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Sample records for avian infectious bronchitis

  1. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataby, Khadija; Fellahi, Siham; Loutfi, Chafiqa; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and extremely difficult to control because it has extensive genetic diversity, a short generation time, and a high mutation rate. IBV is a Gammacoronavirus, single-stranded, and positive-sense RNA virus. Avian infectious bronchitis is well studied in European countries with identification of a large number of IBV variants, whereas in African countries epidemiological and scientific data are poor and not updated. However, previous studies reported that an IBV variant continues to appear regularly in Africa, as currently described in Morocco. No cross-protection between IBV strains was reported, some being unique to a particular country, others having a more general distribution. This review aims to provide a general overview on IB disease distribution in African countries and an update on the available studies of IBV variants in each country. PMID:27150555

  2. E Protein Prokaryotic Expression of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ping; ZHANG Fang; MING Xiaobo; ZENG Xiangwei; ZHU Yuqing; WANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    The small envelope protein (E) gene of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) M41 strain was cloned,and then it was subeloned into prokaryotic expressing vector pGEX-6P-1.The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli.BL21 and induced by IPTG.SDS-PAGE result showed that when objective protein fused with GST (about 20 ku), the relative molecular mass of fusion protein was 38 ku.It indicated that objective protein was about 12.4 ku.The result showed that E protein was expressed successfully, it was useful to the subsequent E protein research.

  3. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (Mpro), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV Mpro was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6122. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function

  4. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Brazil: a highly complex virus meets a highly susceptible host population

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    PE Brandão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is a highly aggressive disease for poultry in terms of symptoms and economic losses, and the control of this disease is difficult if flocks are not protected against type-specific challenges by the Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. This article summarizes data presented by the author at the Workshop on Infectious Bronchitis 2009 on IB and IBV, including future developments on the field.

  5. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

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    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  6. Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Approaches of Avian Infectious Bronchitis

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    Faruku Bande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems. Thus, disease outcome may be influenced by the organ or tissue involved as well as pathotypes or strain of the infecting virus. Knowledge on the epidemiology of the prevalent IBV strains in a particular region is therefore important to guide control and preventions. Meanwhile previous diagnostic methods such as serology and virus isolations are less sensitive and time consuming, respectively; current methods, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP, and sequencing, offer highly sensitive, rapid, and accurate diagnostic results, thus enabling the genotyping of new viral strains within the shortest possible time. This review discusses aspects on pathogenesis and diagnostic methods for IBV infection.

  7. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zhongzan; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Geng, Heyuan; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electropho...

  8. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiangang; Geng Heyuan; Shao Yuhao; Han Zongxi; Cao Zhongzan; Liu Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel e...

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus nsp3 ADRP domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal of the nsp3 ADRP domain of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has been obtained and subjected to further crystallograghic studies. Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) encodes 15 nonstructural proteins (nsps) which play crucial roles in RNA transcription and genome replication. One of them, nsp3, contains an ADRP (adenosine diphosphate-ribose-1′-phosphatase) domain which was revealed in recent studies to have ADP-ribose-1′-monophosphatase (Appr-1′-pase) activity. Appr-1′-pase catalyzes the conversion of ADP-ribose-1′-monophosphate (Appr-1′-p) to ADP-ribose in the tRNA-splicing pathway. The gene segment encoding the IBV nsp3 ADRP domain has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein has been crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.1, b = 43.2, c = 48.9 Å, α = 78.0, β = 80.0, γ = 73.6°. Each asymmetric unit contains two molecules

  10. Interactive mechanism between avian infectious bronchitis S1 protein T cell peptide and avian MHC I molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Zhu; Lu, Mei; Huang, Qing-Hua; Huang, Yan-Yan; Yang, Shao-Hua; Cui, Yan-Shun; Liu, Chang; Tan, Liugang; Kong, Zhengjie; Xu, Chuan-Tian

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to construct a 3D structure of the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-β2M complex through homology modelling technology, perform molecular docking of the predicted infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 protein potential epitope peptide Sp6 (NQFYIKLT) and the avian MHC-β2M complex, and demonstrate the interactive mechanism between Sp6 and MHC using molecular dynamical simulations. The peptide Sp6 and the non-related peptide NP89-97 (PKKTGGPIY) were used to stimulate in vitro recombinant plasmid (pCAGGS-S1) avian splenic lymphocytes. Flow cytometric results show that CD8(+) T lymphocytes reproduce stimulated by the Sp6 and the nonrelated peptide proliferate by 34.8% and 2.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, fluorescent quantitative PCR results show that the secretion of IFN-γ in avian splenic lymphocytes increases after Sp6 stimulation. These data suggest that Sp6 can induce the activated avian lymphocytes in vitro to produce CTL, which is the CTL epitope in IBV S1. PMID:26876645

  11. Feline aminopeptidase N is not a functional receptor for avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbison Carole E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronaviruses are an important cause of infectious diseases in humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, and have the continued potential for emergence from animal species. A major factor in the host range of a coronavirus is its receptor utilization on host cells. In many cases, coronavirus-receptor interactions are well understood. However, a notable exception is the receptor utilization by group 3 coronaviruses, including avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN serves as a functional receptor for most group 1 coronaviruses including feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV, canine coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. A recent report has also suggested a role for fAPN during IBV entry (Miguel B, Pharr GT, Wang C: The role of feline aminopeptidase N as a receptor for infectious bronchitis virus. Brief review. Arch Virol 2002, 147:2047–2056. Results Here we show that, whereas both transient transfection and constitutive expression of fAPN on BHK-21 cells can rescue FIPV and TGEV infection in non-permissive BHK cells, fAPN expression does not rescue infection by the prototype IBV strain Mass41. To account for the previous suggestion that fAPN could serve as an IBV receptor, we show that feline cells can be infected with the prototype strain of IBV (Mass 41, but with low susceptibility compared to primary chick kidney cells. We also show that BHK-21 cells are slightly susceptible to certain IBV strains, including Ark99, Ark_DPI, CA99, and Iowa97 ( Conclusion We conclude that fAPN is not a functional receptor for IBV, the identity of which is currently under investigation.

  12. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumoviruses in Oman backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekaili, Thunai; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are economically important viral pathogens infecting chickens globally. Identification of endemic IBV and aMPV strains promotes better control of both diseases and prevents production losses. Orophrayngeal swab samples were taken from 2317 birds within 243 different backyard flocks in Oman. Swabs from each flock were examined by RT-PCR using part-S1 and G gene primers for IBV and aMPV respectively. Thirty-nine chicken flocks were positive for IBV. Thirty two of these were genotyped and they were closely related to 793/B, M41, D274, IS/1494/06 and IS/885/00. 793/B-like IBV was also found in one turkey and one duck flock. Five flocks were positive for aMPV subtype B. Though no disease was witnessed at the time of sampling, identified viruses including variant IBV strains, may still pose a threat for both backyard and commercial poultry in Oman. PMID:25613085

  13. Progress and Challenges toward the Development of Vaccines against Avian Infectious Bronchitis

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    Faruku Bande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is a widely distributed poultry disease that has huge economic impact on poultry industry. The continuous emergence of new IBV genotypes and lack of cross protection among different IBV genotypes have been an important challenge. Although live attenuated IB vaccines remarkably induce potent immune response, the potential risk of reversion to virulence, neutralization by the maternal antibodies, and recombination and mutation events are important concern on their usage. On the other hand, inactivated vaccines induce a weaker immune response and may require multiple dosing and/or the use of adjuvants that probably have potential safety risks and increased economic burdens. Consequently, alternative IB vaccines are widely sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have resulted in experimental IB vaccines that show promise in antibody and T-cells responses, comparable to live attenuated vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines have also been enhanced to target multiple serotypes and their efficacy has been improved using delivery vectors, nanoadjuvants, and in ovo vaccination approaches. Although most recombinant IB DNA vaccines are yet to be licensed, it is expected that these types of vaccines may hold sway as future vaccines for inducing a cross protection against multiple IBV serotypes.

