-α before AIV infection significantly reduced virus replication in both chicken-and turkey-origin lung cells and to a lesser degree the duck-origin cells. Virus growth was reduced by approximately 200-fold in chicken and turkey cells and 30-fold in duck cells after 48 hours of incubation. Interferon treatment also significantly decreased the interferon and proinflammatory response during viral infection. In general, infection with the H1N1 virus resulted in an attenuated interferon and proinflammatory response in these cell lines, compared to the H5N9 virus. Conclusions Taken together, these studies show that chicken IFN-α reduces virus replication, lower host innate immune

  17. Is lymphocytic (hashimoto) thyroiditis associated with suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, Stephen J; Perper, Joshua A

    2009-09-01

    The histologic diagnosis of lymphocytic (Hashimoto) thyroiditis requires lymphocytic inflammation of the thyroid gland in combination with Hourthle cell metaplasia of follicular epithelial cells. Clinically, this autoimmune process has been associated with hypothyroidism and psychiatric conditions including depression. This retrospective study was designed to quantify the incidence and severity of lymphocytic thyroiditis in a series of nonconsecutive suicides compared with a cohort of motor vehicle accident victim controls. Eighty-one suicide victims (61 male, 20 female; age range 13-79 years, average 43) were compared with 88 age and gender matched controls (64 males, 24 females; age range 19-85 years, average 36). The degree of lymphocytic inflammation of the thyroid gland was graded on a scale of 0 to 3 (0 = no inflammation, 1 = mild inflammation, 2-3 moderate-to-marked inflammation with Hourthle cell metaplasia). Slides from each case were reviewed while blinded to the cause and manner of death in each case. Of these 169 total cases, 8 (4.7%) received a score of 3, whereas additional 7 (4.1%) received a grade of 2. Eighty-six percent of all of the cases showed no significant inflammation and recorded a score of 0. Of the 81 suicides, 3 had a score of 3, and 3 had a score of 2 (combined incidence of 7.4%). Within the control group, 5 of 88 cases scored 3 and another 4 scored 2 (combined incidence = 10.2%). Three males and 5 females scored 3 with an age range of 23 to 63 years, average 42. Incidental data tabulated showed that 19% of suicide victims were on psychoactive medications compared with 6% in the motor vehicle accident control group. No one on this study was on thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Depression is strongly linked to suicide and lymphocytic thyroiditis may be a cause of depression. Based on this study, however, the presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis cannot be used as a histologic adjunct to discriminate between suicide and accident in

  18. 76 FR 67017 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Avian Radar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Avian Radar Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Avian Radar Systems... waivers to foreign manufacturers of airport avian radar systems that meet the requirements of FAA...

  19. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  20. Planning and executing a vaccination campaign against avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, S; Cristalli, A; Busani, L

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza infection caused by H5 or H7 virus subtypes has been used on several occasions in recent years to control and in some cases eradicate the disease. In order to contain avian influenza infection effectively, immunization should be combined with a coordinated set of control and monitoring measures. The outcome of an immunization campaign depends on the territorial strategy; whereas the capacity of the veterinary services in developed countries permits enforcement of strategies aimed at eradicating avian influenza, many countries currently affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have a limited veterinary infrastructure and a limited capacity to respond to such epidemics. In these countries, resources are still insufficient to conduct adequate surveillance for identification and reaction to avian influenza outbreaks when they occur. When properly applied in this scenario, immunization can reduce mortality and production losses. In the long term, immunization might also decrease the prevalence of infection to levels at which stamping-out and surveillance can be applied. Countries should adapt their immunization programmes to local conditions in order to guarantee their efficacy and sustainability. In the initial emergency phase, human resources can be mobilized, with reliance on personal responsibility and motivation, thus compensating for potential shortcomings in organization. A more appropriate allocation of resources must be pursued in the long term, remembering that biosecurity is the main component of an exit strategy and must always be improved.

  1. Avian influenza survey in migrating waterfowl in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J

    2011-02-01

    A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health.

  2. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  3. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Waite

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbour diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfil crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study.

  4. Research progress in avian dispersal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang LIU; Zhengwang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal, defined as a linear spreading move-ment of individuals away from others of the population is a fundamental characteristic of organisms in nature. Dispersal is a central concept in ecological, behavioral and evolutionary studies, driven by different forces such as avoidance of inbreeding depression, density-dependent competition and the need to change breeding locations. By effective dispersal, organisms can enlarge their geo-graphic range and adjust the dynamic, sex ratio and gen-etic compositions of a population. Birds are one of the groups that are studied intensively by human beings. Due to their diurnal habits, diverse life history strategies and complex movement, birds are also ideal models for the study of dispersal behaviors. Certain topics of avian dispersal including sex-biased, asymmetric dispersal caused by differences in body conditions, dispersal pro-cesses, habitat selection and long distance dispersal are discussed here. Bird-ringing or marking, radio-telemetry and genetic markers are useful tools widely applied in dispersal studies. There are three major challenges regard-ing theoretical study and methodology research of dis-persal: (1) improvement in research methodology is needed, (2) more in-depth theoretical research is neces-sary, and (3) application of theoretical research into the conservation efforts for threatened birds and the manage-ment of their habitats should be carried out immediately.

  5. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  6. Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Wentworth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture.

  7. What's missing from avian global diversification analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushma

    2014-08-01

    The accumulation of vast numbers of molecular phylogenetic studies has contributed to huge knowledge gains in the evolutionary history of birds. This permits subsequent analyses of avian diversity, such as how and why diversification varies across the globe and among taxonomic groups. However, available genetic data for these meta-analyses are unevenly distributed across different geographic regions and taxonomic groups. To comprehend the impact of this variation on the interpretation of global diversity patterns, I examined the availability of genetic data for possible biases in geographic and taxonomic sampling of birds. I identified three main disparities of sampling that are geographically associated with latitude (temperate, tropical), hemispheres (East, West), and range size. Tropical regions, which host the vast majority of species, are substantially less studied. Moreover, Eastern regions, such as the Old World Tropics and Australasia, stand out as being disproportionately undersampled, with up to half of communities not being represented in recent studies. In terms of taxonomic discrepancies, a majority of genetically undersampled clades are exclusively found in tropical regions. My analysis identifies several disparities in the key regions of interest of global diversity analyses. Differential sampling can have considerable impacts on these global comparisons and call into question recent interpretations of latitudinal or hemispheric differences of diversification rates. Moreover, this review pinpoints understudied regions whose biota are in critical need of modern systematic analyses.

  8. Avian influenza: mixed infections and missing viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, LeAnn L; Kelly, Terra R; Plancarte, Magdalena; Schobel, Seth; Lin, Xudong; Dugan, Vivien G; Wentworth, David E; Boyce, Walter M

    2013-08-05

    A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes) were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture.

  9. Molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of an avian leukosis virus isolated from avian neurofibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Akihiro; Ochiai, Kenji; Nakamura, Sayuri; Kobara, Akiko; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are rare in chickens and their etiology remains to be elucidated. In this study, a naturally occurring PNST in a Japanese native fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) was pathologically examined and the strain of avian leukosis virus (ALV) isolated from the neoplasm was characterized by molecular biological analysis. The fowl presented with a firm subcutaneous mass in the neck. The mass, connected to the adjacent spinal cord (C9-14), was microscopically composed of highly cellular tissue of spindle cells arranged in interlacing bundles, streams, and palisading patterns with Verocay bodies and less cellular tissue with abundant collagen. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were divided into two types: perineurial cells positive for vimentin, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and claudin1; and Schwann cells positive for vimentin, occasionally positive for S-100 alpha/beta but negative for GLUT1. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of neurofibrosarcoma was made. The complete nucleotide sequence of an ALV strain, CTS_5371, isolated from the neoplasm was determined and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain was a novel recombinant virus from avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses previously reported. Additionally, experimental infection revealed that CTS_5371 induced the proliferation of Schwann cells and perineurial cells. These results suggest that this ALV strain has the ability to induce PNSTs in chickens.

  10. Evidence of widespread infection of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) in chickens from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Bibiana; Biarnés, Mar; Ordóñez, Germán; Porta, Ramón; Martín, Marga; Mateu, Enric; Pina, Sonia; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2009-05-28

    In the present work, 262 serum samples and 29 faeces pools from chickens coming from 29 healthy flocks were analysed by RT-PCR for detection of avian HEV and by ELISA using an aHEV derived antigen for detection of anti-HEV IgG. Additionally, other 300 randomly selected serum samples were also analysed by RT-PCR. Seven serum samples were positive to RNA detection. Sequence analysis of both the helicase and the capsid genes revealed that the Spanish isolates were clustered together and close related to those strains from the United States isolated from farms with HSS. On the serology study, 26/29 flocks had at least one positive animal (89.7%) and chickens older than 40 weeks were found to have higher seropositivities compared to the rest of age groups. Within positive farms, the proportion of positive animals ranged from 20% to 80%. This is the first report of aHEV sequences in chickens from Europe. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical significance of avian HEV infections in Europe.

  11. The avian and mammalian host range of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Webby, Richard J

    2013-12-05

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species. Despite intensive control measures the number of human and animal cases continues to increase. A more complete understanding of susceptible species and of contributing environmental and molecular factors is crucial if we are to slow the rate of new cases. H5N1 is currently endemic in domestic poultry in only a handful of countries with sporadic and unpredictable spread to other countries. Close contact of terrestrial bird or mammalian species with infected poultry/waterfowl or their biological products is the major route for interspecies transmission. Intra-species transmission of H5N1 in mammals, including humans, has taken place on a limited scale though it remains to be seen if this will change; recent laboratory studies suggest that it is indeed possible. Here we review the avian and mammalian species that are naturally susceptible to H5N1 infection and the molecular factors associated with its expanded host range.

  12. Cloning of aminopeptidase Npromoter and its activity in hematopoietic cell and different tumor cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) promoter region was cloned and sequenced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The recombinant reporter construct containing the promoter and luciferase gene, designated pXP1-APNLuc, was introduced into myeloblastic cell line, T lymphocyte cell line and various tumor cell lines. Luciferase assay showed that APN upstream promoter is myeloid-specific for high expression in myeloblastic cell line and much lower expres sion in T lymphocyte cell line. The promoter activity was relatively high in lung adenoma cell line compared with other tumor cell lines including hepatoma cell line, tong cancer cell line and esophageal cancer cell line in which the promoter activity significantly diminished or was almost undetectable. The characteristics of APN promoter may pro vide a new strategy for specific myeloprotection while tumor patients are being treated with chemotherapy and/or radio therapy.

  13. Identification of B-cell epitopes in the capsid protein of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) that are common to human and swine HEVs or unique to avian HEV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhou, E-M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X-J; Halbur, P G

    2006-01-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) was recently discovered in chickens from the USA that had hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome. The complete genomic sequence of avian HEV shares about 50 % nucleotide sequence identity with those of human and swine HEVs. The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) protein of avian HEV has been shown to cross-react with human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, but the B-cell epitopes in the avian HEV ORF2 protein have not been identified. Nine synthetic peptides from the predicted four antigenic domains of the avian HEV ORF2 protein were synthesized and corresponding rabbit anti-peptide antisera were generated. Using recombinant ORF2 proteins, convalescent pig and chicken antisera, peptides and anti-peptide rabbit sera, at least one epitope at the C terminus of domain II (possibly between aa 477-492) that is unique to avian HEV, one epitope in domain I (aa 389-410) that is common to avian, human and swine HEVs, and one or more epitopes in domain IV (aa 583-600) that are shared between avian and human HEVs were identified. Despite the sequence difference in ORF2 proteins between avian and mammalian HEVs and similar ORF2 sequence between human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, rabbit antiserum against peptide 6 (aa 389-399) recognized only human HEV ORF2 protein, suggesting complexity of the ORF2 antigenicity. The identification of these B-cell epitopes in avian HEV ORF2 protein may be useful for vaccine design and may lead to future development of immunoassays for differential diagnosis of avian, swine and human HEV infections.

  14. Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

  15. Bioluminescent assay for human lymphocyte blast transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, E G; Budagyan, V M; Romanova, N A; Brovko LYu; Ugarova, N N

    1995-05-01

    One of the basic tests of in vitro evaluation of immune cell functional activity is a proliferative response of lymphocytes on the action of external stimuli such as mitogenic lectines, antigens, etc. We compared two methods used to assess the lymphocyte functional status. (1) [3H]thymidine incorporation and (2) bioluminescence for determination of intracellular ATP in blast cells. Comparison has been done for healthy donors and patients with proven low immunological status. The proposed bioluminescent method for evaluation of the proliferative response was shown to be sensitive enough for diagnostic purposes. This method allows one to process a large number of samples at the same time and correlates highly with the radionuclide test use hazardous radioactive materials.

  16. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth;

    2016-01-01

    , and for decision on treatment initiation as well as characteristics included in the CLL International Prognostic Index are collected. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: To ensure full coverage of Danish CLL patients in the registry, both continuous queries in case of missing data, and cross-referencing with the Danish National......, 3,082 patients have been registered. CONCLUSION: The Danish National CLL Registry is based within the Danish National Hematology Database. The registry covers a cohort of all patients diagnosed with CLL in Denmark since 2008. It forms the basis for quality assessment of CLL treatment in Denmark......AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  17. Obinutuzumab for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jame; Stegner, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Obinutuzumab was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in late 2013 for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The approval was based on results of an open-label phase 3 trial that showed improved progression-free survival (PFS) with the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil compared with chlorambucil alone. Obinutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of pre B- and mature B-lymphocytes. After binding to CD20, obinutuzumab mediates B-cell lysis by engaging immune effector cells, directly activating intracellular death signaling pathways, and activating the complement cascade. Immune effector cell activities include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.

  18. Cell Death Mechanisms Induced by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ch(a)vez-Gal(a)n L; Arenas-Del Angel MC; Zenteno E; Ch(a)vez R; Lascurain R

    2009-01-01

    One of the functions of the immune system is to recognize and destroy abnormal or infected cells to maintain homeostasis. This is accomplished by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity is a highly organized multifactor process. Here, we reviewed the apoptosis pathways induced by the two main cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+T cells. In base to recent experimental evidence, we reviewed NK receptors involved in recognition of target-cell, as well as lytic molecules such as perforin, granzymes-A and -B, and granulysin. In addition, we reviewed the Fas-FasL intercellular linkage mediated pathway, and briefly the cross-linking of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor pathway. We discussed three models of possible molecular interaction between lyric molecules from effector cytotoxic cells and target-cell membrane to induction of apoptosis.

