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Sample records for avian intrathoracic air

  1. Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina.

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    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia ("stomach ribs", which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1 Phase I-Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2 Phase II-Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac and caudal (abdominal air sac divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3 Phase III-Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4 Phase IV-Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic

  2. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

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    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  3. Intrathoracic splenosis. Intrathorakale Splenose

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    Farres, M.T. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Zentrales Inst. fuer Radiodiagnostik); Grabenwoeger, F.; Dock, W.; Klepetko, W. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Roentgenstation)

    1989-10-01

    Intrathoracic splenosis is an unusual event after diaphragmatic and splenic rupture, which causes intrathoracic mass lesions. It results from spontaneous autotransplantation of splenic tissue to serous surfaces. On chest X-rays, three different radiological appearances were distinguished: Pulmonary mass lesions, pleural lesions and mediastinal tumors. Since the radiological appearance is nonspecific, a diagnosis may only be suspected together with the characteristic anamnesis. In those cases scintigraphy should be performed because this method may verify the diagnosis. Here we report the radiological and clinical appearances of this entity by one of our own and 13 well-documented cases in the literature. (orig.).

  4. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

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    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  5. Avian Field guide and checklist for Kunsan Air Base, Korea.

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    Levenson, J. B.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Kunsan Air Base (AB). This on-going survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Kunsan AB, and the 8th Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred sixteen bird species representing 34 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Cultural Property Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Six species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's(KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, only ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected because the Eurasian Spoonbill, Peregrine Falcon, and Eurasian Oystercatcher are listed by both agencies. The primary objective of the avian survey at Kunsan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex C.4.a.(1-4) of the 8th Fighter Wing BASH Plan(8FWOPLAN 91-202). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Kunsan AB throughout the year, and from the survey results determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Kunsan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Kunsan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a and also that are favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  6. Extra- and intrathoracic access.

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    Lazarides, Miltos K; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    The most complex patients requiring vascular access are those with bilateral central vein occlusions. Endovascular repair of the central lesions when feasible allow upper extremity use for access. When endovascular repair is not feasible, femoral vein transposition should be the next choice. When lower limb access sites have been exhausted or are contraindicated as in obese patients and in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease, a range of extrathoracic "exotic" extra-anatomic access procedures as the necklace cross-chest arteriovenous (AV) grafts, the ipsilateral axillo-axillary loops, the brachial-jugular AV grafts, the axillo-femoral AV grafts or even intra-thoracic ones as the right atrial AV bypasses represent the vascular surgeon's last resort. The selection among those extra-anatomical chest-wall procedures should be based upon each patient's anatomy or patient-specific factors. PMID:24817469

  7. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

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    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  8. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy.

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    Tashiro, Yoshihiko; Murakami, Masahiko; Otsuka, Koji; Saito, Kazuhiko; Saito, Akira; Motegi, Kentaro; Date, Hiromi; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Tomotake; Goto, Satoru; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Fujimori, Akira; Watanabe, Makoto; Aoki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation. PMID:27403095

  9. Intrathoracic lipoma masquerading as subclavian artery trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munro, P T

    2012-02-03

    A 58 year old man was admitted to the accident and emergency department following an industrial accident in which he sustained a three part fracture dislocation of his right humerus. Chest radiography revealed a large mass in the right upper hemithorax and, when the patient became hypotensive, an emergency thoracotomy was performed. The mass was found to be a massive intrathoracic lipoma. This case shows how preexisting intrathoracic lesions may be mistaken for subclavian or great vessel trauma following violent shoulder girdle injury. The differential diagnosis of traumatic and non-traumatic intrathoracic mass lesions in chest radiography should be considered carefully.

  10. Intrathoracic Gastric Perforation in a Child

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    Mithat Günaydın

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paraesophageal hernia (PEH is a rare condition in children. The symptomatology of these patients is usually non-specific in the form of repeated attacks of respiratory infection and/or recurrent attacks of vomiting but can also lead to serious complications such as intrathoracic gastric strangulation and perforation. Case Report: A 6-year old girl was referred from a regional hospital for haematemesis and abdominal pain. She had fever and sepsis. Physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness, rebound and failure to thrive. Air-fluid level was seen in the posterior of left hemithorax at the AP and lateral chest radiographs. Thorax CT demonstrated pleural fluid, opacity, volume loss and left lung being pushed to the right of heart. Stomach and splenic flexura were moved to the left hemithorax. At laparatomy, stomach and splenic flexura had passed along the esophageal hiatus toward the chest and fundus of the stomach was perforated within the hernia sac. Greater curvature and fundus of the stomach were necrotic and hernia sac and intraabdominal space was filled with food. Stomach was pulled into the abdomen. Hernia sac was excised and defect was primarly repaired. Necrotic areas of the stomach were debrided. Then, perforation of stomach was repaired and gastrostomy was performed. Control esophagogastroduodenography revealed a 2 cm filling defect at the greater curvature and fundus of stomach due to previous gastric resection. Antireflux medical treatment was successful.Conclusion: PEH may be asymptomatic and encountered incidentally. It has the potential for serious complications such as strangulation and perforation which may present with unusual symptoms and physical findings reflecting the original pathology. Due to the risk of these serious complications, elective surgical repair is necessary after diagnosis. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 36-9

  11. The avian respiratory system: a unique model for studies of respiratory toxicosis and for monitoring air quality.

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    Brown, R. E.; Brain, J D; Wang, N.

    1997-01-01

    There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird's lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following exposure to toxic gases and airborne particulates. We suggest that these differences can be productively exploited to further our ...

  12. Extrathoracic and intrathoracic removal of O3 in tidal-breathing humans

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    Gerrity, T.R.; Weaver, R.A.; Berntsen, J.; House, D.E.; O' Neil, J.J.

    1988-07-01

    We measured the efficiency of O3 removal from inspired air by the extrathoracic and intrathoracic airways in 18 healthy, nonsmoking, young male volunteers. Removal efficiencies were measured as a function of O3 concentration (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 ppm), mode of breathing (nose only, mouth only, and oronasal), and respiration frequency (12 and 24 breaths/min). Subjects were placed in a controlled environmental chamber into which O3 was introduced. A small polyethylene tube was then inserted into the nose of each subject, with the tip positioned in the posterior pharynx. Samples of air were collected from the posterior pharynx through the tube and into a rapidly responding O3 analyzer yielding inspiratory and expiratory O3 concentrations in the posterior pharynx. The O3 removal efficiency of the extrathoracic airways was computed with the use of the inspiratory concentration and the chamber concentration, and intrathoracic removal efficiency was computed with the use of the inspiratory and expiratory concentrations. The mean extrathoracic removal efficiency for all measurements was 39.6 +/- 0.7% (SE), and the mean intrathoracic removal efficiency was 91.0 +/- 0.5%. Significantly less O3 was removed both extrathoracically and intrathoracically when subjects breathed at 24 breaths/min compared with 12 breaths/min (P less than 0.001). O3 concentration had no effect on extrathoracic removal efficiency, but there was a significantly greater intrathoracic removal efficiency at 0.4 ppm than at 0.1 ppm (P less than 0.05). Mode of breathing significantly affected extrathoracic removal efficiency, with less O3 removed during nasal breathing than during either mouth breathing or oronasal breathing (P less than 0.01).

  13. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

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    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  14. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

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    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:20804314

  15. Transaxillary minithoracotomy in intrathoracic surgery for 316 infants and children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒强; 张泽伟; 朱雄凯; 李建华; 林茹; 俞建根; 陈自力

    2003-01-01

    Objective To introduce the technique of intrathoracic surgery performed through vertical transaxillary minithoracotomy.Methods From March 1989 to March 2001, 316 patients underwent intrathoracic surgery through a vertical transaxillary minithoracotomy. 285 patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), 10 congenital esophageal atresia, 8 congenital pulmonary cysts, 6 congenital emphysema, 1 pulmonary sequestration, 5 mediastinal tumor, and 1 eventration of the diaphragm.Results All of the patients were successfully treated under satisfactory exposure. No operative mortality and severe postoperative complications occurred.Conclusions Intrathoracic surgery performed through a vertical transaxillary minithoracotomy appears to be less invasive, and is a simple, safe, cosmetically acceptable and efficient approach.

  16. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  17. Intrathoracic Caecal Perforation Presenting as Dyspnea

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    Vincent Granier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that is usually diagnosed in the neonatal period and incidentally in asymptomatic adults. Small bowel incarceration in a right-sided Bochdalek hernia is exceptional for an adult. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman was admitted for acute dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and fever. Five days before, she had been experiencing an episode of diffuse abdominal pain. The admission chest X-ray was interpreted as right pleural effusion and pneumothorax with left mediastinal shift. Chest tube drainage was purulent. The thoracoabdominal CT examination suspected an intestinal incarceration through a right diaphragmatic defect. At laparotomy, a right-sided Bochdalek hernia was confirmed with a complete necrosis of the incarcerated caecum. Ileocaecal resection was performed, but the patient died from delayed septic complications. Conclusion. Intrathoracic perforation of the caecum is a rare occurrence; delayed diagnosis due to misleading initial symptoms may lead to severe complications and poor prognosis.

  18. Hemothorax in Three Dogs with Intrathoracic Extracardiac Hemangiosarcoma.

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    Rutherford, Lynda; Stell, Anneliese; Smith, Ken; Kulendra, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic extracardiac hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is rare in dogs. This report describes three dogs with acute onset dyspnea due to hemorrhagic pleural effusion resulting from intrathoracic extracardiac masses, which were confirmed as HSA by histopathology. The dogs were stabilized with thoracocentesis and intravascular fluid resuscitation. Computed tomography identified intrathoracic masses, which were not originating from the heart or pulmonary parenchyma. Surgical exploration was performed in all cases. Case 1 was euthanized intraoperatively as the tumor could not be dissected from the aorta. In cases 2 and 3, hemostasis and resection of the tumors was successful. Case 2 was euthanized 1 mo after surgery and case 3 was alive at the time of writing, 5 mo postoperatively. Intrathoracic extracardiac HSA should be considered as a differential for nontraumatic hemothorax and surgical treatment can be palliative.

  19. Intrathoracic Rib Associated with Pulmonary Collapse in a Pediatric Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ribs are essential structures of the osseous thorax that provide certain significant information and aid interpretation of radiologic images in daily routine practice. Intrathoracic rib is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually discovered incidentally, but may cause in vain interventions in case of being unaware. We herein report an intrathoracic rib in a girl whose chest X-ray was strange enough to obtain a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanning for a definitive diagnosis afterwards

  20. Intrathoracic drainage of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer with a type II paraoesophageal hernia

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    Zonneveld Bas JGL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an incidence of less than 5%, type II paraesophageal hernias are one of the less common types of hiatal hernias. We report a case of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer which, due to a type II hiatus hernia, drained into the mediastinum. Case presentation A 61-year old Caucasian man presented with acute abdominal pain. On a conventional x-ray of the chest a large mediastinal air-fluid collection and free intra-abdominal air was seen. Additional computed tomography revealed a large intra-thoracic air-fluid collection with a type II paraesophageal hernia. An emergency upper midline laparotomy was performed and a perforated pre-pyloric gastric ulcer was treated with an omental patch repair. The patient fully recovered after 10 days and continues to do well. Conclusion Type II paraesophageal hernia is an uncommon diagnosis. The main risk is gastric volvulus and possible gastric torsion. Intrathoracic perforation of gastric ulcers due to a type II hiatus hernia is extremely rare and can be a diagnostic and treatment challenge.

  1. Removal of a giant intrathoracic cyst from the anterior mediastinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Van De Wauwer, Caroline; Timens, Wim; Mariani, Massimo A.

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old caucasian man with progressive dyspnea appeared to have a giant intrathoracic cyst in the anterior mediastinum encasing the heart and compressing both lungs. He underwent succesful removal of the cyst through a median sternotomy. Recovery was uneventful. Gross examination revealed a th

  2. Avian influenza

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    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  3. [Intrathoracic esophageal perforation of unknown cause in four horses].

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    Graubner, C; Gerber, V; Imhasly, A; Gorgas, D; Koch, C

    2011-10-01

    Three horses (age 17 - 23 years) were referred to the equine clinic of the University of Berne due to colic, fever, tachycardia and tachypnea. All horses showed pleural effusion. Clinical findings in 2 of the horses were highly suggestive of an intra-thoracic esophageal perforation. Severe septic pleuropneumonia without suspicion of an esophageal lesion was diagnosed in the 3rd horse. In addition, an 11 year old stallion was referred to the equine clinic for treatment of a presumptive large colon impaction. The horse was given laxatives after nasogastric intubation. Subsequent dramatic clinical deterioration and signs consistent with severe pleuropneumonia suggest that esophageal perforation had occurred when passing the nasogastric tube. All 4 horses were euthanized due to a poor prognosis. Esophageal perforation was diagnosed or confirmed post mortem in all cases. A hypertrophy of the tunica muscularis of the intra-thoracic esophagus was found in 3 of 4 horses. PMID:21971675

  4. Vitamin D levels in Indian children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

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    Deepchand Khandelwal; Nandita Gupta; Aparna Mukherjee; Rakesh Lodha; Varinder Singh; Grewal, Harleen M.S.; Shinjini Bhatnagar; Sarman Singh; Kabra, S. K.; Delhi Pediatric TB Study Group

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Deficiency of vitamin D, an immunomodulator agent, is associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculosis in adults, but only limited studies are available in the paediatric age group, especially regarding association of vitamin D with type and outcome of tuberculosis. We conducted this study to determine the baseline 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in children suffering from intrathoracic tuberculosis and its association with type and outcome of tuberculosis. M...

  5. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

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    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland.

  6. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  7. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathor...

  8. Acute Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus due to Diaphragmatic Hernia: A Rare Emergency Easily Overlooked

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    Hyung Hun Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute intrathoracic gastric volvulus occurs when the stomach undergoes organoaxial torsion in the chest due to either concomitant enlargement of the hiatus or a diaphragmatic hernia. Iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia can occur after hiatal hernia repair and other surgical procedures, such as nephrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and splenopancreatectomy. We describe a 49-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department with acute moderate epigastric soreness and vomiting. She had undergone extensive gynecologic surgery including splenectomy 1 year before. The chest radiograph obtained in the emergency department demonstrated an elevated gastric air-fluid level in the left lower lung field. An urgent gastroscopy showed twisted structural abnormality of the stomach body. A computed tomography scan demonstrated the distended stomach, located in the left lower hemithorax through a left diaphragmatic defect. Emergent transthoracic repair was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the patient did not experience any pain or difficulty with eating.

  9. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

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    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  10. A case of intrathoracic ectopic liver i a patient without diaphragmetic defect

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    Lee, Sang Geun; Ryu, Dae Shick; Park, Man Soo; Kang, Chae Hoon; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong Rock [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    We reported a patient with intrathoracic ectopic liver without diaphragmatic defect that was incidentally detected on chest radiography. Chest dynamic CT showed a subpleural mass abutting the diaphragm with isodense enhancement to liver tissue during arterial and delayed images, suggesting intrathoracic ectopic liver.

  11. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication for intrathoracic migration of wrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic fundoplication is fast emerging as the treatment of choice of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, a complication peculiar to laparoscopic surgery for this disease is the intrathoracic migration of the wrap. This article describes a case of a male patient who developed this particular complication after laparoscopic total fundoplication. Following a trauma, wrap migration occurred. The typical history and symptomatology is described. The classical Barium swallow picture is enclosed. Laparoscopic redo fundoplication was carried out. The difficulties encountered are described. Postoperative wrap migration can be suspected clinically by the presence of a precipitating event and typical symptomatology. Confirmation is by a Barium swallow. Treatment is by redo surgery.

  12. Vitamin D levels in Indian children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepchand Khandelwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Deficiency of vitamin D, an immunomodulator agent, is associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculosis in adults, but only limited studies are available in the paediatric age group, especially regarding association of vitamin D with type and outcome of tuberculosis. We conducted this study to determine the baseline 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in children suffering from intrathoracic tuberculosis and its association with type and outcome of tuberculosis. Methods: Children with intrathoracic tuberculosis, diagnosed on the basis of clinico-radiological criteria, were enrolled as part of a randomized controlled trial on micronutrient supplementation in paediatric tuberculosis patients. Levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D were measured in serum samples collected prior to starting antitubercular therapy by chemiluminescent immunoassay technology. Results: Two hundred sixty six children (mean age of 106.9 ± 43.7 months; 57.1% girls were enrolled. Chest X-ray was suggestive of primary pulmonary complex, progressive disease and pleural effusion in 81 (30.5%, 149 (56% and 36 (13.5% subjects, respectively. Median serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level was 8 ng/ml (IQR 5, 12. One hundred and eighty six (69.9% children were vitamin D deficient (serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D <12 ng/ml, 55 (20.7% were insufficient (12 to <20 ng/ml and 25 (9.4% were vitamin D sufficient (≥ 20 ng/ml. Levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D were similar in all three types of intrathoracic tuberculosis, and in microbiologically confirmed and probable cases. Levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D did not significantly affect outcome of the disease. Children who were deficient or insufficient were less likely to convert (become smear/culture negative at two months as compared to those who were 25-hydroxy vitamin D sufficient ( p <0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Majority of Indian children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were deficient in vitamin D. Type of

  13. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds of ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  14. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  15. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  16. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  17. Implicit mechanistic role of the collagen, smooth muscle, and elastic tissue components in strengthening the air and blood capillaries of the avian lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, John N; Jimoh, Sikiru A; Hosie, Margo

    2010-11-01

    To identify the forces that may exist in the parabronchus of the avian lung and that which may explain the reported strengths of the terminal respiratory units, the air capillaries and the blood capillaries, the arrangement of the parabronchial collagen fibers (CF) of the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus was investigated by discriminatory staining, selective alkali digestion, and vascular casting followed by alkali digestion. On the luminal circumference, the atrial and the infundibular CF are directly connected to the smooth muscle fibers and the elastic tissue fibers. The CF in this part of the parabronchus form the internal column (the axial scaffold), whereas the CF in the interparabronchial septa and those associated with the walls of the interparabronchial blood vessels form the external, i.e. the peripheral, parabronchial CF scaffold. Thin CF penetrate the exchange tissue directly from the interparabronchial septa and indirectly by accompanying the intraparabronchial blood vessels. Forming a dense network that supports the air and blood capillaries, the CF weave through the exchange tissue. The exchange tissue, specifically the air and blood capillaries, is effectively suspended between CF pillars by an intricate system of thin CF, elastic and smooth muscle fibers. The CF course through the basement membranes of the walls of the blood and air capillaries. Based on the architecture of the smooth muscle fibers, the CF, the elastic muscle fibers, and structures like the interparabronchial septa and their associated blood vessels, it is envisaged that dynamic tensional, resistive, and compressive forces exist in the parabronchus, forming a tensegrity (tension integrity) system that gives the lung rigidity while strengthening the air and blood capillaries. PMID:20819116

  18. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    The avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is a specialized structure located rather inaccessibly in an air sac close to the heart where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi. The syrinx of different avian taxa varies so much in position and morphology that it has been used for taxonomy. It...

  19. Right intrathoracic stomach secondary to congenital hiatal hernia with organoaxial torsion: a report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Kim, Mi Ran; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Byoung Young; Lee, Jong Gil [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Right intrathoracic stomach associated with organoaxial torsion is a rare form of congenital hiatal hernia. We report the radiologic findings in two cases of complete or partial right intrathoracic stomach secondary to congenital hiatal hernia. The barium meal test demonstrated the presence of complete or partial right intrathoracic stomach and non-obstructive organoaxial torsion with the greater curvature lying against the right chest wall. The esophagogastric junction was located above the diaphragm. CT revealed a cystic mass in the right posterior mediastinum. This cystic lesion should be differentiated from other congenital mediastinal cysts.

  20. Intrathoracic cystic hygroma with sudden respiratory distress mimicking pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Goneppanavar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign cystic lesions such as cystic hygroma commonly manifest as progressively increasing swelling in the neck with or without compression effects. Rarely, they present with sudden respiratory distress in instances such as infection or haematoma resulting in a sudden increase in the size of the tumour. We present a seven month old child with sudden onset respiratory distress without any obvious neck swelling. The chest X ray findings correlated with the history and were suggestive of right upper lobe pneumonia that leads to a wrong diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia. However, presence of a deviated trachea in the neck raised a suspicion of possible mass. Computed tomogram showed a large cystic mass in the right upper mediastinum with tracheal collapse. We caution intensivists and paediatricians that sudden respiratory distress in infants in the absence of obvious neck swelling does not rule out possibility of intrathoracic tumour.

  1. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Zu Wu; Li-Min Huang

    2005-01-01

    Influenza is an old disease but remains vital nowadays. Three types of influenza viruses,namely A, B, C, have been identified; among them influenza A virus has pandemic potential.The first outbreak of human illness due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) occurred in1997 in Hong Kong with a mortality of 30%. The most recent outbreak of the avian influenzaepidemic has been going on in Asian countries since 2003. As of March 2005, 44 incidentalhuman infections and 32 deaths have been documented. Hum...

  2. Role of magnetic resonance venography in assessment of intra-thoracic central veins in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdel Latif

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: MRV is a highly sensitive technique in the diagnosis of patency and steno-occlusive disease of intrathoracic central veins and may be used as an alternative to DSV for the abnormalities of central veins in hemodialysis patients.

  3. Pectoral myoplasty for recurrent pneumothorax: an extrathoracic solution to an intrathoracic problem.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilby, E. M.; McLean, N. R.; Morritt, G N

    1999-01-01

    The recurrence rate of spontaneous pneumothorax in patients with underlying lung disease can be as high as 50%. We present a novel method of treatment for recurrent pneumothorax based on the intrathoracic transfer of an extrathoracic muscle flap.

  4. A Pleuroperitoneal Bleb Mimicking an Intrathoracic Mass in a Cirrhotic Patient: Three Case Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu; Jeon, Yong Sun [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    In a cirrhotic patient, an increase in intra-abdominal pressure due to the presence of ascites might lead to a small pleuroperitoneal bleb of the peritoneum from congenital defects in the hemithorax. This lesion may appear as an intrathoracic mass as seen on a simple chest radiograph. A CT image may be helpful to differentiate an ascitic pleuroperitoneal bleb from an intrathoracic mass. We present three cases of a pleuroperitoneal bleb in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites.

  5. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  6. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  7. Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza A viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in China, 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Huang, Guofeng; Zou, Lirong; Song, Yingchao; Gopinath, Divya; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Min; Lin, Jinyan; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lindsley, William G.; Ke, Changwen; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Yen, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human–poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. We assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in Guangzhou city and in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, during 2014 and 2015. Viral genome and infectious avian influenza A viruses of H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes were detected predominantly from particles larger or equal to 1 μm in diameter in the air sampled with cyclone-based bioaerosol samplers at the live poultry markets in Guangzhou. Influenza A(H9N2) viruses were ubiquitously isolated every month during the study period from air and environmental swabs, and different lineages of H9N2 virus were isolated from markets where chickens and minor land-based poultry were sold. The use of de-feathering devices increased the quantity of virus-laden airborne particles while market closure reduced the amount of such particles. The results highlight the possibility of airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses among poultry or from poultry to humans within such settings. This may explain epidemiological observations in which some patients with H7N9 infection reported being in markets but no direct contact with live poultry or poultry stalls. PMID:27608369

  8. Investigation of normal intrathoracic trachea during dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the diameters and cross-sectional areas, as well as the shape of normal adult intrathoracic trachea during forced respiration in the Chinese. Materials and methods: 25 male volunteers were studied with dynamic CT, using electron beam CT scanner, at a level 2 cm above aortic arch, with 3 mm collimation. Ten 100-msec dynamic scans were obtained at 500-msec intervals during 5.5-second period as the volunteers performed forced inspiration and expiration vital capacity maneuvers. Results: The mean cross-sectional area, sagittal and coronal diameter of the trachea decreased dynamically from 228.36 mm2, 18.28 mm and 16.97 mm at end inspiration to 191.24 mm2, 15.62 mm and 16.19 mm at end expiration respectively. The average cross-section area decreased by 15.48% +- 9.6% between inspiration and expiration. The shape of trachea was rounded or elliptical on inspiration image and horseshoe shaped on end of expiration. Conclusion: The dynamic CT is ideally suited for the study of tracheal dimensions and shape during respiration maneuvers. Among the Chinese, if the cross-sectional area of trachea decrease by more than 50% from inspiration to expiration, diagnosis of tracheomalacia can be established

  9. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  10. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Stephen E. [Kapiolani Children' s Hospital, The Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, The Department' s of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Feldman, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Seattle Children' s Protection Program, Children' s Protection Program, M/S M2-10, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  11. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  12. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%). Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%). AI cases...

  13. The influence of clothing on human intrathoracic pressure during airblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A J; Jaeger, J J; Phillips, Y Y; Yelverton, J T; Richmond, D R

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to airblast can result in injury to the lungs and other gas-containing organs. The mechanism of lung injury is not clearly understood, but may be related to the rapid increase in intrathoracic pressure (ITP) which is produced when the blast wave strikes the chest wall. The purpose of this study was to determine if ITP during airblast would be influenced by several different types of protective clothing. Ten healthy young male volunteers were exposed to airblast while standing face-on and wearing 1) military fatigues (control condition); 2) fatigues with field jacket; 3) fatigues with ballistic armor vest; 4) fatigues with ceramic vest; 5) fatigues with ceramic vest over the ballistic vest. The incident blast waves simulated artillery muzzle blast. In each subject, an esophageal strain-gauge pressure transducer measured ITP during the blast. The pressure signal was analyzed for ITPmax, and maximum rate of rise of ITP (dP X dt max-1). In addition, the power density spectra of each ITP wave was computed and the peak frequency (fp) and centroid frequency (fc) were calculated. When the subjects wore the ballistic vest, the mean ITPmax was higher (p less than 0.05) than when they were exposed to airblast in fatigues alone. ITPmax was not influenced by the other clothing ensembles. The mean dP X dtmax-1 was not significantly different with any protective clothing ensemble. Clothing had no significant effect of fp, but with the ballistic vest, the mean calculated fc was higher (p less than 0.05) than that for the fatigues alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3977804

  14. Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration 
in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Metastasis from Extrapulmonary Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jiayuan; Bao, Liang; Jiajun TENG; Runbo ZHONG; Weiqiong WENG; Zhang, Qin; Han, Baohui

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been widely applied in diagnosing mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. This study is further to evaluate value and safety of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. Methods Prospectively analysis of 41 patients suspected intrathoracic metastasis from previous diagnosed/concurrent extrapulmonary malignancies in Shanghai Chest Hospital, with radiologic ...

  15. Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases on high-resolution chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital]. E-mail: isabela.silva@vch.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-05-15

    Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases are very common. The frequency of intrathoracic manifestations and the patterns of abnormality are variable depending on the type of collagen vascular disease and may simultaneously involve one or more of the following: lung parenchyma, airways, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, and pleura. The most common pulmonary manifestations are diffuse interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension which together represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality of these patients. Pulmonary, airway and pleural involvement may also be secondary to the disease therapy, or result from bacterial pneumonia or opportunistic infection. In the present review, the authors summarize the main intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases and the differential diagnosis on high-resolution chest computed tomography. (author)

  16. Intrathoracic anastomotic leakage after gastroesophageal cancer resection is associated with increased risk of recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen C; Calatayud, Dan; Jensen, Lone S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intrathoracic anastomotic leakage after intended curative resection for cancer in the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction has a negative impact on long-term survival. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an anastomotic leakage was associated with an increased recurrence ......]: 1.17-2.29, P = .004) and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.23-2.05, P cancer resection.......OBJECTIVE: Intrathoracic anastomotic leakage after intended curative resection for cancer in the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction has a negative impact on long-term survival. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an anastomotic leakage was associated with an increased recurrence...

  17. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1 Stefano Diciotti,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Simone Lombardo,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Matteo Paoletti,1 Mario Mascalchi,3 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy; 3Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28 and in females (n=27. Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10 showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second, and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD

  18. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  19. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  20. Early Monitoring of the Viability of the Buried Intrathoracic Omental Flap: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Wingerden; J.M.P. Collins; E.H. Coret; P.J.J. Schröder

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The value of mobile, high-resolution gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the immediate postoperative, intensive care setting for monitoring the buried flap and vascular pedicle of the laparoscopic or transdiaphragmatic harvested omentum for intrathoracic reconstruction was

  1. Fe-52 imaging of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis in a patient with beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B K; Jacobs, P; Byrne, M J; Bird, A R; Boniaczszuk, J

    1995-07-01

    Fe-52 scintigraphy was used to confirm extramedullary hematopoiesis in a patient with beta-thalassemia and intrathoracic masses. Imaging was performed on a standard gamma camera with a high-energy collimator. Tc-99m labeled tin colloid and In-111 chloride scintigraphy failed to reveal uptake by the masses. The exclusion of malignancy obviated the need for invasive diagnostic measures. PMID:7554666

  2. High-resolution manometry findings in patients with an intrathoracic stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelo, Vanderlei; Mardiros Herbella, Fernando Augusto; Patti, Marco G

    2015-04-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare finding. The real value of the high-resolution manometry (HRM) in the preoperative evaluation of these patients has not yet being fully tested. This study aims to evaluate: 1) the HRM pattern of patients with an intrathoracic stomach; and 2) HRM findings as predictors for prosthetic reinforcement of the hiatus. We reviewed 33 patients (27 women, mean age 66 years) with an intrathoracic stomach who underwent HRM. Fifteen patients did the HRM as part of preoperative workup and were operated on in our institution. All patients were submitted to a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. HRM results show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was transposed in all patients. Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in 21 (63%) patients. The length of the hernia was 4 ± 2 cm (range, 1 to 9 cm). LES oscillation was observed in 23 (69%) patients with a mean of 1 ± 0.4 cm (range, 0.4 to 2 cm). Hiatal mesh reinforcement was necessary in five (33%) of the operated patients. HRM findings did not predict hiatal mesh reinforcement. Our results show that: 1) HRM has a poor sensibility for hiatal hernia diagnosis; 2) half of the patients with an intrathoracic stomach have a normal HRM; and 3) HRM does not predict mesh hiatal hernia repair. PMID:25831180

  3. High-resolution manometry findings in patients with an intrathoracic stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelo, Vanderlei; Mardiros Herbella, Fernando Augusto; Patti, Marco G

    2015-04-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare finding. The real value of the high-resolution manometry (HRM) in the preoperative evaluation of these patients has not yet being fully tested. This study aims to evaluate: 1) the HRM pattern of patients with an intrathoracic stomach; and 2) HRM findings as predictors for prosthetic reinforcement of the hiatus. We reviewed 33 patients (27 women, mean age 66 years) with an intrathoracic stomach who underwent HRM. Fifteen patients did the HRM as part of preoperative workup and were operated on in our institution. All patients were submitted to a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. HRM results show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was transposed in all patients. Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in 21 (63%) patients. The length of the hernia was 4 ± 2 cm (range, 1 to 9 cm). LES oscillation was observed in 23 (69%) patients with a mean of 1 ± 0.4 cm (range, 0.4 to 2 cm). Hiatal mesh reinforcement was necessary in five (33%) of the operated patients. HRM findings did not predict hiatal mesh reinforcement. Our results show that: 1) HRM has a poor sensibility for hiatal hernia diagnosis; 2) half of the patients with an intrathoracic stomach have a normal HRM; and 3) HRM does not predict mesh hiatal hernia repair.