  14. Bronquitis infecciosa aviar: diagnóstico y control -Avian infectious bronchitis: diagnosis and control

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    Acevedo Beiras, Ana María

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa bronquitis infecciosa aviar (BIA es una enfermedad que ocasiona unimpacto socio-económico severo en la industria avícola mundial. Es unaenfermedad respiratoria aguda, altamente contagiosa, caracterizadaprimariamente por signos respiratorios en los pollos en crecimiento. En las ponedoras, la sintomatología respiratoria es menor pero provoca una disminución marcada en la producción y calidad del huevo. El agente etiológico de esta enfermedad es el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa aviar, un Coronavirus del grupo 3 de la familia Coronaviridae, orden Nidovirales. El virus se replica en los tejidos del tracto respiratorio y en muchos tejidos a lo largo del tracto alimentario. Este virus puede infectar otras especies de aves además de los pollos. Los signos clínicos característicos son tos, estornudos, estertores traqueales, ojos acuosos, letargo y en los pollos, especialmente los jóvenes, se presentan descargas nasales. Estos signos son indicativos pero no tienen por sí solo valor diagnóstico y la confirmación requiere el aislamiento o la demostración directa de la presencia del virus aunque la serología puede ser útil en algunas circunstancias. El diagnóstico de laboratorio requiere el aislamiento viral y su identificación. Se emplean las técnicas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR, inhibición de la hemaglutinación (HI y ensayos inmunoenzimáticos (ELISA, así como la microscopía electrónica, anticuerpos monoclonales, virus neutralización (VN, inmunohistoquímica,ensayos de inmunofluorescencia y de inmunización desafío en pollos. Son ampliamente usadas vacunas vivas e inactivadas en el control de laenfermedad.SummaryAvian infectious bronchitis (BIA is a disease that provokes a severe socioeconomic impact in poultry world industry. It is a breathing sharp disease, highly contagious, characterized primarily for breathing signs in chickens in growth. In the egg-laying, the breathing sintomatology is

  15. In Vitro and In Ovo Expression of Chicken Gamma Interferon by a Defective RNA of Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, Karen; Cavanagh, Dave; Kaiser, Pete; Britton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Coronavirus defective RNAs (D-RNAs) have been used for site-directed mutagenesis of coronavirus genomes and for expression of heterologous genes. D-RNA CD-61 derived from the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was used as an RNA vector for the expression of chicken gamma interferon (chIFN-γ). D-RNAs expressing chIFN-γ were shown to be capable of rescue, replication, and packaging into virions in a helper virus-dependent system following electroporation of in vitro-derived T7 ...

  16. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiangang; Geng Heyuan; Shao Yuhao; Han Zongxi; Cao Zhongzan; Liu Shengwang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV). Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel e...

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) from avian infectious bronchitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonstructural protein 2 from avian infectious bronchitis virus has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution. Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a member of the group III coronaviruses, which differ from the other groups of coronaviruses in that they do not encode the essential pathogenic factor nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) and instead start with nsp2. IBV nsp2 is one of the first replicase proteins to be translated and processed in the viral life cycle; however, it has an entirely unknown function. In order to better understand the structural details and functional mechanism of IBV nsp2, the recombinant protein was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.0, b = 192.3, c = 105.7 Å, β = 90.8°. Two molecules were found in the asymmetric unit; the Matthews coefficient was 3.9 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to a solvent content of 68.2%

  18. Adjuvant Activity of Sargassum pallidum Polysaccharides against Combined Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccines

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    Li-Jie Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND, infectious bronchitis (IB and avian influenza (AI was investigated by examining the antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation following immunization in chickens. The chickens were administrated combined ND, IB and AI inactivated vaccines containing SPP at 10, 30 and 50 mg/mL, using an oil adjuvant vaccine as a control. The ND, IB and AI antibody titers and the lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 30 mg/mL SPP. In conclusion, an appropriate dose of SPP may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate that is suitable for vaccines to produce early and persistent prophylaxis.

  19. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

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    Kong Xiangang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.

  20. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis virus and it is relation with avian influenza virus (H9) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum from different geographical regions in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Al-Dabhawe; H.M. Kadhim; H.M. Samaka

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry cause acute respiratory infection and serous economic problems in Iraq and many other countries all over the world. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of these diseases in commercial chicken flocks in different geographical region in middle part of Iraq by using qPCR. Tracheal swabs and tissue specimens from trac...

  1. In vitro and in ovo expression of chicken gamma interferon by a defective RNA of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Karen; Cavanagh, Dave; Kaiser, Pete; Britton, Paul

    2003-05-01

    Coronavirus defective RNAs (D-RNAs) have been used for site-directed mutagenesis of coronavirus genomes and for expression of heterologous genes. D-RNA CD-61 derived from the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was used as an RNA vector for the expression of chicken gamma interferon (chIFN-gamma). D-RNAs expressing chIFN-gamma were shown to be capable of rescue, replication, and packaging into virions in a helper virus-dependent system following electroporation of in vitro-derived T7 RNA transcripts into IBV-infected cells. Secreted chIFN-gamma, under the control of an IBV transcription-associated sequence derived from gene 5 of the Beaudette strain, was expressed from two different positions within CD-61 and shown to be biologically active. In addition, following infection of 10-day-old chicken embryos with IBV containing D-RNAs expressing chIFN-gamma, the allantoic fluid was shown to contain biologically active chIFN-gamma, demonstrating that IBV D-RNAs can express heterologous genes in vivo. PMID:12719562

  2. Increased expression of Interleukin-6 related to nephritis in chickens challenged with an Avian infectious bronchitis virus variant

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    Filipe S. Fernando

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian field isolate (IBV/Brazil/PR05 of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, associated with development of nephritis in chickens, was previously genotyped as IBV variant after S1 gene sequencing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of IL-6 in kidneys and trachea of birds vaccinated and challenged with IBV/Brazil/PR05 strain, correlating these results with scores of microscopic lesions, specific IBV antigen detection and viral load. The up-regulation of IL-6 and the increased levels of viral load on renal and tracheal samples were significantly correlated with scores of microscopic lesions. Reduced levels of viral load were detected in kidneys of birds previously vaccinated and challenged, compared to non-vaccinated challenged group, although markedly microscopic lesions were observed for both groups. The expression of IL-6, present both in the kidney and in the tracheas, was dependent on the load of the virus present in the tissue, and the development of lesions was related with IL-6 present in the tissues. These data suggest that variant IBV/Brazil/PR05 can induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a manner correlated with viral load and increased IL-6 is involved in the tissue with the influx of inflammatory cells and subsequent nephritis. This may contribute with a model to the development of immunosuppressive agents of IL-6 to prevent acute inflammatory processes against infection with IBV and perhaps other coronaviruses, as well as contribute to the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of IBV nephropatogenic strains.

  3. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the N-terminal domain of nsp2 from avian infectious bronchitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N-terminal domain of nsp2 from avian infectious bronchitis virus has been purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a prototype of the group III coronaviruses and encodes 15 nonstructural proteins which make up the transcription/replication machinery. The nsp2 protein from IBV has a unique and novel sequence and has no experimentally confirmed function in replication, whereas it has been proposed to be crucial for early viral infection and may inhibit the early host immune response. The gene that encodes a double-mutant IBV nsp2 N-terminal domain (residues 9–393 of the polyprotein, with mutations Q132L and L270F) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was subjected to crystallization trials. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group P62 or P64, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 114.2, c = 61.0 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Each asymmetric unit contained one molecule

  4. Experimental co-infection of SPF chickens with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtypes H9N2, H5N2 and H7N9, and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are two of the most important respiratory viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the effect of co-infection of these two viruses in poultry. Low pathogenicity (LP) AIV can produce from mild to moderate upper r...

  5. Serum levels of mannan-binding lectin in chickens prior to and during experimental infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Munch, M.; Handberg, Kurt;

    2003-01-01

    increase of 24%, whereas the acute phase response in chickens challenged after 12 h of rest peaked after 3.1 d with an increase of 51%. The specific antibody titer against IBV was also tested, and a difference (P <0.0091) between the two experimental groups was found with peak titer values of 6,816 and 4...... or complement activation via MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP) -1 and -2. Thus, MBL plays a major role in the first-line innate defense against pathogens. We investigated the MBL concentrations in serum during experimental infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections in chickens. The results......,349. However, the highest value was found in chickens inoculated after 12 h of activity. Thus, an inverse relation exists between the MBL response and the IBV specific antibody response. The ability of MBL to activate the complement cascade was tested in a heterologous system by deposition of human C4 on the...