  19. Mean dose to lymphocytes during radiotherapy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandan, M.E.; Perez-Pastenes, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica (Mexico); Ostrosky-Wegman, P.; Gonsebatt, M.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas (Mexico); Diaz-Perches, R. [Hospital General de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-10-01

    Using a probabilistic model with parameters from four radiotherapy protocols used in Mexican hospitals for the treatment of cervical cancer, the authors have calculated the distribution of dose to cells in peripheral blood of patients. Values of the mean dose to the lymphocytes during and after a {sup 60}Co treatment are compared to estimates from an in vivo chromosome aberration study performed on five patients. Calculations indicate that the mean dose to the circulating blood is about 2% of the tumor dose, while the mean dose to recirculating lymphocytes may reach up to 7% of the tumor dose. Differences up to a factor of two in the dose to the blood are predicted for different protocols delivering equal tumor doses. The data suggest mean doses higher than the predictions of the model. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Metabolism pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovski, Uri; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Barzilai, Merav; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell metabolism have been studied by several investigators. Unlike normal B lymphocytes or other leukemia cells, CLL cells, like adipocytes, store lipids and utilize free fatty acids (FFA) to produce chemical energy. None of the recently identified mutations in CLL directly affects metabolic pathways, suggesting that genetic alterations do not directly contribute to CLL cells' metabolic reprogramming. Conversely, recent data suggest that activation of STAT3 or downregulation of microRNA-125 levels plays a crucial role in the utilization of FFA to meet the CLL cells' metabolic needs. STAT3, known to be constitutively activated in CLL, increases the levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) that mediates lipoprotein uptake and shifts the CLL cells' metabolism towards utilization of FFA. Herein, we review the evidence for altered lipid metabolism, increased mitochondrial activity and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CLL cells, and discuss the possible therapeutic strategies to inhibit lipid metabolism pathways in patient with CLL.

  1. A duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection and quantitation of avian leukosis virus subgroups A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Cai, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaolei; Niu, Chengming; Gao, Caixia; Si, Changde; Zhang, Wei; Qu, Liandong; Han, Lingxia

    2011-05-01

    Avian leukosis is a disease that is spreading widely in the world causing large economic losses to the poultry industry. In this study, a duplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to detect and quantify avian leukosis virus subgroups A and B (ALVA/B). The assay was optimised to measure viral gp85 and chicken housekeeping (β-actin) genes. The result showed that the assay was specific for reference strains of ALVA/B subtype and no cross-reaction was detected with ALV subtypes E and J or with four other non-ALV viruses. The assay detected as few as 56 gp85 cDNA copies and was 100-fold more sensitive than a conventional RT-PCR. Seventy clinical blood samples were evaluated by both the qRT-PCR and the conventional RT-PCR assay, and the results show that 65 samples were positive by the qRT-PCR compared with 43 by the conventional RT-PCR. When this assay was used to quantify the viral load in ALV-inoculated embryos from three congenic chicken lines, the embryos from the B21 line showed the highest viral load, whereas the lowest load was found in the B5 line. This assay provides a powerful tool for quantitative detection of the ALVA/B and for the study of host genetic resistance to avian leukosis.

  2. GABA, a natural immunomodulator of T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurstöm, Helen; Wang, Junyang; Ericsson, Ida

    2008-01-01

    gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neuroinhibitory transmitter in the brain. Here we show that GABA in the extracellular space may affect the fate of pathogenic T lymphocytes entering the brain. We examined in encephalitogenic T cells if they expressed functional GABA channels that could......M and higher GABA concentrations decreased T cell proliferation. The results are consistent with GABA being immunomodulatory....

  3. B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Haeri, Sina; Baker, Arthur M; Boles, Jeremiah; Brown, Mark

    2011-08-01

    Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a rare occurrence in pregnancy and can be rapidly fatal if left untreated. The need for immediate treatment of ALL, coupled with the maternal-fetal risks from the chemotherapy regimen render a therapeutic dilemma in pregnant women with ALL. We report a case of ALL diagnosed in the 24th week of pregnancy to outline our management strategy, to demonstrate the feasibility of treatment with multi-agent chemotherapy, and to provide a review of the literature.

  4. Effect of copper excess on peripheral blood T-lymphocytes in the chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Hengnmin; Peng Xi; Deng Junliang; Xu Zhiyong; Zhu Kuicheng

    2008-01-01

    Experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of copper excess on the peripheral blood Tlymphocyte by the methods of flow cytometry (FCM) and experimental pathology.420 one-day-old Avian chickens were randomly divided into seven groups, and fed on diets as follows: 1 .controls (Cu 11mg/kg)and 2.copper excess( Cu 100mg/kg, copper excess group Ⅰ; Cu 200mg/kg, copper excess group Ⅱ; Cu 300mg/kg, copper excess group Ⅲ; Cu 400mg/kg, copper excess group Ⅳ; Cu 500mg/kg, copper excess group V;Cu 600mg/kg,copper excess group Ⅵ) for six weeks.The results were as follows: 1) In thymus, lymphocytes in the medulla were decreased in number in copper excess groups Ⅲ, Ⅳ,Ⅴ and Ⅵ,and the increased and enlarged thymic corpuscles and the proliferated reticular cells were also observed in both copper excess group Ⅴ and copper excess group Ⅵ in comparison with those of control group.2) The percentage of CD4 + T cells was markedly decreased from 2 to 6 weeks of age in copper excess groups Ⅳ,Ⅴ and Ⅵ (P<0.05 or P<0.01).3) The percentage of CD8+ T cell was not varied in six copper excess groups during the experiment when compared with that of control group ( P>0.05).4) The CD4+ /CDs + ratio was lower from 2 to 6 weeks of age in copper excess groups Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ than in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).5) It was concluded that dietary copper in excess of 300rag / kg suppressed the development of T-lymphocytes and reduced the percentage of CD4+ T ceils and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and resulted in pathological injury of the thymus.Cellular immune function was finally impaired.

  5. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Erich J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common toxicity associated with immunotherapy for melanoma. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs against melanoma commonly target melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs which are also expressed by melanocytes. To uncouple vitiligo from melanoma destruction, it is important to understand if CTLs can respond against melanoma and melanocytes at different levels. Methods To understand the dichotomous role of MAA-specific CTL, we characterized the functional reactivities of established CTL clones directed to MAAs against melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. Results CTL clones generated from melanoma patients were capable of eliciting MHC-restricted, MAA-specific lysis against melanocyte cell lines as well as melanoma cells. Among the tested HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL clones, melanocytes evoked equal to slightly higher degranulation and cytolytic responses as compared to melanoma cells. Moreover, MAA-specific T cells from vaccinated patients responded directly ex vivo to melanoma and melanocytes. Melanoma cells express slightly higher levels of MART-1 and gp100 than melanocytes as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our data suggest that CTLs respond to melanoma and melanocytes equally in vitro and directly ex vivo.

  6. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a clinical review including Korean cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Only 5th decade ago, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was only recognized as disease group of presenting features like peripheral lymphocytosis, organomegaly including of splenomegaly. As understanding of disease biology and molecular diagnostic tools are getting improved gradually, characterization of variation in CLL’s clinical courses was facilitated, resulting in better risk stratification and targeted treatments. Consequently multiple new targeted agents have been used in treatment of CLL, it makes improved clinical outcome. Rituximab containing chemoimmunotherapy (combination of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide) have shown better overall response rate and progression-free survival on fit patients’ group in front-line setting, result in standard first-line therapeutic option for CLL. Furthermore, after introducing that the B-cell receptor is crucial for the evolution and progression of CLL, emerging treatments targeting highly activated surface antigens and oncogenic signaling pathways have been associated with several successes in recent decades. These include new anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (obinutuzumab), the bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (idelalisib), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 inhibitor (ABT-199 and ABT-263). So, we discuss not only general pathophysiology of CLL, but also rapidly advancing treatment strategies that are being studied or approved for treatment of CLL. PMID:27044858

  7. REGULATORY T-CELLS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni D'arena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    line-height: 200%;" class="MsoNormal">line-height: 200%; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; font-size: 12pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;">Regulatory T-cells (Tregs constitute a small subset of cells that are actively involved in maintaining self-tolerance, in immune homeostasis and in antitumor immunity. They are thought to play a significant role in the progression of cancer and are generally increased in patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. Their number correlates with more aggressive disease status and is predictive of the time to treatment, as well. Moreover, it is now clear that dysregulation in Tregs cell frequency and/or function may result in a plethora of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosis, autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. Efforts are made aiming to develop approaches to deplete Tregs or inhibit their function in either cancer and autoimmune disorders.

  8. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-04-01

    A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind with semiquantitative assessment of the following six parameters: (a) height of the follicular epithelium, (b) the amount of lymphocytes, (c) the presence of plasma cells, (d) hyperplastic follicular changes, (e) oxyphilic changes, and (f) fibrosis. The most striking result was the finding of extensive lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma in five of the 124 cases, of which four belonged in the group of 'unknown cause of death'. This discovery leads to reflections regarding lymphocytic thyroiditis as a cause of death, either by itself or in combination with other disorders. Silent (painless) thyroiditis, especially, is easily overlooked at autopsy as there are no macroscopic changes and often no prior symptoms or history of thyroid disease pointing towards this condition. Analyses of thyroid hormones are unreliable in predicting endocrine status in life. Routine microscopy of the thyroid gland is therefore advocated in cases of sudden unexpected death in order to diagnose thyroid disease, in particular silent (painless) thyroiditis.

  9. Normal lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Macedo Queiroz Mota Castellão Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population.METHODS: This study enrolled 35 over 60-year-old volunteers and a control group composed of 35 young adults. The study included elderly without diseases that might affect the functioning of the immune system. These individuals were consulted by doctors and after a physical examination, laboratory tests were performed using a Beckman Coulter (r flow cytometer. The GraphPad Prism computer program was employed for statistical analysis with the level of significance being set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: There is a statistically significant reduction in the number of lymphocytes (CD8 +, CD2 + and CD3 + cells in the elderly compared to young adults. These low rates are explained by changes attributed to aging and may be partly responsible for the reduction in the cellular immune response, lower proliferative activity and the low cytotoxicity of lymphocytes.CONCLUSION: These parameters showed greater impairment of adaptive immunity in the elderly population and can therefore explain the greater fragility of the aged body to developing diseases.

  10. [Circadian rhythm of human lymphocyte subpopulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, P; Colantonio, D; Casale, R; Colangeli, S; Natali, G

    1988-01-01

    Circadian rhythm of lymphocyte subsets was investigated in four healthy subjects, males, aged 35-58 years old. After a period of ambiental synchronization, venous blood samples were taken during a span of a day at 0.00 a.m., 4.00 a.m., 8.00 a.m., noon, 4.00 p.m. and 8.00 p.m. Lymphocyte subsets (OKT3, OKT4, OKT8, OKB7, OKJa1) were determined by monoclonal antibodies method, and serum level of cortisol by radioimmunoassay method. The OKT4/OKT8 ratio was also calculated. Data were analyzed by chronograms (mean +/- 1SD) and by cosinor method. Results show a significant circadian rhythm for each lymphocyte subset and for serum cortisol levels. The lowest levels of all circulating subsets were seen between noon and 4.00 p.m. and the highest levels around midnight, inversely related with the circadian rhythm of serum cortisol. The OKT4/OKT8 ratio, on the contrary, was relatively constant during the day, without a significant circadian rhythm. These observations have laboratoristic, clinical, and therapeutic implications and should be considered in the course of immunological studies.

  11. Lymphocytic hypophysitis masquerading as pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pituitary hypophysitis (PH is characterized by pituitary infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells that could lead to loss of pituitary function. Hypophysitis may be autoimmune or secondary to systemic diseases or infections. Based on the histopathological findings PH is classified into lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous, mixed forms (lymphogranulomatous, xanthogranulomatous, necrotizing and Immunoglobulin- G4 (IgG4 plasmacytic types. Objective: To report a case of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH. Case Report: A 15-year-old girl presented with history of headache, amenorrhea, and history of polyuria for past 4 months. Initial evaluation had suppressed follicular stimulating hormone (<0.01 mIU/ml, high prolactin levels (110.85 ng/ml and diabetes insipidus (DI. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella was suggestive of pituitary macroadenoma with partial compression over optic chiasma. Patient underwent surgical decompression. Yellowish firm tissue was evacuated and xanthochromic fluid was aspirated. Histopathology was suggestive of LH. She resumed her cycles postoperatively after 4 months, prolactin levels normalized, however, she continues to have DI and is on desmopressin spray. This case has been presented here for its rare presentation in an adolescent girl because it is mostly seen in young females and postpartum period and its unique presentation as an expanding pituitary mass with optic chiasma compression. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of LH is based on histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic approach should be based on the grade of suspicion and clinical manifestations of LH.

  12. Avians as a model system of vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Michael; Mikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, philosophers and scientists have turned to the avian embryo with questions of how life begins (Aristotle and Peck Generations of Animals. Loeb Classics, vol. XIII. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1943; Needham, A history of embryology. Abelard-Schuman, New York, 1959). Then, as now, the unique accessibility of the embryo both in terms of acquisition of eggs from domesticated fowl and ease at which the embryo can be visualized by simply opening the shell has made avians an appealing and powerful model system for the study of development. Thus, as the field of embryology has evolved through observational, comparative, and experimental embryology into its current iteration as the cellular and molecular biology of development, avians have remained a useful and practical system of study.

  13. Avian influenza surveillance in backyard poultry of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, C; Espinosa, C; Terrera, M V; De Benedetti, R

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an exotic disease in Argentina. A surveillance program for AI was conducted in backyard poultry during 1998-2005 in two regions: 1) region A, which included the avian population in the provinces that border Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, and 2) region B, which included the rest of the provinces of the country. More than 8000 serum samples were tested for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or agar gel immunodiffusion tests, and more than 18,000 tracheal and cloacal swabs were tested for virus by isolation in embryonated specific-pathogen-free eggs. This study was part of the AI prevention program in Argentina, which includes other avian populations such as commercial poultry and all the controls for importation and exportation of live birds. The results from backyard poultry were negative for AI.

  14. Protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Kathleen L; Delaney, Lisa J; Kullman, Greg; Gibbins, John D; Decker, John; Kiefer, Max J

    2008-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases are of increasing regional and global importance. Preventing occupational exposure to zoonotic diseases protects workers as well as their families, communities, and the public health. Workers can be protected from zoonotic diseases most effectively by preventing and controlling diseases in animals, reducing workplace exposures, and educating workers. Certain avian influenza viruses are potential zoonotic disease agents that may be transmitted from infected birds to humans. Poultry workers are at risk of becoming infected with these viruses if they are exposed to infected birds or virus-contaminated materials or environments. Critical components of worker protection include educating employers and training poultry workers about occupational exposure to avian influenza viruses. Other recommendations for protecting poultry workers include the use of good hygiene and work practices, personal protective clothing and equipment, vaccination for seasonal influenza viruses, antiviral medication, and medical surveillance. Current recommendations for protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses are summarized in this article.