  4. Late return of function after intrathoracic torsion of the spleen in congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Pedersen, P V

    1986-01-01

    , and the spleen were intrathoracic. There was a 720 degree torsion of the splenic pedicle. After reduction, the spleen was placed in the abdomen. At scintiscans 12 days and 14 weeks after operation, no certain splenic function was demonstrated, but at follow-up up 21/2 years later the splenic scan was normal....

  5. Deepgoing study on intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenitis in adults using multidetector CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-yue; LIU Li; LAI Li-sha; DONG Yun-xu; LIANG Wen-wei; QIN Jie

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies on intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenitis in adults are confined to the preliminary CT findings with ordinary CT and ordinary spiral CT.There has been no deepgoing study of multidetector CT to date.Multidetector CT could contribute to better imaging of intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenitis in adults.The purpose of this study was to explore the multidetector CT features of intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenitis in adults, and the correlation with clinical symptoms and pathologic changes.Methods Multidetector CT findings from 42 consecutive adult patients with intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenitis were analyzed retrospectively with regard to locations, sizes, numbers, shapes, margins, and densities reviewing precontrast and enhanced images.CT results were correlated with clinical symptoms and pathologic results (n=37).Results One hundred and eighty-five intrathoracic lymph nodes that had tuberculous lymphadenitis in 42 patients were distributed mainly in regions 4R (n=37), 2R (n=33), 7 (n=31) and 10R (n=21), more than 2 regions were implicated in 34 patients.One hundred and twenty-two (72.2%) of the tuberculous lymphadenitis without confluence were oval or round with clear margins.On precontrast scanning, 78.4% of tuberculous lymphadenitis had a homogeneous density.Seven enhancement patterns were demonstrated in 169 tuberculous lymphadenitis from 37 patients with pathologic results:homogeneous enhancement with no clinical symptom (n=12), corresponded pathologically to tuberculous hyperplasia without caseous necrosis; heterogeneous enhancement with a small central no enhancement area, slight clinical symptoms (n=22), tuberculous granulomas with a little caseous necroses; peripheral irregular thick wall enhancement with a central area with no enhancement, slight clinical symptoms (n=52), tuberculous granulomas with some caseous necroses in the center; peripheral thin rim enhancement with a central area having no enhancement, moderate clinical

  6. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  7. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  8. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  9. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  10. Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration 
in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Metastasis from Extrapulmonary Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan SUN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA has been widely applied in diagnosing mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. This study is further to evaluate value and safety of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. Methods Prospectively analysis of 41 patients suspected intrathoracic metastasis from previous diagnosed/concurrent extrapulmonary malignancies in Shanghai Chest Hospital, with radiologic findings showing mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargement or intrapulmonary lesion requiring EBUS-TBNA examination for pathological diagnosis. Results 41 candidate patients enrolled, and 67 mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes and 5 intrapulmonary lesions were aspirated. 14 intrathoracic metastasis, 10 primary lung cancer, 9 reactive lymphadenitis, 4 sarcoid-like reactions, and 1 tuberculosis was diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA. Sensitivity and accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis was 87.50% and 95.12%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed in 18 malignant tumors to obtain definite type or origin, twelve intrathoracic metastasis and 6 primary lung cancer were further confirmed. Conclusion EBUS-TBNA is a safe, effective method for the diagnosis of intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. IHC can provide additional evidence for distinguishing extrapulmonary malignancy from primary lung cancer.

  11. Large hiatal hernia in infancy with right intrathoracic stomach along with left sided morgagni hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Uzma; Mazhar, Naveed; Zameer, Shahla

    2014-11-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a very common intrathoracic fetal anomaly with Morgagni hernia typically seen on right side anteriorly and Bochdalek hernia on left side posteriorly, because of the protective effects of liver and heart on either side respectively. Hiatal hernias range from herniation of a small portion of stomach into thoracic cavity to herniation of entire stomach into the left thoracic cavity. Very rarely the herniated stomach has been reported in the right thoracic cavity. Early diagnosis and treatment of all diaphragmatic hernias is essential to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. We present a very rare and interesting case of an 18 months old baby girl with reverse scenarios. She had a large hiatal hernia with right intrathoracic stomach along with a left sided Morgagni hernia in combination.

  12. Approach to management of the patient with primary or secondary intrathoracic goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo; Bonnema, Steen J

    2010-12-01

    Intrathoracic (substernal) goiter, depending on definition, is seen in up to 45% of all patients operated for goiter. It can either be primary (ectopic thyroid tissue detached from a cervical thyroid mass), which is very rare (1%), or (more commonly) secondary, where a portion of the goiter extends retrosternally. There is no consensus on diagnostic or therapeutic management, partly because many are asymptomatic. Classification involves functional characterization with serum TSH and morphological characterization with diagnostic imaging and cytology to rule out malignancy, which is not more common than in cervical goiters. Pulmonary function is often affected in asymptomatic individuals also. Therefore, but also because natural history is continuous growth and evolution from euthyroidism to hyperthyroidism, most experts recommend therapy. In primary as well as secondary intrathoracic goiter, the therapy of choice is total/near-total thyroidectomy and subsequent levothyroxine substitution. Data suggest that complications are only slightly more prevalent than in cervical goiters. Although levothyroxine is not recommended for goiter shrinkage, there is increasing focus on radioactive iodine as an alternative to surgery in secondary intrathoracic goiters. Here it can reduce thyroid size by on average 40% after 1 yr and improve respiratory function and quality of life. Recent studies show that recombinant human TSH, currently used off-label, can augment the radioiodine-related goiter shrinkage by 30-50%. With currently used doses of recombinant human TSH, the side effects, besides hypothyroidism, are rare and mild. Future studies should also explore the use of radioiodine in primary intrathoracic goiter and compare surgery and radioiodine, head to head. PMID:21131536

  13. Extramedullary haematopoiesis presented as intrathoracic tumour in a patient with alpha-thalassaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Bobylev, Dmitry; Zhang, Ruoyu; Haverich, Axel; Krueger, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a case of extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) presenting as an intrathoracic tumour in a patient with alpha-thalassaemia. CT scan and MRI of the chest were obtained and followed by tumour excision. Compared to beta-thalassaemia, only two cases of EMH in patients with alpha-thalassaemia have been described in the literature. A possible reason for this disparity is discussed.

  14. 3D intrathoracic region definition and its application to PET-CT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Recently developed integrated PET-CT scanners give co-registered multimodal data sets that offer complementary three-dimensional (3D) digital images of the chest. PET (positron emission tomography) imaging gives highly specific functional information of suspect cancer sites, while CT (X-ray computed tomography) gives associated anatomical detail. Because the 3D CT and PET scans generally span the body from the eyes to the knees, accurate definition of the intrathoracic region is vital for focusing attention to the central-chest region. In this way, diagnostically important regions of interest (ROIs), such as central-chest lymph nodes and cancer nodules, can be more efficiently isolated. We propose a method for automatic segmentation of the intrathoracic region from a given co-registered 3D PET-CT study. Using the 3D CT scan as input, the method begins by finding an initial intrathoracic region boundary for a given 2D CT section. Next, active contour analysis, driven by a cost function depending on local image gradient, gradient-direction, and contour shape features, iteratively estimates the contours spanning the intrathoracic region on neighboring 2D CT sections. This process continues until the complete region is defined. We next present an interactive system that employs the segmentation method for focused 3D PET-CT chest image analysis. A validation study over a series of PET-CT studies reveals that the segmentation method gives a Dice index accuracy of less than 98%. In addition, further results demonstrate the utility of the method for focused 3D PET-CT chest image analysis, ROI definition, and visualization.

  15. Single center experience with intrathoracic impedance monitoring in chronic heart failure patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Qing; HUA Wei; DING Li-gang; CHEN Ke-ping; WANG Jing; WANG Fang-zheng; ZHANG Shu

    2011-01-01

    Background The Medtronic InSync Sentry is the first available cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D)which can monitor fluid status by measuring intrathoracic impedance. This study was designed to observe the effectiveness of intrathoracic impedance monitoring on detecting aggravation of heart failure.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 14 consecutive patients. Patients were regularly followed up every 3-6 months after the implantation. At each visit, interrogation of the device was done. Patients were instructed to inform the researcher on hearing the device alert, and to take extra 40 milligrams of furosemidum if they had aggravated symptoms later. If the symptoms could not be relieved, they were asked to see a doctor. Data about heart failure hospitalization were collected from the medical record.Results During 18-48 months follow-up, a total of 7 patients encountered 28 alert events. On one hand, alert events appeared before all deteriorated symptoms and heart failure hospitalizations. On the other hand, there were 23 alerts followed by deterioration of heart failure symptoms, and 2 alerts related to 2 hospitalizations caused by pulmonary infection in one patient. Only 5 patients were hospitalized 10 times for deterioration of cardiac function.Conclusion The function of intrathoracic impedance monitoring is reliable in predicting deterioration of heart failure.

  16. Re-stenting treatment for esophagotracheal fistula caused by intrathoracic gastroesophageal anastomosis stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the curative effect of stent replacement for the treatment of esophagotracheal fistula which occurred after the stent implantation for stenosis of intrathoracic gastroesophageal anastomotic stoma. Methods: Six patients with esophagotracheal fistula occurred after stent placement for stenosis of intrathoracic gastroesophageal anastomotic stoma were enrolled in this study. Under X-ray monitoring, the previous stent was taken out and a new, longer, covered stent was inserted into the esophagus in such a way that the stent would not be angled with the esophagus. Results: The previous stent was successfully taken out in all patients. No serious complications such as esophageal rupture, mediastinal abscess, hemorrhage, apnoea or dyspnea occurred. The replacement of the covered stent, which was 20-40 mm longer than the previous one, was also successfully performed. All the patients complained different degrees of, but tolerable, pharyngeal pain after the stenting procedure, however, the pain was markedly relieved after symptomatic treatment. Conclusion: Esophagotracheal fistula occurred after the stent implantation for stenosis of intrathoracic gastroesophageal anastomotic stoma can be effectively treated by replacing a longer covered stent. (authors)

  17. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhiping; Li Jinsong; Zhang Yandong; Li Lin; Ma Limin; Li Dan; Gao Feng; Xia Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used ...

  18. Intrathoracic major vessels, trachea and main bronchi : the effect of respiration on size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of respiration on the sizes of intrathoracic vasculature, and the trachea,and the main bronchus. Methods and Methods : Seventeen volunteers (10 males aged 20-39 years and 7 females aged 20-39 years) underwent spiral CT, between the apex and lowest base of the lung, collimation was 10 mm, pitch was 1,and images were obtained at breath hold forced end-inspiration and breath hold forced end-expiration. Crosssecional areas or diameters were measured in each respiration state at the aorta (ascending, descending, lower thoracic) and great branches, the IVC (thoracic, abdominal), the SVC, pulmonary artery (right main, left descending) and the tracheobronchus (trachea, left upper bronchus). Changes in the size of vessels and airways between the respiration states were evaluated and compared between inspiration and expiration. Results : During breath-hold forced end-inspiration CT, the ascending, descending, and lower thoracic aorta and its branches(brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian) as well as the thoracic IVC and SVC and the right main and left descending pulmonary arteries decreased in size: during breath-hold forced end-expiration CT, the size of all these vessels increased. For the trachea, left upper lobe bronchus and abdominal IVC, the situation was reversed. Statistically significant changes(p<0.05) were noted in the ascending aorta and descending aorta,the lower thoracic aorta, the thoracic and abdominal IVC, the SVC, the right main and left pulmonary arteries, and the trachea. Conclusion : During respiration, changes in the size of the thoracic vasculature and airways is probably due to changes in intrathoracic pressure. In the measurement and diagnosis of stenosis or dilatation in the intrathoracic vesculature and airways, respiration states should therefore be considered

  19. Intrathoracic major vessels, trachea and main bronchi : the effect of respiration on size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kul Ho; Kwak, Byung Kook; Choi, Chi Hoon; Park, Yong Ok; Goo, Hee Yeoun Goo; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of respiration on the sizes of intrathoracic vasculature, and the trachea,and the main bronchus. Methods and Methods : Seventeen volunteers (10 males aged 20-39 years and 7 females aged 20-39 years) underwent spiral CT, between the apex and lowest base of the lung, collimation was 10 mm, pitch was 1,and images were obtained at breath hold forced end-inspiration and breath hold forced end-expiration. Crosssecional areas or diameters were measured in each respiration state at the aorta (ascending, descending, lower thoracic) and great branches, the IVC (thoracic, abdominal), the SVC, pulmonary artery (right main, left descending) and the tracheobronchus (trachea, left upper bronchus). Changes in the size of vessels and airways between the respiration states were evaluated and compared between inspiration and expiration. Results : During breath-hold forced end-inspiration CT, the ascending, descending, and lower thoracic aorta and its branches(brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian) as well as the thoracic IVC and SVC and the right main and left descending pulmonary arteries decreased in size: during breath-hold forced end-expiration CT, the size of all these vessels increased. For the trachea, left upper lobe bronchus and abdominal IVC, the situation was reversed. Statistically significant changes(p<0.05) were noted in the ascending aorta and descending aorta,the lower thoracic aorta, the thoracic and abdominal IVC, the SVC, the right main and left pulmonary arteries, and the trachea. Conclusion : During respiration, changes in the size of the thoracic vasculature and airways is probably due to changes in intrathoracic pressure. In the measurement and diagnosis of stenosis or dilatation in the intrathoracic vesculature and airways, respiration states should therefore be considered.

  20. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of undiagnosed intrathoracic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Jens; Ømark, Henrik; Hakami, Ardeshir;

    2009-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-FNA) is a minimally invasive method used routinely for mediastinal staging of patients with lung cancer. We have used it in 135 consecutive patients with a radiologically suspicious intrathoracic lesion that remained...... undiagnosed despite bronchoscopy and CT-guided fine-needle aspiration (CT-FNA). There was no operative mortality or surgical complications. In 98 patients with a suspicious lesion in the lung parenchyma, adequate tissue was obtained in 83 patients (85%) and in 37 patients with enlarged lymph nodes...

  1. Delayed presentation of intrathoracic esophageal perforation after pneumatic dilation for achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Tzung Lin; Wei-Chen Tai; King-Wah Chiu; Yeh-Pin Chou; Ming-Chao Tsai; Tsung-Hui Hu; Chuan-Mo Lee; Chi-Sin Changchien; Seng-Kee Chuah

    2009-01-01

    Pneumatic dilation (PD) is considered to be a safe and effective first line therapy for achalasia. The major adverse event caused by PD is esophageal perforation but an immediate gastrografin test may not always detect a perforation. It has been reported that delayed management of perforation for more than 24 h is associated with high mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice within 24 h, but the management of delayed perforation remains controversial. Hereby, we report a delayed presentation of intrathoracic esophageal perforation following PD in a 48-year-old woman who suffered from achalasia. She completely recovered after intensive medical care. A review of the literature is also discussed.

  2. A cytopathological approach to diagnosing intrathoracic lymphadenopathy using aspirates obtained by the transbronchial needle aspiration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Yaşar, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-03-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an effective, safe and cost-effective technique that allows for sampling of the mediastinal lymph node and peribronchial lesions. It is used in bronchogenic carcinoma staging, peribronchial and submucosal lesions, diagnosis of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, differentiating submucosal invasion, and in diagnosing mediastinal masses. From our experience at the University of Abant Izzet Baysal and from a review of the literature, we discuss the adequacy and the differential diagnosis of aspiration material obtained by TBNA and cytopathological-histopathological evaluation in intrathoracic lymphadenopathies to increase the success rate of the TBNA method. PMID:27266286

  3. Two rare cases of intrathoracic splenosis and subcutaneous splenosis: Spleen scintigraphy avoided the need for invasive procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Ji Min; Lee, Sang Mi; Lyu, Ji Won; Lee, Moon Soo [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ji Youn [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seonam University College of Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Splenosis is defined as the acquired heterotopic autotransplantation of splenic tissue in other sites of the body after splenic rupture, usually due to either traumatic or iatrogenic causes. It is often found incidentally and is usually asymptomatic. These implants are not limited to the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, however, and splenosis in other locations can mimic various pathologic entities. There are several reports on abdominal splenosis, but intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis are rare. We report two cases of intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis that were diagnosed using spleen scintigraphy, avoiding the need for an invasive procedure.

  4. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Codd, Jonathan R.; Phillip L. Manning; Mark A Norell; Perry, Steven F.

    2007-01-01

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of ‘avian’ characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in th...

  5. Radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer with postoperative intrathoracic recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed patients with intrathoracic recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer after surgery, with reference to the feasibility of radiotherapy. The series consisted of 46 patients (39 males and 7 females) treated by radiotherapy from 1982 to 1995. Histology included squamous cell carcinoma (28 patients), adenocarcinoma (17), and large cell carcinoma (1). Clinical stage by UICC classification (1987) was as follows: stage I (2 patients), stage II (1), stage IIIa (13), stage IIIb (23), and stage IV (7). Recurrences were noted in bronchial stump (18 patients) and surgical scar (4). Metastases occurred in hilar-mediastinal lymphnodes (15), lung fields (7), and pleuropericardium (2). The mean interval from surgery to recurrence was 27 months. Delivered dose ranged from 45 to 80 Gy, and 19 patients received combined chemotherapy. Therapeutic results were as follows: complete response in 16 patients, partial response in 27, no response in 12 and progressive disease in 1. Overall 2- and 5-year survival rates were 17% and 11%, respectively, and 10 months in MST. On univariate analysis, significant prognostic factors were sex, stage at recurrence, recurrence pattern, performance status and initial response to radiotherapy, while multivariate analysis showed sex and initial response. From these data, we are encouraged by effective radiotherapy for postoperative intrathoracic recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer, especially in patients with stump or lymphnode recurrence. (author)

  6. Intrathoracic esophagojejunostomy using OrVilTM for gastric adenocarcinoma involving the esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhito; Yajima; Tatsuo; Ka; Shin-ichi; Kosugi; Yosuke; Kano; Takashi; Ishikawa; Hiroshi; Ichikawa; Takaaki; Hanyu; Toshifumi; Wakai

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate a new surgical technique of lower mediastinal lymphadenectomy and intrathoracic anastomosis of esophagojejunostomy using OrV ilTM. METHODS: After a total median phrenotomy, the supradiaphragmatic and lower thoracic paraesophageal lymph nodes were transhiatally dissected. The esophagus was cut off using a liner stapler and OrV ilTMwas inserted. Finally, end-to-side esophagojejunostomy was created by using a circular stapler. From July 2009,we adopted this surgical technique for five patients with gastric cancer involving the lower esophagus. RESULTS: The median operation time was 314 min(range; 210-367 min), and median blood loss was 210 mL(range; 100-838 mL). The median numbers of dissected lower mediastinal nodes were 3(range; 1-10). None of the patients had postoperative complications including anastomotic leakage and stenosis. Themedian hospital stay was 16 d(range: 15-20 d). The median length of esophageal involvement was 14 mm(range: 6-48 mm) and that of the resected esophagus was 40 mm(range: 35-55 mm); all resected specimens had tumor-free margins.CONCLUSION: This surgical technique is easy and safe intrathoracic anastomosis for the patients with gastric adenocarcinoma involving the lower esophagus.

  7. Intrathoracic gastric perforation: a late complication of an unknown postpartum recurrent hiatal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Meacci, Elisa; Granone, Pierluigi

    2012-08-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias occurring during pregnancy are an uncommon event. In very rare occasions, the clinical situation can suddenly worsen due to obstruction, torsion or infarction of the herniated viscera. Here, we describe a challenging case of a post-partum diaphragmatic hiatus hernia complicated by intrathoracic gastric perforation. A 23-year old woman was admitted at our hospital with a syndrome characterized by epigastralgy, dyspnoea and fever. She had previously undergone a laparoscopic antireflux surgery for hiatus hernia (6 years before) and a recent (4 months) unremarkable vaginal delivery. Due to the persistence of a pelvic pain after the delivery, she had been taking pain-killers as a self-administered medication. A CT scan showed a massive left pleural effusion and a complete herniation of the stomach into the left hemithorax. After placing a chest drainage and removing up to 3000 ml of brownish purulent fluid, a repeat CT scan (with water soluble contrast swallow) showed a leak at the level of the stomach. At surgery, we observed a complete intrathoracic herniation through a large diaphragmatic hiatal defect and a small well-defined gastric ulcer. A primary repair of both the stomach and the diaphragm was performed. We take the opportunity presented by this report to briefly discuss the patho-physiological mechanisms underlying this unusual complication.

  8. ESOPHAGUS-STOMACH-ABDOMINAL WALL DRAINAGE FOR DELAYED INTRATHORACIC ESOHPAGEAL PERFORATIONLI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国庆; 单根法; 张辅贤; 钟竑

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a technique of esophagus stomach abdominal wall drainage for the delayed intrathoracic esophageal perforation and to improve the therapeutic results.MethodsFour patients were treated by this simplified technique. There were 1 case of lower intrathoracic esophageal perforation to the left thorax, 1 high and 2 middle perforation to the right. This technique used two plastic tubes (chest tube) in a diameter about 1.2cm. One tube served as an intercostal drainage tube to drain purulent effusion, the other was inserted abdominally through stomach to the esophagus about 10cm above the esophageal perforation.ResultsThe four patients were treated successfully by the esophagus stomach abdominal wall drainage. There was no mortality or severe morbidity or complication. Hospitalizations were shortened. ConclusionThis technique is simple, safe and effective. It may provide a more promising alternative method of treatment for delayed esophageal perforation, especially in the critically ill patients. The procedure can also be extended to deal with esophagus stomach anastomotic leak.

  9. Editorial: Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Wang; Guangmei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    <正>Welcome to Avian Research!This new journal is a continuation and enhancement of Chinese Birds,which has been and continues to be sponsored by the China Ornithological Society and Beijing Forestry University.In the four years since its inception,the original journal—the only one in China focusing on avian research—has published over 130 manuscripts,with authors from all continents across the world,garnering global respect in

  10. Avian influenza – Review

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-01-01

    Recent spread of avian influenza A H5N1 virus to poultry and wild birds has increased the threat of human infections with H5N1 virus worldwide In this review the epidemiology virolgy clinical and laboratory characteristics and management of avian influenza is described The virus has demonsrated considerable pandemic potential and is the most likely candidate of next pandemic threat For pandemic preparedness stockpiling antiviral agents and vaccination are the most important intervention measu...

  11. Changes in metabolism of major food components in patients with intrathoracic replacement of the oesophagus with the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K H; Lim, T K; Wong, J; Ong, G B

    1978-07-01

    In 19 patients in whom the stomach had been used as an intrathoracic replacement after osephagectomy the absorption of fat, carbohydrate and protein was studied. There is no single pattern of disturbance of such absorption. Protein digestion and absorption occur earlier and more rapidly than in normal subjects, probably as a result of accelerated gastric emptying.

  12. Intrathoracic Anastomotic Leakage after Gastroesophageal Cancer Resection Is Associated with Reduced Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen Christian; Calatayud, Dan; Jensen, Lone Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    .19-1.90) and 1.41 (1.10-1.81). After exclusion of 8 weeks mortality the odds ratios were 1.38 (1.08-1.77) and 1.32 (1.02-1.71). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study confirms that patients experiencing anastomotic leakage after gastroesophageal cancer resection have a significantly lower long-term survival, even......BACKGROUND: Most likely because of low statistical power, no previous studies have shown any significant association between long-term survival and anastomotic leakage in patients who have undergone gastroesophageal cancer resection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study included, prospectively...... and consecutively, nationwide collected patients who underwent gastroesophageal cancer resection between 2003 and 2011 in Denmark. The operation was carried out as an Ivor Lewis procedure. Only patients with intrathoracic anastomosis were included in the analysis. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2011, 1,296 patients...

  13. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with antituberculosis therapy (ATT). DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used a 2 × 2 factorial design was undertaken at 2 teaching hospitals in Delhi. Children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled, and they received ATT together with daily supplementation for 6 mo....... However, children who received micronutrients had a faster gain in height over 6 mo than did those who did not receive micronutrients (height-for-age z score Δ = 0.08; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient supplementation did not modify the weight gain or clearance of lesions on CXR in children...

  14. Treatment of intrathoracic grass awn migration with video-assisted thoracic surgery in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Shelly; Mayhew, Philipp D; Zwingenberger, Allison; Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-month-old sexually intact male Vizsla and a 2-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog were examined because of suspected intrathoracic grass awn migration. CLINICAL FINDINGS Thoracic CT revealed focal areas of pulmonary infiltration in the right caudal lung lobe in one dog and in the left caudal lung lobe in the other. In 1 patient, bronchoscopy revealed 2 grass awns in the bronchi. Results of thoracic radiography and bronchoscopy were unremarkable in the second patient; however, a grass awn was recovered from the tonsillar crypt during oropharyngeal examination. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME In both dogs, grass awns were successfully retrieved from the pleural cavity by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery during 1-lung ventilation. In one patient, a grass awn was recovered bronchoscopically from the left caudal lung lobe bronchus and another was visualized distally in an accessory lung lobe bronchus but could not be retrieved. This dog underwent accessory lung lobectomy. The second dog underwent left caudal lung lobectomy. Both patients recovered uneventfully from surgery, were discharged from the hospital, and had no apparent recurrence of clinical signs at telephone follow-up 31 months and 18 months after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE With careful case selection, successful management of intrathoracic grass awn migration in dogs can be achieved by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery. Comprehensive preoperative evaluation including both computed tomography and bronchoscopy is suggested. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate whether treatment of this condition with video-assisted thoracic surgery is as effective as with traditional open thoracotomy. PMID:27379598

  15. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Thomas; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Presented at The IASTED Second International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2004), Innsbruck, Austria, 16-18 February 2004.

  16. Management of delayed intrathoracic esophageal perforation with modified intraluminal esophageal stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J-H; Gong, T-Q; Jiang, Y-G; Wang, R-W; Zhao, Y-P; Tan, Q-Y; Ma, Z; Lin, Y-D; Deng, B

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we reviewed our experience of treatment of the delayed intrathoracic nonmalignant esophageal perforation employing modified intraluminal esophageal stent. Between February 1990 and August 2006, eight patients were included in this study. Five patients experienced sepsis. The interval time between perforation and stent placement ranged from 36 h to 27 days (average, 8.6 days). Esophageal stenting and throracotomy for foreign body removal were performed in four patients. The remaining four patients underwent stent placement and thoracostomy. Nutrition was initiated through gastrostomy after 7 to 10 days after the stenting. The stent was removed after the patients resumed oral intake of food and the esophagogram showed that perforation was closed. There was no death in this group. Signs of sepsis remitted 1 week after stent placement. Complications included stress ulcer, stimulative cough, and pneumonia each. Stent removal ranged 32 to 120 days (average 66.7) after its placement. The stent was kept in place for 4 months to prevent formation of esophageal stricture in one patient with caustic esophageal burns. The follow-up was completed in all the patients. The mean follow-up period was 59 months (range 12-180). One patient with caustic esophageal burn underwent cicatricial esophagectomy and gastric transposition 3 years later due to the esophageal stricture. Barium swallow demonstrated that there was a diverticulum-like outpouching in one patient and slight esophageal stricture at T2 and T3 level in another. One patient developed reflux esophagitis 5 years after stent removal. All the patients finally had a normal intake of food. Modified esophageal stenting is an effective method to manage the delayed intrathoracic esophageal perforation. Prevention of stent migration and its convenient adjustment might be the major advantages of this method. PMID:19191858

  17. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Thomas [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Zhang, Geoffrey [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Huang Tzungchi [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Lin Kaping [Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung-Yuan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2004-09-07

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction.

  18. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction

  19. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  20. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  1. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  2. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  3. An overview on avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA), with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS) for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the confo...

  4. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  5. SEKILAS TENTANG AVIAN INFLUENZA (AI)

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Elytha

    2011-01-01

    Fluburung atau Avian Influenza (AI) adalah penyakit zoonosis fatal dan menular serta dapat menginfeksi semua jenis burung, manusia, babi, kuda dan anjing, Virus Avian Influenza tipe A (hewan) dari keluarga Drthomyxoviridae telah menyerang manusia dan menyebabkan banyak korban meninggal dunia. Saat ini avian Influenza telah menjadi masalah kesehatan global yang sangat serius, termasuk di Indonesia. Sejak Juli 2005 Sampai 12 April 2006 telah ditemukan 479 kasus kumulatif dan dicurigai flu burun...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus in congenital intrathoracic disorders: preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiang; Ashtari, M.; Leonidas, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, NY (United States); Chan Ying [Fetal-Maternal Medicine, Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Background and objective. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide high-quality images of the intrathoracic organs. We studied the ability of MRI to define spatial relationships of the fetal lungs and measured lung volume in two cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), one of severe oligohydramnios secondary to bilateral cystic renal dysplasia and one case of prenatal chylothorax. Patients and methods. We performed pelvic MRI using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) pulse sequence in four pregnant women referred because of abnormal prenatal ultrasound (US) findings associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Results. The exact anatomic position of the contents of the hernia in CDH, including the position of the liver, was better defined with MRI. Pleural effusions were identified as well as the renal abnormality in the case of oligohydramnios. Lung volume was measured and the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia was quantified in every case. Lung-to-thorax ratio was calculated in the case of fetal chylothorax. Conclusion. Ongoing work suggests that MRI can provide additional detailed quantitative information in prenatal disorders associated with fetal lung compression and resulting hypoplasia. Correlation of fetal lung volume with postnatal management and outcome may affect prognosis in these cases. (orig.)