  6. Fine level epitope mapping and conservation analysis of two novel linear B-cell epitopes of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zongxi; Zhao, Fei; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Xiaoli; Kong, Xiangang; Song, Yang; Liu, Shengwang

    2013-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) may play an essential role in the replication and translation of viral RNA. The N protein can also induce high titers of cross-reactive antibodies and cell-mediated immunity, which protects chickens from acute infection. In this study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), designated as 6D10 and 4F10, which were directed against the N protein of IBV using the whole viral particles as immunogens. Both of the mAbs do not cross react with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and subtype H9 avian influenza virus (AIV). After screening a phage display peptide library and peptide scanning, we identified two linear B-cell epitopes that were recognized by the mAbs 6D10 and 4F10, which corresponded to the amino acid sequences (242)FGPRTK(247) and (195)DLIARAAKI(203), respectively, in the IBV N protein. Alignments of amino acid sequences from a large number of IBV isolates indicated that the two epitopes, especially (242)FGPRTK(247), were well conserved among IBV strains. This conclusion was further confirmed by the relationships of 18 heterologous sequences to the 2 mAbs. The novel mAbs and the epitopes identified will be useful for developing diagnostic assays for IBV infections. PMID:23123213

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of infectious bronchitis virus nonstructural protein 9

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yanlin; Chen, Cheng; Wei, Lei; Yang, Qingzhu; Liao, Ming; Li, Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    The gene segment encoding avian infectious bronchitis virus nonstructural protein 9 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein has been crystallized and the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.44 Å resolution.

  8. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis virus and it is relation with avian influenza virus (H9 and Mycoplasma gallisepticum from different geographical regions in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Al-Dabhawe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, Avian influenza virus (AIV and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry cause acute respiratory infection and serous economic problems in Iraq and many other countries all over the world. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of these diseases in commercial chicken flocks in different geographical region in middle part of Iraq by using qPCR. Tracheal swabs and tissue specimens from trachea, lung and kidney were taken from 38 different cases from commercial broiler chicken flocks in (Najaf, Hilla, Muthana and Theqaar governorates in the period from November 2010 to June 2011, all these flocks were showed respiratory symptoms and mortality about 20-90%. The results showed that 92.1% of samples collected from these flocks were infected with IBV, 20% of samples were infected with IB alone and 45.71% of samples with IB combined with both GM and AIV subtype H9 and 25.71% of samples were positive to both IBV and AIV(H9. No samples were positive to AIV (H9 or MG alone. Because of importance of respiratory diseases as a most common conditions noted in commercial flocks in Iraq and no previous study detecting this pathogens by molecular techniques, this study come to detect and confirm the diagnosis of this pathogens by qPCR as new technique used in this field in Iraq.

  9. 鸡传染性支气管炎病毒的分离与鉴定%solation and Identification of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正东; 余弟和; 张建军; 魏波

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The aim of the study was to isolate an avian infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) isolate from the diseased chickens and identity its characteristics. [Method] An 1BV isolate was isolated from the diseased chickens in a chicken farm in Anhui Province and passaged blindly in chicken embryos to observe its pathogenicity. Then animal regression test was used to replicate bronchial congestion in SPF chickens. The SI gene fragment was amplified and its sequence was aligned with the IBV vaccine strains. [ Result ] The results of HA assay showed that the allantoic fluid of the IBV strain had no agglutination activity toward chicken red blood cells. This result suggested that no Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza virus were found in the allantoic fluid. However,the allanloic fluid treated with 10 g/L trypsin solution could agglutinate chicken red blood cells, which is in line with the biological characteristics of IBV. After the SPF chickens were inoculated with the sixth passage of the IBV I-solate, the clinical symptoms like bronchial congestion that were similar with those in clinic were observed. The results initially confirmed the isolation of an IBV isolate,which was named IBV XZ strain. [Conclusion]This study provides a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of avian infectious bronchitis.%[目的]从发病鸡群中分离出鸡传染性支气管炎病毒,并对其进行鉴定.[方法]从安徽某鸡场发病鸡群中分离出鸡传染性支气管是病毒,采用鸡胚盲传,观察病毒对鸡胚的致病作用.通过动物回归试验,在SPF鸡上复制出支气管堵塞的症状,扩增分离毒株的S1基因片段,并与IBV疫苗毒株进行比较.[结果]对分离到的毒株进行HA检测,结果表明收获的尿囊液对鸡红细胞无凝集活性,说明分离到的病毒中无NDV、AIV等,但经1%胰酶处理则可凝集鸡红细胞,符合传染性支气管炎病毒的生物学特征.该毒株的第6代SPF鸡胚尿囊液通过滴

  10. Pathogenesis Progression of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus%鸡传染性支气管炎病毒致病机理的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余娟; 刘兴友; 王玲丽

    2011-01-01

    鸡传染性支气管是由鸡传染性支气管炎病毒引起鸡的一种急性高度接触性呼吸道传染病,由于病毒血清型较多,易于发生变异而难以免疫预防,成为养鸡业发展的重大阻力.文章就该病毒的致病机理方面的研究情况做一综述,为防制鸡传染性支气管炎提供科学依据.%Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is causative pathogen of infectious bronchitis (IB) , an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease in chickens, the infectious bronchitis virus has many serotypes and is easy to mutate, which has caused the difficulty for the disease's prevention, and impeded the development of poultry industry. This paper reviewed etiology, pathogenesis of the IBV in order to provide evidence for IB prevention and control.

  11. Heterotypic protection to infectious bronchitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing a distinct spike (S) protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). This recombinant vaccine technology confers cross-protection among different IBV strains. We also experimentally demonstrated that the recombinant construct main...

  12. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sulaiman; Roberts, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB) on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water) for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had signific...

  13. Tissue distribution of avian infectious bronchitis virus following in ovo inoculation of chicken embryos examined by in situ hybridization with antisense digoxigenin-labeled universal riboprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Won; Brown, Corrie; Jackwood, Mark W

    2002-09-01

    Chicken embryos were inoculated with 8 different strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) representing 7 different serotypes at 17 days of embryonation. At 2 and 5 days postinfection (dpi), tissues were collected for in situ hybridization using an antisense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the mRNA coding for the membrane protein. Extensive antigen staining in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the trachea, lung, bursa, and intestine was detected at 2 dpi with all 8 strains of IBV. At 5 dpi, little or no positive staining was observed in these tissues. However, tubular cells of the kidney showed multifocal positive staining with the Wolgemuth strain-, Gray strain-, JMK strain-, and Mass41 strain-infected chickens. No viral RNA was detected in the spleen at any time point. The results demonstrated strict epitheliotropic nature and wide tissue tropism of strains of IBV in the chicken embryo and the universality of our riboprobe. In situ hybridization with this probe will be useful for understanding the tissue tropism and the pathogenesis of IBV in vivo. PMID:12296388

  14. A clinical survey of common avian infectious diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Dong; Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple common avian infectious diseases (CAIDs), namely, avian infectious diseases excluding highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease, such as avian salmonellosis and coccidiosis, cause huge economic loss in poultry production and are of great significance in public health. However, they are usually not covered in the systems for reporting of animal diseases. Consequently, the distribution of CAIDs is not clear in many countries. Here, we report a clinical survey of CAIDs in China based on clinical diagnosis of eight veterinary clinics in 2011 and 2012. This survey provided the distribution data of viral, bacterial, and parasitic CAIDs in different types of avian flocks, seasons, and regions, data that are of great value in the research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases. This survey suggested that avian colibacillosis, infectious serositis in ducks caused by Riemerella anatipestifer, avian salmonellosis, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, avian aspergillosis, coccidiosis, low pathogenic avian influenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, and infectious laryngotracheitis are likely to be prevalent in the poultry in China. PMID:25055636

  15. Molecular epidemiology of the avian infectious bronchitis virus basing on S1 glycoprotein%基于S1蛋白的禽传染性支气管炎病毒的分子流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜明国; 杨立芳