  15. Transfer of cholesterol from macrophages to lymphocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bittencourt Júnior, P I; Curi, R

    1998-02-01

    A major feature of macrophage metabolism is its capacity to produce and export cholesterol. Several reports have shown that the manipulation of lymphocyte cholesterol content elicits important changes in lymphocyte proliferation. These findings lead to an inquiry as to whether macrophage-derived cholesterol released into the lymphocyte surroundings may be transferred to the latter thus affecting lymphocyte function. In this study, cholesterol transfer from macrophages to lymphocytes was examined in vitro using rat cells in culture. The findings indicate that there may be a significant transfer of cholesterol from [4-14C]cholesterol labeled resident peritoneal macrophages to mesenteric lymph node resting lymphocytes (up to 173.9 +/- 2.7 pmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages when co-cultivated for 48 h), in a lipoprotein-dependent manner. This represents the mass transfer of ca. 17 nmoles of cholesterol molecules per 10(7) lymphocytes from 10(7) macrophages (calculated on the basis of specific radioactivity incorporated into macrophages after the pre-labelling period), which suggests that macrophages are capable of replacing the whole lymphocyte cholesterol pool every 21 h. Moreover, an 111%-increase in the total cholesterol content of lymphocytes was found after co-cultivation with macrophages for 48 h. When compared to peritoneal cells, monocytes/macrophages obtained from circulating blood leukocytes presented a much higher cholesterol transfer capacity to lymphocytes (3.06 +/- 0.10 nmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages co-cultivated for 24 h). Interestingly, inflammatory macrophages dramatically reduced their cholesterol transfer ability (by up to 91%, as compared to resident macrophages). Cholesterol transfer may involve a humoral influence, since it is not only observed when cells are co-cultivated in a single-well chamber system (cells in direct contact), but also in a two-compartment system (where cells can communicate but not by direct contact). Co

  16. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail.

  17. Alteration of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslawa Pietruczuk; Milena I Dabrowska; Urszula Wereszczynska-Siemiatkowska; Andrzej Dabrowski

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Twenty patients with mild AP (M-AP) and 15 with severe AP (S-AP) were included in our study. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined at d 1-3, 5,10 and 30 by means of flow cytometry.RESULTS: A significant depletion of circulating lymphocytes was found in AP. In the early AP, the magnitude of depletion was similar for T- and B- lymphocytes. In the late course of S-AP, B-lymphocytes were much more depleted than T-lymphocytes. At d 10, strong shift in the CD7+/CD19+ ratio implicating predominance of Tover B-lymphocytes in S-AP was found. Among T-lymphocytes, the significant depletion of the CD4+ population was observed in M-AP and S-AP, while CD8+ cells were in the normal range. Lymphocytes were found to strongly express activation markers: CD69, CD25, CD28,CD38 and CD122. Serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5,IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in both forms of AP. The magnitude of elevation of cytokines known to be produced by Th2 was much higher than cytokines produced by Th1 cells.CONCLUSION: AP in humans is characterized by significant reduction of peripheral blood T- and B-lymphocytes.

  18. Absence of avian pox in wild turkeys in central Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, C E; Stacey, L M; Hurst, G A

    1991-07-01

    Eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) (n = 1,023), obtained during winter, spring, and summer from 1983 to 1988 on Tallahala Wildlife Management Area (TWMA) (Jasper County, Mississippi, USA) were examined for avian pox lesions. Domestic turkey poults (n = 152) maintained on the area for 1 to 2 wk periods from 1987 to 1989 also were examined. Neither wild nor domestic birds showed gross evidence of pox virus infection. This study indicated that avian pox was not endemic in wild turkeys at TWMA.

  19. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  20. Comparative genomic data of the Avian Phylogenomics Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Bo; Li, Cai;

    2014-01-01

    , which include 38 newly sequenced avian genomes plus previously released or simultaneously released genomes of Chicken, Zebra finch, Turkey, Pigeon, Peregrine falcon, Duck, Budgerigar, Adelie penguin, Emperor penguin and the Medium Ground Finch. We hope that this resource will serve future efforts...... in an average N50 scaffold size of about 50 kb. Repetitive elements comprised 4%-22% of the bird genomes. The assembled scaffolds allowed the homology-based annotation of 13,000 ~ 17000 protein coding genes in each avian genome relative to chicken, zebra finch and human, as well as comparative and sequence...

  1. Teaching avian patients and caregivers in the examination room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ellen K

    2012-09-01

    Client education and patient well-being should be primary goals and responsibilities for practicing avian veterinarians. Time is limited in the normal clinical appointment setting. However, this opportunity can still be used to introduce clients to the basics of training with positive reinforcement. These methods build a healthy relationship of trust between caregivers and their birds. Within the allotted appointment time, it is possible to teach clients how to train a simple behavior. This article outlines and demonstrates how training avian patients is successfully applied in a typical clinical practice.

  2. Sensitivity and entanglement in the avian chemical compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P.; Kais, Sabre

    2014-10-01

    The radical pair mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, using a two-stage model, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  3. Sensitivity and Entanglement in the Avian Chemical Compass

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

    2014-01-01

    The Radical Pair Mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, based on a two-stage strategy, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle-dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  4. The challenges of avian influenza virus: mechanism, epidemiology and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George F. GAO; Pang-Chui SHAW

    2009-01-01

    @@ Early 2009, eight human infection cases of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, with 5 death cases, were reported in China. This again made the world alert on a possible pandemic worldwide, probably caused by avian-origin influenza virus. Again H5N1 is in the spotlight of the world, not only for the scientists but also for the ordinary people. How much do we know about this virus? Where will this virus go and where did it come? Can we avoid a possible pandemic of influenza? Will the human beings conquer this devastating agent? Obviously we can list more questions than we know the answers.

  5. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  6. Microbes of the avian cecum: types present and substrates utilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the types and properties of microorganisms found in avian ceca, with special reference to the chicken. Microbial activity in the cecum is primarily fermentative, but there has been little evidence of cellulose fermentation, and the predominant bacterial types are relatively inactive against other high-molecular-weight compounds of dietary origin. In all avian species examined, the consistent presence of large populations of uric acid-degrading bacteria supports the view that microbial populations in the ceca permit reabsorption of water and possibly nonprotein nitrogen from the backflow of urine. These capabilities may be of particular importance to wild birds under conditions of water and food deprivation.

  7. Heparan sulfate is a selective attachment factor for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus Beaudette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Ikenna G; Chu, Victor C; Lee, Hwajin; Regan, Andrew D; Bauman, Beverley E; Whittaker, Gary R

    2007-03-01

    The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain Beaudette is an embryo-adapted virus that has extended species tropism in cell culture. In order to understand the acquired tropism of the Beaudette strain, we compared the S protein sequences of several IBV strains. The Beaudette strain was found to contain a putative heparan sulfate (HS)-binding site, indicating that the Beaudette virus may use HS as a selective receptor. To ascertain the requirements of cell-surface HS for Beaudette infectivity, we assayed for infectivity in the presence of soluble heparin as a competitor and determined infectivity in mutant cell lines with no HS or glycosaminoglycan expression. Our results indicate that HS plays a role as an attachment factor for IBV, working in concert with other factors like sialic acid to mediate virus binding to cells, and may explain in part the extended tropism of IBV Beaudette.

  8. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) recovered from a clinically healthy chicken in the United States and characterization of its pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyuk Moo; LeRoith, Tanya; Pudupakam, R. S.; Pierson, F. William; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A genetically distinct strain of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV-VA strain) was isolated from a healthy chicken in Virginia, and thus it is important to characterize and compare its pathogenicity with the prototype strain (avian HEV-prototype) isolated from a diseased chicken. Here we first constructed an infectious clone of the avian HEV-VA strain. Capped RNA transcripts from the avian HEV-VA clone were replication-competent after transfection of LMH chicken liver cells. Chickens inoculat...

  9. Idelalisib for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jacqueline C

    2016-09-01

    Idelalisib is a first-in-class selective oral PI3Kδ inhibitor for the treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma, a predominantly elderly population with high comorbidity. The drug promotes apoptosis in primary CLL cells ex vivo, independent of common prognostic markers and inhibits CLL cell homing, migration and adhesion to cells in the microenvironment. Idelalisib has shown efficacy with acceptable safety as monotherapy and combination therapy in relapsed/refractory CLL. Idelalisib has clinical activity in patients with CLL with del(17p). The development of other novel B-cell-targeted agents provides the opportunity to evaluate additional idelalisib treatment combinations for their potential to further improve outcomes in CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

  10. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  11. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  12. Tissue distribution, gender- and genotype-dependent expression of autophagy-related genes in avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Piekarski

    Full Text Available As a result of the genetic selection of broiler (meat-type breeders chickens for enhanced growth rate and lower feed conversion ratio, it has become necessary to restrict feed intake. When broilers are fed ad libitum, they would become obese and suffer from several health-related problems. A vital adaptation to starvation is autophagy, a self-eating mechanism for recycling cellular constituents. The autophagy pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and extensively studied in yeast and mammals however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian species. Here we characterized several genes involved in autophagosome initiation and elongation in Red Jungle fowl (Gallus gallus and Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix Japonica. Both complexes are ubiquitously expressed in chicken and quail tissues (liver, leg and breast muscle, brain, gizzard, intestine, heart, lung, kidney, adipose tissue, ovary and testis. Alignment analysis showed high similarity (50.7 to 91.5% between chicken autophagy-related genes and their mammalian orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the evolutionary relationship between autophagy genes is consistent with the consensus view of vertebrate evolution. Interestingly, the expression of autophagy-related genes is tissue- and gender-dependent. Furthermore, using two experimental male quail lines divergently selected over 40 generations for low (resistant, R or high (sensitive, S stress response, we found that the expression of most studied genes are higher in R compared to S line. Together our results indicate that the autophagy pathway is a key molecular signature exhibited gender specific differences and likely plays an important role in response to stress in avian species.

  13. Heterogeneity and Seroprevalence of a Newly Identified Avian Hepatitis E Virus from Chickens in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, F. F.; Haqshenas, G.; Shivaprasad, H L; Guenette, D. K.; Woolcock, P. R.; Larsen, C. T.; Pierson, F.W.; F Elvinger; Toth, T. E.; Meng, X. J.

    2002-01-01

    We recently identified and characterized a novel virus, designated avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HS syndrome) in the United States. Avian HEV is genetically related to but distinct from human and swine HEVs. To determine the extent of genetic variation and the seroprevalence of avian HEV infection in chicken flocks, we genetically identified and characterized 11 additional avian HEV isolates from chickens with HS syndrome and assessed...

  14. Entomological study on transmission of avian malaria parasites in a zoological garden in Japan: bloodmeal identification and detection of avian malaria parasite DNA from blood-fed mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Kim, Kyeong-Soon; Hara, Tatsuko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Imura, Takayuki; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2011-05-01

    Several species of captive and wild birds have been found to be infected with various avian blood protozoa in Japan. We investigated the prevalence and transmission of avian malaria parasite and determined the bloodmeal hosts of mosquitoes collected in a zoological garden in Tokyo, Japan, by using the polymerase chain reaction. In total, 310 unfed and 140 blood-fed mosquitoes of seven species were collected by using sweep nets and CDC traps. Bloodmeal identification indicated that mosquitoes had fed on 17 avian and five mammalian species, including captive animals. The results of avian malaria parasite detection from mosquitoes with avian bloodmeals indicated that Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet is a main vector of avian Plasmodium in the current study site and that some captive and wild birds could be infected with avian malaria parasites. Furthermore, the distances between the collection site of blood-fed mosquitoes and the locations of their blood-source captive animals were estimated. Most females with fresh bloodmeals were found within 40 m of caged animals, whereas half-gravid and gravid females were found between 10 and 350 m from caged host animals. We demonstrated that blood-fed mosquitoes can provide useful information regarding the mosquito vector species of avian malaria parasites and allows for noninvasive detection of the presence of avian malaria parasites in bird populations.

  15. Suppressive effects of antigens on the activity of specific activated lymphocytes: A test to define the specificity of activated lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; PAN Sheng-jun; CAI Zhen-jie; GUAN De-lin; LIU Xiao-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective:With the regular mixed lymphocytes culture (MLC) to detect the allograft rejection, the reactivity of the activated lymphocytes (primed lymphocytes) of a recipient shows sometimes increase and sometimes decrease against the antigens from the donor, which is inconsistent with the clinical results. In order to establish a convenient method for testing the specificity of the activated lymphocytes in vitro, so as to know the rejection occurred or not by testing the existence of the specific activated lymphocytes against donor's HLA antigens in the recipient's peripheral blood. Methods: Anti-IL-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (anti-IL-2 N-mAb) and immunosuppressors were introduced in this test system in the presence of specific stimulators and activated lymphocytes. Results: When the activated lymphocytes were chosen from the one-way MLC 4 d to undergo re-stimulation by specific stimulators, the activity of activated lymphocytes in the treatment group was suppressed significantly compared with that in the control group. The result of this test method is consistent with the biopsy in the clinical diagnosis of rejection.Conclusion :It suggests that the activated lymphocytes can be inactivated by specific antigens in certain conditions. This can be a useful tool to define the specificity of the activated lymphocytes.

  16. Role of yessotoxin in calcium and cAMP-crosstalks in primary and K-562 human lymphocytes: the effect is mediated by anchor kinase A mitochondrial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobío, Araceli; Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M

    2012-12-01

    Yessotoxin (YTX) is a marine polyether toxin previously described as a phosphodiesterase (PDE) activator in fresh human lymphocytes. This toxin induces a decrease of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels in fresh human lymphocytes in a medium with calcium (Ca(2+) ), whereas the contrary effect has been observed in a Ca(2+) -free medium. In the present article, the effect of YTX in K-562 lymphocytes cell line has been analysed. Surprisingly, results obtained in K-562 cell line are completely opposite than in fresh human lymphocytes, since in K-562 cells YTX induces an increase of cAMP levels. YTX cytotoxicity was also studied in both K-562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes. Results demonstrate that YTX does not modify fresh human lymphocytes viability, whereas in K-562 cells, YTX has a highly cytotoxic effect. It has been described in a previous study that YTX induces a small cytosolic Ca(2+) increase in fresh human lymphocytes but no effect was observed on Ca(2+) pools depletion in these cells. However, our results show that, in K-562 cells, YTX has no effect on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in a medium with Ca(2+) and induces an increase on Ca(2+) pools depletion followed by a Ca(2+) influx. As far as Ca(2+) modulation is concerned these results demonstrate that YTX has a clear opposite effect in tumoural and fresh human lymphocytes. In addition, intracellular Ca(2+) reservoirs affected by YTX are different than thapsigargin-sensible pools. Furthermore, YTX-dependent Ca(2+) pools depletion was abolished by cAMP analogue (dibutyryl cAMP), phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor (rolipram), protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) and oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) (FCCP) treatments. This evidences the crosstalks between Ca(2+) , YTX and cAMP pathways. Also, results obtain demonstrate that YTX-dependent Ca(2+) influx was only abolished by FCCP pre-treatment, which indicates a link between YTX and mitochondria in K-562 cell

  17. The association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyroid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Dalal M

    2002-04-01

    An association between lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyroid papillary carcinoma is still controversial. To assess the relationship, a histopathologic analysis of surgically resected thyroid tumors together with the frequency and severity of chronic lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid among patients with follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma was performed. The prevalence of lymphocytic infiltrate, which is indicative of autoimmune thyroiditis, was significantly higher in patients with papillary carcinoma (58%) than in patients with follicular carcinoma (20%) or follicular adenoma (14%). The lymphocytic infiltration within the tumor compared with the severity of thyroiditis in the nontumorous tissue. Therefore, the association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma was confirmed. The possibility that an immunologic mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of papillary carcinoma stimulates lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid tissue through an autoimmune mechanism is suggested.