  7. Neural network-based method for intrathoracic airway detection from three-dimensional CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a neural network-based method for intrathoracic airway detection and segmentation from three-dimensional HRCT images. Two feed-forward neural networks are independently trained to identify various airway appearances in 3-dimensional CT images. While the first network identifies potential airways located adjacent to vessels, the second network identifies potential airways by assessing the existence of walls surrounding airways. The two networks are combined to construct a dual-network classifier taking its inputs from a 21 x 21 moving subimage window: (1) raw gray-level subimage and (2) 4 directional profiles. By design, each network provides a superset of airways that are present in the CT images and only the airways identified by both networks are considered reliable. After the networks are trained by the generalized delta rule with momentum using a limited number of airway/non-airway samples apart from the validation data sets, the generalization performance of the networks is assessed with two independent standards consisting of 282 and 167 observer traced airways. The performance of the current method is compared with that of the conventional seeded region growing method. The validation results indicate that the presented method indeed provide enhanced detection of peripheral airways compared to the conventional region growing method

  8. Intrathoracic migration of a breast implant after minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songcharoen, Somjade Jay; McClure, Michael; Aru, Roberto G; Songcharoen, Somprasong

    2015-03-01

    The aging population, in combination with the popularity of breast augmentation with implants, presents surgeons with a growing number of cases involving women undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) who have breast implants. We present an unusual complication involving the delayed migration of a subpectoral implant into the chest cavity through an iatrogenic defect after a minimally invasive mitral valve repair. This chest wall defect was ultimately repaired with a latissimus dorsi flap. Although MICS has been described in women with breast implants, the documented experience remains limited. Most authors classically recommend explantation of the prosthesis to provide access to the chest wall; however, some have later suggested preserving the implant capsule in situ while performing the cardiac procedure with gentle retraction. From our literature review and experience, we recommend that the posterior capsule should remain intact. If this is not possible, then the chest wall closure should be reinforced with either mesh, soft tissue, or both. Soft tissue options include the conversion from a subpectoral to a subglandular position to use the pectoralis major, or a latissimus dorsi muscle flap. With the increasing number of these cases along with the complexities of minimally invasive procedures, close communication and planning should be undertaken between both cardiothoracic and plastic surgeons when taking care of these patients. Above all, when faced with postoperative complications after MICS, the plastic surgeon must maintain a high index of clinical suspicion and consider the possibility of intrathoracic migration of an implant so that proper workup and planning may be initiated.

  9. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  10. The avian haemophili.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackall, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    There are four currently recognized taxa to accommodate the avian haemophili: Haemophilus paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, and Pasteurella species A (the last three being formerly united as Haemophilus avium). A range of other taxa has also been recognized, but they have been neither named nor assigned to a genus. All of these various taxa, legitimate and otherwise, have the common characteristic of requiring V factor, but not X factor, for in vitro growth. Several re...

  11. Avian psychology and communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the i...

  12. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  13. The physiology and biomechanics of avian flight at high altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Dudley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many birds fly at high altitude, either during long-distance flights or by virtue of residence in high-elevation habitats. Among the many environmental features that vary systematically with altitude, five have significant consequences for avian flight performance: ambient wind speeds, air temperature, humidity, oxygen availability, and air density. During migratory flights, birds select flight altitudes that minimize energy expenditure via selection of advantageous tail- and cross-winds. Oxy...

  14. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  15. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Strickland, Dale M.; Young, Jr., David P.; Sernka, Karyn J.; Good, Rhett E.

    2001-08-01

    It has been estimated that from 100 million to well over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to collisions with human-made structures, including vehicles, buildings and windows, powerlines, communication towers, and wind turbines. Although wind energy is generally considered environmentally friendly (because it generates electricity without emitting air pollutants or greenhouse gases), the potential for avian fatalities has delayed and even significantly contributed to blocking the development of some windplants in the U.S. Given the importance of developing a viable renewable source of energy, the objective of this paper is to put the issue of avian mortality associated with windpower into perspective with other sources of avian collision mortality across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed summary of the mortality data collected at windplants and put avian collision mortality associated with windpower development into perspective with other significant sources of avian collision mortality across the United States. We provide a summary of data collected at many of the U.S. windplants and provide annual bird fatality estimates and projections for all wind turbines in the U.S. For comparison, we also review studies of avian collision mortality from other major human-made structures and report annual bird fatality estimates for these sources. Other sources also significantly contribute to overall avian mortality. For example, the National Audubon Society estimates avian mortality due to house cats at 100 million birds per year. Pesticide use, oil spills, disease, etc., are other significant sources of unintended avian mortality. Due to funding constraints, the scope of this paper is limited to examining only avian mortality resulting from collisions with human-made obstacles.

  16. Hematopoiese extramedular intratorácica: relato de um caso Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Beatriz Melo Moreira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, de 40 anos de idade, portador de anemia falciforme, que desenvolveu a forma intratorácica de hematopoiese extramedular, apresentando lesões expansivas com densidade de partes moles, localizadas posteriormente, nas goteiras paravertebrais, na radiologia convencional. A tomografia computadorizada do tórax demonstrou massas bem delimitadas, de contornos lobulados, com densidade heterogênea à custa de áreas de tecido gorduroso e de densidade de partes moles, localizadas no terço inferior das goteiras paravertebrais. Os pulmões tinham coeficientes de atenuação preservados. A tomografia computadorizada de abdome revelou importante aumento da densidade e do volume do fígado, atribuídos à hemossiderose, e baço atrófico e calcificado devido a infartos esplênicos de repetição.The authors report a case of a 40-year-old male patient with sickle cell disease who presented with intra-thoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis and paravertebral expansive lesions that appeared as soft tissue density masses on conventional x-ray films. A computed tomography of the chest demonstrated soft tissue density masses in the lower third of the paravertebral spaces. These masses presented well-defined limits, lobulated edges and were heterogeneous due to areas of interposed adipose and soft density tissues. The lung parenchyma had no abnormalities. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse hiperdensity and enlargement of the liver that was attributed to hemosiderosis, and an atrophic and calcified spleen due to repeated episodes of infarction.

  17. Usefulness of SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Goiter versus Metastases From Cancer of the Breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Elisabeth; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2007-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred because of local reoccurrence of cancer of the breast. Chest x-ray showed a mediastinal tumor with dislocation of the trachea to the right. A Tc-99m pertechnetate scan showed irregular tracer uptake in an enlarged left lobe of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound confirmed...... the diagnosis of a nodular goiter with intrathoracic growth of the left lobe. A SPECT/CT scan of the mediastinum clearly showed that the soft tissue tumor was the left lobe of the thyroid gland, and not lymphatic metastases....

  18. Image features of two rare mediastinal tumors: schwannoma of intrathoracic phrenic nerve and clear cell chondrosarcoma of the rib

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Kai Leung; Chien-Jui Cheng; Chi-Ming Lee; Li-Kuo Shen; Hung-Jung Wang; Ya-Yen Chen

    2005-01-01

    @@ The current report focuses on two patients of the same age who presented similar appearances on initial anteroposterior chest images. Follow-up images showed superoanterior and superoposterior mediastinal lesions. The first patient with noninvasive cystic thymoma was suspected before surgery, while the pathologic diagnosis was intrathoracic phrenic nerve schwannoma. The second patient was with an asymmetric, dumbbell-shaped paravertebral tumor over T3 and T4 on the left side. The preoperative diagnostic images were interpreted as showing a neurogenic tumor. However, the pathologic report was cell chondrosarcoma.

  19. Intrathoracic versus Cervical Anastomosis after Resection of Esophageal Cancer: A matched pair analysis of 72 patients in a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klink Christian D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the early postoperative outcome of esophageal cancer treated by subtotal esophageal resection, gastric interposition and either intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis in a single center study. Methods 72 patients who received either a cervical or intrathoracic anastomosis after esophageal resection for esophageal cancer were matched by age and tumor stage. Collected data from these patients were analyzed retrospectively regarding morbidity and mortality rates. Results Anastomotic leakage rate was significantly lower in the intrathoracic anastomosis group than in the cervical anastomosis group (4 of 36 patients (11% vs. 11 of 36 patients (31%; p = 0.040. The hospital stay was significantly shorter in the intrathoracic anastomosis group compared to the cervical anastomosis group (14 (range 10–110 vs. 26 days (range 12 – 105; p = 0.012. Wound infection and temporary paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve occurred significantly more often in the cervical anastomosis group compared to the intrathoracic anastomosis group (28% vs. 0%; p = 0.002 and 11% vs. 0%; p = 0.046. The overall In-hospital mortality rate was 6% (4 of 72 patients without any differences between the study groups. Conclusions The present data support the assumption that the transthoracic approach with an intrathoracic anastomosis compared to a cervical esophagogastrostomy is the safer and more beneficial procedure in patients with carcinoma of the lower and middle third of the esophagus due to a significant reduction of anastomotic leakage, wound infection, paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and shorter hospital stay.

  20. Avian Influenza Infection Dynamics in Minor Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Dols, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) has become one of the most important challenges that ever emerged from animal reservoirs. The constant outbreaks detected worldwide in domestic and wild bird species are of concern to the economics of the poultry industry, wildlife conservation, and animal and public health. Susceptibility to AI viruses (AIVs) varies deeply among avian species, as well as their possible role as sentinels, intermediate hosts or reservoirs. To date, several experimental studies and natural ...

  1. Potential Pitfall in the Assessment of Lung Cancer with FDG-PET/CT: Talc Pleurodesis Causes Intrathoracic Nodal FDG Avidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Talc pleurodesis is a common procedure performed to treat complications related to lung cancer. The purpose of our study was to characterize any thoracic nodal findings on FDG PET/CT associated with prior talc pleurodesis. Materials and Methods. The electronic medical record identified 44 patients who underwent PET/CT between January 2006 and December 2010 and had a history of talc pleurodesis. For each exam, we evaluated the distribution pattern, size, and attenuation of intrathoracic lymph nodes and the associated standardized uptake value. Results. High-attenuation intrathoracic lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients (25%, and all had corresponding increased FDG uptake (range 2–9 mm. Involved nodal groups were anterior peridiaphragmatic (100%, paracardiac (45%, internal mammary (25%, and peri-IVC (18% nodal stations. Seven of the 11 patients (63% had involvement of multiple lymph nodal groups. Mean longitudinal PET/CT and standalone CT followups of 15±11 months showed persistence of both high-attenuation and increased uptake at these sites, without increase in nodal size suggesting metastatic disease involvement. Conclusions. FDG avid, high-attenuation lymph nodes along the lymphatic drainage pathway for parietal pleura are a relatively common finding following talc pleurodesis and should not be mistaken for nodal metastases during the evaluation of patients with history of lung cancer.

  2. Evaluations of Factors Predicting the Need for an Extra-Cervical Approach for Intra-Thoracic Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadrizadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra-thoracic goiter refers to the extension of enlarged thyroid tissue into the thoracic inlet. This condition can produce symptoms of compression on adjacent organs and can sometimes be accompanied by malignant transformation. Therefore surgical treatment is almost always necessary. In order to remove the pathology with the fewest post-operative complications, selection of the appropriate surgical approach is essential. In this study we aimed to detect the criteria which help us select the best therapeutic approach.   Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 82 patients with intra-thoracic goiter were investigated. Their data were extracted from medical records and analyzed using SPSS software.   Results: Overall 82 patients, 18 (21% males and 64 (78% females with mean age of 56.38 years were studied. The most common clinical symptoms were mass (95% and dyspnea (73%. In most patients, the surgical approach was cervical (90.2%, while 9.8% of patients required an extra-cervical approach. Post-operation complications were observed in 17.1% of patients; the most common being transient recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (4.9%. Malignancy was reported in the histopathology of seven patients (8.5%. The most common malignant histopathology was papillary thyroid carcinoma (7.3%. Extension of the thyroid tissue below the uppermost level of the aortic arch was significantly correlated with the need for an extra-cervical approach to surgery (P

  3. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  4. Dose Analysis of Different Position Intrathoracic Stomach in the Postoperative Radiotherapy of Patients with Esophageal Carcinoma%不同位置胸腔胃在食管癌术后放疗中的剂量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古亮; 刘阳晨; 叶宏勋; 周绍兵; 高飞; 赵莺

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价食管癌术后放疗中不同位置胸腔胃的受照剂量。方法收集15例不同位置胸腔胃患者,其中左侧、右侧、纵隔胸腔胃患者各5例,利用治疗计划系统设计放疗计划,利用剂量体积直方图比较分析胸腔胃接受的平均剂量(Dmean )、接受5 Gy、25 Gy、40 Gy、50 Gy 照射的靶体积百分比(V5、V25、V40、V50)。结果纵隔胸腔胃的 Dmean、V5、V25、V40、V50明显高于左侧、右侧(P 0.05)。结论纵隔胸腔胃较左侧、右侧受照剂量较大,放射性胃损伤发生风险可能高。%Objective To evaluate the dose of different position intrathoracic stomach in the postoperative radio-therapy of patients with esophageal carcinoma. Methods Fifteen patients with different position intrathoracic stom-ach(the left intrathoracic stomach 5 patients,the right intrathoracic stomach 5 patients and the mediastinal intratho-racic stomach 5 patients)were collected. The radiotherapy plan was did by using the radiotherapy planning system, and the dose volume histogram was used to compare the Dmean and V5 ,V25 ,V40 ,V50 of the intrathoracic stomach. Re-sults The Dmean and V5 ,V25 ,V40 ,V50 of the mediastinal intrathoracic stomach were significantly higher than those of the left intrathoracic stomach and the right intrathoracic stomach(P 0. 05). Conclusion The dose of the mediastinal intrathoracic stomach was higher than those of the left intrathorac-ic stomach and the right intrathoracic stomach,the radioactive stomach injury occurrence probability may be high.

  5. The Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  6. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  7. Low Speed Avian Maneuvering Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Low speed avian maneuvering flight is an ecologically crucial behavior that has contributed to the explosive diversification of several avian taxa by allowing access to complex spatial environments. Negotiating a sharp aerial turn requires finely tuned interactions between an animal's sensory-motor system and its environment. My thesis work focuses on how aerodynamic forces, wing and body dynamics, and sensory feedback interact during aerial turning in the pigeon (Columba livea).

  8. Avian influenza : a review article

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalda; EMADI H; M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu) and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1), that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO) , world organization for animal health (OIE) , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO) information and recommendations and review of th...

  9. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  10. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulation Improves Cerebral Perfusion and Cerebral Blood Flow in a Porcine Model of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Anja; Rees, Jennifer; Kwon, Young; Matsuura, Timothy; McKnite, Scott; Lurie, Keith G

    2015-08-01

    Brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in children and adults in their most productive years. Use of intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR) to generate negative intrathoracic pressure during the expiratory phase of positive pressure ventilation improves mean arterial pressure and 24-h survival in porcine models of hemorrhagic shock and cardiac arrest and has been demonstrated to decrease intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in these models. Application of IPR for 240 min in a porcine model of intracranial hypertension (ICH) will increase CPP when compared with controls. Twenty-three female pigs were subjected to focal brain injury by insertion of an epidural Foley catheter inflated with 3 mL of saline. Animals were randomized to treatment for 240 min with IPR set to a negative expiratory phase pressure of -12 cmH2O or no IPR therapy. Intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, CPP, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were evaluated. Intrathoracic pressure regulation significantly improved mean CPP and CBF. Specifically, mean CPP after 90, 120, 180, and 240 min of IPR use was 43.7 ± 2.8 mmHg, 44.0 ± 2.7 mmHg, 44.5 ± 2.8 mmHg, and 43.1 ± 1.9 mmHg, respectively; a significant increase from ICH study baseline (39.5 ± 1.7 mmHg) compared with control animals in which mean CPP was 36.7 ± 1.4 mmHg (ICH study baseline) and then 35.9 ± 2.1 mmHg, 33.7 ± 2.8 mmHg, 33.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, and 36.0 ± 2.7 mmHg at 90, 120, 180, and 240 min, respectively (P blood flow, as measured by an invasive CBF probe, increased in the IPR group (34 ± 4 mL/100 g-min to 49 ± 7 mL/100 g-min at 90 min) but not in controls (27 ± 1 mL/100 g-min to 25 ± 5 mL/100 g-min at 90 min) (P = 0.01). Arterial pH remained unchanged during the entire period of IPR compared with baseline values and control values. In this anesthetized pig model of ICH, treatment with IPR significantly improved CPP and CBF. This therapy may be of clinical value by noninvasively

  11. Avian mycoplasmosis update

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    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  12. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  13. The Avian Proghrelin System

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    Mark P. Richards

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand how the proghrelin system functions in regulating growth hormone release and food intake as well as defining its pleiotropic roles in such diverse physiological processes as energy homeostasis, gastrointestinal tract function and reproduction require detailed knowledge of the structure and function of the components that comprise this system. These include the preproghrelin gene that encodes the proghrelin precursor protein from which two peptide hormones, ghrelin and obestatin, are derived and the cognate receptors that bind proghrelin-derived peptides to mediate their physiological actions in different tissues. Also key to the functioning of this system is the posttranslational processing of the proghrelin precursor protein and the individual peptides derived from it. While this system has been intensively studied in a variety of animal species and humans over the last decade, there has been considerably less investigation of the avian proghrelin system which exhibits some unique differences compared to mammals. This review summarizes what is currently known about the proghrelin system in birds and offers new insights into the nature and function of this important endocrine system. Such information facilitates cross-species comparisons and contributes to our understanding of the evolution of the proghrelin system.

  14. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  15. The Effect of Esophagectomy and Cervical Esophagogastrostomy with or Without of Pyloromyotomy on Emptying of intrathoracic Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tirgar Fakheri, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: A gastric conduit is usually used to reconstruct the foregut after esophagectomy for cancer. The gastric emptying may be impaired after this operation, so some esophageal surgeons routinely add a pyloric drainage procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the emptying of the intrathoracic stomach after esophagectomy and cervical esophagogastrostomy with or without pyloromyotomy.Materials and Methods: Between January 2003 and April 2006, in a randomized controlled trial, 30 patients with esophageal carcinoma were randomized to have with or without pyloromyotomy as a gastric emptying procedure for the gastric conduit used for esophageal replacement. Patterns of gastric emptying in the vagotomized intrathoracic stomach were studied using radioisotope techniques. Gastric emptying (GE was evaluated 8 weeks after the operation. Patients were available for 6 months follow-up.Results: A total of 30 patients were enrolled in this study. Sixty percent (18 were male, and 40% (12 were female. Twenty three patients (76.7% had squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (23.3% had adenocarcinoma. Delayed GE was reported in 11 (73.3% and normal GE in 4 (26.7% of patients with Pyloromyotomy. Delayed GE was reported in 9 (60% and normal GE in 6 (40% of patients without Pyloromyotomy. There were not any significant differences between complications of post surgery in both groups.Conclusion: These findings were showed that esophageal surgery can be don’t add a pyloric drainage procedure in esophagectomy and cervical esophagogastrostomy and that very few patients actually need it.

  16. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  17. A pelagic outbreak of avian cholera in North American gulls: Scavenging as a primary mechanism for transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Michelle; McBurney, Scott; Robertson, Gregory J.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Blehert, David; Soos, Catherine; Dunphy, Ron; Whitney, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is an endemic disease globally, often causing annual epizootics in North American wild bird populations with thousands of mortalities. From December 2006 to March 2007, an avian cholera outbreak caused mortality in marine birds off the coast of Atlantic Canada, largely centered 300–400 km off the coast of the island of Newfoundland. Scavenging gulls (Larus spp.) were the primary species detected; however, mortality was also identified in Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and one Common Raven (Corvus corax), a nonmarine species. The most common gross necropsy findings in the birds with confirmed avian cholera were acute fibrinous and necrotizing lesions affecting the spleen, air sacs, and pericardium, and nonspecific hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The etiologic agent, P. multocida serotype 1, was recovered from 77 of 136 carcasses examined, and confirmed or probable avian cholera was diagnosed in 85 cases. Mortality observed in scavenging gull species was disproportionately high relative to their abundance, particularly when compared to nonscavenging species. The presence of feather shafts in the ventricular lumen of the majority of larid carcasses diagnosed with avian cholera suggests scavenging of birds that died from avian cholera as a major mode of transmission. This documentation of an outbreak of avian cholera in a North American pelagic environment affecting primarily scavenging gulls indicates that offshore marine environments may be a component of avian cholera dynamics.

  18. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan M; Trevor Francis Fernandez and Feroz Mohammed.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe dise...

  19. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  20. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  1. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  2. OFFLU Network on Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Steven

    2006-01-01

    OFFLU is the name of the network of avian influenza expertise inaugurated jointly in 2005 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health. Achievements and constraints to date and plans for the future are described.

  3. 先天性食管裂孔疝所致胸腔胃误诊为先天性短食管致胸腔胃%Intrathoracic Stomach Secondary to Congenital Hiatal Hernia Misdiagnosed as Intrathoracic Stomach Secondary to Congenital Short Esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡奕欣; 廖永德; 付向宁; 汤应雄; 孙威

    2012-01-01

    Objective To probe the main points of differential diagnosis and surgical treatment of intrathoracic stomach secondary to congenital hiatal hernia (CHH). Methods The clinical date of the case with intrathoracic stomach secondary to CHH misdiagnosed as intrathoracic stomach secondary to congenital short esophagus was retrospectively analyzed. Results According to the chest CT scanning and barium meal, the patient was misdiagnosed as having congenital short esophagus before the operation. The diagnosis of intrathoracic stomach secondary to CHH was confirmed by the operational research. Surgical repair included reduction of the stomach and repair of the diaphragm. The patient recovered well after operation without complications. A 2 years follow-up survey showed that patient was in a good condition without recurrence. Conclusion Intrathoracic stomach secondary to CHH may be easily misdiagnosed as intrathoracic stomach secondary to congenital short esophagus. Surgical research helps to make the accurate diagnosis. Patient with intrathoracic stomach secondary to CHH may have satificatory prognosis after surgical repair.%目的 探讨先天性食管裂孔疝(congenital hiatus hernia,CHH)所致胸腔胃的鉴别诊断要点及外科治疗措施.方法 对我院收治的1例CHH所致胸腔胃误诊为先天性短食管致胸腔胃的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 本例术前依据胸部CT及钡餐影像学检查误诊为先天性短食管并完全型右胸腔胃,后经开胸探查确诊为CHH并完全型右胸腔胃,行胸腔胃还纳并膈食管裂孔修补术.术后恢复良好,无并发症.随访2年无复发.结论 CHH所致胸腔胃易误诊为先天性短食管致胸腔胃,手术探查可明确诊断.CHH所致胸腔胃患者手术治疗预后良好.

  4. Extramedullary plasmocytoma of the rhino pharynx associated to intrathoracic mass - a case report; Plasmocitoma extramedular da rinofaringe associado a massa intratoracica - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andrea Silveira de; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Yamashita, Helio Kiitiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    1996-07-01

    The authors report a case of a 56-year-old while male, who had occipital headache, libido and visual acuity (bitemporal field) reduction as the clinical picture, with progressive evolution within a four years period. The image diagnosis methods (roentgenologic studies), (MRI) demonstrated extensive mass involving the sella, clivus and sphenoid sinus, and an intrathoracic mass on the right. The final diagnosis was extramedullary plasmocytoma with rhinopharynx origin. (author) 27 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  6. Radiological findings of chest in patients with H7N9 avian influenza from a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanjie Ma

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: With the right lower lobe prominence, the main abnormal findings in H7N9 pneumonia include rapidly progressive GGOs, consolidations with air bronchograms, and pleural effusion. CT imaging may provide a more accurate assessment of the lung pathology with H7N9 avian influenza, helping the early diagnosis and monitoring its progression.

  7. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    N.L.P.I Dharmayanti; R Damayanti; R Indriani; A Wiyono; R.M.A Adjid

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1). Mo...

  8. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  9. Climate change and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in ...

  10. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  11. Simulating Avian Wingbeats and Wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Analytical models of avian flight have previously been used to predict mechanical and metabolic power consumption during cruise. These models are limited, in that they neglect details of wing kinematics, and model power by assuming a fixed or rotary wing (actuator disk) weight support mechanism. Theoretical methods that incorporate wing kinematics potentially offer more accurate predictions of power consumption by calculating instantaneous aerodynamic loads on the wing. However, the success o...

  12. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  13. Climate change increases the likelihood of catastrophic avian mortality events during extreme heat waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2010-04-23

    Severe heat waves have occasionally led to catastrophic avian mortality in hot desert environments. Climate change models predict increases in the intensity, frequency and duration of heat waves. A model of avian evaporative water requirements and survival times during the hottest part of day reveals that the predicted increases in maximum air temperatures will result in large fractional increases in water requirements (in small birds, equivalent to 150-200 % of current values), which will severely reduce survival times during extremely hot weather. By the 2080s, desert birds will experience reduced survival times much more frequently during mid-summer, increasing the frequency of catastrophic mortality events.

  14. Avian influenza and the poultry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nicita, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Because of high mortality rates, high rates of contagion, and the possibility of cross-species infection to mammals including humans, high pathogenic avian influenza is a major concern both to consumers and producers of poultry. The implications of the avian influenza for international poultry markets are large and include the loss of consumer confidence, loss of competitiveness, loss of m...

  15. Atypical Avian Influenza (H5N1)

    OpenAIRE

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Kitphati, Rungrueng; Thongphubeth, Kanokporn; Patoomanunt, Prisana; Anthanont, Pimjai; Auwanit, Wattana; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Saeng-Aroon, Siriphan; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Storch, Gregory A.; Mundy, Linda M.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly if they have a history of exposure to poultry.

  16. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  17. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  18. Therapy monitoring using dynamic MRI: Analysis of lung motion and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frequent side effect after radiotherapy of lung tumors is a decrease of pulmonary function accompanied by dyspnea due to developing lung fibrosis. The aim of this study was to monitor lung motion as a correlate of pulmonary function and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy (RT) using dynamic MRI (dMRI). Thirty-five patients with stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma were examined using dMRI (trueFISP; three images/s). Tumors were divided into T1 and T2 tumors of the upper, middle and lower lung region (LR). Maximum craniocaudal (CC) lung dimensions and tumor mobility in three dimensions were monitored. Vital capacity (VC) was measured and correlated using spirometry. Before RT, the maximum CC motion of the tumor-bearing hemithorax was 5.2±0.9 cm if the tumor was located in the lower LR (middle LR: 5.5±0.8 cm; upper LR: 6.0±0.6 cm). After RT, lung motion was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.05). Before RT, the maximum CC tumor mobility was significantly higher in tumors of the lower LR 2.5±0.6 vs. 2.0±0.3 cm (middle LR; P<0.05) vs. 0.7±0.2 cm (upper LR; P<0.01). After RT, tumor mobility was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.01) and in T2 tumor patients (P<0.05). VC showed no significant changes. dMRI is capable of monitoring changes in lung motion that were not suspected from spirometry. This might make the treatment of side effects possible at a very early stage. Changes of lung motion and tumor mobility are highly dependent on the tumor localization and tumor diameter. (orig.)

  19. Therapy monitoring using dynamic MRI: Analysis of lung motion and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Hof, Holger; Kuhn, Sabine [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Therapy, Clinic for Thoracic Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); Puderbach, Michael; Ley, Sebastian; Biederer, Juergen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Claussen, Claus D.; Schaefer, Juergen [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Therapy, Clinic for Thoracic Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Tuengerthal, Siegfried [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    A frequent side effect after radiotherapy of lung tumors is a decrease of pulmonary function accompanied by dyspnea due to developing lung fibrosis. The aim of this study was to monitor lung motion as a correlate of pulmonary function and intrathoracic tumor mobility before and after radiotherapy (RT) using dynamic MRI (dMRI). Thirty-five patients with stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma were examined using dMRI (trueFISP; three images/s). Tumors were divided into T1 and T2 tumors of the upper, middle and lower lung region (LR). Maximum craniocaudal (CC) lung dimensions and tumor mobility in three dimensions were monitored. Vital capacity (VC) was measured and correlated using spirometry. Before RT, the maximum CC motion of the tumor-bearing hemithorax was 5.2{+-}0.9 cm if the tumor was located in the lower LR (middle LR: 5.5{+-}0.8 cm; upper LR: 6.0{+-}0.6 cm). After RT, lung motion was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.05). Before RT, the maximum CC tumor mobility was significantly higher in tumors of the lower LR 2.5{+-}0.6 vs. 2.0{+-}0.3 cm (middle LR; P<0.05) vs. 0.7{+-}0.2 cm (upper LR; P<0.01). After RT, tumor mobility was significantly reduced in the lower LR (P<0.01) and in T2 tumor patients (P<0.05). VC showed no significant changes. dMRI is capable of monitoring changes in lung motion that were not suspected from spirometry. This might make the treatment of side effects possible at a very early stage. Changes of lung motion and tumor mobility are highly dependent on the tumor localization and tumor diameter. (orig.)

  20. Intrathoracic Goiter. A Case Report Bocio endotorácico. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Puerto Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland in the anterolateral part of the neck. It is estimated that approximately 3 % of the population worldwide suffer from this condition, although the incidence of nodular goiter has decreased in some countries due to the intake of iodized salt and iodine-rich food. A case of a 59 year-old female patient who attended consultation with an enlargement of the neck, accompanied by weakness, palpitations and dysphagia is presented. After being examined, she underwent surgery which confirmed the diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter. Since this is a rare pathology, it is of scientific interest for professionals dealing with the study and treatment of thyroid conditions.Se denomina bocio al aumento de volumen de la glándula tiroides en la región antero-lateral del cuello. Se calcula que aproximadamente el 3 % de los pobladores del mundo lo tienen, aunque la incidencia del bocio nodular ha disminuido debido a la ingestión en algunos países de sal yodada y alimentos ricos en yodo. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 59 años que acudió a consulta por presentar aumento de volumen del cuello, acompañado de decaimiento, palpitaciones y disfagia, la cual después de ser estudiada en consulta fue intervenida quirúrgicamente, en la que se corroboró el diagnóstico de un bocio endotorácico. Por ser esta patología poco frecuente, se considera de interés científico para los profesionales dedicados al estudio y tratamiento de las afecciones tiroideas.

  1. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  2. Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Cheng Chang; Yi-Ying Cheng; Shin-Ru Shih

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1), there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is co...

  3. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approv...

  4. Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostics in children: 1. Proposed clinical case definitions for classification of intrathoracic tuberculosis disease. Consensus from an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kampmann, Beate; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lienhardt, Christian; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Madhi, Shabir; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Marais, Ben J; McNeeley, David F; Menzies, Heather; Mitchell, Charles; Modi, Surbhi; Mofenson, Lynne; Musoke, Philippa; Nachman, Sharon; Powell, Clydette; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Starke, Jeffrey R; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire

    2012-05-15

    There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis.