    2005-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus, a kind of ssRNA positive- strand virus which belongs to Coronaviridae without any DNA stage, is one of the most severe pathogenic agent causing acute, highly contagious respiratory and urogenital disease characterized by high mortality rate in affected avian flocks, resulting in gigantic economic loss every year. Thereby, it is urgent and necessary for us to research the molecular epidemiology of avian infectious bronchitis virus, and even develop vaccines basing above basic research results. Here we report the molecular evolution and genetic variation of the avian infectious bronchitis virus basing the conserved nucleotide acid sequence of S1gene encoding the spiker glycoprotein with the strong feature ofthe antigen immunity, locating on the surface of the avian infectious bronchitis virus particle, and provide the feasible strategy to develop the avian vaccine for effectively perturbing the infection of avian infectious bronchitis virus.%禽传染性支气管炎病毒是归属于冠状病毒属的没有DNA阶段的正义单链RNA病毒,以极高的死亡率引起禽呼吸泌尿性疾病的广泛流行,每年都给家禽饲养业造成巨大的经济损失.因此开展禽传染性支气管炎病毒的分子流行病学的研究并开发出相关的疫苗时下就显得迫切而且必要.现在,我们基于序列保守且具有强免疫原性的禽传染性支气管炎病毒粒子外壳剌突S1糖蛋白开展了分子流行病学研究,并提出了用于阻断禽传染性支气管炎病毒侵染的疫苗的可行性开发策略.

  16. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  17. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  18. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  19. Primary diagnosis and therapy tests of nephropathogenic avian infectious bronchitis%鸡肾型传染性支气管炎的初步诊断与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞明; 史玉静; 韩涛; 韩忠燕; 宋小白

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ]The present study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of avian infectious bronchitis (IB) in Qinhuangdao city of Hebei province, and to isolate the local representative strain of IB virus for development of immuo-vaccine. [Method]The epidemiology investigation, clinical manifestations and pathological changes in IB were recorded. The liver and kidney suspension of freshly sampled chicken were inoculated to ten--day SPF chick embryo allantoic cavity and the chicken embryo allantois solution was collected to conduct agar diffuse, haemagglutination (HA) and animal test. The comprehensive therapy was also practiced. [ Result ]The kidney of inoculated chick showed swelling and was found pale colored. White urate deposition in ureter was observed. The agar diffuse test result of allantois liquid showed positive results, as well as the HA and animal test results revealed that the isolated strain was IB virus. Based on pathological diagnosis, the lB was identified as nephropathgenic lB. The inactivated vaccine was made with isolated strains of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis viruses. After 5 days of treatment with Hukang, Shenzhishuang, Hushentong and other medicines, the mortality of diseased chicken was recorded from 0.4 to 1.0%, the symptom in respiratory tract of chicken population decreased and the eggs production increased. The curative rate of lB in chicken reached 92.4%. [Conclustion ]The results of present study confirmed the disease as nephropathgenic lB. The proper medication and and immunization according to the virus strain can prevent the disease.%[目的]研究河北秦皇岛地区的鸡肾型鸡传染性支气管炎(IB)流行病学、分离鉴定地方代表毒株,为有效防制当地鸡肾型IB及研制具有免疫针对性的疫苗制剂提供参考依据.[方法]通过流行病学调查、临床症状、病理变化观察,取新鲜病死雏鸡肝脏、肾脏组织悬浮液接种10日龄SPF鸡胚尿囊腔,收集鸡胚尿

  20. Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Bronchitis KidsHealth > For Teens > Bronchitis Print A A A ... Bronchitis Prevention en español La bronquitis What Is Bronchitis? Bronchitis (pronounced: brong-KYE-tis) is an inflammation ...

  1. Synthesis of coronavirus mRNAs: kinetics of inactivation of infectious bronchitis virus RNA synthesis by UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection of cells with the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus results in the synthesis of five major subgenomic RNAs. These RNAs and the viral genome form a 3' coterminal nested set. We found that the rates of inactivation of synthesis of the RNAs by UV light were different and increased with the length of the transcript. These results show that each RNA is transcribed from a unique promoter and that extensive processing of the primary transcripts probably does not occur

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of infectious bronchitis virus nonstructural protein 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gene segment encoding avian infectious bronchitis virus nonstructural protein 9 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein has been crystallized and the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.44 Å resolution. Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which causes respiratory disease in infected birds, belongs to coronavirus group 3. IBV encodes 15 nonstructural proteins (nsp2–nsp16) which play crucial roles in RNA transcription and genome replication. Nonstructural protein 9 (nsp9) has been identified as a protein that is essential to viral replication because of its single-stranded RNA-binding ability. The gene segment encoding IBV nsp9 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein has been crystallized and the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.44 Å resolution. They belonged to the cubic space group I432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 123.4 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit appeared to contain one molecule, with a solvent content of 62% (VM = 3.26 Å3 Da−1)

  3. Relation between Ascites Syndrome Incidence and Infectious Bronchitis in Broiler Chickens by ELISA Method

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Feizi; Mehrdad Nazeri

    2011-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis is an acute viral disease with high contagious and mortality among chicks. The aim of this study was to survey of relation between ascites syndrome incidence and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens by ELISA method in Iran. Eight Ross strain broiler farm affected by infectious bronchitis were selected in this study. Blood samples were gathered early stages of disease and blood sampling was repeated two times with seven days interval. ELISA serologic test was used fo...

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A REAL-TIME TAQMAN RT-PCR ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS FROM INFECTED CHICKENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to rapidly differentiate infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from disease agents like highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and exotic Newcastle disease virus, because those diseases can be extremely similar in the early stages of their pathogenicity. In this study, we report the dev...

  5. Detection and strain differentiation of infectious bronchitis virus in tracheal tissues from experimentally infected chickens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Comparison with an immunohistochemical technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Nielsen, O.L.; Pedersen, M.W.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Oligonucleotide pairs were constructed for priming the amplification of fragments of nucleocapsid (N) protein and spike glycoprotein (S) genes of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One oligonucleotide pair amplified a common segment...

  6. Studies on Molecular Variant Mechanism of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses of Beijing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using reverse transcription-nested Polymerase Chain Reaction(RT-nested PCR), the S1 gene hypervariable regions of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Viruses(IBV) strains BJ1, BJ2, BJ3, isolated from Beijing areas, were amplified successfully. The region consists of 1054 bp of 5'-end of S1 gene which were regarded as the most variable region among IBV strains. Sequences of the S1 gene were determined from recombinant plasmids by using the dideoxy sequencing technique in two directions. Comparing three isolates with standard strains M41, Beaudette, vaccine strain H120 and one isolated strain D41 from Guangdong province, it was shown they were more homology in nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence with M41 than Beaudette and H120. However, secondary structure of their encoding proteins are more similar with H120 than M41 and Beaudette strains. All of these indicate there are complex relationship among difference of nucleotide sequence, changes of virus determinants and serotypes in Infectious Bronchitis Virus.

  7. 鸡传染性支气管炎病毒HN104株的鉴定及S1基因的分子特征%Identification and Molecular Characterization of an Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strain HN104

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文杰; 王忠田; 李新生; 王泽仁; 李燕; 李双亮; 崔保安

    2011-01-01

    A virus was isolated from a suspected of suffering from avian infectious bronchitis chicken farms in Henan province in April 2010. The virus was confirmed as a genetic variation occurred avian infectious bronchitis virus by SPF chicken embryos induced dwarf experiment, chicken red blood cell agglutination test,interference with Newcastle disease virus proliferation assay and RT-PCR tests. Its allantoic fluid hemagglutination titer which for chicken red blood cells was 0. However, viruses' HA titer was 27 after treatment by trypsin.EID50 (50% egg infectious dose) was 10-5.5/0.1 mL; It could significantly interfere with Newcastle Disease Virus La Sota strain proliferation in the chick embryo; SPF chickens infection experiments showed that the virus could cause swelling of the kidney and spotted kidney. The S1 cDNA was 1617 bp.Phylogenetic tree showed that the kinship between IBV Massachusetts strain, T strain and 4/91 strain was distantly related less than 78%.%2010年4月从河南省某疑似患鸡传染性支气管炎鸡场中分离到一株病毒.通过SPF鸡胚致侏儒实验,鸡红细胞凝集试验,干扰新城疫病毒增殖试验和RT-PCR试验确认该病毒为一变异的鸡传染性支气管炎病毒.该病毒尿囊液凝集鸡红细胞的HA价为0,经胰酶处理后为27;EID50(鸡胚半数感染量)为10-5.5/0.1 mL;能够显著干扰鸡新城疫病毒La Sota株在鸡胚中的增殖;动物回归试验结果显示该病毒可致SPF雏鸡出现肾脏肿大,呈花斑肾.其S1基因全长为1617bp,经序列分析发现与鸡传染性支气管炎疫苗Massachusetts株、T株、4/91株亲缘关系较远低于78%.