  18. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    OpenAIRE

    S Rondelli; Martinez, O; PT García

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm) and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a...

  19. Transformation of human fetal thymus and spleen lymphocytes by human t-cell leukemia virus type Ι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akagi,Tadaatsu

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Co-cultivation of human thymus and spleen lymphocytes, which were obtained from 26-week and 27-week fetuses, with a lethally-irradiated human cord T-cell line harboring human T-cell leukemia virus type Ι(HTLV-Ι resultes in the establishment of T-cell lines positive for adult T-cell leukemia-associated antigens and producing HTLV-Ι. These cell lines had the phenotype of a helper/inducer subset of peripheral T-cells as evidenced by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to human T-cells.

  20. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  1. Phenotypic and Functional Analysis of Porcine T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 陈应华

    2001-01-01

    Porcine and other higher mammals express clusters of differentiation (CD) antigens on the surface of T lymphocytes, such as CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, etc. However, in porcine, a high percentage of the CD4+ CD8-T lymphocyte subpopulation exist in the peripheral blood and the ratio of the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulations is reversed. These differences bring new challenges to better understanding of the phenotype and function of porcine T lymphocytes in antigen recognition and immune response.

  2. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Marius; Chaitaweesup, P.; Parakamawongsa, T.; Premashthira, S.; Tiensin, T.; Kalpravidh, W.; Wagner, H.; Slingenbergh, J.

    2006-01-01

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outb

  3. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  4. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.G.; Van Dijk, J.G.B.; Vuong, O.; Lexmond, P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2014-01-01

    Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds, has largel

  5. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); J.G.B. Dijk (Jacintha); O. Vuong (Spronken); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); P. Lexmond (Pascal); M. Klaassen (Marcel); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMigratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds

  6. Investigating Maternal Hormones in Avian Eggs : Measurement, Manipulation, and Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Engelhardt, Nikolaus von

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a surge in studies on steroid hormones of maternal origin present in avian eggs and affecting offspring development. The value of such studies for the understanding of maternal effects and individual differentiation is endorsed and a series of methodological and concept

  7. Investigating maternal hormones in avian eggs : Measurement, manipulation, and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, TGG; Von Engelhardt, N; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a surge in studies on steroid hormones of maternal origin present in avian eggs and affecting offspring development. The value of such studies for the understanding of maternal effects and individual differentiation is endorsed and a series of methodological and concept

  8. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  9. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ... Fourth Epidemic — China, September 2015–August 2016." H7N9 Outbreak Characterization H7N9 infections in people and poultry ...

  10. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 into Europe and North America poses significant risks to poultry industries and wildlife populations and warrants continued and heightened vigilance. First discovered in South Korean poultry and wild birds in early 2014...

  11. Developmental imaging: the avian embryo hatches to the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, Paul M; McKinney, Mary C; McLennan, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    The avian embryo provides a multifaceted model to study developmental mechanisms because of its accessibility to microsurgery, fluorescence cell labeling, in vivo imaging, and molecular manipulation. Early two-dimensional planar growth of the avian embryo mimics human development and provides unique access to complex cell migration patterns using light microscopy. Later developmental events continue to permit access to both light and other imaging modalities, making the avian embryo an excellent model for developmental imaging. For example, significant insights into cell and tissue behaviors within the primitive streak, craniofacial region, and cardiovascular and peripheral nervous systems have come from avian embryo studies. In this review, we provide an update to recent advances in embryo and tissue slice culture and imaging, fluorescence cell labeling, and gene profiling. We focus on how technical advances in the chick and quail provide a clearer understanding of how embryonic cell dynamics are beautifully choreographed in space and time to sculpt cells into functioning structures. We summarize how these technical advances help us to better understand basic developmental mechanisms that may lead to clinical research into human birth defects and tissue repair.

  12. Avian Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Organic Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Rocio; Opriessnig, Tanja; Uzal, Francisco; Gerber, Priscilla F

    2015-09-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 141 chickens from 10 organic layer flocks with a history of severe drop in egg production (up to 40%) and slight increased mortality (up to 1% per week) were submitted to the Avian Health and Food Safety Laboratory (Puyallup, WA). At necropsy, the most common finding was pinpoint white foci on the liver and regressed ova without any other remarkable lesions. Histologically, there was multifocal mild-to-severe acute necrotizing hepatitis present. No significant bacteria were recovered from liver samples, and tests for mycotoxins were negative. Twenty-six serum samples from four affected flocks tested were positive for avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin Y antibodies. Avian HEV RNA was detected in 10 livers of chickens from two different affected flocks. The avian HEV was characterized by sequencing and determined to belong to genotype 2. The diagnosis of a clinical manifest HEV was based solely on the demonstration of specific viral RNA and the absence of other causative agents in samples from flocks, as the clinical sings and pathologic lesions were atypical.

  13. Low frequency of paleoviral infiltration across the avian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    of endogenous viral element evolution.Results: Through a systematic screening of the genomes of 48 species sampled across the avian phylogeny we reveal that birds harbor a limited number of endogenous viral elements compared to mammals, with only five viral families observed: Retroviridae, Hepadnaviridae...

  14. First characterization of avian influenza viruses from Greenland 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Ravn Merkel, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild birds, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), were found dead at the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examinations in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2...

  15. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Wit (Emmie); Y. Kawaoka (Yoshihiro); M.D. de Jong (Menno); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death.

  16. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types.

  17. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  18. Avian Metapneumovirus Molecular Biology and Development of Genetically Engineered Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important pathogen of turkeys with a worldwide distribution. aMPV is a member of the genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae. The genome of aMPV is a non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA of 1...

  19. Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue in avian mucosal immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van F.W.; Gulley, S.L.; Lammers, A.; Hoerr, F.J.; Gurjar, R.; Toro, H.

    2012-01-01

    Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue’s (CALT) role in generating avian mucosal adaptive immunity was measured by analyzing cellular composition, expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), and production of cytokines and antibodies in chickens ocular exposed to a replication-defici

  20. Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-01-01

    To determine duck hunters’ risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007–2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  1. Duck hunters' perceptions of risk for avian influenza, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-08-01

    To determine duck hunters'risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007-2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  2. Biochemical characterization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a paramyxovirus that has three membrane-associate proteins: glycoprotein (G), fusion (F), and small hydrophobic (SH) proteins. Among them, the SH protein is a small type II integral membrane protein that is incorporated into virions and is only present in certain para...

  3. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy.

  4. Indirect transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), also known bird flu, is a serious infectious disease of chickens causing high mortality in flocks and economic damage for farmers. The control strategy to control an outbreak of HPAI in the Netherlands will include culling of infected flocks and depopulation

  5. Vaccines and vaccination for avian influenza in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines have been developed and used to protect poultry and other birds in various countries of the world. Protection is principally mediated by an immune response to the subtype-specific hemagglutinin (HA) protein. AI vaccines prevent clinical signs of disease, death, egg pr...

  6. Fish on avian lampbrush chromosomes produces higher resolution gene mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galkina, S.A.; Deryusheva, S.; Fillon, V.; Vignal, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Rodionov, A.V.; Gaginskaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Giant lampbrush chromosomes, which are characteristic of the diplotene stage of prophase I during avian oogenesis, represent a very promising system for precise physical gene mapping. We applied 35 chicken BAC and 4 PAC clones to both mitotic metaphase chromosomes and meiotic lampbrush chromosomes o

  7. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  8. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  9. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world...

  10. Chronic pain: cytokines, lymphocytes and chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marcia; Kraychete, Durval Campos; Meyer Nascimento, Roberto Jose

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition and, in most cases, difficult to treat. A prominent example of this is neuropathic pain. Understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of pain and, therefore, making this knowledge into an effective treatment is still a challenge to experts. Pain can now be considered as a neuro-immune disorder, since recent data indicate critical involvement of innate and adaptive immune responses following injury, and this interaction plays an important role in the onset and perpetuation of chronic pain. The aim of this article is to review the relationship between immune system and chronic pain, especially about neuropathic pain, and focusing on cytokines, chemokines and lymphocytes.

  11. HLA-DP related suppression of mixed lymphocyte reaction with alloactivated lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    We studied the influence of HLA class I and class II antigens on the suppression of the MLR induced by primed lymphocytes (PLs) alloactivated in vitro. The suppression of 14 different PLs of 83 MLRs was analyzed. The PLs were primed against (i) HLA-DP (SB) (ii) HLA-DR/DQ or (iii) both HLA-DP and DR...

  12. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses.

  13. The avian influenza H9N2 at avian-human interface: A possible risk for the future pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh RahimiRad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The avian influenza subtype H9N2 is considered a low pathogenic virus which is endemic in domestic poultry of a majority of Asian countries. Many reports of seropositivity in occupationally poultry-exposed workers and a number of confirmed human infections with an H9N2 subtype of avian influenza have been documented up to now. Recently, the human infections with both H7N9 and H10N8 viruses highlighted that H9N2 has a great potential for taking a part in the emergence of new human-infecting viruses. This review aimed at discussing the great potential of H9N2 virus which is circulating at avian-human interface, for cross-species transmission, contribution in the production of new reassortants and emergence of new pandemic subtypes. An intensified surveillance is needed for controlling the future risks which would be created by H9N2 circulation at avian-human interfaces.

  14. Spondylarthritis in the absence of B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Dominique; Kruithof, Elli; Breban, Maxime; Tak, Paul P

    2008-03-01

    The highly effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by B cell depletion and the presence of B cells in the peripheral and axial lesions of patients with spondylarthritis (SpA) raise the question as to whether B lymphocytes could also be an appropriate therapeutic target in the latter disease. We describe 2 male HLA-B27-positive patients who had active SpA despite absence of B cells. One patient developed SpA with sacroiliitis and asymmetric oligoarthritis after having been diagnosed as having severe Bruton agammaglobulinemia. Since extensive investigations excluded an infectious origin of the SpA, this case illustrates that functional B cells and/or gamma globulins are not strictly required for SpA pathogenesis. The second patient had severe axial and peripheral SpA that was treated successfully with etanercept. After discontinuation of etanercept treatment because of non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma, both axial and peripheral SpA symptoms relapsed rapidly, and this exacerbation of articular disease activity was not modulated by successful B cell depletion therapy for the lymphoma. Although case reports have obvious limitations, our clinical observations provide evidence that active SpA can occur in the absence of functional mature B cells and thus emphasize the need for systematic studies of the exact role and function of B lymphocytes in this disease.

  15. Secondary autoimmune cytopenias in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kerry A; Woyach, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Secondary autoimmune cytopenias in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are distinct clinical entities that require specific management. These autoimmune disorders have a complex pathogenesis that involves both the leukemic cells and the immune environment in which they exist. The mechanism is not the same in all cases, and to varying degrees involves the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells in antibody production, antigen presentation, and stimulation of T cells and bystander polyclonal B cells. Diagnosis of autoimmune cytopenias can be challenging as it is difficult to differentiate between autoimmunity and bone marrow failure due to disease progression. There is a need to distinguish these causes, as prognosis and treatment are not the same. Evidence regarding treatment of secondary autoimmune cytopenias is limited, but many effective options exist and treatment can be selected with severity of disease and patient factors in mind. With new agents to treat CLL coming into widespread clinical use, it will be important to understand how these will change the natural history and treatment of autoimmune cytopenias.

  16. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. III. A marker defining a subpopulation of lymphocytes which cuts across the normal T-B-null classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, H; Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Smart, I J; Thomas, M E

    1980-06-01

    A somatic cell hybrid line which secreted antibody reacting selectively with a proportion of the white cells in human blood was prepared. The hybridoma appeared to be monoclonal, and the antibody secreted stained 67% of the lymphocyte population in blood. It reacted less well with granulocytes and monocytes. The lymphocytes stained comprised 80% of the T cells and 50% of the B cells. The antibody showed no recognizable pattern in its reactivity with cell lines and leukaemic cells, although B cells tended to react less well than T cells, null cells, or myeloid leukaemic cells. The expression of the antigenic determinant is discussed in relation to the classification of leucocytes. This determinant and certain other markers exhibited differential expression on closely related cells, and yet were shared by more distantly related cells.

  17. The immunodeficiency of bone marrow-transplanted patients. II. CD8-related suppression by patient lymphocytes of the response of donor lymphocytes to mitogens, antigens, and allogeneic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Jacobsen, N;

    1987-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 21 patients sampled 1-6 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were tested for functional suppressor activity against marrow-donor lymphocytes in the lymphocyte transformation test. Suppression of donor responses to allogeneic (i.e. mixed lymphocyte reaction, MLR...

  18. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in children infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebel, K S; Aldhous, M C; Mok, J Y; Hayley, J; Arnott, M; Peutherer, J F

    1994-01-01

    Of the Edinburgh cohort of approximately 130 children born to HIV-infected women, 9 are infected and alive. This article describes results from the first 18 months of a natural history study of seven of these, and two adopted children, studying the CD8 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against HIV proteins (Gag, Tat, Pol, and Env), over time, and relating it to clinical progression and viral activity. Autologous EBV cell lines infected with vaccinia-HIV constructs were used as target cells, and bulk-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effector cells. The children ranged in age from 0 to 93 months, with six of the nine showing CTL activity to one or more HIV proteins. The specificity of the response was directed against Tat in the younger children, switching to Pol, then Gag or Env. Preliminary analysis of virological data showed no association between CTL and virus activity. The children with CTLs tended to be well clinically, but the cohort needs to be studied longer before conclusions can be made about CTL activity and HIV disease progression. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity has also been observed in two children diagnosed as HIV uninfected. These results show the importance of looking at CTL specificity, and may have implications in vaccine design.