  5. Effect of changes in intrathoracic pressure on cardiac function at rest and during moderate exercise in health and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, Sophie; Luoma, Charles E; Miller, Andrew D; Johnson, Bruce D

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of changes in inspiratory intrathoracic pressure on stroke volume at rest and during moderate exercise in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) as well as healthy individuals. Stroke volume was obtained by echocardiography during 2 min of spontaneous breathing (S), two progressive levels of inspiratory unloading (UL1 and UL2) using a ventilator, and two progressive levels of inspiratory loading using resistors in 11 patients with HFREF (61 ± 9 years old; ejection fraction 32 ± 4%; NYHA class I-II) and 11 age-matched healthy individuals at rest and during exercise at 60% of maximal aerobic capacity on a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. At rest, inspiratory unloading progressively decreased stroke volume index (SVI; S, 35.2 ± 5.4 ml m(-2); UL1, 33.3 ± 5.1 ml m(-2); and UL2, 32.2 ± 4.4 ml m(-2)) in healthy individuals, while it increased SVI (S, 31.4 ± 4.6 ml m(-2); UL1, 32.0 ± 5.9 ml m(-2); and UL2, 34.0 ± 7.2 ml m(-2)) in patients with HFREF (P = 0.04). During moderate exercise, inspiratory unloading decreased SVI in a similar manner (S, 43.9 ± 7.1 ml m(-2); UL1, 40.7 ± 4.7 ml m(-2); and UL2, 39.9 ± 3.7 ml m(-1)) in healthy individuals, while it increased SVI (S, 40.8 ± 6.5 ml m(-2); UL1, 42.8 ± 6.9 ml m(-2); and UL2, 44.1 ± 4. ml m(-2)) in patients with HFREF (P = 0.02). Inspiratory loading did not significantly change SVI at rest or during moderate exercise in both groups. It is concluded that inspiratory unloading improved SVI at rest and during moderate exercise in patients with HFREF, possibly due to a reduction in left ventricular afterload.

  6. Linfadenitis intratorácica, falla respiratoria y muerte por tuberculosis Fatal respiratory failure due to tuberculous intrathoracic lymphadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Vélez

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La Iinfadenitis tuberculosa del adulto afecta los ganglios intratorácicos sólo en 5-7% de los casos y generalmente produce poco compromiso sistémico. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 21 anos que murió en Insuficiencia respiratoria debida a la obstrucción bronquial causada por grandes adenopatias hiliares y mediastinales y derrame pleural masivo bilateral. La Incidencia de tuberculosis pulmonar en Medellín durante 1986 fue de 85.3 casos nuevos por 100.000 habitantes, de los cuales muere aproximadamente 8-9% por ano. De la mortalidad en general, menos del 20¡0 se debe a Insuficiencia respiratoria. No se encontraron Informes en la literatura médica de obstrucción bronquial por Iinfadenopatia tuberculosa como causa de muerte. Se piensa que las malas condIcIones socioeconómicas, el consumo de narcóticos y la coexistencia de enfermedades venéreas, contribuyeron al curso fulminante de esta paciente. Se pretende llamar la atención acerca de esta presentación atípica y agresiva de la tuberculosis, especialmente en pacientes que pudieran estar inmunocomprometidos.

    Tuberculous Iymphadenitis in adults affects intrathoracic lymph nodes in only 5- 7% of the cases and It usually does not produce Important systemic involvement. The case of a 21 year-old woman who died of respiratory insufficiency due to bronchial obstruction caused by large hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathies and bilateral massive pleural effusion is presented. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 85.3 new cases per 100.000 inhabitants in 1986, in Medellín, Colombia. Mortality can be calculated between 8-9% per year and, of them, only 2% die as a result of respiratory insufficiency. No previous report9 of fatal bronchial obstruction due to tuberculosis Iymphadenopathy

  7. Relationship between intrathoracic pressure and hemodynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuo; LI Chun-sheng; WU Jun-yuan; GUO Zhi-jun; YUAN Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background The influences of intrathoracic pressure (ITP) to hemodynamic and respiratory parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are confusing.In this research,we investigated the phasic changes of ITP during CPR and reveal the relationships among the hemodynamics,respiratory parameters,and ITP.Methods After 8 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation,which was induced in twenty intubated male domestic pigs,12 minutes of 30:2 CPR was performed.Continuous respiratory variables,hemodynamics,ITP and blood gas analysis were measured during CPR.After that,defibrillation was done and prognostic indicators after CPR was recorded.Results Average ITP at baseline was -(14.1±1.6) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa).When gasping inspirations were going on,it decreased sharply to near -50 mmHg.ITP fluctuated up and down quickly from near -20 mmHg to 20 mmHg when compressions were performed.These phasic changes became mild as the CPR was performed,the contrast of high and low ITP decreased to (12.95±2.91) mmHg at the end of 12 minutes of CPR.Total alveolus minute volume decreased too,because of the decrease of compression and gasp related ventilations.Curve correlation was found between the tidal volume of compression and ITP:ITP=607.33/(1+3134×e-0.58×TV),(e:natural constant,R2=0.895).Negative correlations were found between the right atrial diastolic pressure and ITP (r=-0.753,P <0.01); and positive correlations were found between the coronary perfusion pressure and ITP (r=-0.626,P<0.01 ).Conclusions ITP is one of the key factors which can influence the prognosis of CPR.Correlations were found between the changes of ITP and the tidal volumes of compressions,right atrial diastolic pressure and coronary perfusion pressure during CPR.More positive ITP during compression and more negative during decompression were good to ventilation and perfusion.

  8. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for...

  9. Montana 2006 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated a nationwide avian influenza...

  10. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  11. Clipping the wings of avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the threat of avian influenza has been lessened by effective animal husbandry methods. However, the public health community is trying to ensure enough measures are in place to prevent a possible pandemic. Jane Parry reports.

  12. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  13. Avian protection plan : Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (LNWR) initiated this Avian Protection Plan (APP) in 2003 to protect birds from potential electrocution hazards on the...

  14. A review of avian probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  15. Oseltamivir in human avian influenza infection

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses continue to cause disease outbreaks in humans, and extrapulmonary infection is characteristic. In vitro studies demonstrate the activity of oseltamivir against avian viruses of the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. In animal models of lethal infection, oseltamivir treatment and prophylaxis limit viral replication and improve survival. Outcomes are influenced by the virulence of the viral strain, dosage regimen and treatment delay; it is also critical for the compound to act sy...

  16. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  17. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  18. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  19. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Language: English Español Recommend ...

  20. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  1. 胸内食管吻合口隐匿瘘的诊断与治疗%Diagnosis and Management of Concealed Intrathoracic Anastomotic Leak of Esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奎; 杨秀芝; 王明钊; 王栋; 王滋宗; 沈毅; 魏煜程

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate diagnosis and treatment of concealed intrathoracic anastomotic leak of the esophagus. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 32 patients who presented with unexplained sepsis (temperature > 38 ℃ and elevated white blood cell count) after esophagectomy and intrathoracic anastomosis for esophageal carcinoma or gastric cardia carcinoma in Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Qingdao University from January 2006 to December 2010. All the patients underwent oral water-soluble contrast esophagogram and oral water-soluble contrast computerized tomography of the chest. None of the patients had any sign of contrast leak in these diagnostic examinations, but their chest computerized tomography all showed peri-anastomotic bubble and encapsulated effusion. Fifteen patients were treated as concealed intrathoracic anastomotic leak of the esophagus, including fasting, broad spectrum antibiotic treatment, -. prolonged gastrointestinal decompression and enteral nutrition via naso-intestinal feeding tube. The other 17 patients were not treated as anastomotic leak of the esophagus and only received broad spectrum antibiotic treatment. Results None of the 15 patients who were treated as concealed intrathoracic anastomotic leak finally developed anastomotic leak proved by oral water-soluble contrast esophagogram and computerized tomography of the chest (0%, 0/15). Among the 17 patients who were not treated as anastomotic leak, fourteen patients developed anastomotic leak later (82. 4%, 14/17), 2 patients died of aorto-esophageal fistula and 3 patients died of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Conclusion Peri-anastomotic bubble and irregular encapsulated effusion in oral water-soluble contrast esophagogram and computerized tomography of the chest should be considered as specific signs of concealed intrathoracic anastomotic leak of esophagus after esophagectomy and intrathoracic anastomosis. Patients with such signs should be treated

  2. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  3. Composting for Avian Influenza Virus Elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Elving, Josefine; Emmoth, Eva; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn; Ottoson, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Effective sanitization is important in viral epizootic outbreaks to avoid further spread of the pathogen. This study examined thermal inactivation as a sanitizing treatment for manure inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and bacteriophages MS2 and ϕ6. Rapid inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 was achieved at both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (45 and 55°C) temperatures. Similar inactivation rates were observed for bacteriophage ϕ6, while b...

  4. Avian Influenza: Should China Be Alarmed?

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhaoliang; Xu, Huaxi; Chen, Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the primary public health concern of the 21st century. Influenza strain H5N1 is capable of incidentally infecting humans and other mammals. Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have been transmitted from poultry to humans (by direct or indirect contact with infected birds) in several provinces of Mainland China, which has resulted in 22 cases of human infection and has created repercussions for the Chinese ec...

  5. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    OpenAIRE

    Lüschow Dörte; Lierz Peter; Jansen Andreas; Harder Timm; Hafez Hafez; Kohls Andrea; Schweiger Brunhilde; Lierz Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV). In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks) as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds) seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their ...

  6. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  7. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs. PMID:27033033

  8. Economic effects of avian influenza on egg producers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Demircan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the economic effects of avian influenza on the egg-production sector of Afyon Province, Turkey. Economic indicators were compared before and during the avian influenza outbreak. A questionnaire was conducted with 75 poultry farmers. Farms were divided into three groups according to their size. The profitability of the three farm size groups was compared during two study periods: before and during the avian influenza outbreak. The results indicate that, as compared to previous levels, farms experienced significantly reduced incomes during the avian influenza episode. While net income and profit margin were found to be negative in all three farm groups during the avian influenza period, only group I showed economic loss prior to avian influenza. Average net income per group was -19,576.14, -39,810.11, and -112,035.33 YTL respectively during the avian influenza outbreak, compared with prior incomes of -5,665.51, 8,422.92, and 16,3873.71 YTL (1 USD=1.43 YTL. The profit margin per egg during avian influenza was -0.029, -0.016, -0.010 YTL in group I, II, III, respectively, as compared to -0.007, 0.003, and 0.014 YTL/egg before avian influenza. It was found that, whereas larger farms were more profitable than small farms prior to the avian influenza period, larger farms suffered greater economic losses than small farms during avian influenza outbreak in the participating farms.

  9. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP. PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs. However, the evolution of respiratory systems in other archosaurs, especially in the lineage leading to crocodilians, is poorly documented. Here, we use µCT-scanning to investigate the vertebral anatomy of Triassic archosaur taxa, from both the avian and crocodilian lineages as well as non-archosaurian diapsid outgroups. Our results confirm previous suggestions that unambiguous evidence of PSP (presence of internal pneumatic cavities linked to the exterior by foramina is found only in bird-line (ornithodiran archosaurs. We propose that pulmonary air sacs were present in the common ancestor of Ornithodira and may have been subsequently lost or reduced in some members of the clade (notably in ornithischian dinosaurs. The development of these avian-like respiratory features might have been linked to inferred increases in activity levels among ornithodirans. By contrast, no crocodile-line archosaur (pseudosuchian exhibits evidence for unambiguous PSP, but many of these taxa possess the complex array of vertebral laminae and fossae that always accompany the presence of air sacs in ornithodirans. These laminae and fossae are likely homologous with those in ornithodirans, which suggests the need for further investigation of the hypothesis that a reduced, or non-invasive, system of pulmonary air sacs may be have

  10. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  11. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  12. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  13. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  14. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  15. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature. PMID:22740548

  16. Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Europe and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Elam, Gillian; Aro, Arja R; Abraham, Thomas; Bishop, George D.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    During autumn 2005, we conducted 3,436 interviews in European and Asian countries. We found risk perceptions of avian influenza to be at an intermediate level and beliefs of efficacy to be slightly lower. Risk perceptions were higher in Asia than Europe; efficacy beliefs were lower in Europe than Asia.

  17. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  18. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan;

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of human and avian metapneumoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); E.C. Holmes (Edward)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHuman (HMPV) and avian (AMPV) metapneumoviruses are closely related viruses that cause respiratory tract illnesses in humans and birds, respectively. Although HMPV was first discovered in 2001, retrospective studies have shown that HMPV has been circulating in humans for at least 50 year

  20. Are we ready for the avian flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    It may be tempting to dismiss headlines about a potential avian flu pandemic as "the sky is falling" sensationalism, but experts continue to warn that the disease is likely to show up here in the not-too-distant future. What must hospitals do to prepare for a sudden influx of patients and other huge demands such a crisis would create? PMID:16485802

  1. Experimental induced avian E. coli salpingitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    manifestations or from the cloacae of a healthy chicken. The virulence potential of the strains were evaluated in an avian experimental model for ascending infections, and experiments were conducted in both layers and broiler breeders. The clinical outcome of infection was highly depending on the challenge...

  2. Morphometric Analysis of the Sternum in Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    DÜZLER, Ayhan; Özgel, Özcan; DURSUN, Nejdet

    2006-01-01

    The anatomy of the sternum in avian species differs according to their movement and particularly flight capability, as well as species and habitat. Various studies aimed at the examination and measurement of the sternum in avian species have been carried out. However, to the authors' knowledge, no study on the correlation between sternal measurements and movement style has been published previously. In this study, the sternums of certain avian species including the red falcon (Buteo rufi...

  3. Multiple Control Strategies for Prevention of Avian Influenza Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Ullah; Gul Zaman; Saeed Islam

    2014-01-01

    We present the prevention of avian influenza pandemic by adjusting multiple control functions in the human-to-human transmittable avian influenza model. First we show the existence of the optimal control problem; then by using both analytical and numerical techniques, we investigate the cost-effective control effects for the prevention of transmission of disease. To do this, we use three control functions, the effort to reduce the number of contacts with human infected with mutant avian influ...

  4. Avian influenza infections in birds – a moving target

    OpenAIRE

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a complex infection of birds, of which the ecology and epidemiology have undergone substantial changes over the last decade. Avian influenza viruses infecting poultry can be divided into two groups. The very virulent viruses cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), with flock mortality as high as 100%. These viruses have been restricted to subtypes H5 and H7, although not all H5 and H7 viruses cause HPAI. All other viruses cause a milder, primarily respiratory, ...

  5. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  6. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  7. Seasonal change in the avian hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds.

  8. Applications of thermal imaging in avian science

    OpenAIRE

    McCafferty, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal imaging, or infrared thermography, has been used in avian science since the 1960s. More than 30 species of birds, ranging in size from passerines to ratites, have been studied using this technology. The main strength of this technique is that it is a non-invasive and non-contact method of measuring surface temperature. Its limitations and measurement errors are well understood and suitable protocols have been developed for a variety of experimental settings. Thermal imaging has been u...

  9. Avian influenza and poultry workers, Peru, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Ernesto J.; Tadeusz J Kochel; Capuano, Ana W; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2007-01-01

    Background  Currently numerous countries in Asia, Africa and Europe are encountering highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) infections in poultry and humans. In the Americas, home of the world’s largest poultry exporters, contingency plans are being developed and evaluated in preparation for the arrival of these viral strains. Objectives  With this cross‐sectional study, to our knowledge the first in its kind in Central or South America, we sought to learn whether Peruvian poultry workers had...

  10. Prevalence of avian influenza and host ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Møller, Anders Pape

    2007-01-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are common reservoirs of the low pathogenic subtypes of avian influenza (LPAI), which are easily transmitted to poultry and become highly pathogenic. As the risk of virus transmission depends on the prevalence of LPAI in host-reservoir systems, there is an urgent need for understanding how host ecology, life history and behaviour can affect virus prevalence in the wild. To test for the most important ecological correlates of LPAI virus prevalence at the interspecific ...

  11. Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Capua, Ilaria; Marangon, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza, listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), has become a disease of great importance for animal and human health. Several aspects of the disease lack scientific information, which has hampered the management of some recent crises. Millions of animals have died, and concern is growing over the loss of human lives and management of the pandemic potential. On the basis of data generated in recent outbreaks and in light of new OIE regulations and maintenance of anim...

  12. Avian influenza: The tip of the iceberg

    OpenAIRE

    Balkhy Hanan

    2008-01-01

    For some years now, we have been living with the fear of an impending pandemic of avian influenza (AI). Despite the recognition, in 1996, of the global threat posed by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus found in farmed geese in Guangdong Province, China, planning for the anticipated epidemic remains woefully inadequate; this is especially true in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. These deficiencies became obvious in 1997, with the outbreak of AI in the live animal markets in...

  13. Avian influenza: Myth or mass murder?

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI) is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A virus...

  14. Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds Against Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Call, Evan W.

    1991-01-01

    Tests in vitro for antiviral activity against avian influenza viruses, A/Turkey/Sanpete/85 (H6N8) and A/Turkey/Sanpete/86 (H10N9), isolated in Sanpete County, Utah, utilized known antiviral agents, amantadine•HCl (adamantanamine hydrochloride) and ribavirin (1-β-D ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide). The testing involved evaluation of seven drug concentrations. Maximum tolerated dose, minimum inhibitory concentration and therapeutic indexes were determined for each drug used. Both dru...

  15. Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Gerardo M; Lucio Eduardo; Rodríguez-Ropón Andrea; Méndez Sara T; Vázquez Lourdes; Escorcia Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs...

  16. Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Xudong Lin; Seth Schobel; Magdalena Plancarte; Kelly, Terra R.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined ...

  17. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  18. 复杂性食管瘘的治疗%Tailored treatment for complex intrathoracic esophageal fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵文龙; 何建行; 陈汉章; 殷伟强; 刘君; 张鑫; 徐鑫; 李树本; 成向阳; 王炜

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Intrathoracic esophageal fistula (iTEF) is a severe clinical condition which is mainly caused by invasion of malignant tumor of esophagus or vicinal organs, as well as by traumatic or inlfammatory perforation with surrounding blood vessel or airway. hTis condition is arguably the most lethal complication, especially when a ifstula is emerged between esophagus and surrounding blood vessel or airway. hTough stent implantation has been proven to be an effective approach for emergent salvage, most patients need a second stage operation due to the consistent leakage of digestive juice from the esophageal fistula and probable enlargement of the fistula. Given the compromised physical condition caused by this condition, most patients might not be able to survive the reconstruction surgery. We report here the experience of tailored surgical approach for different types of esophageal ifstula. Methods:Between January 2002 and November 2007, nine benign iTEF patients were treated in the First Affliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. Among the patients, there were ifve males and four females, and the median age was 48 (5-73) years old. hTree of these patients suffered from large esophago-tracheal ifstula (ETF) caused by traffc accident, one from aorto-esophageal ifstula (AEF) induced by ifsh bone, one from esophago-mediastinal ifstula (EMF) induced by mediastinal abscess which further induced collapsed thoracic vertebra and high paraplegia, one from esophago-bronchus ifstula (EBF) which further induced abscess of right upper lung and respiratory failure, one from large ETF caused by medical maloperation of photodynamic therapy for esophageal severe atypical hyperplasia, one from ETF caused by radiotherapy for mediastinal lymphatic metastasis of lung cancer, one from thoracogastric-tracheal fistula (GTF) after esophagectomy. hTere were seven different types of surgical approach for restoration of alimentary tract. hTe three patients with large ETF caused by

  19. Robust Unidirectional Airflow through Avian Lungs: New Insights from a Piecewise Linear Mathematical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Avian lungs are remarkably different from mammalian lungs in that air flows unidirectionally through rigid tubes in which gas exchange occurs. Experimental observations have been able to determine the pattern of gas flow in the respiratory system, but understanding how the flow pattern is generated and determining the factors contributing to the observed dynamics remains elusive. It has been hypothesized that the unidirectional flow is due to aerodynamic valving during inspiration and expiration, resulting from the anatomical structure and the fluid dynamics involved, however, theoretical studies to back up this hypothesis are lacking. We have constructed a novel mathematical model of the airflow in the avian respiratory system that can produce unidirectional flow which is robust to changes in model parameters, breathing frequency and breathing amplitude. The model consists of two piecewise linear ordinary differential equations with lumped parameters and discontinuous, flow-dependent resistances that mimic the experimental observations. Using dynamical systems techniques and numerical analysis, we show that unidirectional flow can be produced by either effective inspiratory or effective expiratory valving, but that both inspiratory and expiratory valving are required to produce the high efficiencies of flows observed in avian lungs. We further show that the efficacy of the inspiratory and expiratory valving depends on airsac compliances and airflow resistances that may not be located in the immediate area of the valving. Our model provides additional novel insights; for example, we show that physiologically realistic resistance values lead to efficiencies that are close to maximum, and that when the relative lumped compliances of the caudal and cranial airsacs vary, it affects the timing of the airflow across the gas exchange area. These and other insights obtained by our study significantly enhance our understanding of the operation of the

  20. Robust Unidirectional Airflow through Avian Lungs: New Insights from a Piecewise Linear Mathematical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Emily P; Ben-Tal, Alona

    2016-02-01

    Avian lungs are remarkably different from mammalian lungs in that air flows unidirectionally through rigid tubes in which gas exchange occurs. Experimental observations have been able to determine the pattern of gas flow in the respiratory system, but understanding how the flow pattern is generated and determining the factors contributing to the observed dynamics remains elusive. It has been hypothesized that the unidirectional flow is due to aerodynamic valving during inspiration and expiration, resulting from the anatomical structure and the fluid dynamics involved, however, theoretical studies to back up this hypothesis are lacking. We have constructed a novel mathematical model of the airflow in the avian respiratory system that can produce unidirectional flow which is robust to changes in model parameters, breathing frequency and breathing amplitude. The model consists of two piecewise linear ordinary differential equations with lumped parameters and discontinuous, flow-dependent resistances that mimic the experimental observations. Using dynamical systems techniques and numerical analysis, we show that unidirectional flow can be produced by either effective inspiratory or effective expiratory valving, but that both inspiratory and expiratory valving are required to produce the high efficiencies of flows observed in avian lungs. We further show that the efficacy of the inspiratory and expiratory valving depends on airsac compliances and airflow resistances that may not be located in the immediate area of the valving. Our model provides additional novel insights; for example, we show that physiologically realistic resistance values lead to efficiencies that are close to maximum, and that when the relative lumped compliances of the caudal and cranial airsacs vary, it affects the timing of the airflow across the gas exchange area. These and other insights obtained by our study significantly enhance our understanding of the operation of the avian respiratory

  1. THE INTERACTION OF MIGRATORY BIRDS AND DOMESTIC POULTRY AND ITS ROLE IN SUSTAINING AVIAN INFLUENZA

    OpenAIRE

    Bourouiba, L.; Gourley, SA; Liu, RS; Wu, JH

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of migratory birds in the spread of H5N1 avian influenza, focusing on the interaction of a migratory bird species with nonmigratory poultry. The model is of patch type and is derived with the aid of reaction-advection equations for the migratory birds in the air along the flyways. Poultry may reside at some or all of the four patches of the model, which consist of the breeding patch for the migratory birds, their Winter feeding patch, and two stopover patches where bir...

  2. Protection from avian influenza H5N1 virus infection with antibody-impregnated filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukamoto Masaya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is worldwide concern over the possibility of a new influenza pandemic originating from the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses. We herein demonstrate that functional air filters impregnated with ostrich antibodies against the hemagglutinin of the H5N1 virus protect chickens from death by H5N1 transmission. These results suggest that the use of ostrich antibody-impregnated filters might be a powerful way to prevent the transmission of H5N1.

  3. Ontogeny of avian thermoregulation from a neural point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2007-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation differs among (avian) species, but in all species both neural and endocrinological processes are involved. In this review the neural processes in ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal and early postnatal phase are discussed. Only in a few avian species (ch

  4. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Dodman, Tim; Caron, Alexandre; Balança, Gilles; Desvaux, Stephanie; Goutard, Flavie; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lamarque, François; Hagemeijer, Ward; Monicat, François

    2007-01-01

    We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa.

  5. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye;

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, ...

  6. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  7. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  8. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  9. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  10. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the proliferative skin lesions and oral diphtheritic lesions. Infection of the avian pox virus was confirmed by PCR using primers specific to the 4b core protein gene of avian pox virus. All cases were diagnosed with avian pox virus infection. This is believed to be the first description on natural infection of avian pox in Oriental Turtle-doves in Korea.

  11. Single Step Sintered Calcium Phosphate Fibers from Avian EGG Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Prabhash; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu

    2013-11-01

    Different forms of calcium-phosphate (Hydoxyapatite, α-TCP, β-TCP, CDHA) minerals are found to be major component of bone tissue. Development of calcium-phosphate (CaP) based fibrous microstructures is of significant research interest worldwide owing to its improved mechanical properties and higher interconnectivity. Here we represent a method for single step sintered wet-spun Fibers of calcium phosphate from avian egg shells for biomedical applications. Raw egg shell powder was mixed with chitosan solution and Phosphoric acid. The mixture is milled in a ball mill overnight and then filtered. The slurry was de-aired using 100 microliter 1-octanol per 100 ml of slurry as antifoaming and wet spun in coagulation bath. Fiber was dried overnight and sintered at different temperatures for microstructure and phase analysis. Both green and sintered Fibers were physico-chemical characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR, and stereo-zoom microscopy. The fibers obtained in this procedure are found to have highly porous interconnected structures which can provide good cell adhesion and therefore can be used for bioactive scaffold making.

  12. Mapping and modelling of Angola's avian diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Miguel José Ascensão Freire Parada

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão e Conservação de Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Universidade de Évora Angola harbours one of the richest and most diverse avifaunas in Africa, due to its vast number of biomas and ecosystems. However, mainly due to the Portuguese Colonial war (1961-1974) and Angolan civil war (1974-2002), the country’s avian diversity and distribution is still poorly known. One way to increase the scientific knowledge of Angolan ornithology is by studyi...

  13. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  14. Avian influenza risk perception, Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, Richard; Lam, Wendy W.T.; Ho, Ella Y.Y.; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.; Leung, Gabriel M

    2005-01-01

    A telephone survey of 986 Hong Kong households determined exposure and risk perception of avian influenza from live chicken sales. Householders bought 38,370,000 live chickens; 11% touched them when buying, generating 4,220,000 exposures annually; 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33%–39%) perceived this as risky, 9% (7%–11%) estimated >50% likelihood of resultant sickness, whereas 46% (43%–49%) said friends worried about such sickness. Recent China travel (adjusted odds ratio 0.35; CI 0.13–0...

  15. Current genomic editing approaches in avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sub; Kang, Kyung Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    The chicken was domesticated from Red Jungle Fowl over 8000years ago and became one of the major food sources worldwide. At present, the poultry industry is one of the largest industrial animal stocks in the world, and its economic scale is expanding significantly with increasing consumption. Additionally, since Aristotle used chicken eggs as a model to provide remarkable insights into how life begins, chickens have been used as invaluable and powerful experimental materials for studying embryo development, immune systems, biomedical processes, and hormonal regulation. Combined with advancements in efficient transgenic technology, avian models have become even more important than would have been expected.

  16. Clinical value of multi-slice CT in diagnosis of intra-thoracic esophageal injury caused by foreign body%多层螺旋CT诊断胸食管异物损伤的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程功文; 魏益平; 王一明; 俞东亮; 江涵; 高华; 徐建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of MSCT in diagnosis of intra-thoracic esophageal injury caused by foreign body. Methods A total of 22 patients with intra-thoracic esophageal injury caused by foreign body were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent MSCT plain scan, 13 of them underwent enhanced scan, and then post-processing techniques were applied. Diagnosis and therapy decision were based on the performance of MSCT and clinical features. Results The coincidence rate was 68. 18% (15/22) and 76. 92% (10/13) of MSCT plain scan and post-processing with treatment results. Combined with clinical characteristics, MSCT accurately diagnosed all injuries. Twenty patients were cured eventually, two patients died. Conclusion MSCT is of great clinical value for the diagnosis of intra-thoracic esophageal in-jury caused by foreign body. Combined with clinical characteristics, MSCT can accurately diagnose and classify intra-thoracic esophageal injury, contributing to the therapy strategy of these lesions.%目的 探讨MSCT诊断胸食管异物损伤的临床价值.方法 22例胸食管异物损伤患者均接受MSCT平扫,其中13例接受增强薄层扫描及后处理成像.依据MSCT特征、结合临床表现决定诊断及治疗方案.结果 MSCT平扫及后处理影像诊断与临床诊断的总符合率分别为68.18%(15/22)和76.92%(10/13),结合临床特征均确诊.22例中,痊愈20例,死亡2例.结论 MSCT是诊断胸食管异物损伤的最具临床价值的影像学方法,结合临床特征可确诊,对制定科学、合理的治疗方案具有指导意义.

  17. Synergy between avian pneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Maja; Decostere, Annemie; Martel, An; Chiers, Koen; Froyman, Robrecht; Nauwynck, Hans

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the possible synergism between Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) and avian pneumovirus (APV), inoculated into turkeys via the natural route, for the reproduction of respiratory disease. Three-week-old specific pathogen free turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with either APV subtype A, ORT or both agents using two different time intervals (3 and 5 days) between APV and ORT. The birds were observed clinically on a daily basis and swabbed intratracheally at short, regular intervals. They were killed at 1, 3, 5, 8 and 15 days post single or dual inoculation and examined for gross lesions at necropsy. Samples of the turbinates, trachea, lungs, air sacs, heart, pericardium and liver were taken for bacteriological and/or histological examination. Combined APV/ORT infections resulted in overt clinical signs and a longer persistence of ORT in the respiratory tract and aggravated the macroscopic and histological lesions in comparison with the groups given single infections. In all ORT-challenged turkeys, ORT was isolated from the turbinates, trachea and lungs, but in turkeys infected with both agents ORT was frequently found in the air sacs and on a single occasion in the heart and pericardium. The time interval between APV and ORT inoculation did not have a significant effect on the outcome of the dual infection. A conspicuous important feature was the attachment of ORT to the cilia of the epithelium of the turbinates and trachea of both ORT-infected and APV/ORT-infected birds. In conclusion, the results show that ORT is able to adhere to and colonize the respiratory tract but, under the circumstances used in this study, is not capable of inducing respiratory disease without viral priming.