  8. Relation between Ascites Syndrome Incidence and Infectious Bronchitis in Broiler Chickens by ELISA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Feizi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis is an acute viral disease with high contagious and mortality among chicks. The aim of this study was to survey of relation between ascites syndrome incidence and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens by ELISA method in Iran. Eight Ross strain broiler farm affected by infectious bronchitis were selected in this study. Blood samples were gathered early stages of disease and blood sampling was repeated two times with seven days interval. ELISA serologic test was used for approving the determination of infectious bronchitis. In addition, in order to differential diagnosis of Newcastle and influenza (H9N2 some relevant experiments were conducted. The rate of mortality in any farm during rearing, autopsy and the cause of mortality were recorded. Ascites cases were calculated in terms of prevalence. The growth parameters, FCR, final weight, total consumption of grain at each farm were calculated and mentioned. Based on obtained results in this study, the mean rate of mortality caused by ascites syndrome has been increased meaningfully in herds affected by infectious bronchitis compared with control group. In eight understudied farms affected by infectious bronchitis, the mean rate of Ascites mortality was 3% such that the mean rate of Ascites mortality was 0.5% at previous periods. Based on relevant results also final weight mean in affected herds with infectious bronchitis was lower compared with previous periods. Meanwhile, FCR in affected herds with infectious bronchitis was high compared with healthy herds. In this research demonstrated that there is positive correlation between infectious bronchitis and Ascites syndrome and the correlation is significant (p<0.05.

  9. Recombinant duck enteritis viruses expressing major structural proteins of the infectious bronchitis virus provide protection against infectious bronchitis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixin; Wang, Yulong; Han, Zongxi; Wang, Yu; Liang, Shulin; Jiang, Lu; Hu, Yonghao; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2016-06-01

    To design an alternative vaccine for control of infectious bronchitis in chickens, three recombinant duck enteritis viruses (rDEVs) expressing the N, S, or S1 protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were constructed using conventional homologous recombination methods, and were designated as rDEV-N, rDEV-S, and rDEV-S1, respectively. Chickens were divided into five vaccinated groups, which were each immunized with one of the rDEVs, covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S, or covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S1, and a control group. An antibody response against IBV was detectable and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-lymphocytes decreased at 7 days post-vaccination in each vaccinated group, suggesting that humoral and cellular responses were elicited in each group as early as 7 days post-immunization. After challenge with a homologous virulent IBV strain at 21 days post-immunization, vaccinated groups showed significant differences in the percentage of birds with clinical signs, as compared to the control group (p < 0.01), as the two covalent-vaccination groups and the rDEV-S group provided better protection than the rDEV-N- or rDEV-S1-vaccinated group. There was less viral shedding in the rDEV-N & rDEV-S- (2/10) and rDEV-N & rDEV-S1- (2/10) vaccinated groups than the other three vaccinated groups. Based on the clinical signs, viral shedding, and mortality rates, rDEV-N & rDEV-S1 covalent vaccination conferred better protection than use of any of the single rDEVs. PMID:26946113

  10. Genome sequencing and characterization analysis of a Beijing isolate of chicken corona virus infectious bronchitis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Weiwu; YU Jialin; LI Ning; GONG Yuanshi; SUN Qixin; CHEN Zhangliang; CHEN Chen; ZHANG Ying; ZHAO Yiqiang; FENG Jidong; CHEN Fuyong; WU Qingming; YANG Hanchun; WANG Ming

    2004-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (AIBV) is lassified as a member of the genus coronavirus in the family coronaviridae. The enveloped virus has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 28 kilo-bases,which has a 5′ cap structure and 3′ polyadenylation tract.The complete genome sequence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Beijing isolate, was determined by cloning sequencing and primer walking. The whole genome is 27733 nucleotides in length, has ten open reading frames: 5′-orfla-orflab-s-3a-3b-e-m- 6a-6b-n-3′. Alignments of the genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate with those of two AIBV strains and one SARS coronavirus were performed respectively. The genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate compared with that of the IBV strain LX4 (uncompleted, 19440 bp in size) was 91.2%similarity. However, the full-length genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate was 85.2% identity to that of IBV Strain Beaudette, and was only 50.8% homology to that of SARS coronavirus. The results showed that the genome of IBV has remarkable variation. And IBV Beijing isolate is not closely related to SARS coronavirus. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome sequence, S protein, M protein and N protein, also showed that AIBV Beijing isolate is lone virus in group Ⅲ and is distant from SARS coronavirus. In conclusion, this study will contribute to the studies of diagnosis and diseases control on IBV in China.

  11. Isolation and biological properties of avian infectious bronchitis virus isolated from Shanxi province%鸡传染性支气管炎病毒地方流行株的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫芳; 化丽珍; 岳文斌; 刘娟; 李绪英; 赵宇军; 吉文汇; 刘风波; 吴倩; 任家琰

    2009-01-01

    从山西各地区疑似鸡传染性支气管炎(IB)的病料中,分离到5株鸡传染性支气管炎病毒(IBV)分离株,并对分离病毒进行了病毒形态观察、对鸡新城疫病毒(NDV)的干扰、鸡胚致病性试验、动物回归试验、血凝特性试验、病毒理化特性测定等生物特性鉴定及IBV N基因特异性片段的检测.电镜观察,可见直径为60~120 am,有囊膜及纤突呈冠状排列的病毒粒子;对NDV有明显的干扰作用;分离株的传代物均有明显的致鸡胚矮小化作用;动物回归感染死亡鸡肾脏病变明显,表现肾脏肿大、花斑肾现象,输尿管内充塞大量尿酸盐;无直接血凝性,经1%胰酶处理后可凝集鸡红细胞;分离株对乙醚和氯仿敏感;采用反转录-聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)对分离毒株进行扩增,结果均扩增出特异N基因核酸片段.%Five field strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were isolated from suspected flocks from different time and different regions of Shanxi province,respectively,and characterized by a series of systematic identification assays,such as morphological observation by electron-microscope,interfering with the propagation of NDV,virus pathological role to chicken embryo,virus pathological role to SPF chickens,hemagglutination activity,physiscochemical,and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).The results showed:The typical coronavirus which the spherical virions 60-120 nm in diameter and surface covered with spike like corona were observed under electron-microscope)The propagation of NDV strain was seriously interfered by the 5 isolates respectively;The embryonated chicken egg passages of the 5 isolates could dwarf with chicken embryos;The five isolates had no hemagglutination activity,but after treatment with 1% trypsin,it can agglutinate chicken red blood cell.The strains are sensitive to chloroform and ethyl ether.The SPF chickens which inoculated with the 5 isolates showed clinical sign and

  12. Development of inactivated-local isolate vaccine for infectious bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by coronavirus. The disease causes high mortality in young chicks, reduce body weight gain in broilers and remarkable drop in egg production. IB can only be controlled by vaccination, but due to the antigenic variation among serotypes of IB viruses, the effective IB vaccine should be prepared from local isolates. The aim of this research is to develop inactivated IB vaccine derived from local IB isolates. Local isolates of IB viruses designated as I-37, I-269 and PTS-III were propagated respectively in specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs, the viruses then were inactivated by formaline at final concentration of 1:1,000. Subsequently, the inactivated viruses were mixed and emulsified in oil emulsion adjuvant with sorbitant mono-oleic as an emulsifier. The vaccine then was tested for its safety, potency and efficacy in broiler chickens. Birds inoculated twice with a two-week interval by inactivated vaccine did not show any adverse reaction, either systemic or local reaction. The inoculated birds developed antibody responses with high titre, while antibody of the control birds remain negative. In addition, efficacy test which was conducted in broilers demonstrated that birds vaccinated by live-commercial vaccine and boosted three weeks later by Balitvet inactivated vaccine showed high level of antibody production which provided high level of protection against challenged virus (76% against I-37, 92% against I-269 and 68% against PTS-III challenge viruses. From this study, it can be concluded that inactivated local IB vaccine is considered to be safe, potent and efficacious. The vaccine stimulates high titre of antibody responses, which provide high level of protection against challenged viruses.