  19. Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between 2006 and 2011—Review and recommendations for surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dundon, William G.; Heidari, Alireza; Fusaro, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, the members of the molecular epidemiological working group of the European “EPIZONE” network of excellence have been generating sequence data on avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses from both European and African sources in an attempt to more fully understand the circulation...

  20. Efficacy of an autophagy-targeted DNA vaccine against avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenkai; Huang, Jianfei; Lei, Xiaoya; Yan, Yiming; Lu, Piaopiao; Zhang, Huanmin; Lin, Wencheng; Chen, Weiguo; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei

    2017-02-01

    Infection with the avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can lead to neoplastic disease in chickens, inflicting significant economic losses to the poultry industry. Recent reports have identified inhibitory effects of ALV-J on autophagy, a process involving in innate and adaptive immunity. Inspired by this connection between autophagy and immunity, we developed a novel DNA vaccine against ALV-J which includes co-administration of rapamycin to stimulate autophagy. To measure the efficacy of the developed prototype vaccine, five experimental groups of seven-day-old chickens was immunized three times at three-week intervals respectively with vector, pVAX1-gp85, pVAX1-gp85-LC3, pVAX1-gp85+rapamycin and pVAX1-gp85-LC3+rapamycin through electroporation. We then tested their antibody titers, cytokine levels and cellular immune responses. The immunoprotective efficacy of the prototype vaccines against the challenge of the ALV-J GD1109 strain was also examined. The results showed that the combination of pVAX1-gp85-LC3 and rapamycin was able to induce the highest antibody titers, and enhance interleukin(IL)-2, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ expression, and the chickens immunized with the combination of pVAX1-gp85-LC3 and rapamycin showed the highest percentage of CD3+CD8+T lymphocytes. Based on our results, we suggest that stimulating autophagy can improve the efficacy of DNA vaccines and that our DNA vaccine shows the potential of being a candidate vaccine against ALV-J. This study provides a novel strategy for developing vaccines against ALV-J.

  1. Experimental and serologic observations on avian pneumovirus (APV/turkey/Colorado/97) infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, B; Senne, D A; Pedersen, J C; Gidlewski, T; Edson, R K

    2000-01-01

    An avian pneumovirus (APV) was isolated from commercial turkeys in Colorado (APV/Colorado) showing clinical signs of a respiratory disease. The results of virus neutralization and indirect fluorescent antibody tests showed that the APV/Colorado was partially related to APV subgroup A but was unrelated to APV subgroup B. Turkeys experimentally inoculated with the APV/Colorado were observed for signs, lesions, seroconversion, and virus shedding. Thirty-six 7-wk-old turkeys were distributed into three groups. Eighteen turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with APV/Colorado, six were placed in contact at 1 day postinoculation (DPI), and 12 served as noninoculated controls. Tracheal swabs and blood samples were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 DPI. Tissues were collected from three inoculated and two control turkeys on aforementioned days for pathologic examination and APV isolation. Inoculated turkeys developed respiratory disease, yielded APV at 3, 5, and 7 DPI, and seroconverted at 10 DPI. Contact turkeys yielded APV at 7 and 10 DPI. No gross lesions were observed in the turbinates, infraorbital sinuses, and trachea. However, microscopic examination revealed acute rhinitis, sinusitis, and tracheitis manifested by congestion, edema, lymphocytic and heterophilic infiltration, and loss of ciliated epithelia. The inflammatory lesions were seen at 3 DPI and became extensive at 5 and 7 DPI. Active regenerative changes in the epithelia were seen at 10 and 14 DPI. Serologic survey for the presence of antibodies in commercial turkeys (24,504 sera from 18 states) and chickens (3,517 sera from 12 states) to APV/Colorado showed seropositive turkeys in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota and no seropositive chickens. This report is the first on the isolation of an APV and APV infection in the United States.

  2. High-Yield Expression of M2e Peptide of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 in Transgenic Duckweed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, Aleksey; Tarasenko, Irina; Mitiouchkina, Tatiana; Ismailova, Natalya; Shaloiko, Lyubov; Vainstein, Alexander; Dolgov, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Avian influenza is a major viral disease in poultry. Antigenic variation of this virus hinders vaccine development. However, the extracellular domain of the virus-encoded M2 protein (peptide M2e) is nearly invariant in all influenza A strains, enabling the development of a broad-range vaccine against them. Antigen expression in transgenic plants is becoming a popular alternative to classical expression methods. Here we expressed M2e from avian influenza virus A/chicken/Kurgan/5/2005(H5N1) in nuclear-transformed duckweed plants for further development of avian influenza vaccine. The N-terminal fragment of M2, including M2e, was selected for expression. The M2e DNA sequence fused in-frame to the 5' end of β-glucuronidase was cloned into pBI121 under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. The resulting plasmid was successfully used for duckweed transformation, and western analysis with anti-β-glucuronidase and anti-M2e antibodies confirmed accumulation of the target protein (M130) in 17 independent transgenic lines. Quantitative ELISA of crude protein extracts from these lines showed M130-β-glucuronidase accumulation ranging from 0.09-0.97 mg/g FW (0.12-1.96 % of total soluble protein), equivalent to yields of up to 40 μg M2e/g plant FW. This relatively high yield holds promise for the development of a duckweed-based expression system to produce an edible vaccine against avian influenza.

  3. Changes in avian disease and mosquito vector prevalence; A 15-year perceptive and assessment of future risk: Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mosquito-borne avian disease, avian malaria and avian pox, is a major limiting factor for Hawaiian forest birds. While native bird communities at Hakalau Forest NWR...

  4. Lymphocytes and liver fibrosis in HIV & HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coinfection with HIV has an important impact on immunity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the present dissertation, phenotypes of lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of HCV-infected patients were studied into detail, with special attention to changes in phenotype of lymphocytes associat

  5. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    lymphocytes. Our experiments on preB lymphocytes supported by stromal cells suggest that apoptosis is one of the mechanisms for PAH immunosuppression. It could be either due to direct effect of the PAH on the B cells, via stromal cell signaling. Ubiquitous PAH-like toxin, fluoranthene, was tested for it...

  6. Effect of praziquantel on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Theander, T G; Bygbjerg, I C

    1984-01-01

    The antischistosomal drugs tartar emetic and niridazole exert immunosuppression both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study the influence of praziquantel (Biltricide), a potent schistosomicidal drug, on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated. Praziquantel 80 micrograms...... no suppressive effect on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro....

  7. T-lymphocyte subsets in recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P;

    1989-01-01

    Peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets: T-helper (OKT4) and T-suppressor (OKT8) cells were studied quantitatively in 20 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) in ulcerative, as well as inactive, stages of the disease. The figures were compared with T-lymphocyte subsets from matched control do...

  8. Carotenoid levels in human lymphocytes, measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanauskaite, R B; SegersNolten, IGMJ; DeGrauw, K J; Sijtsema, N M; VanderMaas, L; Greve, J; Otto, C; Figdor, C G

    1997-01-01

    Carotenoid levels in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy people have been investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. We observed that carotenoids are concentrated in so-called ''Gall bodies''. The level of carotenoids in living human lymphocytes was found to be age-dependent and to d

  9. 9 CFR 113.42 - Detection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis contamination. 113.42 Section 113.42 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... contamination. The test for detection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus provided in this section...

  10. Ibrutinib-induced lymphocytosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, S E M; Niemann, C U; Farooqui, M

    2014-01-01

    Ibrutinib and other targeted inhibitors of B-cell receptor signaling achieve impressive clinical results for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A treatment-induced rise in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has emerged as a class effect of kinase inhibitors in CLL and warrants further...

  11. Endothelial PI 3-kinase activity regulates lymphocyte diapedesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaei-Nejad, Maryam; Hussain, Amer M; Zhang, Qiu-Xia; Murray, Allan G

    2007-12-01

    Lymphocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation involves a bidirectional series of cues between the endothelial cell (EC) and the leukocyte that culminate in lymphocyte migration into the tissue. Remodeling of the EC F-actin cytoskeleton has been observed after leukocyte adhesion, but the signals to the EC remain poorly defined. We studied the dependence of peripheral blood lymphocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) through an EC monolayer in vitro on EC phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity. Lymphocytes were perfused over cytokine-activated EC using a parallel-plate laminar flow chamber. Inhibition of EC PI 3-kinase activity using LY-294002 or wortmannin decreased lymphocyte TEM (48 +/- 6 or 34 +/- 7%, respectively, vs. control; mean +/- SE; P structure" after intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ligation, whereas this was inhibited by jasplakinolide treatment. A similar fraction of lymphocytes migrated on control or LY-294002-treated EC and localized to interendothelial junctions. However, lymphocytes failed to extend processes below the level of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin on LY-294002-treated EC. Together these observations indicate that EC PI 3-kinase activity and F-actin remodeling are required during lymphocyte diapedesis and identify a PI 3-kinase-dependent step following initial separation of the VE-cadherin barrier.

  12. Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis promote proliferation of keratinocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG An-mei; ZHONG Ren-qian; CHEN Sun-xiao; ZHOU Ye; KONG Xian-tao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of lymphocytes on proliferation of keratinocytes in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Lymphocytes in lesion and peripheral blood were isolated and amplified, then cultured together with normal keratinocytes. By MTT method, the living cells were quantified in the mixed culture.Results: Compared with normal controls, lymphocytes from lesion and peripheral blood of psoriasis both promote the proliferation of keratinocytes (P<0. 01 and P<0. 05 respectively). The concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ in the mixture of lesion lymphocytes and keratinocytes were significantly higher than that of controls.Tripterygium glycosides inhibited this promotion. Conclusion: Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis (mainly Thl cell) play an important role in proliferation of keratinocytes. This psoriasis cell model is useful for studies on signal transduction in psoriasis.

  13. Synergy of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and Eimeria tenella to increase pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Wang, Qi; Shi, Wenyan; Han, Linzhen; Wang, Jiazhong; Ma, Xingjiang; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Fangkun; Su, Shuai; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of co-infections of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and Eimeria tenella on the pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, groups of chickens were infected with ALV-J strain NX0101 at one day of age or with E. tenella at 14 days of age or both. The control group was left uninfected and was mock-inoculated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Mortality rates, body weights, cecal lesions, and viremia of infected chickens in each group were evaluated. Immune status was evaluated by measuring several parameters: immune organ weight/body weight index, specific humoral responses to inactivated NDV vaccine and to inoculated E. tenella, proportions of blood CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8α+ lymphocytes and transcriptional levels of cytokines in blood and cecal tonsils. The results show that co-infections of ALV-J and E. tenella induced a higher mortality rate and a lower body weight in SPF chickens compared to single-pathogen infection. In co-infected chickens, ALV-J accelerated the disease symptoms induced by E. tenella, and the E. tenella extended the ALV-J viremia. Thymus atrophy, decrease in the humoral response levels to pathogens and the NDV vaccine, modifications in the blood lymphocyte sub-populations and transcriptional cytokine disorders were found in co-infected chickens compared to chickens infected with one pathogen alone and to controls. We underline a synergy between ALV-J and E. tenella that results in increasing pathogenesis in SPF chickens.

  14. Experimental infection of mice with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Khattar

    Full Text Available The nine serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds worldwide. APMV-1, also called Newcastle disease virus, was shown to be attenuated in non-avian species and is being developed as a potential vector for human vaccines. In the present study, we extended this evaluation to the other eight serotypes by evaluating infection in BALB/c mice. Mice were inoculated intranasally with a prototype strain of each of the nine serotypes and monitored for clinical disease, gross pathology, histopathology, virus replication and viral antigen distribution, and seroconversion. On the basis of multiple criteria, each of the APMV serotypes except serotype 5 was found to replicate in mice. Five of the serotypes produced clinical disease and significant weight loss in the following order of severity: 1, 2>6, 9>7. However, disease was short-lived. The other serotypes produced no evident clinical disease. Replication of all of the APMVs except APMV-5 in the nasal turbinates and lungs was confirmed by the recovery of infectious virus and by substantial expression of viral antigen in the epithelial lining detected by immunohistochemistry. Trace levels of infectious APMV-4 and -9 were detected in the brain of some animals; otherwise, no virus was detected in the brain, small intestine, kidney, or spleen. Histologically, infection with the APMVs resulted in lung lesions consistent with broncho-interstitial pneumonia of varying severity that were completely resolved at 14 days post infection. All of the mice infected with the APMVs except APMV-5 produced serotype-specific HI serum antibodies, confirming a lack of replication of APMV-5. Taken together, these results demonstrate that all APMV serotypes except APMV-5 are capable of replicating in mice with minimal disease and pathology.

  15. Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Arthur S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world and are separated into nine serotypes (APMV-1 to -9. Only in the case of APMV-1, the infection of non-avian species has been investigated. The APMVs presently are being considered as human vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the replication and pathogenicity of all nine APMV serotypes in hamsters. The hamsters were inoculated intranasally with each virus and monitored for clinical disease, pathology, histopathology, virus replication, and seroconversion. On the basis of one or more of these criteria, each of the APMV serotypes was found to replicate in hamsters. The APMVs produced mild or inapparent clinical signs in hamsters except for APMV-9, which produced moderate disease. Gross lesions were observed over the pulmonary surface of hamsters infected with APMV-2 & -3, which showed petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, respectively. Replication of all of the APMVs except APMV-5 was confirmed in the nasal turbinates and lungs, indicating a tropism for the respiratory tract. Histologically, the infection resulted in lung lesions consistent with bronchointerstitial pneumonia of varying severity and nasal turbinates with blunting or loss of cilia of the epithelium lining the nasal septa. The majority of APMV-infected hamsters exhibited transient histological lesions that self resolved by 14 days post infection (dpi. All of the hamsters infected with the APMVs produced serotype-specific HI or neutralizing antibodies, confirming virus replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that all nine known APMV serotypes are capable of replicating in hamsters with minimal disease and pathology.

  16. Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in the tumor microenviroment: A review of the in vitro and clinical trials to date

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the western world. Despite significant advances in therapy over the last decade CLL remains incurable. Current front-line therapy often consists of chemoimmunotherapy-based regimens, most commonly the fludarabine, cyclophosphamide plus rituximab combination, but rates of relapse and refractory disease are high among these patients. Several key signaling pathways are now known to mediate the survival and proliferation of CLL cel...