  18. Avian cytokines - the natural approach to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, J W; Lambrecht, B; van den Berg, T P; Andrew, M E; Strom, A D; Bean, A G

    2000-01-01

    While the effective use of antibiotics for the control of human disease has saved countless lives and has increased life expectancy over the past few decades, there are concerns arising from their usage in livestock. The use of antibiotic feed additives in food production animals has been linked to the emergence in the food chain of multiple drug-resistant bacteria that appear impervious to even the most powerful antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the use of chemical antimicrobials has led to concerns involving environmental contamination and unwanted residues in food products. The imminent banning of antibiotic usage in livestock feed has intensified the search for environmentally-friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines, as natural mediators and regulators of the immune response, offer exciting new alternatives to conventional chemical-based therapeutics. The utilisation of cytokines is becoming more feasible, particularly in poultry, with the recent cloning of a number of avian cytokine genes. Chickens offer an attractive small animal model system with which to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in intensive livestock. In this report we will review the status of avian cytokines and focus on our recent studies involving the therapeutic potential of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) as a vaccine adjuvant and a growth promoter. PMID:10717298

  19. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds.

  20. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. PMID:26204893

  1. Studying avian encephalization with geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Watanabe, Akinobu; Kawabe, Soichiro

    2016-08-01

    Encephalization is a core concept in comparative neurobiology, aiming to quantify the neurological capacity of organisms. For measuring encephalization, many studies have employed relative brain sizes corrected for expected allometric scaling to body size. Here we highlight the utility of a multivariate geometric morphometric (GM) approach for visualizing and analyzing neuroanatomical shape variation associated with encephalization. GM readily allows the statistical evaluation of covariates, such as size, and many software tools exist for visualizing their effects on shape. Thus far, however, studies using GM have not attempted to translate the meaning of encephalization to shape data. As such, we tested the statistical relationship between size and encephalization quotients (EQs) to brain shape utilizing a broad interspecific sample of avian endocranial data. Although statistically significant, the analyses indicate that allometry accounts for <10% of total neuroanatomical shape variation. Notably, we find that EQs, despite being corrected for allometric scaling based on size, contain size-related neuroanatomical shape changes. In addition, much of what is traditionally considered encephalization comprises clade-specific trends in relative forebrain expansion, particularly driven by landbirds. EQs, therefore, fail to capture 90% of the total neuroanatomical variation after correcting for allometry and shared phylogenetic history. Moving forward, GM techniques provide crucial tools for investigating key drivers of this vast, largely unexplored aspect of avian brain morphology. PMID:27112986

  2. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  3. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds. PMID:25973630

  4. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  5. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  6. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis.

  7. Risk Mapping of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Distribution and Spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. J. Williams

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence and spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza begs effective and accurate mapping of current knowledge and future risk of infection. Methods for such mapping, however, are rudimentary, and few good examples exist for use as templates for risk-mapping efforts. We review the transmission cycle of avian influenza viruses, and identify points on which risk-mapping can focus. We provide examples from the literature and from our work that illustrate mapping risk based on (1 avian influenza case occurrences, (2 poultry distributions and movements, and (3 migratory bird movements.

  8. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R. G.; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  9. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  10. The Helper Activities of Different Avian Viruses for Propagation of Recombinant Avian Adeno-Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.

  11. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  12. The 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    正Invited participants on the 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism, sponsored by Hainan Normal University (HNU), China, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway, the Research Council of Norway, and China Ornithological Society (COS).

  13. Region 6 Avian Health Program FY2011 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities and fund allocations of the Region 6 Avian Health Program in FY2011. Activities include morbidity and mortality monitoring, disease...

  14. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Language: English Español Recommend on ... Compartir Influenza A viruses have infected many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, and seals. ...

  15. The avian tectorial membrane: Why is it tapered?

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasa, Kuni H

    2015-01-01

    While the mammalian- and the avian inner ears have well defined tonotopic organizations as well as hair cells specialized for motile and sensing roles, the structural organization of the avian ear is different from its mammalian cochlear counterpart. Presumably this difference stems from the difference in the way motile hair cells function. Short hair cells, whose role is considered analogous to mammalian outer hair cells, presumably depends on their hair bundles, and not motility of their cell body, in providing the motile elements of the cochlear amplifier. This report focuses on the role of the avian tectorial membrane, specifically by addressing the question, "Why is the avian tectorial membrane tapered from the neural to the abneural direction?"

  16. Migratory Bird Avian Influenza Sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species...

  17. Avian populations and habitat use in interior Alaska taiga

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian community structure, habitat occupancy levels, and species habitat use patterns were examined in the woody habitats of interior Alaska taiga. Some birds...

  18. Avian Point Transect Survey; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian point-transect survey data and habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We...

  19. Historical review of avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review historical information on avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. This report includes incidental reports of...

  20. Avian influenza surveillance sample collection and shipment protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for mortality collection and shipment of avian influenza (AI) live bird surveillance sample collections. AI sample collections will include...

  1. Artist conception of the Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  2. 禽流感病%Avian Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先志

    1999-01-01

    @@ 禽流感病(avian influenza)是由甲型流感病毒引起的一种禽类疾病综合征.1997年5月,我国香港特别行政区1例3岁儿童死于不明原因的多器官功能衰竭,同年8月经美国疾病预防和控制中心以及WHO荷兰鹿特丹国家流感中心鉴定为禽甲型流感病毒H5N1[A(H5N1)]引起的人类流感[1~3].这是世界上首次证实A(H5N1)感染人类,因而引起医学界的广泛关注.

  3. 禽流感%Avian influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学工; 龙云铸

    2005-01-01

    禽流感(avian influenza)是禽类流行性感冒的简称,是由甲型流感病毒株的某些亚型引起的急性呼吸道传染病。通常情况下,禽流感病毒并不感染人类,但自1997年禽甲型流感病毒H5N1感染人类之后,相继有H9N2、H7N7.亚型感染人类和H5N1再次感染人类的报道,引起了世人的广泛关注。

  4. Quantum coherence and sensitivity of avian magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2012-01-01

    Migratory birds and other species have the ability to navigate by sensing the geomagnetic field. Recent experiments indicate that the essential process in the navigation takes place in bird's eye and uses chemical reaction involving molecular ions with unpaired electron spins (radical pair). Sensing is achieved via geomagnetic-dependent dynamics of the spins of the unpaired electrons. Here we utilize the results of all behavioral experiments conducted on European Robins to argue that the average life-time of the radical pair is of the order of a microsecond and therefore agrees with experimental estimations of this parameter for cryptochrome --- a pigment believed to form the radical pairs. We also found a reasonable parameter regime where sensitivity of the avian compass is enhanced by environmental noise, showing that long coherence time is not required for navigation and may even spoil it.

  5. Infrasound and the avian navigational map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Birds can accurately navigate over hundreds to thousands of kilometres, and use celestial and magnetic compass senses to orient their flight. How birds determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing (map sense) remains controversial, and has been attributed to their olfactory or magnetic senses. Pigeons can hear infrasound down to 0??05 Hz, and an acoustic avian map is proposed consisting of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features. The source of these infrasonic signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic waves. Atmospheric processes affecting the infrasonic map cues can explain perplexing experimental results from pigeon releases. Moreover, four recent disrupted pigeon races in Europe and the north-eastern USA intersected infrasonic shock waves from the Concorde supersonic transport. Having an acoustic map might also allow clock-shifted birds to test their homeward progress and select between their magnetic and solar compasses.

  6. Seroprevalence of avian pneumovirus in Minnesota turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Friendshuh, Keith; Halvorson, David A

    2003-01-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes respiratory tract infection in turkeys and was first seen in the United States in Colorado in late 1996. In early 1997, the disease was recognized in Minnesota and caused estimated losses of up to 15 million dollars per year. This virus has not been reported in the other turkey producing states. We here report the seroprevalence of APV in Minnesota from August 1998 to July 2002. The average rate of seroprevalence has been 36.3% (range = 14.2%-64.8%). A seasonal bias was observed, with peak incidences in the fall and spring. A higher rate of seropositivity was observed in counties with the highest concentration of turkeys.

  7. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koford, Rolf R.; Dunning, J.B., Jr.; Ribic, C.A.; Finch, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary. The cited sources were not necessarily the first ones to use the terms. Many definitions were taken verbatim from the cited source material. Others were modified slightly to clarify the meaning. Definitions that were modified to a greater extent are indicated as being adapted from the originals. Terms that have been used in more than one way by different authors are listed with numbered alternative definitions if the definitions differ substantially.

  8. Avian ecology of arid habitats in Namibia / Henriette Cornelia Potgieter

    OpenAIRE

    Potgieter, Henriette Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Examination of bird assemblages along an environmental gradient which encompasses both climate and habitat change is needed if we are to better understand the potential effects of these changes for avians and the ecological process that depend upon them. Climate change is predicted to have a significant impact on deserts and desert margins, resulting in distributional shifts of entire ecosystems and new community associations. This study explores the probable responses of avian communities to...

  9. The role of the avian hippocampus in spatial memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Macphail E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Avian hippocampal function is surveyed, using data drawn from three areas: conventional laboratory paradigms, pigeon navigation, and food-storing. Damage to the avian hippocampus disrupts performance in laboratory tasks that tap spatial learning and memory, and also disrupts both pigeon homing and cache recovery by food-storing birds. Further evidence of hippocampal involvement in food-storing is provided by the fact that the hippocampus of food-storing birds is ...

  10. Predicting power-optimal kinematics of avian wings

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model of avian flight is developed which simulates wing motion through a class of methods known as predictive simulation. This approach uses numerical optimization to predict power-optimal kinematics of avian wings in hover, cruise, climb and descent. The wing dynamics capture both aerodynamic and inertial loads. The model is used to simulate the flight of the pigeon, Columba livia, and the results are compared with previous experimental measurements. In cruise, the model uneart...

  11. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild house mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Shriner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza viruses are known to productively infect a number of mammal species, several of which are commonly found on or near poultry and gamebird farms. While control of rodent species is often used to limit avian influenza virus transmission within and among outbreak sites, few studies have investigated the potential role of these species in outbreak dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We trapped and sampled synanthropic mammals on a gamebird farm in Idaho, USA that had recently experienced a low pathogenic avian influenza outbreak. Six of six house mice (Mus musculus caught on the outbreak farm were presumptively positive for antibodies to type A influenza. Consequently, we experimentally infected groups of naïve wild-caught house mice with five different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses that included three viruses derived from wild birds and two viruses derived from chickens. Virus replication was efficient in house mice inoculated with viruses derived from wild birds and more moderate for chicken-derived viruses. Mean titers (EID(50 equivalents/mL across all lung samples from seven days of sampling (three mice/day ranged from 10(3.89 (H3N6 to 10(5.06 (H4N6 for the wild bird viruses and 10(2.08 (H6N2 to 10(2.85 (H4N8 for the chicken-derived viruses. Interestingly, multiple regression models indicated differential replication between sexes, with significantly (p<0.05 higher concentrations of avian influenza RNA found in females compared with males. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Avian influenza viruses replicated efficiently in wild-caught house mice without adaptation, indicating mice may be a risk pathway for movement of avian influenza viruses on poultry and gamebird farms. Differential virus replication between males and females warrants further investigation to determine the generality of this result in avian influenza disease dynamics.

  12. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hoye, B.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.M.; Klaassen, M.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian infl uenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideratio...

  13. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    OpenAIRE

    van Boven, M.; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry van Beest Holle, M.; Meijer, Adam; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C. A.; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i) the animal reservoir, (ii) humans who were infected b...

  14. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    OpenAIRE

    Heatley, J. Jill; Villalobos, de, Leonor Cristina

    2012-01-01

    J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and ...

  15. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  16. Avian influenza in Croatia - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Wild birds can carry a wide range of viral and other zoonotic agents, which may be transmitted to humans. From October 2005 to March 2006 HPAI H5N1 virus was isolated from wild birds (mute swans, black-headed gulls and a mallard duck) in Croatia at five locations. After isolation of H5N1 virus at 2006 from mallard duck near City of Zagreb (capital of Croatia) Department of Poultry Diseases with Clinic at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, has conducted monitoring of avian viruses that could endanger human health. Samples (999 pharyngeal and cloacal swabs) from 23 wild bird species were taken. After year 2006 Croatia has regular monitoring for avian influenza in wild birds and poultry (especially in the backyard flocks). During 2007 (6,928 wild birds and 18,000 blood samples from poultry) and 2008 (2,486 wild birds; 20,000 blood samples and 1,500 cloacal swabs from poultry) were taken. Isolation was performed with classical virus detection method by inoculation of 10 day old chicken embryos, and molecular methods by conventional PCR and Real Time PCR (M gene, H5, H7 and N1 genes), and serological methods by antibody detection from blood samples (inhibition hemagglutination and ELISA). All samples were HPAI virus negative but investigators from the Poultry Centre of the Croatian Veterinary Institute isolated from wild birds LPAI viruses: H2N3, H3N8, H5N3 and H10N7. The results obtained by these investigations and monitoring revealed the need for permanent monitoring of wild bird's health status, especially the water birds species. Vaccination against AI is never practiced in Croatia. Quick and accurate detection of wild migratory birds infected with the H5N1 virus prevented the spread of the virus to the domestic poultry in Croatia which would have had enormous consequences. (author)

  17. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  18. Early warning: Avian flu and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian flu has spread to 51 countries, 36 this year alone, many of which are densely populated and deprived. The joint FAO/IAEA programme is working on the rapid detection of emerging diseases, including bird flu, and using nuclear and radiation techniques in the process. The problems are serious and challenging, but nuclear technologies may offer a solution. For most developing countries, TAD (transboundary animal diseases) detection is still vital. The bottleneck is their inability to rapidly detect the virus and to determine early enough whether it is H5N1 or another subtype, so that authorities can take appropriate control measures. Serious efforts are focused on the early detection of the agents. Timely recognition of such viral infections would prevent the spread of the diseases to large animal populations in huge geographic areas. Thus, the development of novel, powerful diagnostic nuclear and nuclear-related assays is a crucial issue today in veterinary research and animal health care. Molecular virology offers a range of new methods, which are able to accelerate and improve the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals and in man. The molecular detection assays, like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, provide possibilities for a very rapid diagnosis. The detection of viruses can be completed within hours or hopefully even within minutes with a sensitivity level of less than one pathogenic organism. Molecular approaches have contributed significantly to the rapid detection of well-established, as well as newly emerging, infectious agents such as Nipah and Hendra viruses or corona viruses in the SARS scenario and the detection and molecular characterisation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype that threatens the world today. The nucleic acid amplification assays, although they were at first expensive and cumbersome, have become relatively cheap and user-friendly tools in the diagnostic laboratories

  19. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  20. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens.

  1. Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A. I.; V. Shanmugam; Switzer, W. M.; Tsang, S. X.; Fadly, A.; Thea, D.; Helfand, R; Bellini, W J; Folks, T M; Heneine, W

    2001-01-01

    The identification of endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) and endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines in current use has raised concern about transmission of these retroviruses to vaccine recipients. We used serologic and molecular methods to analyze specimens from 206 recipients of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine for evidence of infection with ALV and EAV. A Western blot assay for detecting antibodies to endogenous ALV was developed and ...

  2. Transposed intrathoracic stomach: Functional evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishesh Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the functional aspects of the transposed stomach in the thoracic cavity and its effects on other organ systems. Patients and Methods: Children who had undergone gastric transposition more than 5 years ago were evaluated for symptoms, anthropometry, anaemia, duodenogastric reflux, pulmonary function, gastric emptying, gastric pH, gastroesophageal reflux and stricture, gastric motility, and gastritis and atrophy on histological examination of gastric mucosa. Results: Ten children were evaluated at a median follow-up of 90.5 months. On evaluation of symptoms, nine children were satisfied with the overall outcome. All patients had their weight and 7 patients had height less than 3 rd percentile for their respective age. Anaemia was present in 7/10 children. On evaluation with hepatobiliary scintigraphy, duodenogastric reflux was present in only 1 patient. Mass contractions of the transposed stomach were present in two thirds of the children. The mean gastric emptying t1/2 was 39.1 minutes. Pulmonary function tests were suggestive of restrictive lung disease in all the patients. Forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 were worse in children who underwent transposition or diversion following oesophageal anastomotic leak. Acid secretion was preserved in most patients with episodes of high gastric pH during sleep in nearly half. Mild gastritis was present in all patients where as mild atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed in only 1child. Helicobacter pylori were positive in 3/ 8 children. Barium swallow demonstrated reflux in 2 children. Conclusions: Most children with transposed stomach remain asymptomatic on follow up. However, subclinical abnormalities are detected on investigations, which need close observation as they can manifest later in life.

  3. CT findings of intrathoracic mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    8 patients with pathologically proven pleural mesothelioma (5 localized type, 3 diffuse type), and 1 patient with malignant pericardial mesothelioma, were examined by computed tomography (CT), and obtained some results as follows: 1. Pleural Mesothelioma a. Localized pleural mesothelioma 4 cases were benign and 1 case was malignant in microscopic examination. CT showed invariably sharply marginated pleura-based soft tissue mass and the density of the mass was variable, homogenous in small tumor but inhomogenous with low density area in larger ones, and even calcification was seen in one of them. The angle of pleura-mass interface was obtuse in only one small tumor and acute with smooth taping end in four lager tumor. b. Diffuse pleural mesothelioma (DPM) Multiple nodular pleural masses encompassing nearly entire lung were seen with associated multiple subpleural parenchymal nodule and localized axial interstitial thickening in two case. Protruding chest wall mass with destruction of rib was seen in previous pneumonectomized thorax. Minimal pleural effusion/thickening was also seen in all. 2. Pericardial mesothelioma Pericardial fluid and multiple nodular masses, which occupied pericardial sac up to superior sinus were well delineated on CT. It had been misinterpreted as pericardial effusion for years on echocardiogram

  4. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  5. Avian influenza viruses - new causative a gents of human infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Influenza A viruses can infect humans, some mammals and especially birds. Subtypes of human influenza A viruses: ACH1N1, ACH2N2 and A(H3N2 have caused pandemics. Avian influenza viruses vary owing to their 15 hemagglutinins (H and 9 neuraminidases (N. Human cases of avian influenza A In the Netherlands in 2003, there were 83 human cases of influenza A (H7N7. In 1997, 18 cases of H5N1 influenza A, of whom 6 died, were found among residents of Hong Kong. In 2004, 34 human cases (23 deaths were reported in Viet Nam and Thailand. H5N1 virus-infected patients presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. Complications included respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, liver dysfunction and hematologic disorders. Since 1999, 7 cases of human influenza H9N2 infection have been identified in China and Hong Kong. The importance of human infection with avian influenza viruses. H5N1 virus can directly infect humans. Genetic reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses may occur in humans co infected with current human A(HIN1 or A(H3N2 subtypes and avian influenza viruses. The result would be a new influenza virus with pandemic potential. All genes of H5Nl viruses isolated from humans are of avian origin. Prevention and control. The reassortant virus containing H and N from avian and the remaining proteins from human influenza viruses will probably be used as a vaccine strain. The most important control measures are rapid destruction of all infected or exposed birds and rigorous disinfection of farms. Individuals exposed to suspected animals should receive prophylactic treatment with antivirals and annual vaccination. .

  6. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeng T. Endarti; Shamsul A. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian inf...

  7. Planning and executing a vaccination campaign against avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, S; Cristalli, A; Busani, L

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza infection caused by H5 or H7 virus subtypes has been used on several occasions in recent years to control and in some cases eradicate the disease. In order to contain avian influenza infection effectively, immunization should be combined with a coordinated set of control and monitoring measures. The outcome of an immunization campaign depends on the territorial strategy; whereas the capacity of the veterinary services in developed countries permits enforcement of strategies aimed at eradicating avian influenza, many countries currently affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have a limited veterinary infrastructure and a limited capacity to respond to such epidemics. In these countries, resources are still insufficient to conduct adequate surveillance for identification and reaction to avian influenza outbreaks when they occur. When properly applied in this scenario, immunization can reduce mortality and production losses. In the long term, immunization might also decrease the prevalence of infection to levels at which stamping-out and surveillance can be applied. Countries should adapt their immunization programmes to local conditions in order to guarantee their efficacy and sustainability. In the initial emergency phase, human resources can be mobilized, with reliance on personal responsibility and motivation, thus compensating for potential shortcomings in organization. A more appropriate allocation of resources must be pursued in the long term, remembering that biosecurity is the main component of an exit strategy and must always be improved.

  8. Avian influenza survey in migrating waterfowl in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J

    2011-02-01

    A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health.

  9. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses. PMID:25790045

  10. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  11. Evaluation of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism for Differentiation of Avian Mycoplasma Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y; Garcia, M.; Levisohn, S; Lysnyansky, I.; Leiting, V.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; Kleven, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used for typing avian mycoplasma species. Forty-four avian mycoplasma strains were successfully typed into eight distinct groups, with each representing a different species. Homology of AFLP patterns of 35% or less was used as a cutoff value to differentiate avian mycoplasma strains into different species.

  12. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu ... WhiteHouse.gov USA.gov GobiernoUSA.gov BusinessUSA.gov Flu Basics Symptoms (CDC) Prevention (CDC) Treatment (CDC) Vaccination ( ...

  13. Flocking and self-defense: experiments and simulations of avian mobbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2011-03-01

    We have performed motion capture studies in the field of avian mobbing, in which flocks of prey birds harass predatory birds. Our empirical studies cover both field observations of mobbing occurring in mid-air, where both predator and prey are in flight, and an experimental system using actual prey birds and simulated predator ``perch and wait'' strategies. To model our results and establish the effectiveness of mobbing flight paths at minimizing risk of capture while optimizing predator harassment, we have performed computer simulations using the actual measured trajectories of mobbing prey birds combined with model predator trajectories. To accurately simulate predator motion, we also measured raptor acceleration and flight dynamics, well as prey-pursuit strategies. These experiments and theoretical studies were all performed with undergraduate research assistants in a liberal arts college setting. This work illustrates how biological physics provides undergraduate research projects well-suited to the abilities of physics majors with interdisciplinary science interests and diverse backgrounds.

  14. Avian Blood-Vessel Formation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the developmental anomalies observed in the past might be related to or caused by delayed or improper vascular development. The objective of our research is to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity during space flight cause delayed or improper vascular development during embryogenesis. The effects of microgravity on the time course and extent of avian blood-vessel formation are assessed using two models, one for angiogenesis and one for vasculogenesis. The methodological approach is dictated by the constraints of the tissue preservation method used in space. Thus, both in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the adrenal, we will evaluate microscopically the vascular architecture and immunostain endothelial cells with specific antibodies (anti- vWF and QH1). The extent of ECM protein deposition will be assessed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the degree of vascularization, using computer-based image analysis. Also, the cellular source for ECM proteins will be assessed by in situ hybridization.

  15. Scaling of avian primary feather length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather (f(prim contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus. The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was controlled for using independent contrasts: f(prim is proportional to ta(0.78-0.82. The scaling exponent was not significantly different from that predicted (0.86 by earlier work. It appears that there is a general trend for the primary feathers of birds to contribute proportionally less, and ta proportionally more, to overall wingspan as this dimension increases. Wingspan in birds is constrained close to mass (M(1/3 because of optimisation for lift production, which limits opportunities for exterior morphological change. Within the wing, variations in underlying bone and feather lengths nevertheless may, in altering the joint positions, permit a range of different flight styles by facilitating variation in upstroke kinematics.

  16. Research progress in avian dispersal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang LIU; Zhengwang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal, defined as a linear spreading move-ment of individuals away from others of the population is a fundamental characteristic of organisms in nature. Dispersal is a central concept in ecological, behavioral and evolutionary studies, driven by different forces such as avoidance of inbreeding depression, density-dependent competition and the need to change breeding locations. By effective dispersal, organisms can enlarge their geo-graphic range and adjust the dynamic, sex ratio and gen-etic compositions of a population. Birds are one of the groups that are studied intensively by human beings. Due to their diurnal habits, diverse life history strategies and complex movement, birds are also ideal models for the study of dispersal behaviors. Certain topics of avian dispersal including sex-biased, asymmetric dispersal caused by differences in body conditions, dispersal pro-cesses, habitat selection and long distance dispersal are discussed here. Bird-ringing or marking, radio-telemetry and genetic markers are useful tools widely applied in dispersal studies. There are three major challenges regard-ing theoretical study and methodology research of dis-persal: (1) improvement in research methodology is needed, (2) more in-depth theoretical research is neces-sary, and (3) application of theoretical research into the conservation efforts for threatened birds and the manage-ment of their habitats should be carried out immediately.

  17. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  18. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  19. What's missing from avian global diversification analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushma

    2014-08-01

    The accumulation of vast numbers of molecular phylogenetic studies has contributed to huge knowledge gains in the evolutionary history of birds. This permits subsequent analyses of avian diversity, such as how and why diversification varies across the globe and among taxonomic groups. However, available genetic data for these meta-analyses are unevenly distributed across different geographic regions and taxonomic groups. To comprehend the impact of this variation on the interpretation of global diversity patterns, I examined the availability of genetic data for possible biases in geographic and taxonomic sampling of birds. I identified three main disparities of sampling that are geographically associated with latitude (temperate, tropical), hemispheres (East, West), and range size. Tropical regions, which host the vast majority of species, are substantially less studied. Moreover, Eastern regions, such as the Old World Tropics and Australasia, stand out as being disproportionately undersampled, with up to half of communities not being represented in recent studies. In terms of taxonomic discrepancies, a majority of genetically undersampled clades are exclusively found in tropical regions. My analysis identifies several disparities in the key regions of interest of global diversity analyses. Differential sampling can have considerable impacts on these global comparisons and call into question recent interpretations of latitudinal or hemispheric differences of diversification rates. Moreover, this review pinpoints understudied regions whose biota are in critical need of modern systematic analyses.

  20. Fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica: relato de caso Epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guiotti Filho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fratura da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica foi relatada em 1949 por West, em que a fratura era, somente, do tubérculo maior. Desde então, poucos casos foram relatados na literatura, a maioria constituída por pessoas idosas, prevalecendo como indicação terapêutica artroplastia parcial. Os autores relatam o caso de um adolescente de 14 anos de idade, sexo masculino, que apresentou fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica em decorrência de acidente ciclístico e que foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico com redução, osteossíntese e reinserção do manguito rotador. A recuperação da cabeça do úmero totalmente desvitalizada e o acompanhamento do processo de necrose e revas cularização durante seis anos, em paciente adolescente, parece não terem sido previamente relatados.Fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation was reported in 1949 by West, and the fracture was only a fracture of the greater tubercle. Few cases have since been published, and most of them in elderly individuals, partial arthroplasty prevailing as the therapy indication. The authors report the case of a 14 year old boy who presented with an epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation resulting from a bicycle accident. The boy was submitted to surgical treatment with reduction, osteosynthesis, and reinsertion of the rotator cuff. The totally devitalized humeral head recovery and the monitoring of the necrosis and revascularization process for a period of six years in a teenager patient seems to have never been reported before.

  1. Evaluation of regional pulmonary compliance and air trapping with ultrafast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper establishes a method of evaluating regional pulmonary compliance and air trapping using ultrafast CT. One normal volunteer and 10 patients with various pulmonary diseases were studied. With an ultrafast CT scanner (Imatron C-100), multiple continuous CT images of the lung were obtained at inspiration and subsequently at expiration. Intrathoracic pressure change was measured with a balloon catheter inserted into the esophagus. On the corresponding CT images of both inspiration and expiration, regional changes in CT attenuation number were evaluated. In a normal volunteer, the CT attenuation number of the lung increased from 815 HU ± 23 to 582 HU ± 30 during expiration, and the change was even throughout the lung. In a patient with pulmonary emphysema, the expiration CT image revealed regional low-attenuation areas that were not clear on the inspiration image

  2. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  3. The design, construction, and operation of a whole-body inhalation chamber for use in avian toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsgard, Mandy L; Smits, Judit E G

    2008-01-01

    Environmental risk assessments are broadening to include evaluations of avian species exposed to gaseous and particulate materials (Mineau, 2002b; Irvine, 2004; Carmalt, 2005). Since the avian respiratory tract is fundamentally different from the respiratory tract of rodents, the effects of gaseous materials on birds cannot validly be extrapolated from data derived from rodent exposure studies (Briant & Driver, 1992; Brown et al., 1997). To address the lack of avian-specific lowest observable effect levels used to calculate reference concentrations for airborne pollutants, a system was designed to facilitate research on inhalation toxicology in small birds. Birds have long been used as early indicators of poor air quality (Brown et al., 1997), and various chambers have been designed for head only exposures of larger birds (Briant & Driver, 1992). Smaller birds with short tracheal lengths and hooked beaks however require less restrictive exposure apparatus, thus warranting the proposed design. The chamber described in this article was designed to accommodate a small falcon, the American kestrel, a species frequently used in toxicological risk assessments (Wiemeyer & Lincer, 1987a; Smits & Bortolotti, 2001; Bortolotti et al., 2003; Fisher et al., 2006). To accomplish this, a 41-L closed inhalation system capable of exposing 12 adult American kestrels was constructed primarily of galvanized steel, polyvinyl chloride, and copper tubing. Humidified air was passed over the birds and subsequently decontaminated by an activated carbon filter and released to a HEPA filtration system. The proposed inhalation chamber was successfully used in 2005 and 2006 to expose a total of 55 male American kestrels to benzene and toluene. Measurements of various biochemical endpoints associated with benzene and toluene toxicity allowed us to study the effects of airborne pollutants on small nondomesticated birds in a controlled laboratory setting.

  4. Absence of avian pox in wild turkeys in central Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, C E; Stacey, L M; Hurst, G A

    1991-07-01

    Eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) (n = 1,023), obtained during winter, spring, and summer from 1983 to 1988 on Tallahala Wildlife Management Area (TWMA) (Jasper County, Mississippi, USA) were examined for avian pox lesions. Domestic turkey poults (n = 152) maintained on the area for 1 to 2 wk periods from 1987 to 1989 also were examined. Neither wild nor domestic birds showed gross evidence of pox virus infection. This study indicated that avian pox was not endemic in wild turkeys at TWMA.

  5. Emergence of Fatal Avian Influenza in New England Harbor Seals

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, S. J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H S; Chan, J. M.; Carpenter, Z. W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J T; Pedersen, J; Karesh, W; Daszak, P; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. L...

  6. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    OpenAIRE

    Koh GCH; Wong TY; Cheong SK; Koh DSQ

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unre...

  7. The challenges of avian influenza virus: mechanism, epidemiology and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George F. GAO; Pang-Chui SHAW

    2009-01-01

    @@ Early 2009, eight human infection cases of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, with 5 death cases, were reported in China. This again made the world alert on a possible pandemic worldwide, probably caused by avian-origin influenza virus. Again H5N1 is in the spotlight of the world, not only for the scientists but also for the ordinary people. How much do we know about this virus? Where will this virus go and where did it come? Can we avoid a possible pandemic of influenza? Will the human beings conquer this devastating agent? Obviously we can list more questions than we know the answers.