  13. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid detection of infectious bronchitis virus in infected chicken tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-tai; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yan-ping; Ma, Li-Na; Ding, Yao-zhong; Liu, Xiang-tao; Cai, Xue-peng; Ma, Li-qing; Zhang, Yong-guang; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2010-04-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was developed. The detection limits for the IBV RT-LAMP assay were 10(1) 50% egg infection dose (EID(50)) per 50 microl of titrated viruses and no cross-reaction of IBV RT-LAMP was found when tested with other viruses including Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), and infectious laryngotrachietis virus (ILTV) due to their mismatch with IBV RT-LAMP primers. A total of 187 clinical tissues samples (88 blood, 62 kidney and 37 lung) were evaluated and compared to conventional RT-PCR. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP and RT-PCR assays for detecting IBV RNA in clinical specimens was 99.5% and 98.4%, respectively. These findings showed that the RT-LAMP assay has potential usefulness for rapid and sensitive diagnosis in outbreak of IBV. PMID:19835950

  14. S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against infectious bronchitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously demonstrated that overexposing the IBV (infectious bronchitis virus) S2 to the chicken immune system by means of a vectored vaccine, followed by boost with whole virus, protects chickens against IBV showing dissimilar S1. We developed recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (...

  15. Detection and identification of infectious bronchitis virus by RT-PCR in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounimehr, Alireza; Pakbin, Ahmad; Momayyez, Reza; Fatemi, Seyyedeh Mahsa Rastegar

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe diseases in poultry with significant economic consequences to the poultry industry in Iran. The aim of this study was the detection and identification of IBV by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR in Iran. Ten IB virus strains were detected by testing trachea, cecal tonsil, and kidney tissues collected from broiler and layer farms in Iran. In order to detect infectious bronchitis virus, an optimized RT-PCR was used. Primers targeting the conserved region of known IBV serotypes were used in the RT-PCR assay. Primers selectively detecting Massachusetts and 793/B type IB viruses were designed to amplify the S1 gene of the virus and used in the nested PCR test. Our findings indicate the circulation of at least three genotypes of IB viruses (Massachusetts, 793/B, and variant 2) among poultry flocks. PMID:27010714

  16. Diagnosis of Infectious Bronchitis Disease in Broiler Chickens by Serological Test (ELISA and RT-PCR in Duhok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyar Adil Morad AL-Barwary

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bronchitis (IB is one of the most important viral diseases of poultry and it causes major economic losses in poultry industry. The study was conducted to detect Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV in broilers chicken farms in Duhok Governorate. To achieve this goal two tests have been used throughout the study protocol Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. One hundred and eighty Serum samples were collected from 11 chicken farms including (120 samples from 9 symptomatic non vaccinated chicken farms, (30 samples from one asymptomatic vaccinated chicken farm and another (30 samples from one asymptomatic non vaccinated chicken farm and screened for the presence of IBV antibodies by ELISA kit. The total RNAs were extracted from tracheal tissues using RNX TM-Plus reagent (Cinnagen,Iran. Eighty serum samples were positive: 50/120 (41.6% sample were symptomatic non vaccinated, another 30/30 (100% were asymptomatic vaccinated chickens samples, and the remaining samples (100 were negative by ELISA , including 70 /120 (58.4% from symptomatic non vaccinated chickens, and 30/30 (100% from asymptomatic non vaccinated chickens. The molecular detection of avian infectious bronchitis virus by use of RT-PCR was applied to extract RNAs from tracheal tissues. The test was performed on (80 symptomatic non vaccinated chickens and 36 vaccinated and non vaccinated chickens. Detection was performed using universal types of primers including XCE2+ and XCE2- 80 symptomatic chickens were examined by RT-PCR (50 with positive ELISA and 30 with negative ELISA results, 36 (44.4 % have detectable IBV-cDNA and the remaining 44 (55.6% did not have detectable IBVcDNA. Another 36 (18 asymptomatic vaccinated and 18 non vaccinated chickens were examined by RT-PCR, 8 (22.2% have detectable IBV-cDNA, and the remaining 28 (77.8% were negative. This study has determined the presences of IBV in flocks of Duhok

  17. A liquid phase blocking ELISA for the detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA was developed for the detection and measurement of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. The purified and nonpurified virus used as antigen, the capture and detector antibodies, and the chicken hyperimmune sera were prepared and standardized for this purpose. A total of 156 sera from vaccinated and 100 from specific pathogen-free chickens with no recorded contact with the virus were tested. The respective serum titers obtained in the serum neutralization test (SNT were compared with those obtained in the LPB-ELISA. There was a high correlation (r2 = 0.8926 between the two tests. The LPB-ELISA represents a single test suitable for the rapid detection of antibodies against bronchitis virus in chicken sera, with good sensitivity (88%, specificity (100% and agreement (95.31%.

  18. Measurement of Antibodies to Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Indigenous Chicken Flocks Around Maharlou Lake in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hadipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the seroprevalence of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV in indigenous chicken flocks, serum samples from 200 mature indigenous chickens in villages around Maharlou Lake in Southwest of Iran were tested for IBV antibodies using commercial IBV Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The studied indigenous chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall ELISA titer and seroprevalence of IBV antibodies revealed in this study were 1427 and 68%, respectively. The results indicate a relatively high prevalence of IBV in indigenous chicken flocks in Southwest of Iran and necessitate the regular vaccination programme against IB in native flocks.

  19. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus strains similar to Japan in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Hsin-Fu; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2016-06-01

    A total of 1,320 tracheal samples from 66 broiler flocks sent to slaughterhouses and 42 tracheal samples from 42 flocks of local chickens in the field were collected for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) gene detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using nucleocapsid-specific primers and spike-specific primers. Prevalence in broiler flocks was 39.4% (26/66) and in local chicken flocks was 11.9% (5/42). Several IBVs similar to Japan were detected in Taiwan. One-direction neutralization revealed that the reference antisera did not offer protection against the IBVs similar to those from Japan. PMID:26822119

  20. The proteome of the infectious bronchitis virus Beau-R virion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Stuart D; Xia, Dong; Wastling, Jonathan M; Neuman, Benjamin W; Britton, Paul; Maier, Helena J

    2015-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious respiratory disease of poultry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). It was thought that coronavirus virions were composed of three major viral structural proteins until investigations of other coronaviruses showed that the virions also include viral non-structural and genus-specific accessory proteins as well as host-cell proteins. To study the proteome of IBV virions, virus was grown in embryonated chicken eggs, purified by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation and analysed by mass spectrometry. Analysis of three preparations of purified IBV yielded the three expected structural proteins plus 35 additional virion-associated host proteins. The virion-associated host proteins had a diverse range of functional attributions, being involved in cytoskeleton formation, RNA binding and protein folding pathways. Some of these proteins were unique to this study, while others were found to be orthologous to proteins identified in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virions and also virions from a number of other RNA and DNA viruses. PMID:27257648