  17. The OP9-DL1 System: Generation of T-Lymphocytes from Embryonic or Hematopoietic Stem Cells In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Roxanne Holmes and Juan Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker Corresponding author: []() ### INTRODUCTION Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from fetal liver or bone marrow into T-lymphocytes can be achieved in vitro with the support of OP9-DL1 cells, a bone-marrow-derived stromal cell line that ectopically expresses the Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1). This approach provides a simple, versat...

  18. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Strickland, Dale M.; Young, Jr., David P.; Sernka, Karyn J.; Good, Rhett E.

    2001-08-01

    It has been estimated that from 100 million to well over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to collisions with human-made structures, including vehicles, buildings and windows, powerlines, communication towers, and wind turbines. Although wind energy is generally considered environmentally friendly (because it generates electricity without emitting air pollutants or greenhouse gases), the potential for avian fatalities has delayed and even significantly contributed to blocking the development of some windplants in the U.S. Given the importance of developing a viable renewable source of energy, the objective of this paper is to put the issue of avian mortality associated with windpower into perspective with other sources of avian collision mortality across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed summary of the mortality data collected at windplants and put avian collision mortality associated with windpower development into perspective with other significant sources of avian collision mortality across the United States. We provide a summary of data collected at many of the U.S. windplants and provide annual bird fatality estimates and projections for all wind turbines in the U.S. For comparison, we also review studies of avian collision mortality from other major human-made structures and report annual bird fatality estimates for these sources. Other sources also significantly contribute to overall avian mortality. For example, the National Audubon Society estimates avian mortality due to house cats at 100 million birds per year. Pesticide use, oil spills, disease, etc., are other significant sources of unintended avian mortality. Due to funding constraints, the scope of this paper is limited to examining only avian mortality resulting from collisions with human-made obstacles.

  19. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-05-06

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  20. Lymphocyte respiration in children with Trisomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburawi Elhadi H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study measured lymphocyte mitochondrial O2 consumption (cellular respiration in children with trisomy 21. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from whole blood of trisomy 21 and control children and these cells were immediately used to measure cellular respiration rate. [O2] was determined as a function of time from the phosphorescence decay rates (1/τ of Pd (II-meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl-tetrabenzoporphyrin. In sealed vials containing lymphocytes and glucose as a respiratory substrate, [O2] declined linearly with time, confirming the zero-order kinetics of O2 conversion to H2O by cytochrome oxidase. The rate of respiration (k, in μM O2 min-1, thus, was the negative of the slope of [O2] vs. time. Cyanide inhibited O2 consumption, confirming that oxidation occurred in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Results For control children (age = 8.8 ± 5.6 years, n = 26, the mean (± SD value of kc (in μM O2 per min per 107 cells was 1.36 ± 0.79 (coefficient of variation, Cv = 58%; median = 1.17; range = 0.60 to 3.12; -2SD = 0.61. For children with trisomy 21 (age = 7.2 ± 4.6 years, n = 26, the values of kc were 0.82 ± 0.62 (Cv = 76%; median = 0.60; range = 0.20 to 2.80, pp6.1 mU/L. Fourteen of 26 (54% children with trisomy 21 had kc values of 0.20 to 0.60 (i.e., kc positively correlated with body-mass index (BMI, R >0.302, serum creatinine (R >0.507, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, R >0.535 and albumin (R >0.446. Conclusions Children with trisomy 21 in this study have reduced lymphocyte bioenergetics. The clinical importance of this finding requires further studies.

  1. Targeting of chemical mutagens to differentiating B-lymphocytes in vivo: detection by direct DNA labeling and sister chromatid exchange induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, S.E.; Nanna, U.C.; Dietert, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo systems for analyzing mutagen interactions with a specific differentiating cell population are rare. Taking advantage of the unique anatomical features of the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken, the authors explored the possibility of targeting chemical mutagens to a defined differentiating cell population in the animal, namely, the B-lymphocytes series. Such cells are known to be the targets for the oncogene-activating avian leukosis virus. Targeting of chemicals to cells of the bursa was demonstrated by application of the DNA-specific fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to the anal lips of neonatal chicks. Bright nuclear fluorescence of cells in the bursa demonstrated to occur within minutes after the application of 500..mu..l of DAPI. DAPI labeling of nuclei was detected up to several days after a single application. No nuclear labeling was exhibited in cells of neighboring tissues. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)(10..mu..l) was applied to the anal lips of day-old chicks to study dose-response kinetics for mutagen targeting to DNA of dividing B-lymphocytes in the bursa. Since the mitotic index was found to be quite high (25-30%) in the bursa, chromosome analysis was used to assay for genome damage. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies of 3.9, 7.3, and 9.0 (baseline 2.5) per cell were obtained at MMS dosages per animal of 50 ..mu..g, 100..mu..g, and 200..mu..g, respectively. These results indicate the rapid and quantitative localization of DNA-binding chemicals to cells of the bursa, particularly the resident B-lymphocytes. The bursa should be a useful system for studying mutagen-DNA interactions in the differentiating B-lymphocyte and subsequent influences on the development of immunity and lymphoproliferative disease.

  2. Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Lymphocyte Proliferation of Fasciculatin, a Linear Furanosesterterpene Isolated from Ircinia variabilis Collected from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Herz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Fasciculatin, a furanosesterterpene isolated from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco, has been evaluated for its influence on a mitogen-induced proliferation of human lymphocytes and growth of human tumor cell lines.

  3. Spontaneous human squamous cell carcinomas are killed by a human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone recognizing a wild-type p53-derived peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Hald, J; Guldberg, Per

    1996-01-01

    A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone generated in vitro from the peripheral blood of a healthy HLA-A2-positive individual against a synthetic p53 protein-derived wild-type peptide (L9V) was shown to kill squamous carcinoma cell lines derived from two head and neck carcinomas, which expressed mutant...

  4. INTRACEREBRAL AND SUBCUTANEOUS XENOGRAFTS OF HUMAN SCLC IN THE NUDE RAT - COMPARISON OF MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY LOCALIZATION AND TUMOR-INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULTE, JWM; GO, KG; ZUIDERVEEN, F; THE, TH; DELEIJ, L

    1993-01-01

    In the WAG/Rij nude rat, subcutaneous (s.c.) and intracerebral (i.c.) xenografts of the human SCLC cell line GLC-28 were evaluated for their growth behavior, in vivo monoclonal antibody binding and presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. For the i.c. xenografts, two models of cerebral tumor grow

  5. Expression of protooncogenes during lymphocyte activation by growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, E G; Budagyan, V M; Yarilin, A A; Mazurenko, N N

    1997-09-01

    Effects of growth factors of non-immune origin including somatotropin (ST) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on the expression of the proteins encoded by c-fos, c-myc, c-fun, and c-ets family protooncogenes were studied for the first time. The dynamics of the oncoprotein expression in activated CD(3+)-lymphocytes was investigated by immunoblotting. The accumulation of the Fos and Myc proteins was enhanced in T-lymphocytes treated with ST, PDGF, or phytohemagglutinin; the accumulation was maximum at 30-60 min and decreased in 2 h; the data indicate that the oncoproteins participate in the early lymphocyte activation by various growth factors. The Jun protein appears only in 3 h after the onset of lymphocyte activation; this suggests independent participation of Fos in the early stages of lymphocyte activation prior to the appearance of Jun, preceding the joint action of Fos and Jun within the AP-1 transcription complex. The products of the c-ets family are differentially activated by the studied growth factors. Resting lymphocytes actively accumulate the Ets-1 protein; ST and PDGF activation decreases Ets-1 expression in 2 h. The Ets-2 protein is not detected in resting cells and PDGF-activated lymphocytes, whereas lymphocyte activation by ST is associated with accumulation of Ets-2. The data suggest that the product of the c-ets-1 gene is more important in the regulation of resting cells and the product of the c-ets-2 gene is important during activation of lymphocytes by ST. The results indicate that activation of lymphocytes with growth factors of non-immune origin is mediated by several signal transduction pathways.

  6. Mitochondrial apoptosis of lymphocyte is induced in type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui; Chen Yanbo; Li Yanxiang; Xia Fangzhen; Han Bing; Zhang Huixin; Zhai Hualing

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphocyte function and homeostasis is associated with immune defence to infection.Apoptosis of lymphocytes might be a considerably important component which has an impact on immunity to infections in people with hyperglycemia.The aim of this study was to explore the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway of lymphocyte in diabetic patients.Methods Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and fifty healthy volunteers were included in this study.Annexin V and propidiumiodide (Pl) were joined in the isolated lymphocytes and the rate of lymphocyte apoptosis was calculated with flow cytometry.Observation of the lymphocytes was done using transmission electron microscopy; mitochondria had been extracted and then mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected to assess mitochondrial function; the mRNA level of Bcl-2,cytochrome c (Cyt-C),caspase-9 and caspase-3 were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Apoptosis rate of lymphocyte was significantly higher in diabetic group than that in normal control group (P <0.05).Transmission electron microscopy showed lymphocyte shrinkage and breakage,chromatin condensation and less mitochondria; a fall in MMP levels was also evident; Bcl-2 concentration was reduced and the expressions of caspase-9,caspase-3 and Cyt-C were elevated (P <0.05) in diabetic patients.Conclusions The rate of lymphocyte apoptosis was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than that in normal population.Mitochondrial apoptosis pathway may play a very important role in decreasing function of lymphocyte in diabetes.

  7. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) recovered from a clinically healthy chicken in the United States and characterization of its pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Moo; LeRoith, Tanya; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F William; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-27

    A genetically distinct strain of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV-VA strain) was isolated from a healthy chicken in Virginia, and thus it is important to characterize and compare its pathogenicity with the prototype strain (avian HEV-prototype) isolated from a diseased chicken. Here we first constructed an infectious clone of the avian HEV-VA strain. Capped RNA transcripts from the avian HEV-VA clone were replication-competent after transfection of LMH chicken liver cells. Chickens inoculated intrahepatically with RNA transcripts of avian HEV-VA clone developed active infection as evidenced by fecal virus shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. To characterize the pathogenicity, RNA transcripts of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype clones were intrahepatically inoculated into the livers of chickens. Avian HEV RNA was detected in feces, serum and bile samples from 10/10 avian HEV-VA-inoculated and 9/9 avian HEV-prototype-inoculated chickens although seroconversion occurred only in some chickens during the experimental period. The histopathological lesion scores were lower for avian HEV-VA group than avian HEV-prototype group in the liver at 3 and 5 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and in the spleen at 3 wpi, although the differences were not statistically significant. The liver/body weight ratio, indicative of liver enlargement, of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype groups were significantly higher than that of the control group at 5 wpi. Overall, the avian HEV-VA strain still induces histological liver lesions even though it was isolated from a healthy chicken. The results also showed that intrahepatic inoculation of chickens with RNA transcripts of avian HEV infectious clone may serve as an alternative for live virus in animal pathogenicity studies.

  8. Microsatellite typing of Aspergillus flavus from clinical and environmental avian isolates

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most common causes of death in captive birds. Aspergillus fumigatus accounts for approximately 95 % of aspergillosis cases and Aspergillus flavus is the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. In the present study, the fungi were grown from avian clinical samples (post-mortem lung material) and environmental samples (eggs, food and litter). Microsatellite markers were used to type seven clinical avian isolates and 22 environmental isolates o...

  9. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry rese...

  10. Quantum Zeno Effect Underpinning the Radical-Ion-Pair Mechanism of Avian Magnetoreception

    OpenAIRE

    Kominis, I. K.

    2008-01-01

    The intricate biochemical processes underlying avian magnetoreception, the sensory ability of migratory birds to navigate using earths magnetic field, have been narrowed down to spin-dependent recombination of radical-ion pairs to be found in avian species retinal proteins. The avian magnetic field detection is governed by the interplay between magnetic interactions of the radicals unpaired electrons and the radicals recombination dynamics. Critical to this mechanism is the long lifetime of t...

  11. Mediastinal irradiation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawitskii, A.; Rai, K.R.; Aral, I.; Silver, R.T.; Glicksman, A.S.; Carey, R.W.; Scialla, S.; Cornell, C.J. Jr.; Seligman, B.; Shapiro, L.

    1976-12-01

    Thirty-one patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were treated with mediastinal radiation. In none of the patients was complete remission achieved; either partial remission or clinical improvement was achieved in 52 percent, but the duration of response was short. The response rate was 77 percent for the patients receiving a total radiation dose greater than 3,000 rads and 45 percent for those receiving less than 3,000 rads. Severe life-threatening toxicity was noted in 11 patients and seven of these patients died; two patients died with progressive disease. Severe toxicity was manifested by one or more of the following: bone marrow aplasia, pancytopenia, gram-negative sepsis, generalized herpes zoster and severe esophagitis. Neither the total dose of radiation nor the dose per week correlated with the severity of reaction or death.

  12. Role of angiogenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letilovic, Tomislav; Vrhovac, Radovan; Verstovsek, Srdan; Jaksic, Branimir; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2006-09-01

    Angiogenesis is a physiologic process of new blood vessels formation mediated by various cytokines called angiogenic and angiostatic factors. Although its potential pathophysiologic role in solid tumors has been extensively studied for more than 3 decades, enhancement of angiogenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other malignant hematological disorders has been recognized more recently. An increased level of angiogenesis has been documented by various experimental methods both in bone marrow and lymph nodes of patients with CLL. Although the role of angiogenesis in the pathophysiology of this disease remains to be fully elucidated, experimental data suggest that several angiogenic factors play a role in the disease progression. Biologic markers of angiogenesis were also shown to be of prognostic relevance in CLL. The current findings provide the rationale for investigating antiangiogenic agents in CLL. In the current review angiogenesis in CLL is discussed and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  14. Thyroid carcinoma: immunology, irradiation, and lymphocytic infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, J.H.; Sharon, N.; Victor, T.A.; Scanlon, E.F.

    1979-06-01

    Patients undergoing thyroidectomies at Evanston (I11) Hospital, during a six-month period had immunological studies performed preoperatively. No differential could be found between those with carcinoma or benign pathologic findings. T- and B-cell distribution and lymphocytic response to mitogens varied widely. Quantitative immunoglobulins showed slightly increased levels of IgG in patients wih carcinoma and thyroiditis in comparison with those patients with adenomas. Antithyroglobulin antibodies were negative in all patients. Pathology slides from 107 patients with thyroid carcinoma between 1972 and 1978 at Evanston Hospital were reviewed for the presence of thyroiditis, either focal or diffuse. It was found that 50% of all carcinomas had either diffuse or focal thyroiditis. Diffuse thyroiditis was more common in patients with no history of irradiation and papillary carcinoma, and in younger age groups.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Lymphocyte-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zusen Fan; Qixiang Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Granule-mediated cytotoxicity is the major mechanism for lymphocytes to kill viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors. The cytotoxic granules move to the immunological synapse by exocytosis after recognition of a killer cell.The contents of the granules are delivered into target cells with the help of perforin by endocytosis. A group of serine protease granzymes cleave their critical substrates to initiate DNA damage and cell death. The most abundant granzymes are granzyme A and B. They induce cell death through alternate and nonoverlapping pathways. The substrates and functions of the majority of the orphan granzymes have not yet been identified. It is possible that the diversity of granzymes provides fail-safe mechanisms for killing viruses and tumor cells.