  8. Sensitivity and entanglement in the avian chemical compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P.; Kais, Sabre

    2014-10-01

    The radical pair mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, using a two-stage model, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  9. Sensitivity and Entanglement in the Avian Chemical Compass

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

    2014-01-01

    The Radical Pair Mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, based on a two-stage strategy, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle-dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  10. Microbes of the avian cecum: types present and substrates utilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the types and properties of microorganisms found in avian ceca, with special reference to the chicken. Microbial activity in the cecum is primarily fermentative, but there has been little evidence of cellulose fermentation, and the predominant bacterial types are relatively inactive against other high-molecular-weight compounds of dietary origin. In all avian species examined, the consistent presence of large populations of uric acid-degrading bacteria supports the view that microbial populations in the ceca permit reabsorption of water and possibly nonprotein nitrogen from the backflow of urine. These capabilities may be of particular importance to wild birds under conditions of water and food deprivation.

  11. Systems for eliminating pathogens from exhaust air of animal houses

    OpenAIRE

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly infectious viral diseases like swine fever and avian influenza in The Netherlands have shown that despite extensive bio-security measures aiming at minimizing physical contacts between farms, disease spread could not be halted. Dust in exhaust air from swine and chicken houses may provide a favorable environment in which these viruses and other pathogenic microorganisms can survive and be transported over long distances to other farms. In a field study and in an exp...

  12. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  13. Role of estrogen in avian osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M M; Hansen, K K

    2004-02-01

    One of the difficulties associated with commercial layer production is the development of osteoporosis in hens late in the production cycle. In light of this fact and because of hens' unique requirements for Ca, many studies have focused on the regulation of Ca and the role of estrogen in this process. The time course of estrogen synthesis over the productive life of hens has been well documented; increased circulating estrogen accompanies the onset of sexual maturity while decreases signal a decline in egg production prior to a molt. Numbers of estrogen receptors decrease with age in numerous tissues. The parallel changes in calcium-regulating proteins, primarily Calbindin D28K, and in the ability of duodenal cells to transport Ca, are thought to occur as a result of the changes in estrogen, and are also reversible by the molt process. In addition to the traditional model of estrogen action, evidence now exists for a possible nongenomic action of estrogen via membrane-bound receptors, demonstrated by extremely rapid surges of ionized Ca in chicken granulosa cells in response to 17beta-estradiol. Estrogen receptors have also been discovered in duodenal tissue, and tamoxifen, which binds to the estrogen receptor, has been shown to cause a rapid increase in Ca transport in the duodenum. In addition, recent evidence also suggests that mineralization of bone per se may not explain entirely the etiology of osteoporosis in the hen but that changes in the collagen matrix may contribute through decreases in bone elasticity. Taken together, these studies suggest that changes in estrogen synthesis and estrogen receptor populations may underlie the age-related changes in avian bone. As with postmenopausal women, dietary Ca and vitamin D are of limited benefit as remedies for osteoporosis in the hen. PMID:14979570

  14. Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jordan A.

    The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface

  15. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella... established by conducting five replicate titrations on a sample of the bacterial vaccine used. Only...

  16. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  17. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  18. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  19. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Avian Influenza Virus Infection via Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven FJ; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Using literature data, daily infection risks of chickens and humans with H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) by drinking water consumption were estimated for the Netherlands. A highly infectious virus and less than 4 log10 drinking water treatment (reasonably inefficient) may lead to a high infection r

  20. Indirect transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), also known bird flu, is a serious infectious disease of chickens causing high mortality in flocks and economic damage for farmers. The control strategy to control an outbreak of HPAI in the Netherlands will include culling of infected flocks and depopulation

  1. DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS USING AN INTERFEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optical interferometric waveguide immunoassay for direct and label-less detection of avian influenza virus is described. The assay response is based on index of refraction changes that occur upon binding of virus particles to antigen (hemagglutinin) specific antibodies on the waveguide surface. ...

  2. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  3. Immunohistochemical staining of avian influenza virus in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunohistochemical methods are commonly used for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza (AI) virus by allowing the identification of sites of replication of the virus in infected tissues and the correlation with the histopathological changes observed. In this chapter, the materials and metho...

  4. Low frequency of paleoviral infiltration across the avian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Zhiyong;

    2014-01-01

    of endogenous viral element evolution.Results: Through a systematic screening of the genomes of 48 species sampled across the avian phylogeny we reveal that birds harbor a limited number of endogenous viral elements compared to mammals, with only five viral families observed: Retroviridae, Hepadnaviridae...

  5. Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, C; Graves, G R

    2001-01-01

    -250% greater than those recorded at equivalent latitudes in the central Amazon basin. These findings reflect the extraordinary abundance of species associated with humid montane regions at equatorial latitudes and the importance of orography in avian speciation. In a broader context, our data reinforce...

  6. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; SASHIKA, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health.

  7. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  8. Avian Metapneumovirus Molecular Biology and Development of Genetically Engineered Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important pathogen of turkeys with a worldwide distribution. aMPV is a member of the genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae. The genome of aMPV is a non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA of 1...

  9. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  10. First characterization of avian influenza viruses from Greenland 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Ravn Merkel, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild birds, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), were found dead at the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examinations in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2...

  11. MHC haplotype involvement in avian resistance to an ectoparasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jeb P; Delany, Mary E; Mullens, Bradley A

    2008-10-01

    Research on immune function in evolutionary ecology has frequently focused on avian ectoparasites (e.g., mites and lice). However, host immunogenetics involved with bird resistance to ectoparasites has not been determined. The critical role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in adaptive immunity and high genetic variation found within the MHC make this gene complex useful for exploring the immunogenetic basis for bird resistance to ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to determine if the avian MHC influenced resistance to a blood-feeding ectoparasite. Four congenic lines of chickens, differing only at the MHC, were comparatively infested with a cosmopolitan ectoparasite of birds-northern fowl mite (NFM)-which is also a serious pest species of poultry. Mite infestations were monitored over time and mite densities (weekly and maximum) were compared among lines. Chickens with the MHC haplotype B21 were relatively resistant to NFM, compared with birds in the B15 congenic line (P density were tested. The highest peak NFM populations occurred more often on hens with the B15 haplotype versus the B21 haplotype (P = 0.012), which supported the results of the congenic study. These data indicate the avian MHC influences ectoparasite resistance, which is relevant to disease ecology and avian-ectoparasite interaction. PMID:18626638

  12. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types.

  13. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy.

  14. Avian influenza diagnosis in the Russian Federation: Achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Rosselkhoznadzor data, during 2005-2006, the avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks were reported in the Russian Federation in the Siberian, Ural, Central and South Federal Okrugs. In 2007, the RF officials notified the IOE about HPAI/H5N1 outbreaks in the territories of the Krasnodarsky Krai, Republic of Adygea, Moskovskaya and Kaluzhskaya Oblast. In 2008 there was one report about HPAI/H5N1 outbreak in Primorskii Krai (Far Eastern Okrug). To detect and characterize the avian influenza virus the following diagnostic scheme was used in ARRIAH: suspected cases (poultry, wild birds) and for monitoring purposes. 392 samples were positive in PCR to avian influenza virus type A. The most part of them were HPAI H5N1. In 2005 it was discovered 618 samples (223 - from poultry and 395 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 174 samples (85 - from poultry and 89 are from wild birds). 84 poultry samples and 36 wild birds samples were positive to subtype H5N1 (HPAI). 44 AI virus isolates were recovered (28 - from poultry and 16 are from wild birds). In 2006 it was discovered 1014 samples (159 - from poultry and 855 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 144 samples (84 - from poultry and 60 are from wild birds). Most part of these samples were positive to subtype H5N1. 67 AI virus isolates were recovered (50 - from poultry and 17 are from wild birds). In 2007 there were analyzed 833 samples (233 - from poultry and 600 are from wild birds). Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 55 poultry samples. All are positive to H5N1 subtype. Avian Influenza type A virus genome was detected in 7 samples from 1 region. Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus was not found. In 2008 we analyzed approximately 1400 samples. Most of them are from wild birds. Only 30 samples are from poultry. Avian influenza type A virus genome was detected in 1 poultry sample (HPAI H5N1). Avian Influenza type A virus genome

  15. Characterisation and germline transmission of cultured avian primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs have significant potential to be used as a cell-based system for the study and preservation of avian germplasm, and the genetic modification of the avian genome. It was previously reported that PGCs from chicken embryos can be propagated in culture and contribute to the germ cell lineage of host birds. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We confirm these results by demonstrating that PGCs from a different layer breed of chickens can be propagated for extended periods in vitro. We demonstrate that intracellular signalling through PI3K and MEK is necessary for PGC growth. We carried out an initial characterisation of these cells. We find that cultured PGCs contain large lipid vacuoles, are glycogen rich, and express the stem cell marker, SSEA-1. These cells also express the germ cell-specific proteins CVH and CDH. Unexpectedly, using RT-PCR we show that cultured PGCs express the pluripotency genes c-Myc, cKlf4, cPouV, cSox2, and cNanog. Finally, we demonstrate that the cultured PGCs will migrate to and colonise the forming gonad of host embryos. Male PGCs will colonise the female gonad and enter meiosis, but are lost from the gonad during sexual development. In male hosts, cultured PGCs form functional gametes as demonstrated by the generation of viable offspring. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of in vitro cultures of germline competent avian PGCs offers a unique system for the study of early germ cell differentiation and also a comparative system for mammalian germ cell development. Primary PGC lines will form the basis of an alternative technique for the preservation of avian germplasm and will be a valuable tool for transgenic technology, with both research and industrial applications.

  16. Diagnostic analysis of CT in the treatment of children with tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes%儿童胸内淋巴结结核CT诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新枝; 武艳霞; 杜兰霞; 王志刚; 陈永芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the CT charts oi children with tuberculosis oi intrathorarir lymph nodes. Methods The clini-ral data oi 120 children with tuberculosis oi intrathoracic lymph nodes were retrospectively analyzed. Results The chest CT showed that 76 cases had lymphadenectasis around hilus oi lung, which included 52 cases on the right, 6 cases on the left and IK cases on the bilateral side, 37 cases had inflammation, and 39 cases had nodular, which occurred at the upper, central and lower hilus oi lung. Lymph node enlargement oi upper right hilus oi lung mostly occurred near the upper lobe bronchus biiurcate. Lymph nodes oi middle right hilus oi lung mostly occurred near art ray biiurcate. Lymph nodes oi lower right hilus oi lung mostly occurred around lower right pulmonary art ray and there were 8 patients with spread in the lungs. There were 44 patients who showed trachea lymph nodes enlargement, which included 40 cases on the right, 3 cases on the right and 1 case on the bilateral sides. There were 16 cases oi inflammation type and 28 cases oi nodular type. Conclusion The CT images oi children with tuberculosis oi intrathoracic lymph nodes are complicated, which should be analyzed seriously and combined with clinical and laboratory examination to give a precise diagnosis.%目的 分析胸内淋巴结结核CT表现.方法 对我院诊治120例胸内淋巴结结核进行分析.结果 胸CT表现:肺门区淋巴结肿大共76例,右侧52例,左侧6例,双侧18例,炎症型37例,结节型39例,可发生在肺门上、中、下部.右肺门上部淋巴结肿多在上叶支气管分叉附近,中部淋巴结多在右肺动脉分叉附近,下部淋巴结在右肺下动脉干周围,伴有肺内播散8例.气管旁淋巴结肿大共44例,右侧40例,左侧3例,双侧 1例,炎症型16例,结节型 28例.结论 儿童胸内淋巴结结核CT表现复杂,需认真分析,密切结合临床及实验室检查,可做出正确诊断.

  17. Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between 2006 and 2011—Review and recommendations for surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dundon, William G.; Heidari, Alireza; Fusaro, Alice;

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, the members of the molecular epidemiological working group of the European “EPIZONE” network of excellence have been generating sequence data on avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses from both European and African sources in an attempt to more fully understand the circulation and ...

  18. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Mary Lea; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  19. Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Mary Lea; Hines, Nichole; Yingst, Sam; DeLiberto, Thomas; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H7N8 was detected in commercial turkeys in January 2016. Control zone surveillance discovered a progenitor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus in surrounding turkey flocks. Data analysis supports a single LPAI virus introduction followed by spontaneous mutation to HPAI on a single premises. PMID:27313288

  20. Changes in avian disease and mosquito vector prevalence; A 15-year perceptive and assessment of future risk: Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mosquito-borne avian disease, avian malaria and avian pox, is a major limiting factor for Hawaiian forest birds. While native bird communities at Hakalau Forest NWR...

  1. Molecular diagnostics of Avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2006-01-01

    direct sequencing of the PCR product. The possibility of typization using molecular methods is based on the big difference at the amino acid and nucleotide levels between different HA subtypes (from 20- 74%, while the differences between strains of the same HA subtype are relatively small (0- 9%. The basic advantage in the detection and typization of influenza viruses using the RTPCR method is that it saves time. Namely, it can be performed directly from the samples taken in the field, and the result can be obtained within the same day, contrary to conventional methods that take 7 to 10 days. The obtained PCR product can also be sequenced immediately, which can provide an answer to the possible virulent potential of the isolate and its further spreading. The establishment of changes in the HA gene sequence can provide us with the information about the direction of the development of the genetic drift. The paper will describe in detail the possibilities for the implementation of molecular methods in diagnostics and typization, in fact, in the molecular epizootiology of avian influenza.

  2. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  3. Linking avian communities and avian influenza ecology in southern Africa using epidemiological functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Ndlovu, Mduduzi; Cumming, Graeme S

    2012-01-01

    The ecology of pathogens, and particularly their emergence in multi-host systems, is complex. New approaches are needed to reduce superficial complexities to a level that still allows scientists to analyse underlying and more fundamental processes. One promising approach for simplification is to use an epidemiological-function classification to describe ecological diversity in a way that relates directly to pathogen dynamics. In this article, we develop and apply the epidemiological functional group (EFG) concept to explore the relationships between wild bird communities and avian influenza virus (AIV) in three ecosystems in southern Africa. Using a two year dataset that combined bird counts and bimonthly sampling for AIV, we allocated each bird species to a set of EFGs that captured two overarching epidemiological functions: the capacity of species to maintain AIV in the system, and their potential to introduce the virus. Comparing AIV prevalence between EFGs suggested that the hypothesis that anseriforms (ducks) and charadriiforms (waders) drive AIV epidemiology cannot entirely explain the high prevalence observed in some EFGs. If anseriforms do play an important role in AIV dynamics in each of the three ecosystems, the role of other species in the local maintenance of AIV cannot be ruled out. The EFG concept thus helped us to identify gaps in knowledge and to highlight understudied bird groups that might play a role in AIV epidemiology. In general, the use of EFGs has potential for generating a range of valuable insights in epidemiology, just as functional group approaches have done in ecology. PMID:23101696

  4. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds

    OpenAIRE

    Darla K Zelenitsky; Therrien, François; Ridgely, Ryan C.; McGee, Amanda R.; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the olfactory capabilities of extinct basal (non-neornithine) birds or the evolutionary changes in olfaction that occurred from non-avian theropods through modern birds. Although modern birds are known to have diverse olfactory capabilities, olfaction is generally considered to have declined during avian evolution as visual and vestibular sensory enhancements occurred in association with flight. To test the hypothesis that olfaction diminished through avian evolution, we...

  5. Rapid warming and drought negatively impact population size and reproductive dynamics of an avian predator in the arid southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-McDonnell, Kirsten K; Wolf, Blair O

    2016-01-01

    Avian communities of arid ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to global climate change due to the magnitude of projected change for desert regions and the inherent challenges for species residing in resource limited ecosystems. How arid-zone birds will be affected by rapid increases in air temperature and increased drought frequency and severity is poorly understood because avian responses to climate change have primarily been studied in the relatively mesic northern temperate regions. We studied the effects of increasing air temperature and aridity on a Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) population in the southwestern United States from 1998 to 2013. Over 16 years, the breeding population declined 98.1%, from 52 pairs to 1 pair, and nest success and fledgling output also declined significantly. These trends were strongly associated with the combined effects of decreased precipitation and increased air temperature. Arrival on the breeding grounds, pair formation, nest initiation, and hatch dates all showed significant delays ranging from 9.4 to 25.1 days over 9 years, which have negative effects on reproduction. Adult and juvenile body mass decreased significantly over time, with a loss of 7.9% mass in adult males and 10.9% mass in adult females over 16 years, and a loss of 20.0% mass in nestlings over 8 years. Taken together, these population and reproductive trends have serious implications for local population persistence. The southwestern United States has been identified as a climate change hotspot, with projections of warmer temperatures, less winter precipitation, and an increase in frequency and severity of extreme events including drought and heat waves. An increasingly warm and dry climate may contribute to this species' decline and may already be a driving force of their apparent decline in the desert southwest. PMID:26367541

  6. A new feathered maniraptoran dinosaur fossil that fills a morphological gap in avian origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xing; ZHAO Qi; NORELL Mark; SULLIVAN Corwin; HONE David; ERICKSON Gregory; WANG XiaoLin; HAN FengLu; GUO Yu

    2009-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries have substantially reduced the morphological gap between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, yet avians including Archaeopteryx differ from non-avian theropods in their limb proportions. In particular, avians have proportionally longer and more robust forelimbs that are capable of supporting a large aerodynamic surface. Here we report on a new maniraptoran dinosaur, Anchiornis huxleyi gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen collected from Iacustrine deposits of uncertain age in western Liaoning, China. With an estimated mass of 110 grams, Anchiornis is the smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur. It exhibits some wrist features indicative of high mobility, presaging the wing-folding mechanisms seen in more derived birds and suggesting rapid evolution of the carpus. Otherwise, Anchiornis is intermediate in general morphology between non-avian and avian dinosaurs, particularly with regard to relative forelimb length and thickness, and represents a transitional step toward the avian condition. In contrast with some recent comprehensive phylogenetic analyses, our phylogenetic analysis incorporates subtle morphological variations and recovers a conventional result supporting the monophyly of Avialae.

  7. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  8. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI. PMID:24491922

  9. Chemical compass for avian magnetoreception as a quantum coherent device

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    It is known that more than 50 species use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Intensive studies particularly behavior experiments with birds provide support for a chemical compass based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions as a source of this sense. However, the fundamental question of whether and how quantum coherence plays an essential role in such a chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception yet remains controversial. Here, we show that the essence of the chemical compass model can be understood in analogy to a quantum interferometer exploiting quantum coherence. Within the framework of quantum metrology, we quantify quantum coherence and demonstrate that it is a resource for chemical magnetoreception. Our results allow us to understand and predict how various factors can affect the performance of a chemical compass from the unique perspective of quantum coherence assisted metrology. This represents a crucial step to affirm avian magnetoreception as an example of qu...

  10. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger.

  11. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø.; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools...... to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy...... shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings...

  12. Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is located in Southeast Asia and is a country that was affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI epidemics during 2003–2004. Nevertheless, the Thai government’s issuance policy of strict control and prevention of the disease has resulted in efficient disease control of avian influenza (AI. Poultry farmers have been both positively and negatively affected by this policy. There are three poultry cluster models worthy of attention in Thailand: (1 egg chicken poultry clusters over ponds; (2 egg chicken poultry clusters in coops raised from the ground and managed by a cooperative; and (3 poultry clusters in closed coops under contract with the private sector. Following the AI epidemics, additional poultry husbandry and biosecurity systems were developed, thereby generating income and improving the quality of life for poultry farmers. Nevertheless, raising large clusters of poultry in the same area results in disadvantages, particularly problems with both air and water pollution, depending upon the environments of each poultry model. Furthermore, the government’s policy for controlling AI during epidemics has had a negative effect on the relationship between officials and farmers, due to poultry destruction measures.

  13. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E.; Martin Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island...

  14. Global Climate Change Leads to Mistimed Avian Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Marcel E; Both, Christiaan; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2004-01-01

    Climate change is apparent as an advancement of spring phenology. However, there is no a priori reason to expect that all components of food chains will shift their phenology at the same rate. This differential shift will lead to mistimed reproduction in many species, including seasonally breeding birds. We argue that climate change induced mistiming in avian reproduction occurs because there is a substantial period between the moment of decision making on when to reproduce and the moment at ...

  15. The Bird of Time: Cognition and the Avian Biological Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Michael Cassone; David F Westneat

    2012-01-01

    Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence tha...

  16. The Bird of Time: Cognition and the Avian Biological Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Michael Cassone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence that the central clock has effects is piecemeal. Second, selection acting on characters that are linked to the circadian clock should influence aspects of the clock mechanism itself. Little evidence exists for this in birds, but there have been few attempts to assess this idea. At its core, the avian circadian clock is a multi-oscillator system comprising the pineal gland, the retinae and the avian homologues of the suprachiasmatic nuclei, whose mutual interactions ensure coordinated physiological functions, which are in turn synchronized to ambient light cycles via encephalic, pineal and retinal photoreceptors. At the molecular level, avian biological clocks comprise a genetic network of positive elements clock and bmal1 whose interactions with the negative elements period2, period3 and the cryptochromes form an oscillatory feedback loop that circumnavigates the 24 hrs of the day. We assess the possibilities for dual integration of the clock with time-dependent cognitive processes. Closer examination of the molecular, physiological, and behavioral elements of the circadian system would place birds at a very interesting fulcrum in the neurobiology of time in learning, memory and navigation. 

  17. The bird of time: cognition and the avian biological clock

    OpenAIRE

    Cassone, Vincent M.; David F Westneat

    2012-01-01

    Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration, and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence th...

  18. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-01-01

    Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis) exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the...

  19. Secondarily flightless birds or Cretaceous non-avian theropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanau, J Lee

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies by Varricchio et al. reveal that males cared for the eggs of troodontids and oviraptorids, so-called "non-avian theropods" of the Cretaceous, just as do those of most Paleognathic birds (ratites and tinamous) today. Further, the clutches of both groups have large relative volumes, and consist of many eggs of relatively large size. By comparison, clutch care by most extant birds is biparental and the clutches are of small relative volume, and consist of but few small eggs. Varricchio et al. propose that troodontids and oviraptorids were pre-avian and that paternal egg care preceded the origin of birds. On the contrary, unmentioned by them is that abundant paleontological evidence has led several workers to conclude that troodontids and oviraptorids were secondary flightless birds. This evidence ranges from bird-like bodies and bone designs, adapted for climbing, perching, gliding, and ultimately flight, to relatively large, highly developed brains, poor sense of smell, and their feeding habits. Because ratites also are secondarily flightless and tinamous are reluctant, clumsy fliers, the new evidence strengthens the view that troodontids and oviraptorids were secondarily flightless. Although secondary flightlessness apparently favors paternal care of clutches of large, abundant eggs, such care is not likely to have been primitive. There are a suite of previously unknown independent findings that point to the evolution of, first, maternal, followed by biparental egg care in earliest ancestors of birds. This follows from the discovery of remarkable relict avian reproductive behaviors preserved by virtue of the highly conservative nature of vertebrate brain evolution. These behaviors can be elicited readily by exposing breeding birds to appropriate conditions, both environmental and with respect to their eggs and chicks. They give significant new clues for a coherent theory of avian origin and early evolution. PMID:19800747

  20. Embryonic growth and antioxidant provision in avian eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Deeming, D Charles; Pike , Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Avian embryos undergo extremely rapid development over a relatively short period of time, and so are likely to suffer high levels of oxidative damage unless this is mitigated by sufficient maternal allocation of appropriate antioxidants. At a species level, it is therefore predicted that antioxidants should be allocated to eggs according to the rate of embryonic growth, such that eggs containing embryos that grow faster are furnished with higher antioxidant levels, independent of egg size. We...

  1. Control of Avian Coccidiosis: Future and Present Natural Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda; Edgar Dantán-González

    2015-01-01

    Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herba...

  2. Sociable schedules: interplay between avian seasonal and social behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Helm, Barbara; Piersma, Theunis; van der Jeugd, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Timing is essential in seasonally changing habitats. Survival and reproduction are enhanced through precise adjustment to environmental conditions. Avian seasonal behaviour, that is, diverse activities associated with reproduction, moult and migration, has an endogenous basis and is ultimately linked to changes in environmental factors such as food supply. However, behaviour occurs in social contexts, and interactions with conspecifics are intimately linked to seasonal activities. Time progra...

  3. Investigating Avian Influenza Infection Hotspots in Old-World Shorebirds

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; El Mamy, Ahmed B. Ould; Cappelle, Julien; Caron, Alexandre; Graeme S. Cumming; Grosbois, Vladimir; Gil, Patricia; Hammoumi, Saliha; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Abolnik, Celia; Mundava, Josphine; Fofana, Bouba; Ndlovu, Mduduzi

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) associated with a single species at a specific location a...

  4. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno; Fouchier, Ron

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the current knowledge of the determinants of pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in mammals is summarized. It is becoming apparent that common mechanisms exist across influenza A virus strains and...

  5. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Wielink, van, P.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce influenza vaccines, as they are more robust and lack the long lead times associated with the production of large quantities of embryonated eggs. In the study that is described in this thesis, the prod...

  6. The Irrationality of GOF Avian Influenza Virus Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The last two and a half years have witnessed a curious debate in virology characterized by a remarkable lack of discussion. It goes by the misleading epithet “gain of function” (GOF) influenza virus research, or simply GOF. As will be seen, there is nothing good to be gained. The controversial experiments confer aerosol transmission on avian influenza virus strains that can infect humans, but which are not naturally transmitted between humans. Some of the newer strains are clearly highly path...

  7. Potential Economic Impacts of Avian Influenza in LAC

    OpenAIRE

    César Falconi

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discuses bird flu in two different related scenarios: as a disease that could affect the Poultry Sector and as a disease that could cause a Human Pandemic. The paper includes an analysis on what's at stake, risks and probabilities, costs, impacts and ways of prevention, as well as a series of conclusions. This presentation was created for the Seminar "The Mass Media and the Threat of Avian Influenza in Latin America" held in August of 2006.

  8. Molecular cloning of avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29) transforming sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenberger, J A; Schulz, R A; Garon, C F; Tsichlis, P N; Papas, T S

    1981-01-01

    Avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29), a defective acute leukemia virus, has a broad oncogenic spectrum in vivo and transforms fibroblasts and hematopoietic target cells in vitro. We have used recombinant DNA technology to isolate and to characterize the sequences that are essential in the transformation process. Integrated MC29 proviral DNA was isolated from a library of recombinant phage containing DNA from the MC29-transformed nonproducer quail cell line Q5. The cloned DNA was analyzed by So...

  9. Avian Bornavirus Associated with Fatal Disease in Psittacine Birds▿

    OpenAIRE

    Staeheli, Peter; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to new technologies which enable rapid and unbiased screening for viral nucleic acids in clinical specimens, an impressive number of previously unknown viruses have recently been discovered. Two research groups independently identified a novel negative-strand RNA virus, now designated avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a severe lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis of the gastrointestinal tract of psittacine birds that is frequently accompanied...

  10. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry, like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and pala­table insects mimicking distasteful ones, involve signals directed at the eyes of birds. Despite this, studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare, particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade. Defensive visual mimicry, which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry, occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators. Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object, such as a leaf, stick, or pebble. In this paper, I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds. The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey, but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators. Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds, I show how quantitative models of avian color, luminance, and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals. Overall, I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2, Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4, and masquerade (5 as follows: 1 Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2 Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3 Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4 Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5 Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids [Current Zoology 58 (4: 630–648, 2012].

  11. Presence of avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Imada, Tadao; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2003-01-01

    Four avian pneumovirus (APV) isolates from chickens clinically diagnosed with swollen head syndrome were genetically characterized as to the subtypes of the virus in Japan. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions based on subtype-specific primers and direct sequence analysis of G genes indicated subtypes A and B but not C or D of APV were present in Japan. Several routes or sources are conceivable for APV to invade into Japan.

  12. Phylogenetic Position of Avian Nocturnal and Diurnal Raptors

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Gillian C Gibb; Penny, David

    2014-01-01

    We report three new avian mitochondrial genomes, two from widely separated groups of owls and a falcon relative (the Secretarybird). We then report additional progress in resolving Neoavian relationships in that the two groups of owls do come together (it is not just long-branch attraction), and the Secretarybird is the deepest divergence on the Accipitridae lineage. This is now agreed between mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. There is no evidence for the monophyly of the combined three gr...

  13. Neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorinated alkyls in an avian model

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Brick-Turin, Yael; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyls are widely-used agents that accumulate in ecosystems and organisms because of their slow rate of degradation. There is increasing concern that these agents may be developmental neurotoxicants and the present study was designed to develop an avian model for the neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with 5 or 10 mg/kg of either compound on incubation day 0. On the day of h...

  14. Mimicry and masquerade from the avian visual perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Caswell STODDARD

    2012-01-01

    Several of the most celebrated examples of visual mimicry,like mimetic eggs laid by avian brood parasites and palatable insects mimicking distasteful ones,involve signals directed at the eyes of birds.Despite this,studies of mimicry from the avian visual perspective have been rare,particularly with regard to defensive mimicry and masquerade.Defensive visual mimicry,which includes Batesian and Müllerian mimicry,occurs when organisms share a visual signal that functions to deter predators.Masquerade occurs when an organism mimics an inedible or uninteresting object,such as a leaf,stick,or pebble.In this paper,I present five case studies covering diverse examples of defensive mimicry and masquerade as seen by birds.The best-known cases of defensive visual mimicry typically come from insect prey,but birds themselves can exhibit defensive visual mimicry in an attempt to escape mobbing or dissuade avian predators.Using examples of defensive visual mimicry by both insects and birds,I show how quantitative models of avian color,luminance,and pattern vision can be used to enhance our understanding of mimicry in many systems and produce new hypotheses about the evolution and diversity of signals.Overall,I investigate examples of Batesian mimicry (1 and 2),Müllerian mimicry (3 and 4),and masquerade (5) as follows:1) Polymorphic mimicry in African mocker swallowtail butterflies; 2) Cuckoos mimicking sparrowhawks; 3) Mimicry rings in Neotropical butterflies; 4) Plumage mimicry in toxic pitohuis; and 5) Dead leaf-mimicking butterflies and mantids.

  15. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors.