  1. Immune Responses to Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Rajesh; Chantrey, Julian; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious chicken viral disease, causing severe economic losses to poultry producers worldwide. In the last few decades, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has been extensively studied, but knowledge of immune responses to virulent or vaccine strains of IBVs remains limited. This review focuses on fundamental aspects of immune responses against IBV, including the role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in identification of conserved viral structures and the role of different components of innate immunity (e.g., heterophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, acute phase protein, and cytokines). Studies on adaptive immune activation and the role of humoral and cellular immunity in IBV clearance are also reviewed. Multiple interlinking immune responses are essential for protection against virulent IBVs, including passive, innate, adaptive, and effector T cells active at mucosal surfaces. Although the development of approaches for chicken transcriptome and proteome analyses have greatly helped the understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms for immunity, there are still major knowledge gaps, such as the role of mucosal and cellular responses to IBVs. In view of recent reports of emergent IBV variants in many countries, there is renewed interest in a more complete understanding of poultry immune responses to both virulent and vaccine strains of IBVs. This will be critical for developing new vaccine or vaccination strategies and other intervention programs. PMID:26301315

  2. Adaptation of infectious bronchitis virus in primary cells of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Mohammed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells to infectious bronchitis virus was evaluated after twenty consecutive passages in chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells. Virus replication was monitored by cytopathic observation, indirect immunoperoxidase, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. At 72 hours post-infection (p.i. in third passage, the cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding up of cells, monolayer detachment, intracytoplasmic brownish colouration was readily observed by immunoperoxidase from 24 hours p.i in third passage, and at all times the extracted viral RNA from IBV-infected monolayers was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Tissue culture ineffective dose50 (TCID50 was used to measure virus titration performed on primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells and the titre in twenty passage was 108.6 TCID50/ml. The results obtained in this study suggested that the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells can be used for adaptation infectious bronchitis virus (IBV and may be considered a step forward for the use of these cells in the future for IBV vaccine production

  3. Adjuvant effects of mannose-binding lectin ligands on the immune response to infectious bronchitis vaccine in chickens with high or low serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2014-01-01

    MBL participates in the protection of hosts against virus infections. Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease of economic importance in the poultry industry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). MBL has earlier been described to play a potential role in the...

  4. Evolutionary and bioinformatic analysis of the spike glycoprotein gene of H120 vaccine strain protectotype of infectious bronchitis virus from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Pillai, Aravind S; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Khulape, Sagar Aashok; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2016-01-01

    The infectious bronchitis virus is a causative agent of avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), and is is an important disease that produces severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Recent AIB outbreaks in India have been associated with poor growth in broilers, drop in egg production, and thin egg shells in layers. The complete spike gene of Indian AIB vaccine strain was amplified and sequenced using a conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and is submitted to the GenBank (accession no KF188436). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the vaccine strain currently used belongs to H120 genotype, an attenuated strain of Massachusetts (Mass) serotype. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons have shown that the reported spike gene from Indian isolates have 71.8%-99% and 71.4%-96.9% genetic similarity with the sequenced H120 strain. The study identifies live attenuated IBV vaccine strain, which is routinely used for vaccination, for the first time. Based on nucleotide and amino acid relatedness studies of the vaccine strain with reported IBV sequences from India, it is shown that the current vaccine strain is efficient in controlling the IBV infection. Continuous monitoring of IBV outbreaks by sequencing for genotyping and in vivo cross protection studies for serotyping is not only important for epidemiological investigation but also for evaluation of efficacy of the current vaccine. PMID:25311758

  5. Detection of variant infectious bronchitis viruses in Sri Lanka (2012-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christopher; Forrester, Anne; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Poultry production is an important sector of agriculture in Sri Lanka; however, there is a lack of information regarding circulation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). RNA was extracted from chicken tissues, subjected to IBV S1 RT-PCR, and sequenced. Overall, 19 out of 34 (55.88 %) samples were IBV positive and contained the genotype 793B (n = 13; 68.42 %), D274 (n = 4; 21.05 %) or Massachusetts (n = 2; 10.53 %). All three genotypes contained at least one strain with less than 99 % nucleotide sequence identity to the corresponding vaccine strains. This report identified co-circulation of IBV strains 793B, Massachusetts and D274, in Sri Lanka that are divergent from the respective vaccine strains. PMID:27020570

  6. The cytoplasmic tails of infectious bronchitis virus E and M proteins mediate their interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virus-like particle (VLP) formation by the coronavirus E and M proteins suggests that interactions between these proteins play a critical role in coronavirus assembly. We studied interactions between the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) E and M proteins using in vivo crosslinking and VLP assembly assays. We show that IBV E and M can be crosslinked to each other in IBV-infected and transfected cells, indicating that they interact. The cytoplasmic tails of both proteins are important for this interaction. We also examined the ability of the mutant and chimeric E and M proteins to form VLPs. IBV M proteins that are missing portions of their cytoplasmic tails or transmembrane regions were not able to support VLP formation, regardless of their ability to be crosslinked to IBV E. Interactions between the E and M proteins and the membrane bilayer are likely to play an important role in VLP formation and virus budding

  7. Survey on circulation of infectious bronchitis virus strains in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian De Battisti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bronchitis (IB still causes significant health problems in the poultry industry with high economic impact. The presence of several serotypes of IB and the emergence of novel ones must be monitored in order to take appropriate action and to adapt the vaccination programmes to the prevalent serotypes. In order to establish which serotypes are circulating in densely populated poultry area (DPPA of Northern Italy, a surveillance programme has been undertaken during 2004 and 2005. The results of this surveillance programme show the active circulation of 793-B, IT-02, the introduction of a novel strain, known as QXIBV, originally identified in China and the re-emergence of previously circulating serotype as B1648.

  8. Serotype variation among infectious bronchitis viral isolates taken from several areas of Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by virus belongs to the family of Coronaviridae. The virus consist of many serotypes with low level of cross-protectivity among serotypes. Field data showed that the outbreaks of IB were frequently reported in chicken flocks, although vaccinations against the disease have been practiced. Hence, the study on serotype relationship among isolates of the viruses is essentially required. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize IB viruses from chicken flocks in some areas of Java. Isolation of the virus was carried out in nine-day old embrionated chicken eggs and identified by means of agar gel precipitation (AGP tests against standard antisera to IB virus. The serotypes of the IB viral isolates were determined by cross-neutralization tests in nine day old embryonated chicken eggs using r value derived from homologous and heterologous serum titres as criteria. This study obtained 12 IB viral isolates which were identified on the basis of the ability to cause lesions in chicken embryos and positive to agar gel presipitation test against standard positive antiserum to the virus. Based on the cross-neutralization tests in embryonated chicken eggs, isolate I.9 was formed to have relationship closed to Mass-41 serotype, while I.2, I. 3, and I.7 isolates were closely to the serotype of Con-46. Virus isolates (I.5, I.14, I.24, and I.25 were decided to have no serotype relationships to either Mass-41 or Con-46 serotype. Since the I.5, I.14, I.24 and I.25 isolates were not neutralized by antisera against the previous identified local infectious bronchitis viral isolates, and that were considered to be distinct serotype to the previously identified local IB viral isolates.

  9. Molecular biology of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Walter; Veits, Jutta; Helferich, Dorothee; Granzow, Harald; Teifke, Jens; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes an economically important chicken disease, which results in delayed growth, reduced egg production, and also frequently in death of the animals. After acute infection of the upper respiratory tract, the virus can establish latency in the central nervous system, and subsequent reactivations can lead to infection of naive chickens. For prevention of ILT, conventionally attenuated live vaccines are available. However, t...

  10. Complete genomic sequence analysis of infectious bronchitis virus Ark DPI strain and its evolution by recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelb Jack

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas DPI (Ark DPI virulent strain was sequenced, analyzed and compared with many different IBV strains and coronaviruses. The genome of Ark DPI consists of 27,620 nucleotides, excluding poly (A tail, and comprises ten open reading frames. Comparative sequence analysis of Ark DPI with other IBV strains shows striking similarity to the Conn, Gray, JMK, and Ark 99, which were circulating during that time period. Furthermore, comparison of the Ark genome with other coronaviruses demonstrates a close relationship to turkey coronavirus. Among non-structural genes, the 5'untranslated region (UTR, 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro and the polymerase (RdRp sequences are 100% identical to the Gray strain. Among structural genes, S1 has 97% identity with Ark 99; S2 has 100% identity with JMK and 96% to Conn; 3b 99%, and 3C to N is 100% identical to Conn strain. Possible recombination sites were found at the intergenic region of spike gene, 3'end of S1 and 3a gene. Independent recombination events may have occurred in the entire genome of Ark DPI, involving four different IBV strains, suggesting that genomic RNA recombination may occur in any part of the genome at number of sites. Hence, we speculate that the Ark DPI strain originated from the Conn strain, but diverged and evolved independently by point mutations and recombination between field strains.