  16. Autoimmune Cytopenias in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni D'Arena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL may be complicated at any time by autoimmune phenomena.The most common ones are hematologic disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP. Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA and autoimmune agranulocytosis (AG are, indeed, more rarely seen. However, they are probably underestimated due to the possible misleading presence of cytopenias secondary to leukemic bone marrow involvement or to chemotherapy cytotoxicity. The source of autoantibodies is still uncertain, despite the most convincing data are in favor of the involvement of resting normal B-cells. In general, excluding the specific treatment of underlying CLL, the managementof these complications is not different from that of idiopathic autoimmune cytopenias or of those associated to other causes. Among different therapeutic approaches, monoclonal antibody rituximab, given alone or in combination, has shown to be very effective.

  17. Epigenetic repolarization of T lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovsky, Jason A; Powers, John J; Gao, Yang; Mariusso, Luis F; Sotomayor, Eduardo M; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier A

    2011-09-01

    T cell immune dysfunction has an important role in the profound immune suppression that characterizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Improper polarization of T cells has been proposed as one of the mechanism involved. Mounting data implicates chromatin regulation, namely promoter methylation, in the plasticity of naïve human T cells. Recent in vitro evidence indicates that this plasticity may be phenotypically altered by using methylation inhibitors which are approved for clinical use in certain types of cancer. These results beg the question: can the ineffective polarization of T lymphocytes in the context of CLL be effectively modulated using methylation inhibitors in a sustainable therapeutic fashion? To answer this question our laboratory has studied the effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5A2) in helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes from healthy donors and CLL patients in well characterized molecular and epigenetic signaling pathways involved in effective polarization. Moreover, we sought to investigate the consequences of methylation inhibitor treatment on lymphocyte survival, activation intensity, and naïve cell polarization. Our data indicates that 5A2 treatment can depolarize Th2 cells to effectively secrete interferon gamma, signal via T-bet, and achieve demethylation of critical Th1 specific promoters. Moreover, we demonstrate that 5A2 can force Th1 polarization of naïve T cells despite a strong IL-4 stimuli and a lack of IL-12. In conclusion our data seeks to define a modality in which improper or ineffective T cell polarization can be altered by 5AZA and could be incorporated in future therapeutic interventions.

  18. Lymphocytes subsets in children with febrile convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Karaman, Sait; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas, Dursun; Yilmaz, Cahide; Atas, Bülent

    2007-07-01

    In this study, lymphocytes subsets including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were analyzed in children with febrile convulsion (FC) to determine whether there was the association of lymphocytes subsets in the pathogenesis of FC. The study includes 48 children with FC, and 55 healthy age matched control subjects, followed in Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were examined in the study and control groups. The analyses were performed in the Hematology Laboratory, Yüzüncü Yil University Faculty of Medicine, with flow cytometer device (Coulter Epics XL2, Flow Cytometer). A total of 48 children [17 girls (35.5%) and 31 boys (64.5%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 22.20 +/- 13.75 months) with FC and 55 healthy children [28 girls (51%) and 27 boys (49%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 28.87 +/- 17.04 months) were included in the study. When compared with the control group, the study found significantly decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values in the study group (p .05). When comparing the children with and without positive family history for FC, the study did not find any difference for all CD values between the groups (p >.05). Similarly, there was not significant difference in CD values between the children with simple and complex FC (p >.05). The findings suggested that decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values might be responsible for the infections connected with FC or that they might be related to the pathogenesis of FC in some children.

  19. Vaccination as a tool to combat introductions of notifiable avian influenza viruses in Europe, 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, I; Schmitz, A; Jestin, V; Koch, G; Marangon, S

    2009-04-01

    In late 2000, Italy was the first country of the European Union (EU) to implement an emergency vaccination programme against notifiable avian influenza. Vaccination with a conventional vaccine containing a seed strain with a different neuraminidase subtype from that of the field virus was used to complement biosecurity and restriction measures as part of an overall eradication strategy. This vaccination technique, in line with the Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals system (DIVA), was applied several times until March 2008. This strategy enabled the identification of field exposed flocks and ultimately the eradication of low pathogenic H7N1, H7N3 and H5N2 infections. Italy was also the first country to implement a bivalent H5/H7 prophylactic vaccination programme of defined poultry populations, which was discontinued in December 2006. Following the incursion of highly pathogenic H5N1 into Europe, in 2005 and 2006, two other EU Member States, namely France and the Netherlands, implemented preventive vaccination programmes in 2006 but they targeted selected poultry populations different from those targeted in Italy and were implemented for short periods of time. Data generated during six years of experience with vaccination against avian influenza in Italy indicate that it is a useful tool to limit secondary spread and possibly prevent the introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in a susceptible population. The experience of France and the Netherlands provides data on vaccination of ducks and hobby poultry respectively and monitoring programmes associated with vaccination and difficulties related to their application. The advantages and disadvantages of vaccination need to be considered in the decision-making process, including the financial aspects of vaccination.

  20. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Lutful Kabir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis from the poultry flocks, thereby reducing potential hazards to the public health posed by these bacterial diseases.

  1. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  2. A new feathered maniraptoran dinosaur fossil that fills a morphological gap in avian origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xing; ZHAO Qi; NORELL Mark; SULLIVAN Corwin; HONE David; ERICKSON Gregory; WANG XiaoLin; HAN FengLu; GUO Yu

    2009-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries have substantially reduced the morphological gap between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, yet avians including Archaeopteryx differ from non-avian theropods in their limb proportions. In particular, avians have proportionally longer and more robust forelimbs that are capable of supporting a large aerodynamic surface. Here we report on a new maniraptoran dinosaur, Anchiornis huxleyi gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen collected from Iacustrine deposits of uncertain age in western Liaoning, China. With an estimated mass of 110 grams, Anchiornis is the smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur. It exhibits some wrist features indicative of high mobility, presaging the wing-folding mechanisms seen in more derived birds and suggesting rapid evolution of the carpus. Otherwise, Anchiornis is intermediate in general morphology between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, particularly with regard to relative forelimb length and thickness, and represents a transitional step toward the avian condition. In contrast with some recent comprehensive phylogenetic analyses, our phylogenetic analysis incorporates subtle morphological variations and recovers a conventional result supporting the monophyly of Avialae.

  3. Immunodominant epitopes mapped by synthetic peptides on the capsid protein of avian hepatitis E virus are non-protective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hailong; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X J

    2008-03-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) was recently discovered in chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States. The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) protein of avian HEV has been shown to cross-react with human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, and immunodominant antigenic epitopes on avian HEV ORF2 protein were identified in the predicted antigenic domains by synthetic peptides. However, whether these epitopes are protective against avian HEV infection has not been investigated. In this study, groups of chickens were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-conjugated peptides and recombinant avian HEV ORF2 antigen followed by challenge with avian HEV virus to assess the protective capacity of these peptides containing the epitopes. While avian HEV ORF2 protein showed complete protection against infection, viremia and fecal virus shedding were found in all peptide-immunized chickens. Using purified IgY from normal, anti-peptide, and anti-avian HEV ORF2 chicken sera, an in-vitro neutralization and in-vivo monitoring assay was performed to further evaluate the neutralizing ability of anti-peptide IgY. Results showed that none of the anti-peptide IgY can neutralize avian HEV in vitro, as viremia, fecal virus shedding, and seroconversion appeared similarly in chickens inoculated with avian HEV mixed with anti-peptide IgY and chickens inoculated with avian HEV mixed with normal IgY. As expected, chickens inoculated with the avian HEV and anti-avian HEV ORF2 IgY mixture did not show detectable avian HEV infection. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that immunodominant epitopes on avian HEV ORF2 protein identified by synthetic peptides are non-protective, suggesting protective neutralizing epitope on avian HEV ORF2 may not be linear as is human HEV.

  4. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger.

  5. Avian influenza in backyard poultry of the Mopti region, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Traoré, Abdallah; Gil, Patricia; Hammoumi, Saliha; Lesceu, Stéphanie; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Albina, Emmanuel; Chevalier, Véronique

    2010-06-01

    This study reports the first evidence of circulation of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in Mali. In the Mopti region, where AIV have already been isolated in migratory water birds, we sampled 223 backyard domestic birds potentially in contact with wild birds and found that 3.6% had tracheal or cloacal swabs positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) for type A influenza viruses (IVA) and that 13.7% had sera positive by commercial ELISA test detecting antibodies against IVA. None of the birds positive by rRT-PCR for IVA was positive by rRT-PCR for H5 and H7 subtypes, and none showed any clinical signs therefore indicating the circulation of low pathogenic avian influenza. Unfortunately, no virus isolation was possible. Further studies are needed to assess the temporal evolution of AIV circulation in the Mopti region and its possible correlation with the presence of wild birds.

  6. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI.

  7. Chemical compass for avian magnetoreception as a quantum coherent device

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    It is known that more than 50 species use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Intensive studies particularly behavior experiments with birds provide support for a chemical compass based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions as a source of this sense. However, the fundamental question of whether and how quantum coherence plays an essential role in such a chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception yet remains controversial. Here, we show that the essence of the chemical compass model can be understood in analogy to a quantum interferometer exploiting quantum coherence. Within the framework of quantum metrology, we quantify quantum coherence and demonstrate that it is a resource for chemical magnetoreception. Our results allow us to understand and predict how various factors can affect the performance of a chemical compass from the unique perspective of quantum coherence assisted metrology. This represents a crucial step to affirm avian magnetoreception as an example of qu...

  8. Role of phenotypic diversity in pathogenesis of avian mycoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2007-12-01

    The interactions between avian mycoplasmas and their host cells are far more complex than might be anticipated from their apparent structural and functional simplicity. Phenotypic diversity in the form of reversible phase variation, antigenic variation or size variation is an adaptive mechanism that enables avian mycoplasmas to survive in a hostile and highly evolved host. Despite significant similarities between major membrane antigens of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae, the molecular mechanisms that mediate phenotypic variation in these two pathogens are completely different. Throughout the years, these mechanisms have evolved side by side with their host immune system and provided mycoplasmas the capacity to colonize, invade and persist in an intricate host. In this article, recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of phenotypic variation are reviewed, and implications of such variation in pathogenesis of the disease and development of vaccines and diagnostic assays are outlined.

  9. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø.; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools...... to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy...... and subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails...

  10. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry, like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and pala­table insects mimicking distasteful ones, involve signals directed at the eyes of birds. Despite this, studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare, particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade. Defensive visual mimicry, which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry, occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators. Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object, such as a leaf, stick, or pebble. In this paper, I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds. The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey, but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators. Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds, I show how quantitative models of avian color, luminance, and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals. Overall, I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2, Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4, and masquerade (5 as follows: 1 Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2 Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3 Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4 Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5 Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids [Current Zoology 58 (4: 630–648, 2012].

  11. The long view: 40 years of avian leukosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L N; Nair, V

    2012-01-01

    The present review is aimed at the non-specialist reader and is one of a number being written on important diseases of poultry to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the birth of Avian Pathology, the journal of the World Veterinary Poultry Association. The diseases of the avian leukosis complex have a number of features of distinction. They were the first neoplastic diseases in any species to be shown, 100 years ago, to be transmissible and caused by viruses, and have consequently been studied extensively by biomedical scientists as models for the role of viruses in cancer. They also became, from around the 1920s, the major cause of mortality and economic loss to the developed poultry industry, and were studied by agricultural scientists searching to understand and control them. The remit of the review is to cover research carried out over the 40 years since 1971, when the journal was founded. In this review on avian leukosis, an introductory summary is given of knowledge acquired over the preceding 60 years. Subsequently a selection is provided of discoveries, both fundamental and more applied, that seem to us to be of particular importance and interest. Much of the work was carried out by biomedical scientists interested in cancer. Probably the most significant was the discovery in the avian retroviruses of oncogenes that cause leukosis and other tumours and of their origin from proto-oncogenes in normal cells. These oncogenes are involved in cancer in many species, including chickens and humans. Other work was performed by agricultural scientists interested in poultry disease. Interests of the two groups have overlapped, particularly as a result of a shift of emphasis to molecular biology research.

  12. Avian hepatitis E virus in chickens, Taiwan, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ingrid W-Y; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2014-01-01

    A previously unidentified strain of avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is now endemic among chickens in Taiwan. Analysis showed that the virus is 81.5%-86.5% similar to other aHEVs. In Taiwan, aHEV infection has been reported in chickens without aHEV exposure, suggesting transmission from asymptomatic cases or repeated introduction through an unknown common source(s).

  13. Immunogenetics and resistance to avian malaria in Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Although a number of factors have contributed to the decline and extinction of Hawai‘i’s endemic terrestrial avifauna, introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relicturn) is probably the single most important factor preventing recovery of these birds in low-elevation habitats. Continued decline in numbers, fragmentation of populations, and extinction of species that are still relatively common will likely continue without new, aggressive approaches to managing avian disease. Methods of intervention in the disease cycle such as chemotherapy and vaccine development are not feasible because of efficient immune-evasion strategies evolved by the parasite, technical difficulties associated with treating wild avian populations, and increased risk of selection for more virulent strains of the parasite. We are investigating the natural evolution of disease resistance in some low-elevation native bird populations, particularly Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens), to perfect genetic methods for identifying individuals with a greater immunological capacity to survive malarial infection. We are focusing on genetic analyses of the major histocompatibility complex, due to its critical role in both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the parasite, we are evaluating conserved ribosomal genes as well as variable genes encoding cell-surface molecules as a first step in developing a better understanding of the complex interactions between malarial parasites and the avian immune system. A goal is to provide population managers with new criteria for maintaining long-term population stability for threatened species through the development of methods for evaluating and maintaining genetic diversity in small populations at loci important in immunological responsiveness to pathogens.

  14. Embryonic development period and the prevalence of avian blood parasites.

    OpenAIRE

    Ricklefs, R E

    1992-01-01

    Variation in prevalence of avian hematozoa is related to taxonomic affiliation at the level of the family or subfamily but not of the genus within families. Prevalence is comparatively insensitive to the influences of habitat and season; however, temperate species have higher incidences of infection than tropical species belonging to the same families. Among taxa of nonraptorial altricial landbirds, hematozoan prevalence is inversely related to the length of the incubation period but shows li...