  16. The role of environmental transmission in recurrent avian influenza epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus Breban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV persists in North American wild waterfowl, exhibiting major outbreaks every 2-4 years. Attempts to explain the patterns of periodicity and persistence using simple direct transmission models are unsuccessful. Motivated by empirical evidence, we examine the contribution of an overlooked AIV transmission mode: environmental transmission. It is known that infectious birds shed large concentrations of virions in the environment, where virions may persist for a long time. We thus propose that, in addition to direct fecal/oral transmission, birds may become infected by ingesting virions that have long persisted in the environment. We design a new host-pathogen model that combines within-season transmission dynamics, between-season migration and reproduction, and environmental variation. Analysis of the model yields three major results. First, environmental transmission provides a persistence mechanism within small communities where epidemics cannot be sustained by direct transmission only (i.e., communities smaller than the critical community size. Second, environmental transmission offers a parsimonious explanation of the 2-4 year periodicity of avian influenza epidemics. Third, very low levels of environmental transmission (i.e., few cases per year are sufficient for avian influenza to persist in populations where it would otherwise vanish.

  17. Clinical features of avian influenza in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Maamoun Mohamad; Khatab, Adel Mahmoud; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; Amer, Wegdan Ahmad Fouad

    2012-08-01

    The clinical manifestations associated with H5N1 infection in humans range from asymptomatic infection to mild upper respiratory illness, severe pneumonia, and multiple organ failure. The ratio of symptomatic cases to asymptomatic cases is not known, because it is not possible to precisely define the number of asymptomatic cases. A total of 97 cases suffering from avian flu were suspected based on history taking, demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological investigations. The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count), coagulation profile, renal and liver function tests. H5N1 influenza virus was diagnosed thorough PCR technique. Changes in arterial blood gases and repeated chest X-rays were reported frequently. All patients were given specific antiviral therapy (oseltamivir). The study described the clinical picture and laboratory results of 81 confirmed avian influenza human cases in an Egyptian hospital (Abassia chest hospital), and reviewed the avian influenza current situation covering from March 2006 to June 2009 with very high pick in the first half of 2009. The significant apparent symptoms were fever as initial and main symptom (93.75%), followed by shortness of breathing (73%), cough (66.6%), muscle & joint pain (60%) and sore throat (40%).

  18. Force-velocity properties of two avian hindlimb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Frank E; Gabaldón, Annette M; Roberts, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    Recent work has provided measurements of power output in avian skeletal muscles during running and flying, but little is known about the contractile properties of avian skeletal muscle. We used an in situ preparation to characterize the force-velocity properties of two hind limb muscles, the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and peroneus longus (PL), in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A servomotor measured shortening velocity for at least six different loads over the plateau region of the length-tension curve. The Hill equation was fit to the data to determine maximum shortening velocity and peak instantaneous power. Maximum unloaded shortening velocity was 13.0+/-1.6 L s(-1) for the LG muscle and 14.8+/-1.0 L s(-1) for the PL muscle (mean+/-S.E.M.). These velocities are within the range of values published for reptilian and mammalian muscles. Values recorded for maximum isometric force per cross-sectional area, 271+/-28 kPa for the LG and 257+/-30.5 kPa for the PL, and peak instantaneous power output, 341.7+/-36.4 W kg(-1) for the LG and 319.4+/-42.5 W kg(-1) for the PL, were also within the range of published values for vertebrate muscle. The force-velocity properties of turkey LG and PL muscle do not reveal any extreme differences in the mechanical potential between avian and other vertebrate muscle.

  19. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gch; Wong, Ty; Cheong, Sk; Koh, Dsq

    2008-11-13

    There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919-1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  20. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  1. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  2. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Julie A; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  3. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Jedlicka

    Full Text Available Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  4. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H.S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  5. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Mbuvi P; Muya, Shadrack; Gicheru, Muita M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27306902

  6. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne C. Fecheyr-Lippens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour.

  7. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Hall, Brian K; Horner, John R

    2013-01-01

    The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae). This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors. PMID:23418610

  8. Characterization of avian influenza H5N1 virosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Sarachai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize virosome containing envelope proteins of the avian influenza (H5N1 virus. The virosome was prepared by the solubilization of virus with octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether (C12E8 followed by detergent removal with SM2 Bio-Beads. Biochemical analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, indicated that avian influenza H5N1 virosome had similar characteristics to the parent virus and contained both the hemagglutinin (HA, 60-75 kDa and neuraminidase (NA, 220 kDa protein, with preserved biological activity, such as hemagglutination activity. The virosome structure was analyzed by negative stained transmission electron microscope (TEM demonstrated that the spherical shapes of vesicles with surface glycoprotein spikes were harbored. In conclusion, the biophysical properties of the virosome were similar to the parent virus, and the use of octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl ether to solubilize viral membrane, followed by removal of detergent using polymer beads adsorption (Bio-Beads SM2 was the preferable method for obtaining avian influenza virosome. The outcome of this study might be useful for further development veterinary virus vaccines.

  9. New Perspectives on the Ontogeny and Evolution of Avian Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Ashley M

    2016-09-01

    Close correspondence between form and function is a central tenet of natural selection. One of the most striking, textbook cases for form-function congruence is the evolution of flight and the body plan of birds: compared with other tetrapods, extant adult birds have highly modified integuments and skeletons, and it has traditionally been assumed that many of these modifications are adaptations or exaptations for flight. However, developing birds that lack many of the morphological signatures of flight capacity nevertheless use their developing wings for a variety of flapping behaviors, such as wing-assisted incline running and even brief flight. Immature birds thereby demonstrate that rudimentary "flight" apparatuses are more functional than traditional assumptions about form-function relationships would predict. Here, I review the ontogeny of avian locomotion, highlighting how the developmental acquisition of flight in extant birds can improve our understanding of form-function relationships in the avian body plan, and provide insight into the evolutionary origin of flight among extinct non-avian theropod dinosaurs. PMID:27371381

  10. Avian Flu School: A Training Approach to Prepare for H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel; Bunn, David A.; Sandrock, Christian E.; Cardona, Carol J.

    2008-01-01

    Since the reemergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) in 2003, a panzootic that is historically unprecedented in the number of infected flocks, geographic spread, and economic consequences for agriculture has developed. The epidemic has affected a wide range of birds and mammals, including humans. The ineffective management of outbreaks, mainly due to a lack of knowledge among those involved in detection, prevention, and response, points to the need for training on H5N1 HPAI....

  11. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  12. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  13. Replication and adaptive mutations of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in tracheal organ cultures of different avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Petersen

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV between different avian species may require genome mutations that allow efficient virus replication in a new species and could increase virulence. To study the role of domestic poultry in the evolution of AIV we compared replication of low pathogenic (LP AIV of subtypes H9N2, H7N7 and H6N8 in tracheal organ cultures (TOC and primary embryo fibroblast cultures of chicken, turkey, Pekin duck and homing pigeon. Virus strain-dependent and avian species-related differences between LPAIV were observed in growth kinetics and induction of ciliostasis in TOC. In particular, our data demonstrate high susceptibility to LPAIV of turkey TOC contrasted with low susceptibility of homing pigeon TOC. Serial virus passages in the cells of heterologous host species resulted in adaptive mutations in the AIV genome, especially in the receptor-binding site and protease cleavage site of the hemagglutinin. Our data highlight differences in susceptibility of different birds to AIV viruses and emphasizes potential role of poultry in the emergence of new virus variants.

  14. Different intracellular distribution of avian reovirus core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Lostale-Seijo, Irene; Martinez-Costas, Jose [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, y Centro Singular de Investigacion en Quimica Biologica y Materiales Moleculares (CIQUS), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Benavente, Javier, E-mail: franciscojavier.benavente@usc.es [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, y Centro Singular de Investigacion en Quimica Biologica y Materiales Moleculares (CIQUS), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-10-25

    A comparative analysis of the intracellular distribution of avian reovirus (ARV) core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin revealed that, whereas the viral protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of avian cells, most sigmaA concentrates in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells in tight association with the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction. Our results further showed that sigmaA becomes arrested in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells via association with mammalian cell-specific factors and that this association prevents nucleolar targeting. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity, but not of RNA polymerase I activity, in infected mammalian cells induces nucleus-to-cytoplasm sigmaA translocation through a CRM1- and RanGTP-dependent mechanism, yet a heterokaryon assay suggests that sigmaA does not shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The scarcity of sigmaA in cytoplasmic viral factories of infected mammalian cells could be one of the factors contributing to limited ARV replication in mammalian cells.

  15. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  16. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  17. gga-miR-375 plays a key role in tumorigenesis post subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused in part by subgroup J avian leukosis virus J (ALV-J). Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play pivotal oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in tumour development and progression. However, little is known about the potential role of miRNAs in avian leukosis...

  18. Modelling the innate immune response against avian influenza virus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.J.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Jansen, C.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Spekreijse, D.; Vervelde, L.; Backer, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koets, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load, interferon-α,

  19. Chicken dendritic cells are susceptible to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which induce strong cytokine responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervelde, L.; Reemens, S.S.; Haarlem, van D.A.; Post, J.; Claassen, E.A.W.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Jansen, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in birds and mammals is associated with severe pathology and increased mortality. We hypothesize that in contrast to low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) infection, HPAI infection of chicken dendritic cells (DC) induces a cytokine deregulat

  20. Ectopic expression of the erythrocyte band 3 anion exchange protein, using a new avian retrovirus vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerstenberg, S; Beug, H; Introna, M;

    1990-01-01

    A retrovirus vector was constructed from the genome of avian erythroblastosis virus ES4. The v-erbA sequences of avian erythroblastosis virus were replaced by those coding for neomycin phosphotransferase, creating a gag-neo fusion protein which provides G418 resistance as a selectable marker. The v...

  1. Surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza in layer chickens: risk factors, transmission and early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales Rojas, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) of H5 and H7 subtypes are able to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv), which are lethal for most poultry species, can cause large epidemics and are a serious threat to public health. Thus, circulation of these LPAIv in poultry is und

  2. Rational design of avian metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccines by inhibiting viral messenger RNA cap methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...

  3. The Pathology of Avian Influenza in Birds and Animals: An Analytical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influenza virus remains enigmatic despite of long extensive studies. Avian influenza virus (H5N1) is able to infect a large spectrum of animal and bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus represents a serious problem both for a human and birds, particularly for chicks. Many studies have been performed in order to show differences between highly and low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, and examine their biological properties. Many separate pathological and microscopic descriptions are interspersed in numerous published articles. The aim of our study was to analyze data published in international scientific journals, and to attempt a generalized view of avian influenza pathology in various animal and bird hosts. We summarized and systematized data describing pathological changes caused by both highly and low pathogenic types of avian influenza virus (H5N1) in animals and birds, and developed generalized descriptions with accent at the type of virus. We also tried to show up species specific features of pathological changes in birds and animals infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1). The results of this analytical work may be useful for pathological studies of a new avian influenza virus isolates, and for understanding of avian influenza pathogenesis in birds and animals. (author)

  4. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jonges

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, upwind and downwind of buildings holding poultry infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, and tested them for the presence of endotoxins and influenza virus to characterize the potential impact of airborne influenza virus transmission during outbreaks at commercial poultry farms. Influenza viruses were detected by RT-PCR in filter-rinse fluids collected up to 60 meters downwind from the barns, but virus isolation did not yield any isolates. Viral loads in the air samples were low and beyond the limit of RT-PCR quantification except for one in-barn measurement showing a virus concentration of 8.48 x 10(4 genome copies/m(3. Air samples taken outside poultry barns had endotoxin concentrations of ~50 EU/m(3 that declined with increasing distance from the barn. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of particulate matter, using location-specific meteorological data for the sampling days, demonstrated a positive correlation between endotoxin measurements and modeled particulate matter concentrations, with an R(2 varying from 0.59 to 0.88. Our data suggest that areas at high risk for human or animal exposure to airborne influenza viruses can be modeled during an outbreak to allow directed interventions following targeted surveillance.

  5. Comparative analysis of chest radiological findings between avian human influenza and SARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the chest radiological findings of a mortal avian human influenza case. Methods: One patient in our hospital was proved to be infected avian human influenza in Guangdong province on March 1, 2006. The Clinical appearances and chest radiological findings of this case were retrospectively analyzed and compared with that of 3 mortal SARS cases out of 16 cases in 2003. Results: Large consolidated areas in left lower lobe was showed in pulmonary radiological findings of this patient and soon developed into ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome). However, the pulmonary radiological findings had no characteristic. Characteristics of soaring size and number during short term appeared in SARS instead of avian human influenza. Final diagnosis was up to the etiology and serology examination. Conclusion: Bronchial dissemination was not observed in this avian human influenza case. Pay attention to the avian human influenza in spite of no history of contract with sick or dead poultry in large city. (authors)

  6. Avian influenza H5N1: an update on molecular pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza A virus constitutes a large threat to human health. Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in poultry and in humans have raised concerns that an influenza pandemic will occur in the near future. Transmission from avian species to humans remains sporadic, but the mortality associated with human infection is very high (about 62%). To date, there are no effective therapeutic drugs or a prophylactic vaccines available, which means that there is still a long way to go before we can eradicate or cure avian influenza. This review focuses on the molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza H5N1 virus infection. An understanding of the viral pathogenesis may facilitate the development of novel treatments or effective eradication of this fatal disease.

  7. Avian influenza H5N1: an update on molecular pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HongLiang; JIANG ChengYu

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza A virus constitutes a large threat to human health. Recent outbreaks of highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus in poultry and in humans have raised concerns that an influenza pandemic will occur in the near future. Transmission from avian species to humans remains sporadic, but the mortality associated with human infection is very high (about 62%). To date, there are no effec-tive therapeutic drugs or a prophylactic vaccines available, which means that there is still a long way to go before we can eradicate or cure avian influenza. This review focuses on the molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza H5N1 virus infection. An understanding of the viral pathogenesis may facilitate the development of novel treatments or effective eradication of this fatal disease.

  8. Similarity of Crocodilian and Avian Lungs Indicates Unidirectional Flow Is Ancestral for Archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C G

    2015-12-01

    character. Although conventional wisdom is that unidirectional flow is important for the high activity and basal metabolic rates for which birds are renowned, the widespread occurrence of this pattern of flow in crocodilians indicates otherwise. Furthermore, these results show that air sacs are not requisite for unidirectional flow, and therefore raise questions about the function of avian air sacs. PMID:26141868

  9. 气管内超声引导下经支气管针吸活检在肺外肿瘤胸内转移中的诊断价值%Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Metastasis from Extrapulmonary Malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙加源; 鲍亮; 滕家俊; 钟润波; 翁薇琼; 张琴; 韩宝惠

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been widely applied in diagnosing mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. hTis study is further to evaluate value and safety of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. Methods Prospectively analysis of 41 patients suspected intrathoracic metastasis from previous diagnosed/concurrent extrapulmonary malignancies in Shanghai Chest Hospital, with radiologic ifndings showing mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargement or intrapulmonary lesion requiring EBUS-TBNA examination for pathological diagnosis. Results 41 candidate patients enrolled, and 67 mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes and 5 intrapulmonary lesions were aspirated. 14 intrathoracic metastasis, 10 primary lung cancer, 9 reactive lymphadenitis, 4 sarcoid-like reactions, and 1 tuberculosis was diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA. Sensitivity and accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intra-thoracic metastasis was 87.50%and 95.12%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in 18 malignant tumors to obtain deifnite type or origin, twelve intrathoracic metastasis and 6 primary lung cancer were further conifrmed. Conclusion EBUS-TBNA is a safe, effective method for the diagnosis of intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. IHC can provide additional evidence for distinguishing extrapulmonary malignancy from primary lung cancer.%背景与目的气管内超声引导下经支气管针吸活检(endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, EBUS-TBNA)已广泛应用于增大纵隔及肺门淋巴结的诊断,本研究旨在进一步评价EBUS-TBNA对肺外恶性肿瘤胸内转移的诊断价值和安全性。方法前瞻性入组既往诊断/新发肺外恶性肿瘤、影像学检查提示肺内病变和/或胸内淋巴结增大怀疑为肺外恶性肿瘤胸内转移所致,需行EBUS-TBNA取得病理诊断的患者。结果共41例患者入

  10. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Swearingin, Ryan M.; Pullins, Craig K.; Rice, Matthew E.

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  11. Comparative pathogenesis of a subtype A with a subtype B avian pneumovirus in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Zande, S; Nauwynck, H; De Jonghe, S; Pensaert, M

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes a study in which the pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus strains, isolated in Belgium, and belonging to the two subtypes A and B, were compared in 2-week-old turkeys. After oculonasal inoculation, animals were either observed for clinical signs or killed for pathological and virological examination. Virus titration and immunofluorescence were performed on the conjunctivae, turbinates, sinuses, upper and lower part of the trachea, lungs and air sacs. No differences were seen between the two subtypes concerning respiratory signs, or macroscopic and microscopic lesions in the respiratory tract. Slight variations were found in site and extent of virus replication. First, only subtype A was able to invade the lower parts of the respiratory tract (bronchi), whereas viral antigens were not detected in the lungs with subtype B. Secondly, the subtype A strain infected two times more epithelial cells at all levels of the upper respiratory tract compared to subtype B. Thirdly, the amount of virus produced at different sites along the respiratory tract was lower in subtype B-inoculated turkeys than in subtype A-inoculated ones.

  12. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  13. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh GCH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  15. MicroRNA expression profiles in avian haemopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu eYao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, abundant, non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression by interfering with translation or stability of mRNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. A total of 734 precursor and 996 mature miRNAs have so far been identified in the chicken genome. A number of these miRNAs are expressed in a cell type-specific manner, and understanding their function requires detailed examination of their expression in different cell types. We carried out deep sequencing of small RNA populations isolated from stimulated or transformed avian haemopoietic cell lines to determine the changes in the expression profiles of these important regulatory molecules during these biological events. There were significant changes in the expression of a number of miRNAs, including miR-155, in chicken B cells stimulated with CD40 ligand. Similarly, avian leukosis virus (ALV-transformed DT40 cells also showed changes in miRNA expression in relation to the naïve cells. Embryonic stem cell line BP25 demonstrated a distinct cluster of upregulated miRNAs, many of which were shown previously to be involved in embryonic stem cell development. Finally, chicken macrophage cell line HD11 showed changes in miRNA profiles, some of which are thought to be related to the transformation by v-myc transduced by the virus. This work represents the first publication of a catalog of microRNA expression in a range of important avian cells and provides insights into the potential roles of miRNAs in the hematopoietic lineages of cells in a model non-mammalian species.

  16. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  17. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, C.K.; Maletskos, C.J.; Youngstrom, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of /sup 131/I and /sup 137/Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods.

  18. Taking a rational approach in the treatment of avian mycobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Jennifer; Saggese, Miguel D

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for avian mycobacteriosis is still in its infancy and based on extrapolations from human medicine. The optimum drug choice, dose, or length of treatment has yet to be determined for most exotic animal species. Treatment should include multiple drugs for extended periods of time with appropriate monitoring of both drug levels and overall animal health. Risk to owners and handlers needs to be minimized through appropriate identification of the species of mycobacteri causing disease. More research is necessary on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in other animal species and antibiotic resistance. Currently, euthanasia remains the most common action in the face of active mycobacteriosis. PMID:22244113

  19. E Protein Prokaryotic Expression of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ping; ZHANG Fang; MING Xiaobo; ZENG Xiangwei; ZHU Yuqing; WANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    The small envelope protein (E) gene of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) M41 strain was cloned,and then it was subeloned into prokaryotic expressing vector pGEX-6P-1.The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli.BL21 and induced by IPTG.SDS-PAGE result showed that when objective protein fused with GST (about 20 ku), the relative molecular mass of fusion protein was 38 ku.It indicated that objective protein was about 12.4 ku.The result showed that E protein was expressed successfully, it was useful to the subsequent E protein research.

  20. Avian Influenza Viruses, Inflammation, and CD8+ T Cell Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and ...

  1. Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Premashthira, Sith; Boles, Stephen; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses has become a global scale problem which first emerged in southern China and from there spread to other countries in Southeast and East Asia, where it was first confirmed in end 2003. In previous work, geospatial analyses demonstrated that free grazing ducks played critical role in the epidemiology of the disease in Thailand in the winter 2004/2005, both in terms of HPAI emergence and spread. This study explored the geographic ass...

  2. Within-host variation of avian influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Munir; Xiao, Hiaxia; Baillie, Greg; Warry, Andrew; Essen, Steve C.; Londt, Brandon; Brookes, Sharon M; Brown, Ian H.; McCauley, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence and spread of H5N1 avian influenza viruses from Asia through to Europe and Africa pose a significant animal disease problem and have raised concerns that the virus may pose a pandemic threat to humans. The epizootological factors that have influenced the wide distribution of the virus are complex, and the variety of viruses currently circulating reflects these factors. Sequence analysis of the virus genes sheds light on the H5N1 virus evolution during its emergence and spread, b...

  3. Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7 virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus still has gaps, complicating epidemic control. A model was developed to back-calculate the day HPAI virus was introduced into a flock, based on within-flock mortality data of the Dutch HPAI H7N7 epidemic (2003). The method was based on a stochastic epidemic model in which birds move from being susceptible, latently infected and infectious, to death. Our results indicated that two weeks can elapse before a noticeab...

  4. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  5. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated. PMID:19618621

  6. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  7. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the e...

  8. Avian evolution: from Darwin's finches to a new way of thinking about avian forebrain organization and behavioural capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Anton

    2009-02-23

    The study of birds, especially the Galapagos finches, was important to Darwin in the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Birds have also been at the centre of a recent reformulation in understanding cerebral evolution and the substrates for higher cognition. While it was once thought that birds possess a simple cerebrum and were thus limited to instinctive behaviours, it is now clear that birds possess a well-developed cerebrum that looks very different from the mammalian cerebrum but can support a cognitive ability that for some avian species rivals that in primates.

  9. Investigating the use of wing sweep for pitch control of a small unmanned air vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Small Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are versatile tools with both civilian and military applications. Fixed wing UAVs require forward airspeed to remain airborne, usually resulting in constant energy expenditure to loiter over targets. A UAV capable of perching could reduce energy expenditure by settling on a site near the target, thus increasing mission duration. Avian perching techniques were observed to build a hypothesis for the biological control techniques employed during the landing man...

  10. Antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9 subtype isolated from desi and zoo birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Saleem

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza is a viral infection which affects mainly the respiratory system of birds. The H9N2 considered as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI virus and continuously circulating in poultry flocks causing enormous economic losses to poultry industry of Pakistan. As these viruses have RNA genome and their RNA polymerase enzyme lacks proof reading activity which resulted in spontaneous mutation in surface glycoproteins (HA and NA and reassortment of their genomic segments results in escape from host immune response produced by the vaccine. Efforts made for the isolation and identification of avian influenza virus from live desi and zoo birds of Lahore and performed antigenic characterization. The local vaccines although gives a little bit less titer when we raise the antisera against these vaccines but their antisera have more interaction with the local H9 subtype antigen so it gives better protective immune response. Infected chicken antisera are more reactive as compare to rabbit antisera. This shows that our isolates have highest similarity with the currently circulating viruses. These results guided us to devise a new control strategy against avian influenza viral infections. The antigenic characterization of these avian influenza isolates helped us to see the antigenic differences between the isolates of this study and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses used in vaccines. Therefore, this study clearly suggests that a new local H9 subtype avian influenza virus should be used as vaccinal candidate every year for the effective control of influenza viral infections of poultry.

  11. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2014-12-01

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period.

  12. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Puño-Sarmiento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%, three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%, 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%, but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  13. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from avian organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-08-28

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  14. Avian pox in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Miller, R.A. Pierce, C.A.; Rowe, S.E.

    1985-07-01

    Avian pox has been reported in at least 60 species of birds belonging to 20 different families. However, poxvirus infection in birds of prey is apparently uncommon. On 18 May 1981, an adult male red-tailed hawk was found on the US Department of Energy's Arid Land Ecology Reserve in Benton County, Washington. The bird was incapable of flight and was extremely thin. Nodular proliferations were noted on both feet and cutaneous scab-like lesions around the beak and eyes. The bird was killed in the field and submitted promptly to the diagnostic laboratory for necropsy. This report of pox infection in a free-living adult red-tailed hawk represents one of the few such cases reported in the US. The potential for spread of the virus to other hawks may occur particularly during the nesting season when an infected adult could conceivably pass the virus to a mate and nestlings by direct contact or fomites. Little is known of the natural of avian pox infection in birds of prey. In other birds it is generally considered mild and self-limiting; however, eye lesions resulting in impaired vision may lead to starvation.

  15. Neural correlates of executive control in the avian brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rose

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive control, the ability to plan one's behaviour to achieve a goal, is a hallmark of frontal lobe function in humans and other primates. In the current study we report neural correlates of executive control in the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, a region analogous to the mammalian prefrontal cortex. Homing pigeons (Columba livia performed a working memory task in which cues instructed them whether stimuli should be remembered or forgotten. When instructed to remember, many neurons showed sustained activation throughout the memory period. When instructed to forget, the sustained activation was abolished. Consistent with the neural data, the behavioural data showed that memory performance was high after instructions to remember, and dropped to chance after instructions to forget. Our findings indicate that neurons in the avian nidopallium caudolaterale participate in one of the core forms of executive control, the control of what should be remembered and what should be forgotten. This form of executive control is fundamental not only to working memory, but also to all cognition.

  16. Subtype Identification of Avian Influenza Virus on DNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-rong; YU Kang-zhen; DENG Guo-hua; SHI Rui; LIU Li-ling; QIAO Chuan-ling; BAO Hong-mei; KONG Xian-gang; CHEN Hua-lan

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a rapid microarray-based assay for the reliable detection of H5, H7 and H9 subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV). The strains used in the experiment were A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1), A/African starling/983/79 (H7N1) and A/Turkey/Wiscosin/1/66 (H9N2). The capture DNAs clones which encoding approximate 500-bp avian influenza virus gene fragments obtained by RT-PCR, were spotted on a slide-bound microarray. Cy5-1abeled fluorescent cDNAs,which generated from virus RNA during reverse transcription were hybridized to these capture DNAs. These capture DNAs contained multiple fragments of the hemagglutinin and matrix protein genes of AIV respectively, for subtyping and typing AIV. The arrays were scanned to determine the probe binding sites. The hybridization pattern agreed approximately with the known grid location of each target. The results show that DNA microarray technology provides a useful diagnostic method for AIV.

  17. Evolutionary Footprints of Short Tandem Repeats in Avian Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideaki; Gemmell, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) or microsatellites are well-known sequence elements that may change the spacing between transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in promoter regions by expansion or contraction of repetitive units. Some of these mutations have the potential to contribute to phenotypic diversity by altering patterns of gene expression. To explore how repetitive sequence motifs within promoters have evolved in avian lineages under mutation-selection balance, more than 400 evolutionary conserved STRs (ecSTRs) were identified in this study by comparing the 2 kb upstream promoter sequences of chicken against those of other birds (turkey, duck, zebra finch, and flycatcher). The rate of conservation was significantly higher in AG dinucleotide repeats than in AC or AT repeats, with the expansion of AG motifs being noticeably constrained in passerines. Analysis of the relative distance between ecSTRs and TFBSs revealed a significantly higher rate of conserved TFBSs in the vicinity of ecSTRs in both chicken-duck and chicken-passerine comparisons. Our comparative study provides a novel insight into which intrinsic factors have influenced the degree of constraint on repeat expansion/contraction during avian promoter evolution. PMID:26766026

  18. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  19. THE AVIAN FLU IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN POULTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat represents one of the most dynamic branches of the local meat production. The poultry sector represents a good quality protein source, at an acceptable price as compared to other animal production domains. There has been an ascending evolution of the sector after the year 2000, although there appeared a series of discontinuities that affected agricultural production, mainly on a short-term basis. The Avian Flu led to 190 million euros’ worth losses at the level of Romanian national economy. Low consumption due to the impact was a short-term consequence, being rapidly amortized by the Romanian producers. The lack of some business continuity insurance measures can further affect the poultry meat sector, which does not have the necessary robustness needed in case of larger shocks. The following article proposes an analysis of the Avian Flu crisis economic effects on the Romanian meat sector, and it is part of a general framework of research regarding the Romanian food chain resilience to critical situations.

  20. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  1. Species formation by host shifting in avian malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E; Outlaw, Diana C; Svensson-Coelho, Maria; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Latta, Steven

    2014-10-14

    The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in vector-borne parasites, including the role of host shifting, are poorly understood. Here, we examine the hosts of sister lineages in a phylogeny of 181 putative species of malaria parasites of New World terrestrial birds to determine the role of shifts between host taxa in the formation of new parasite species. We find that host shifting, often across host genera and families, is the rule. Sympatric speciation by host shifting would require local reproductive isolation as a prerequisite to divergent selection, but this mechanism is not supported by the generalized host-biting behavior of most vectors of avian malaria parasites. Instead, the geographic distribution of individual parasite lineages in diverse hosts suggests that species formation is predominantly allopatric and involves host expansion followed by local host-pathogen coevolution and secondary sympatry, resulting in local shifting of parasite lineages across hosts.

  2. Novel Picornavirus Associated with Avian Keratin Disorder in Alaskan Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Zylberberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian keratin disorder (AKD, characterized by debilitating overgrowth of the avian beak, was first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus in Alaska. Subsequently, similar deformities have appeared in numerous species across continents. Despite the widespread distribution of this emerging pathology, the cause of AKD remains elusive. As a result, it is unknown whether suspected cases of AKD in the afflicted species are causally linked, and the impacts of this pathology at the population and community levels are difficult to evaluate. We applied unbiased, metagenomic next-generation sequencing to search for candidate pathogens in birds affected with AKD. We identified and sequenced the complete coding region of a novel picornavirus, which we are calling poecivirus. Subsequent screening of 19 AKD-affected black-capped chickadees and 9 control individuals for the presence of poecivirus revealed that 19/19 (100% AKD-affected individuals were positive, while only 2/9 (22% control individuals were infected with poecivirus. Two northwestern crows (Corvus caurinus and two red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis with AKD-consistent pathology also tested positive for poecivirus. We suggest that poecivirus is a candidate etiological agent of AKD.

  3. Proceedings of national avian-wind power planning meeting II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was the second in a series. The purposes of this meeting were to: (1) provide information on avian/wind power interactions that will help meet the needs of regulators, researchers, and other stakeholders concerned with responsible development and permitting of wind plants; (2) create dialogue among regulators, researchers and other stakeholders to help all parties understand the role that research can play in responsible development and permitting of wind plants, and allow researchers to understand the relevance of their research to the process; and (3) propose research projects and the appropriate sponsorship. The meeting began with oral presentations and discussions of nine White Papers on the theory and methods for studying and understanding impacts. The Proceedings include the written version of each of the nine White Papers, plus a summary of the oral discussion associated with each paper. The second part of the meeting consisted of four working group sessions: (1) site evaluation and pre-permit research and planning; (2) operational monitoring; (3) modeling and forecasting, including population dynamics models; and (4) avian behavior and mortality reduction. The Proceedings includes a summary of the discussions on these topics, including each working group's recommendations for future research or associated activities. A final plenary session drew together the main recommendations

  4. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; Zheng, Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Li, Wenhua; Hu, Mailing; Zhong, Jinhui; Chen, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area. PMID:25356738

  5. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhang

    Full Text Available Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  6. Diversity and Distribution of Avian Fauna of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Jan Pathan; Shahroz Khan; Naveed Akhtar; Kausar Saeed

    2014-01-01

    This survey was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 to explore the avian fauna of Swat valley and to find out the major threats to the avian fauna of the area as it was neglected for years. Direct and indirect methods were used in the study by visiting the field and by interviewing the local peoples and hunters about the current and past status of the avian fauna of the area. During the current study direct and indirect methods were used. A total of 138 species were recorded belongin...