  15. Evolution of the avian β-defensin and cathelicidin genes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Prickett, Michael Dennis; Gutowska, Maria; Kuo, Richard; Belov, Katherine; Burt, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background β-defensins and cathelicidins are two families of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with a broad range of antimicrobial activities that are key components of the innate immune system. Due to their important roles in host defense against rapidly evolving pathogens, the two gene families provide an ideal system for studying adaptive gene evolution. In this study we performed phylogenetic and selection analyses on β-defensins and cathelicidins from 53 avian species representing 3...

  16. Presence of avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Imada, Tadao; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2003-01-01

    Four avian pneumovirus (APV) isolates from chickens clinically diagnosed with swollen head syndrome were genetically characterized as to the subtypes of the virus in Japan. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions based on subtype-specific primers and direct sequence analysis of G genes indicated subtypes A and B but not C or D of APV were present in Japan. Several routes or sources are conceivable for APV to invade into Japan.

  17. Landscape fragmentation affects responses of avian communities to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzyna, Marta A; Porter, William F; Maurer, Brian A; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Finley, Andrew O

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the consequences of climate change is contingent upon our understanding of the relationship between biodiversity patterns and climatic variability. While the impacts of climate change on individual species have been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies on climate-mediated changes in community dynamics. Our objectives were to investigate the relationship between temporal turnover in avian biodiversity and changes in climatic conditions and to assess the role of landscape fragmentation in affecting this relationship. We hypothesized that community turnover would be highest in regions experiencing the most pronounced changes in climate and that these patterns would be reduced in human-dominated landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal turnover in avian communities over a 20-year period using data from the New York State Breeding Atlases collected during 1980-1985 and 2000-2005. We applied Bayesian spatially varying intercept models to evaluate the relationship between temporal turnover and temporal trends in climatic conditions and landscape fragmentation. We found that models including interaction terms between climate change and landscape fragmentation were superior to models without the interaction terms, suggesting that the relationship between avian community turnover and changes in climatic conditions was affected by the level of landscape fragmentation. Specifically, we found weaker associations between temporal turnover and climatic change in regions with prevalent habitat fragmentation. We suggest that avian communities in fragmented landscapes are more robust to climate change than communities found in contiguous habitats because they are comprised of species with wider thermal niches and thus are less susceptible to shifts in climatic variability. We conclude that highly fragmented regions are likely to undergo less pronounced changes in composition and structure of faunal communities as a result of climate change

  18. Neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorinated alkyls in an avian model

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Brick-Turin, Yael; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyls are widely-used agents that accumulate in ecosystems and organisms because of their slow rate of degradation. There is increasing concern that these agents may be developmental neurotoxicants and the present study was designed to develop an avian model for the neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with 5 or 10 mg/kg of either compound on incubation day 0. On the day of h...

  19. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-01-01

    Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry,like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and palatable insects mimicking distasteful ones,involve signals directed at the eyes of birds.Despite this,studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare,particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade.Defensive visual mimicry,which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry,occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators.Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object,such as a leaf,stick,or pebble.In this paper,I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds.The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey,but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators.Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds,I show how quantitative models of avian color,luminance,and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals.Overall,I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2),Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4),and masquerade (5) as follows:1) Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2) Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3) Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4) Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5) Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids.

  20. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this ...

  1. Force-velocity properties of two avian hindlimb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Frank E; Gabaldón, Annette M; Roberts, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    Recent work has provided measurements of power output in avian skeletal muscles during running and flying, but little is known about the contractile properties of avian skeletal muscle. We used an in situ preparation to characterize the force-velocity properties of two hind limb muscles, the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and peroneus longus (PL), in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A servomotor measured shortening velocity for at least six different loads over the plateau region of the length-tension curve. The Hill equation was fit to the data to determine maximum shortening velocity and peak instantaneous power. Maximum unloaded shortening velocity was 13.0+/-1.6 L s(-1) for the LG muscle and 14.8+/-1.0 L s(-1) for the PL muscle (mean+/-S.E.M.). These velocities are within the range of values published for reptilian and mammalian muscles. Values recorded for maximum isometric force per cross-sectional area, 271+/-28 kPa for the LG and 257+/-30.5 kPa for the PL, and peak instantaneous power output, 341.7+/-36.4 W kg(-1) for the LG and 319.4+/-42.5 W kg(-1) for the PL, were also within the range of published values for vertebrate muscle. The force-velocity properties of turkey LG and PL muscle do not reveal any extreme differences in the mechanical potential between avian and other vertebrate muscle.

  2. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  3. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Julie A; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  4. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Jedlicka

    Full Text Available Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  5. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  6. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gch; Wong, Ty; Cheong, Sk; Koh, Dsq

    2008-11-13

    There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919-1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  7. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, G M; Rogers, K C; Yerby, S A

    2001-07-26

    Did dinosaurs grow in a manner similar to extant reptiles, mammals or birds, or were they unique? Are rapid avian growth rates an innovation unique to birds, or were they inherited from dinosaurian precursors? We quantified growth rates for a group of dinosaurs spanning the phylogenetic and size diversity for the clade and used regression analysis to characterize the results. Here we show that dinosaurs exhibited sigmoidal growth curves similar to those of other vertebrates, but had unique growth rates with respect to body mass. All dinosaurs grew at accelerated rates relative to the primitive condition seen in extant reptiles. Small dinosaurs grew at moderately rapid rates, similar to those of marsupials, but large species attained rates comparable to those of eutherian mammals and precocial birds. Growth in giant sauropods was similar to that of whales of comparable size. Non-avian dinosaurs did not attain rates like those of altricial birds. Avian growth rates were attained in a stepwise fashion after birds diverged from theropod ancestors in the Jurassic period.

  8. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (rice) is typically the most abundant potential food of birds in rice fields, with estimates of seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  9. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne C. Fecheyr-Lippens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour.

  10. Clinical features of avian influenza in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Maamoun Mohamad; Khatab, Adel Mahmoud; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; Amer, Wegdan Ahmad Fouad

    2012-08-01

    The clinical manifestations associated with H5N1 infection in humans range from asymptomatic infection to mild upper respiratory illness, severe pneumonia, and multiple organ failure. The ratio of symptomatic cases to asymptomatic cases is not known, because it is not possible to precisely define the number of asymptomatic cases. A total of 97 cases suffering from avian flu were suspected based on history taking, demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological investigations. The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count), coagulation profile, renal and liver function tests. H5N1 influenza virus was diagnosed thorough PCR technique. Changes in arterial blood gases and repeated chest X-rays were reported frequently. All patients were given specific antiviral therapy (oseltamivir). The study described the clinical picture and laboratory results of 81 confirmed avian influenza human cases in an Egyptian hospital (Abassia chest hospital), and reviewed the avian influenza current situation covering from March 2006 to June 2009 with very high pick in the first half of 2009. The significant apparent symptoms were fever as initial and main symptom (93.75%), followed by shortness of breathing (73%), cough (66.6%), muscle & joint pain (60%) and sore throat (40%).

  11. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  12. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  13. Avian cathelicidins: paradigms for the development of anti-infectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A; Molhoek, E M; Bikker, F J; Yu, P-L; Veldhuizen, E J A; Haagsman, H P

    2011-11-21

    The broad-spectrum defense system based on host defense peptides (HDPs) is evolutionary very old and many invertebrates rely on this system for protection from bacterial infections. However, in vertebrates the system remained important in spite of the superposition of a very sophisticated adaptive immune system. The cathelicidins comprise a major group of HDPs in mammals. About six years ago it was first described that cathelicidins are also present in birds. Here we review the properties and biological activities of the recently discovered avian cathelicidins and their potential to be used as a paradigm for the development of anti-infectives. Like the mammalian cathelicidins, avian cathelicidins exert direct antimicrobial activities but can also selectively boost host immune responses by regulation of cytokine production and recruitment of immune cells. In addition, it was found that chicken cathelicidins bind endotoxins and dampen the endotoxin-mediated inflammatory response. Molecular dissection has allowed identification of different structural elements involved in bacterial killing and immunomodulation. These studies have enabled the design of small HDP-based antibiotics with specific functions, i.e. having primarily immunomodulatory or antimicrobial activities. Since the immunomodulatory effects may, to a certain degree, be species-specific, we hypothesize that poultry-specific antibiotics can be developed based on avian cathelicidins.

  14. Characterization of avian influenza H5N1 virosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Sarachai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize virosome containing envelope proteins of the avian influenza (H5N1 virus. The virosome was prepared by the solubilization of virus with octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether (C12E8 followed by detergent removal with SM2 Bio-Beads. Biochemical analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, indicated that avian influenza H5N1 virosome had similar characteristics to the parent virus and contained both the hemagglutinin (HA, 60-75 kDa and neuraminidase (NA, 220 kDa protein, with preserved biological activity, such as hemagglutination activity. The virosome structure was analyzed by negative stained transmission electron microscope (TEM demonstrated that the spherical shapes of vesicles with surface glycoprotein spikes were harbored. In conclusion, the biophysical properties of the virosome were similar to the parent virus, and the use of octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether to solubilize viral membrane, followed by removal of detergent using polymer beads adsorption (Bio-Beads SM2 was the preferable method for obtaining avian influenza virosome. The outcome of this study might be useful for further development veterinary virus vaccines.

  15. Lymphocyte Perturbations in Malawian Children with Severe and Uncomplicated Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Gilchrist, James J; Graham, Stephen M; Pensulo, Paul; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Taylor, Terrie E; Molyneux, Elizabeth E; Drayson, Mark T; Ward, Steven A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2015-11-18

    Lymphocytes are implicated in immunity and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Since lymphocyte subsets vary with age, assessment of their contribution to different etiologies can be difficult. We immunophenotyped peripheral blood from Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, and uncomplicated malaria (n = 113) and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 42) in Blantyre, Malawi, and investigated lymphocyte subset counts, activation, and memory status. Children with cerebral malaria were older than those with severe malarial anemia. We found panlymphopenia in children presenting with cerebral malaria (median lymphocyte count, 2,100/μl) and uncomplicated malaria (3,700/μl), which was corrected in convalescence and was absent in severe malarial anemia (5,950/μl). Median percentages of activated CD69(+) NK (73%) and γδ T (60%) cells were higher in cerebral malaria than in other malaria types. Median ratios of memory to naive CD4(+) lymphocytes were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and low in severe malarial anemia. The polarized lymphocyte subset profiles of different forms of severe malaria are independent of age. In conclusion, among Malawian children cerebral malaria is characterized by lymphocyte activation and increased memory cells, consistent with immune priming. In contrast, there are reduced memory cells and less activation in severe malaria anemia. Further studies are required to understand whether these immunological profiles indicate predisposition of some children to one or another form of severe malaria.

  16. T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism in the marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niblack, G.D.; Kateley, J.R.; Gengozian, N.

    1977-01-01

    Marmosets are natural blood chimeras, this condition resulting from the high frequency of fraternal twinning and the consistent development of placental vascular anastomoses between the two embryos. Identification of chimerism by sex-chromosome analysis of cultured blood lymphocytes provided a means of determining the proportion of chimerism among T and B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were enriched for T or B cells by filtration through a nylon column (yields >95% T-cells) or inactivation of T lymphocytes by treatment with a goat anti-marmoset thymocyte antiserum in the presence of complement (yields >95% B cells). Mitogenic stimulation of these separated, enriched cell populations yielded metaphase plates which could be scored for percentage male and female cells. Tests on five different blood chimeras showed the T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism to be the same. Stimulation of blood lymphocytes with cells from another species of marmoset in a mixed lymphocyte culture test revealed the chimeric T-cell response (i.e., host and co-twin cells) to be similar to that obtained with a mitogenic lectin. The demonstration of equivalent T- and B-cell chimerism in these animals suggests derivation of these cells from a common stem cell pool and the response of both T-cell populations to an antigenic stimulus in proportions similar to their percentage chimerism suggests complete immunologic tolerance exists in this species for co-twin histocompatibility antigens.

  17. Role of the lpxM lipid A biosynthesis pathway gene in pathogenicity of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain E058 in a chicken infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiqing; Ling, Jielu; Gao, Qingqing; He, Hongbo; Mu, Xiaohui; Yan, Zhen; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-10-25

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major surface component of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), and is a possible virulence factor in avian infections caused by this organism. The contribution of the lpxM gene, which encodes a myristoyl transferase that catalyzes the final step in lipid A biosynthesis, to the pathogenicity of APEC has not previously been assessed. In this study, an isogenic lpxM mutant, E058ΔlpxM, was constructed in APEC O2 strain E058 and then characterized. Structural analysis of lipid A from the parental strain and derived mutant showed that E058ΔlpxM lacked one myristoyl (C14:0) on its lipid A molecules. No differences were observed between the mutant and wild-type in a series of tests including growth rate in different broths and ability to survive in specific-pathogen-free chicken serum. However, the mutant showed significantly reduced invasion and intracellular survival in the avian macrophage HD11 cell line (Porgans of birds challenged with the wild-type strain were more severe than in birds infected with the mutant. However, the E058ΔlpxM mutant showed a similar sensitivity pattern to the parental strain following exposure to several hydrophobic reagents. These results indicate that the lpxM gene is important for the pathogenicity and biological activity of APEC strain E058.

  18. Effect of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Odum, Niels; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    in concentrations 10 times higher than serum values obtained in clinical practice inhibited lymphocyte proliferation irreversibly. PYR in concentrations corresponding to clinical practice quickly and irreversibly suppressed the proliferation of PWM-stimulated cells, and more slowly the proliferation of PPD....... Sulphadoxine (SDX), added in vitro, had no effect on the lymphocytes, while SDX plus PYR had the same effect as PYR alone. Oral intake of SDX plus PYR (Fansidar) also blocked the thymidine synthesis of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes. The possible consequences of the findings for the use of PYR in malaria...

  19. Evaluation of lymphocyte subgroups in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, C; Yuca, S A; Yilmaz, N; Oner, A F; Caksen, H

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) remains to be fully elucidated, although it follows infection with a hypermutant defective M-protein measles virus. This study analysed peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups to determine their role in the pathophysiology of SSPE. It included 22 children with SSPE aged 2 - 15 years (patient group) and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy children (control group). In children or= 6 years old, there were no significant differences in the lymphocyte subgroups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a low CD4(+) lymphocyte count might be responsible for SSPE in younger children.

  20. Identification and Investigation of Native Chromosomal Fragile Sites in the Avian Cell Line DT40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Constanze

    Chromosomal fragile sites are a cytogenetic phenomenon of genome instability that manifests in gaps or breaks on metaphase chromosomes. Diverse mechanisms are involved in their expression but all of them originate from the idea of replication impairment as the main driver for fragility. Cellular ...... kingdom....