  7. Control of avian influenza: philosophy and perspectives on behalf of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1992-01-01

    Aquatic birds are considered the primary reservoir for influenza A viruses (Nettles et al., 1987).  However, there is little concern about avian influenza among conservation agencies responsible for the welfare of those species.  IN contrast, the poultry industry has great concern about avian influenza and view aquatic birds as a source for infection of poultry flocks.  In some instances, differences in these perspectives created conflict between conservation agencies and the poultry industry.  I speak on behalf of migratory birds, but philosophy and perspectives offered are intended to be helpful to the poultry industry in their efforts to combat avian influenza.

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study of Avian Influenza in One District of Guangzhou, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; ZHENG Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs i...

  9. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl in North America and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Jesper; Thomsen, Anders F.; Bertelsen, Mads Frost;

    The first avian bornavirus (ABV) was identified in 2008 by researchers investigating the cause of proventricular dilation disease in psittacine birds 3,4. A distinctly separate genotype (ABV-CG) was discovered in 2009 in association with neurological disease in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta...... was identified in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) 2. In order to determine whether avian bornavirus was present in European waterfowl, the brains of 333 hunter killed geese in Denmark were examined by real time RT-PCR for the presence of avian bornavirus; seven birds (2.1%) were positive. Sequences were 98...

  10. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  11. Correlates of avian building strikes at a glass façade museum surrounded by avian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, L.; Flannery, M.; Dumbacher, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Bird window collisions are the second largest anthropogenic cause of bird deaths in the world. Effective mitigation requires an understanding of which birds are most likely to strike, when, and why. Here, we examine five years of avian window strike data from the California Academy of Sciences - a relatively new museum with significant glass façade situated in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. We examine correlates of window-killed birds, including age, sex, season, and migratory or sedentary tendencies of the birds. We also examine correlates of window kills such as presence of habitat surrounding the building and overall window area. We found that males are almost three times more likely than females to mortally strike windows, and immature birds are three times more abundant than adults in our window kill dataset. Among seasons, strikes were not notably different in spring, summer, and fall; however they were notably reduced in winter. There was no statistical effect of building orientation (north, south, east, or west), and the presence of avian habitat directly adjacent to windows had a minor effect. We also report ongoing studies examining various efforts to reduce window kill (primarily external decals and large electronic window blinds.) We hope that improving our understanding of the causes of the window strikes will help us strategically reduce window strikes.

  12. 'O sibling, where art thou?'--a review of avian sibling recognition with respect to the mammalian literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Waas, Joseph R

    2004-02-01

    Avian literature on sibling recognition is rare compared to that developed by mammalian researchers. We compare avian and mammalian research on sibling recognition to identify why avian work is rare, how approaches differ and what avian and mammalian researchers can learn from each other. Three factors: (1) biological differences between birds and mammals, (2) conceptual biases and (3) practical constraints, appear to influence our current understanding. Avian research focuses on colonial species because sibling recognition is considered adaptive where 'mixing potential' of dependent young is high; research on a wider range of species, breeding systems and ecological conditions is now needed. Studies of acoustic recognition cues dominate avian literature; other types of cues (e.g. visual, olfactory) deserve further attention. The effect of gender on avian sibling recognition has yet to be investigated; mammalian work shows that gender can have important influences. Most importantly, many researchers assume that birds recognise siblings through 'direct familiarisation' (commonly known as associative learning or familiarity); future experiments should also incorporate tests for 'indirect familiarisation' (commonly known as phenotype matching). If direct familiarisation proves crucial, avian research should investigate how periods of separation influence sibling discrimination. Mammalian researchers typically interpret sibling recognition in broad functional terms (nepotism, optimal outbreeding); some avian researchers more successfully identify specific and testable adaptive explanations, with greater relevance to natural contexts. We end by reporting exciting discoveries from recent studies of avian sibling recognition that inspire further interest in this topic. PMID:15005175

  13. Military and Military Medical Support in Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI/H5N1) Pandemic Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian influenza (Bird flu) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting mainly chickens, turkeys, ducks, other birds and mammals. Reservoirs for HPAI /H5N1 virus are shore birds and waterfowl (asymptomatic, excrete virus in feces for a long periods of time), live bird markets and commercial swine facilities. Virus tends to cycle between pigs and birds. HPAI (H5N1) virus is on every 'top ten' list available for potential agricultural bio-weapon agents. The threat of a HPAI/H5N1 pandemic is a definitively global phenomenon and the response must be global. A number of National plans led to various measures of preventing and dealing with epidemics/pandemics. Lessons learned form the pandemic history indicated essential role of military and military medical support to civil authorities in a crisis situation. Based on International Military Medical Avian Influenza Pandemic workshop (Vienna 2006), an expected scenario would involve 30-50% outpatients, 20-30% hospital admission, 2-3% deaths, 10-20% complicated cases. Activities of civil hospital may be reduced by 50%. Benefits of military support could be in: Transportation of patients (primarily by air); Mass vaccination and provision of all other preventive measures (masks, Tamiflu); Restriction of movements; Infection control of health care facilities; Field hospitals for triage and quarantine, military barracks to treat milder cases and military hospitals for severe cases; Deal with corpses; Stockpiling (vaccines, antiviral, antibiotics, protective equipment, supplies); Training; Laboratories; Ensure public safety, etc. With the aim of minimizing the risk of a pandemic spread by means of rapid and uncomplicated cooperation, an early warning system has to be established to improve surveillance, improve international contacts (WHO, ECDC, CDC), establish Platform for sharing information, close contacts of national and international military and civilian surveillance networks and databases, cooperation between military

  14. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  15. The challenges of avian influenza virus:mechanism,epidemiology and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George; F.GAO; Pang-Chui; SHAW

    2009-01-01

    Early 2009, eight human infection cases of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, with 5 death cases, were reported in China. This again made the world alert on a possible pandemic worldwide, probably caused by

  16. Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype-10 detected in Rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological, serological and genomic characterization of a paramyxovirus recently isolated from rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) suggested that this virus represented a new avian paramyxovirus group, APMV10. This penguin virus resembled other APMV by electron microscopy; however, its vi...

  17. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy in the southeast: An ecoepidemiological assessment with emphasis on Lake Surf, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 2000 and 2005, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) and partners conducted an investigation of avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), an unusual...

  18. Survelliance for Avian Influenza in Wood Ducks at Coldwater and Tallahatchie NWRs in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains sampling effort and results of Avian Influenza testing in live wood ducks at Coldwater, Walker Tract, and Tallahatchie in 2009. All samples were...

  19. A comparison of biologically active elements in geese in relation to avian cholera

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian cholera caused an estimated mortality of between 166,000 to 197,000 migrating waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska in the 10-year period 1975 through...

  20. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built an Avian Influenza (H5N1) Expert System for identifying avian influenza disease and displaying the result of identification process. In this paper, we describe five symptoms as major symptoms which include depression, combs, wattle, bluish face region, swollen face region, narrowness of eyes, and balance disorders. We use chicken as research object. Research location is in the Lampung Province, South Sumatera. The researcher reason to choose Lampung Province in South Sumatera on the basis that has a high poultry population. Dempster-Shafer theory to quantify the degree of belief as inference engine in expert system, our approach uses Dempster-Shafer theory to combine beliefs under conditions of uncertainty and ignorance, and allows quantitat...

  1. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  2. Antimicrobial properties of avian eggshell-specific C-type lectin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman-Labadie, Olivier; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Hincke, Maxwell T

    2008-03-01

    C-type lectin-like proteins are major components of the calcified eggshell of multiple avian species. In this study, two representative avian C-type lectin-like proteins, ovocleidin-17 and ansocalcin, were purified from decalcified chicken and goose eggshell protein extracts and investigated for carbohydrate binding activity as well as antimicrobial activity. Purified ovocleidin-17 and ansocalcin were found to bind bacterial polysaccharides, and were bactericidal against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomona aeruginosa. Bactericidal activity was found to be enhanced in the presence of calcium but was not dependent on its presence. The results suggest that avian C-type lectin-like proteins may play an important antimicrobial role in defence of the avian embryo. PMID:18258195

  3. Effects of immune supplementation and immune challenge on bacterial assemblages in the avian cloaca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, Kevin D.; Versteegh, Maaike A.; van der Velde, Marco; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between avian physiology and bacterial assemblages in the cloaca are poorly understood. We used molecular techniques to analyze cloacal swabs from pigeons that were subjected to two immunological manipulations: lysozyme supplementation and endotoxin challenge. From the swabs, we derive

  4. Seroprevalence of avian influenza (H9N2) in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Ghaniei; Manoochehr Allymehr; Ali Moradschendi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate seroprevalence of avian invluenza (H9N2) subtybe in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran. Materials:A total of 310 blood samples were collected from 25 broiler flocks in slaughterhouses of West Azarbayjan, Iran. Serum samples were subjected to haemagglutination inhibition test. Results:The test showed 40.6%of positive serums. Mean antibody titer of avian influenza virus differed between geographical locations in this survey. Conclusions:High prevalence of avian influenza virus antibodies in serum of birds emphasize that avian influenza has an important role in respiratory complexes in broiler chickens in this region, and probably throughout Iran. Biosecurity measures, monitoring and surveillance programs, and to some degree vaccination are effective tools to prevent introduction of H9N2 infection and its economic losses.

  5. The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

    2015-01-01

    We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on (1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and (2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects o...

  6. Quantum Zeno Effect Underpinning the Radical-Ion-Pair Mechanism of Avian Magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Kominis, I K

    2008-01-01

    The intricate biochemical processes underlying avian magnetoreception, the sensory ability of migratory birds to navigate using earths magnetic field, have been narrowed down to spin-dependent recombination of radical-ion pairs to be found in avian species retinal proteins. The avian magnetic field detection is governed by the interplay between magnetic interactions of the radicals unpaired electrons and the radicals recombination dynamics. Critical to this mechanism is the long lifetime of the radical-pair spin coherence, so that the weak geomagnetic field will have a chance to signal its presence. It is here shown that a fundamental quantum phenomenon, the quantum Zeno effect, is at the basis of the radical-ion-pair magnetoreception mechanism. The quantum Zeno effect naturally leads to long spin coherence lifetimes, without any constraints on the systems physical parameters, ensuring the robustness of this sensory mechanism. Basic experimental observations regarding avian magnetic sensitivity are seamlessly...

  7. Avian Influenza Surveillance and Disease Contingency Plan for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — With Avian Influenza, a nonclinical viral infection, becoming a growing concern for wild bird populations in North America and the United States, it has become...

  8. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

    2013-01-01

    The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated.

  9. Investigations of avian populations and wetland habitats at Square Lake study site: 1978 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers the investigations of avian populations and wetland habitats at Square Lake study site. Study sites, methods, physical conditions, wetland...

  10. Research Development on Cryopreservation Technique to Preserve Avian Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatan Kostaman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation technique could be used to preserve animal cell, plant or other genetic materials (included semen in frozen. In this case, the cryopreservation technique is a storage technique that carries out at very low temperature in liquid nitrogen at -196oC. At this temperature, semen does not experience the process of metabolism but still has the ability to live on when used later. Semen that is preserved by cryopreservation technique has unlimited shelf life. This method is more efficient in terms of cost, time, space, and labour than other methods. Cryopreservation techniques can be divided into conventional technique (controlled slow freezing and rapid freezing technique. Besides cryopreservation of semen, other genetic material from avian that can be cryopreservesed is Primodial Germ Cells (PGC. Balitnak has succesfully isolated the PGC of some Indonesian native chickens. The success of cryopreservation is indicated by not only the high rate of survival, but also the fertility after cryopreservation.

  11. The evolution of host specialisation in avian brood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2016-09-01

    Traditional ecological theory predicts that specialisation can promote speciation; hence, recently derived species are specialists. However, an alternative view is that new species have broad niches, which become narrower and specialised over time. Here, we test these hypotheses using avian brood parasites and three different measures of host specialisation. Brood parasites provide an ideal system in which to investigate the evolution of specialisation, because some exploit more than 40 host species and others specialise on only one. We find that young brood parasite species are smaller and specialise on a narrower range of host sizes, as expected, if specialisation is linked with the generation of new species. Moreover, we show that highly virulent parasites are more specialised, supporting findings in other host-parasite systems. Finally, we demonstrate that different measures of specialisation can lead to different conclusions, and specialisation indices should be designed taking into account the biology of each system. PMID:27417381

  12. Science for avian conservation: priorities for the new millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Petit, D.R.; Sauer, J.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Johnson, F.A.; Fornwall, M.D.; Korschgen, C.E.; Bennett, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, bird conservation activities have become the preeminent natural resource conservation effort in North America. Maturation of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP), establishment of Partners in Flight (PIF), and creation of comprehensive colonial waterbird and shorebird conservation plans have stimulated unprecedented interest in, and funding for, bird conservation in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and other countries in the western hemisphere. Key to that success in the United States has been active collaboration among federal, state and local governments, conservation organizations, academia, and industry. The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), which has primary statutory responsibility for migratory bird conservation and management, has been a key partner. Despite the great strides that have been made in bird conservation science, historical approaches to research and monitoring have often failed to provide sufficient information and understanding to effectively manage bird populations at large spatial scales. That shortcoming, and the lack of an integrated strategy and comprehensive set of research priorities, is more evident in light of the goals established by the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI). The NABCI is a trinational, coalition-driven effort to provide an organizational umbrella for existing conservation initiatives. The expanded focus of NABCI and individual bird conservation initiatives is to work together in an integrated, holistic fashion to keep common birds common and to increase populations of declining, threatened, and endangered species. To assist bird conservation initiatives in defi ning goals and developing new approaches to effective research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the research agency of DOI, convened a workshop, a??Science for Avian Conservation: Understanding, Modeling, and Applying Ecological Relationships,a?? on 31 Octobera??2 November 2000, which brought

  13. Avian hosts of West Nile virus in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Young, Ginger R; Brault, Aaron C; Levy, Craig E

    2013-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix. PMID:23857022

  14. Experimental comparison of mammalian and avian blood flow in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Kathryn; Liepmann, Dorian

    2015-11-01

    The non-Newtonian, shear rate dependent behavior of blood in microchannel fluid dynamics has been studied for nearly a century, with a significant focus on the characteristics of human blood. However, for over 200 years biologists have noted significant differences in red blood cell characteristics across vertebrate species, with particularly drastic differences in cell size and shape between mammals and non-mammalian classes. We present an experimental analysis of flow in long microchannels for several varieties of mammalian and avian blood, across a range of hematocrits, channel diameters, and flow rates. Correlation of shear rate and viscosity is compared to existing constitutive equations for human blood to further quantify the importance of red blood cell characteristics. Ongoing experimental results are made available in an online database for reference or collaboration. K.F. acknowledges funding from the ARCS Foundation and an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship through NSF Grant DGE 1106400.

  15. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriță

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method, and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g% were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%. There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709 between the total protein values, determined with both methods. Protein is the major determinant of plasma refractive index, but glucose contributes too. The refractometric method is not recommended in chickens for the determination of total protein, because avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice than in mammalian blood.

  16. Ballistocardiogram of avian eggs determined by an electromagnetic induction coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H; Akiyama, R; Sakamoto, Y; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1997-07-01

    As an avian embryo grows within an eggshell, the whole egg is moved by embryonic activity and also by the embryonic heartbeat. A technical interest in detecting minute biological movements has prompted the development of techniques and systems to measure the cardiogenic ballistic movement of the egg or ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this context, there is interest in using an electromagnetic induction coil (solenoid) as another simple sensor to measure the BCG and examining its possibility for BCG measurement. A small permanent magnet is attached tightly to the surface of an incubated egg, and then the egg with the magnet is placed in a solenoid. Preliminary model analysis is made to design a setup of the egg, magnet and solenoid coupling system. Then, simultaneous measurement with a laser displacement measuring system, developed previously, is made for chicken eggs, indicating that the solenoid detects the minute cardiogenic ballistic movements and that the BCG determined is a measure of the velocity of egg movements. PMID:9327626

  17. Zoonosis Update on H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ahad*, Masood Rabbani, Altaf Mahmood1, Zulfiqar Hussan Kuthu2, Arfan Ahmad and Muhammad Mahmudur Rahman3

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses infect various mammals like human, horse, pig and birds as well. A total of 16 hemagglutinin (HA and 9 neuraminidase (NA subtypes have been identified. Most of the combinations are found in birds and relatively few have been isolated from mammals. Although there is no report of human to human transmission till to date, several cases of H5N1, H7N7 and H9N2 identified in humans since 1997 raised serious concern for health and veterinary profession. This review paper will focus H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV with special emphasis on zoonosis. The virus H9N2 though not highly pathogenic like H5N1 but can be virulent through antigenic drift and shift.

  18. Urbanisation tolerance and the loss of avian diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Daniel; González-Lagos, Cesar; Moreira, Darío; Maspons, Joan; Lapiedra, Oriol

    2014-08-01

    Urbanisation is considered an important driver of current biodiversity loss, but the underlying causes are not fully understood. It is generally assumed that this loss reflects the fact that most organisms do not tolerate well the environmental alterations associated with urbanisation. Nevertheless, current evidence is inconclusive and the alternative that the biodiversity loss is the result of random mechanisms has never been evaluated. Analysing changes in abundance between urbanised environments and their non-urbanised surroundings of > 800 avian species from five continents, we show here that although random processes account for part of the species loss associated with urbanisation, much of the loss is associated with a lack of appropriate adaptations of most species for exploiting resources and avoiding risks of the urban environments. These findings have important conservation implications because the extinction of species with particular features should have higher impact on biodiversity and ecosystem function than a random loss. PMID:24835452

  19. Detection of avian nephritis virus in Australian chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Kylie A; O'Rourke, Denise; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2010-09-01

    Avian nephritis virus (ANV) is thought to infect poultry flocks worldwide, but no confirmed case has been reported in Australia. The first such case is described in this study. Cases of young chickens with clinical signs of dehydration and diarrhea were submitted to our laboratory and histopathology detected interstitial nephritis. Vaccine strains of infectious bronchitis virus were detected in some of these cases but were not considered to be the causative agent. A total of seven fresh submissions from broiler chicken flocks were collected at 8-11 days of age. Degenerate PCR primers were designed based on published ANV polymerase gene sequences and used to analyze historic cases as well as the fresh submissions. Six of the seven fresh submissions, and one historic case, were positive for ANV with nucleotide sequencing confirming these results. These results establish ANV as an infectious pathogen circulating in Australian poultry.

  20. Phylogenomic analyses data of the avian phylogenomics project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvis, Erich D; Mirarab, Siavash; Aberer, Andre J;

    2015-01-01

    , amino acids, indels, and transposable elements, as well as tree files containing gene trees and species trees. Inferring an accurate phylogeny required generating: 1) A well annotated data set across species based on genome synteny; 2) Alignments with unaligned or incorrectly overaligned sequences...... filtered out; and 3) Diverse data sets, including genes and their inferred trees, indels, and transposable elements. Our total evidence nucleotide tree (TENT) data set (consisting of exons, introns, and UCEs) gave what we consider our most reliable species tree when using the concatenation-based Exa......ML algorithm or when using statistical binning with the coalescence-based MP-EST algorithm (which we refer to as MP-EST*). Other data sets, such as the coding sequence of some exons, revealed other properties of genome evolution, namely convergence. CONCLUSIONS: The Avian Phylogenomics Project is the largest...

  1. Toxicological perspectives on perfluorinated compounds in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, J.; Jones, P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals have been widely used in commerce for the last few decades. Until recently little was known about their environmental fate and even less was known about their potential environmental effects. Since Giesy and co-workers first demonstrated the widespread occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in wildlife there has been renewed interest in determining the biological and possible ecological effects of these compounds. The assessment of possible effects of these chemicals has been hampered by a limited understanding of their mode of action and by a lack of toxicological data for wildlife species. Here we summarize recently obtained toxicological studies available for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in two avian species and use this information and environmental concentration data to evaluate the potential for environmental risk that these compounds pose.

  2. Control of Avian Coccidiosis: Future and Present Natural Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herbal extracts, and immune response modulators with proven anticoccidial activity, many of which exist as dietary supplements. Additionally, we offer an overview of the poultry industry and the economic cost of coccidiosis as well as the classical strategies used to control the disease.

  3. Expression analysis of TALE family transcription factors during avian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Sarah E; Borycki, Anne-Gaëlle

    2010-04-01

    The TALE family of homeodomain containing transcription factors consists of the Meis, Prep and Tgif, and the Pbx subfamily of proteins. Several TALE orthologues have been identified in amniotes, but no comprehensive analysis of their expression pattern during embryogenesis has been performed. Here, we report on TALE gene expression in the avian embryo. During embryonic development, Pbx genes are predominantly expressed in the neural ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm, although Pbx3 is restricted to the intermediate and lateral mesoderm, and anterior central nervous system. Members of the Meis, Prep, and Tgif subfamilies are expressed at high levels in the paraxial mesoderm, and display differential expression along the anterior-posterior and dorsoventral axes of the developing neural tube. Overall the expression patterns reported in this study are consistent with the known function of the TALE gene family in controlling early patterning of limb, neural tube and paraxial mesoderm tissues during embryogenesis.

  4. 人参皂苷和丹参注射液对犬食管大剂量辐射损伤的影响%Effects of Ginsenosides and Salviae Miltiorrhizae on Canine Esophagus after Intrathoracic 20 Gy Electron Beam Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁保国; 朱桂; 孙玉鹗; 赵海潞; 林善文

    2012-01-01

    Objectives \\ To observe the effects of Ginsenosides and Salviae Miltiorrhizae on canine esophagus after in-trathoracic 20 Gy electron beam radiation. Methods: 12 healthy mongrel dogs were randomly divided into three groups with 4 in each group. A single dose of 20Gy electronic beam radiation was given to the mid segment of the esophagus. Before the intrathoracic radiation, Ginsenosides solution (25mg/kg body weight) was injected intra-peritoneally 6 hours and 30 minutes in one group and Salviae Miltiorrhizae administered intravenously in the same manner in the second group and the third group received no medications. The dogs were sacrificed on 15th day after the radiation for pathological ex-amination. Results; Dogs in control group showed delayed recovery, body weight changed from (17.4 ±0. 7)kg to (14.4 ±0.7)kg on day 14, LDF value from 52.4 ±11. 1 on day 0 to 64. 9 ±11.2 on day 3, 47.4 ±7.4 on day 14. CEC count changed from 0. 25 ± 0.5 on day 0 to 10 ± 1. 83 on day 14; blood vascular size 10μm, with surrounding scattered blood red cells. HE staining showed esophageal mucosa had erosion and blood congestion, microvasculature much dilat-ed. Electron microscopic examination found membranal organells swelling such as loss of parallel arrays of endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolation and loss of ribosomal particles, swelling of mitochondria, phagosomes containing membranous structures. Ginsenosides group showed that bodyweight from 17. 3 ±0. 8kg on day 0 to 18. 4 ± 0. 6kg on day 14, LDF val-ue 50. 1 ±10.5 on day 0, 45.6 ±5.7 on day 3, 47.4 ±7.4 on day 14, CEC count 0. 25 ±0.5 on day 0, 3 ±0.96 on day 14, vascular size 4 ~ 6μm on day 0, 8u,m on day 14. HE staining and electronic microscopic examination showed significantly less damage than control group. Salviae Miltiorrhizae showed similar changes as control group. Conclusion; Advance administration of Ginsenosides will significantly alleviate the damage of the esophagus receiving a single large

  5. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Bahl, Justin; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Killian, Mary Lea; Ip, Hon S.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. PMID:27314845

  6. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Bahl, Justin; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Killian, Mary Lea; Ip, Hon S; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Swayne, David E

    2016-07-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. PMID:27314845

  7. Risk maps for the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry.

    OpenAIRE

    Gert Jan Boender; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Annemarie Bouma; Gonnie Nodelijk; Elbers, Armin R. W; De Jong, Mart C. M.; Michiel van Boven

    2007-01-01

    Devastating epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases such as avian influenza, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease underline the need for improved understanding of the factors promoting the spread of these pathogens. Here the authors present a spatial analysis of the between-farm transmission of a highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus that caused a large epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003. The authors developed a method to estimate key parameters determining the spr...

  8. Risk maps for the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Boender, G.J.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Bouma, A.; Nodelijk, G.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Jong, de, D.; Boven, van, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Devastating epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases such as avian influenza, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease underline the need for improved understanding of the factors promoting the spread of these pathogens. Here the authors present a spatial analysis of the between-farm transmission of a highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus that caused a large epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003. The authors developed a method to estimate key parameters determining the spr...

  9. Cambodia’s patient zero: The political economy of foreign aid and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2009-01-01

    The article of record may be found at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/21825/ What happens when a developing country with poor health infrastructure and even poorer animal health surveillance is thought to be a potential source for the next emerging infectious disease? This is the story of Cambodia and Avian Influenza. This paper undertakes a review of the relevant literature and analyzes the results of detailed semi-structured interviews of individuals highly engaged in Avian I...

  10. Food plant diversity as broad-scale determinant of avian frugivore richness

    OpenAIRE

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Rahbek, Carsten; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    The causes of variation in animal species richness at large spatial scales are intensively debated. Here, we examine whether the diversity of food plants, contemporary climate and energy, or habitat heterogeneity determine species richness patterns of avian frugivores across sub-Saharan Africa. Path models indicate that species richness of Ficus (their fruits being one of the major food resources for frugivores in the tropics) has the strongest direct effect on richness of avian frugivores, w...

  11. Avian myeloblastosis virus-induced lymphosarcoma producing erythroblastic leucosis in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki,Yoshito

    1975-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloblastosis and several forms of tumor, including one case of lymphosarcoma occurred when avian myeloblastosis virus (BAI-A strain was inoculated into newly hatched chicks (SPF. The homogenate of lymphosarcoma inoculated intraperitoneally into other newly hatched chicks induced a high incidence of erythroblastic leucosis. Electron microscopy did not reveal the presence of C-type virus particles in the tumor tissue. The relationship between avian myeloblastosis virus, lymphosarcoma and erythroblastic leucosis is discussed.

  12. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and generation of novel reassortants,United States, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Hun Lee; Justin Bahl; Mia Kim Torchetti; Mary Lea Killian; Ip, Hon S.; David E Swayne

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Bornavirus Genotype 1 from a Macaw with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L.; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1).

  14. Complete genome sequence of avian bornavirus genotype 1 from a Macaw with proventricular dilatation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1). PMID:22628404

  15. Peningkatan Titer Antibodi Terhadap Avian Influenza Dalam Serum Ayam Petelur yang Divaksin Dengan Vaksin Komersial

    OpenAIRE

    Ummu Balqis; Muhammad Hambal; Mulyadi Mulyadi; Samadi Samadi; Darmawi Darmawi

    2011-01-01

    Increasing of antibody titre against avian influenza in serum of vaccinated laying hens with commercial vaccine ABSTRACT. The advantages of vaccination are that it reduces the risk of infection, and concurrently reduces morbidity, mortality and shedding of virus. The goal of the present study was to evaluate efficacy of Avian Influenza commercial vaccine based on humoral immunity responses of laying hens. Totally, 20 breakel silver layer hens were used in this research. The laying hens we...

  16. Avian brood parasitism——a growing research area in behavioral ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eivin; RSKAFT; Wei; LIANG; Brd; G.STOKKE

    2012-01-01

    正We are pleased to be responsible guest editors for the two special issues of Chinese Birds(Vol.3,No.4,2012 and Vol.4,No.1,2013),entitled "Avian Brood Parasitism — a Growing Research Area in Behavioral Ecology".The goal of the two special issues is to publish accumulated knowledge and some of the recent developments in the fascinating research occurring in avian

  17. How Predation Risk Shapes Avian Nest Site Selection and Processes Underlying Nest Predation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Quresh Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    Given the importance of nest predation to avian fitness, ornithologists expect birds to select nest sites that minimize predation risk. Despite numerous studies contributing to a large body of literature, how predation shapes avian nest site selection is not well understood largely because studies rarely examine the processes underlying either nest site selection or predation risk. I investigated how predation shapes nest site selection for a population of Yellow Warblers with an eye for the ...

  18. Avian brood parasitism — a growing research area in behavioral ecology (part Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eivin; RΦSKAFT; Wei; LIANG; Brd; G.STOKKE

    2013-01-01

    正We are pleased to publish the second special issue on avian brood parasitism and to be responsible guest editors for the two special issues of Chinese Birds (Vol. 3, No. 4, 2012 and Vol. 4, No. 1, 2013), entitled "Avian Brood Parasitism - A Growing Research Area in Behavioral Ecology". The first issue was published in December 2012. The goal of the two special issues is to publish accumulated knowledge and some of the recent developments in

  19. The clinical, pathological and microbiological outcome of an Escherichia coli O2:K1 infection in avian pneumovirus infected turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Zande, S; Nauwynck, H; Pensaert, M

    2001-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Escherichia coli infection in avian pneumovirus (APV)-infected turkeys. One group of 2-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) and two groups of 3-week-old conventional (CON) turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with virulent APV subtype A alone, with E. coli O2:K1 alone or with both agents at varying intervals (1, 3, 5 or 7 days) between the two inoculations. The birds were followed clinically and examined for macroscopic lesions at necropsy. Titres of APV were determined in the turbinates, trachea, lungs and air sacs. The number of E. coli O2:K1were assessed in the turbinates, trachea, lungs, air sacs, liver and heart. In both SPF and CON turkeys, dual infection resulted in an increased morbidity and a higher incidence of gross lesions compared to the groups given single infections, especially with a time interval between APV and E. coli inoculations of 3 and 5 days. APV was isolated from the respiratory tract of all APV-infected groups between 3 and 7 days post inoculation. E. coli O2:K1 was isolated only from turkeys that received a dual infection. It was recovered from the turbinates, trachea, lungs, heart and liver. These results show that APV may act as a primary agent predisposing to E. coli colonization and invasion.

  20. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.