  11. Replication of Infectious Bronchitis Virus in the Chicken Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the chicken mesenchymal stem cells to infectious bronchitis virus was characterized after twenty consecutive passages in chicken mesenchymal stemm cells. Virus replication was monitored by cytopathic observation, indirect immunoperoxidase, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. At 72 h post-infection (p.i. in third passage, the cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding up of cell, monolayer detachment, intracytoplasmic brownish colouration was readily observed by from 24h p.i in third passage, and at all times the extracted viral RNA from IBV-infected monolayers was demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Tissue culture effective dose50 was used to measure virus titration performed on chicken mesenchymal stem cells and the titres in twenty passages was 108.6 TID50/ml. The results obtained in this study suggested that the chicken mesenhymal stem cells can be used for adaptation IBV and may be considered a step forward for the use of these cells in the future for IBV vaccine production

  12. S1 gene-based phylogeny of infectious bronchitis virus: An attempt to harmonize virus classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valastro, Viviana; Holmes, Edward C; Britton, Paul; Fusaro, Alice; Jackwood, Mark W; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease that results in severe economic losses to the global poultry industry. The virus exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct viral types, and both phylogenetic analysis and measures of pairwise similarity among nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been used to classify IBV strains. However, there is currently no consensus on the method by which IBV sequences should be compared, and heterogeneous genetic group designations that are inconsistent with phylogenetic history have been adopted, leading to the confusing coexistence of multiple genotyping schemes. Herein, we propose a simple and repeatable phylogeny-based classification system combined with an unambiguous and rationale lineage nomenclature for the assignment of IBV strains. By using complete nucleotide sequences of the S1 gene we determined the phylogenetic structure of IBV, which in turn allowed us to define 6 genotypes that together comprise 32 distinct viral lineages and a number of inter-lineage recombinants. Because of extensive rate variation among IBVs, we suggest that the inference of phylogenetic relationships alone represents a more appropriate criterion for sequence classification than pairwise sequence comparisons. The adoption of an internationally accepted viral nomenclature is crucial for future studies of IBV epidemiology and evolution, and the classification scheme presented here can be updated and revised novel S1 sequences should become available. PMID:26883378

  13. Molecular Characteristics of S1 Gene of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated from Chicken Proventriculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-qin; ZHOU Ji-yong; John Dikki; SHEN Xing-yan; CHEN Ji-gang; ZHANG De-yong

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus was isolated from swollen proventriculi of clinically ill chicken. Thesuspected virus samples (2/97, 3/97, 1/98) were adapted in SPF chicken embryos for virus isolation andidentification. All the virus isolates were able to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes after treatment with trypsin,and interfer with the reproduction of Newcastle disease virus in chicken embryos, and have low antigenic relat-edness values with reference positive IBV. The isolates 2/97, 3/97, 1/98 RNAs extracted from the allantoicfluid of inoculated embryonated eggs were converted to cDNA by reverse transcription with 3'-primer of S1gene of (IBV). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with two primers which span the S1 gene.Amplified product of 1.93 kb was subjected to EcoR Ⅰ and BamH Ⅰ digestion and the fragments obtainedwere the same as expected size. The PCR product was ligated to pBlueScript-SK (+) vector, and its nucleotidesequence was determined by the dideoxy-mediated chain termination method. Nucleotide sequence analysisshowed 73.6 - 99.7 % homology between the isolated IBV and the IBV strains in GenBank. The homology ofamino acid was 71.4 - 99.4 %.

  14. Diagnostic and clinical observation on the infectious bronchitis virus strain Q1 in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Toffan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the diagnostic and clinical observations of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV variant, referred to as Q1, in clinically ill chickens in Italy. This IBV variant was described for the first time in 1998 in China. In the autumn of 2011 it caused a small-scale epidemic in non-vaccinated meat chickens in farms located in Northern Italy. The disease was characterized by increased mortality, kidney lesions and proventriculitis. Histopatological observations confirmed the nephritis and described an unusual erosive/necrotic proventriculitis with infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and heterophils, as well as fibroplasia in the lamina propria. Despite these findings and the isolation of the Q1 IB virus directly from proventricular tissue, further studies are necessary to confirm the role of this IBV strain in the development of proventricular lesions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the IBV isolates were very similar and probably had a common origin. The IBV Q1 variant appears to be now endemic in the North of Italy and at times it is detected in vaccinated backyard and commercial broiler farms. The importance of continuous monitoring in controlling the spread of known or emerging IBV variants is underlined.

  15. TRYPSIN-INDUCED HEMAGGLUTINATION ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Mahmood, M. Siddique, I. Hussain and A. Khan1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A trypsin-induced hemagglutination (THA assay was standardized to detect infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in allantoic fluid (AF of embryonated eggs. The test was used in 20 samples, each collected from 5 different layer farms suspected for IBV. Allantoic fluid from inoculated embryos was harvested and treated with reagent grade trypsin at the percentages of 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 for 30 minutes to 3 hours at pH 7.2. The IBV in trypsinized AF was identified by clear and consistent agglutination of chicken red blood cells within 5 minutes of incubation at 37oC. The results indicated that AF treated with equal volume of 1.0% reagent grade trypsin elicited the hemagglutinating (HA activity in 3.0 hours whereas 2.0% reagent grade trypsin elicited the HA activity only after 30 minutes incubation at 37oC. Sensitivity of THA was 92% as compared with 76% for agar gel precipitation test. Gross pathological lesions (curling and dwarfing in chick embryo, intracereberal inoculation of un-weaned mice and pathogenicity test in one-day-old broiler chicks showed 79, 84 and 77% sensitivity, respectively.

  16. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF VITAMIN E ADJUVANTED OIL EMULSIFIED INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS EXPERIMENTAL VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ALI, M. ARSHAD, M. SIDDIQUE AND M. ASHRAF

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to prepare oil emulsified (OE infectious bronchitis (IB experimental vaccines. The vaccines were prepared using the vaccinal strain H-120 Infectious Bonchitis virus (IBV. The virus was cultivated in 9-day old embryonated eggs via allantoic cavity route. Allantoic-amniotic fluid (AAF was collected and inactivated with formalin @ 0.12%. Water in oil emulsion was prepared by adding one part of AAF to four parts of mineral oil containing water phase (Tween 80 and oil phase (Span 80 surfactants. Hydrophile lypohile balance (HLB of the emulsion was maintained at 7.0. Two oil emulsified experimental vaccines were prepared. Vaccine-I was prepared without vitamin E and Vaccine-II with vitamin E (300 mg/ml. A total of 120 day-old broiler breeder chickens were divided into 4 groups, A, B, C, and D, each having 30 birds. At the age of 21 days, experimental Vaccine-I, experimental vaccine-II and commercial IB killed (H-120 vaccine were inoculated @ 0.5 ml in the birds of groups A, B and C, respectively. Group D was maintained as nonvaccinated control. Efficacy of the vaccines was evaluated on the basis of humoral immune response (haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres against IB in the four groups. The seven weeks cumulative mean antibody titres (CMT of each group were calculated. The highest CMT was observed in group B (130, followed by group C (69, group A (58 and group D (17. Statistical analysis showed that haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titres in group B (vaccine- II were significantly higher than those of groups A, B and C (P< 0.05.

  17. Morphologic observations on respiratory tracts of chickens after hatchery infectious bronchitis vaccination and formaldehyde fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, A M; Soñez, M C; Plano, C M; von Lawzewitsch, I

    2000-01-01

    The histologic changes in the respiratory tracts of chickens were evaluated after hatchery fumigation with 40% formaldehyde vapors and vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus with live attenuated vaccine (Massachusetts serotype). One-day-old chickens were housed in four isolation units in controlled environmental conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, and separated into four groups: 1) fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group); 2) nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV group); 3) fumigated and nonvaccinated birds (FNV group); and 4) control group (C group). All birds were tested to be free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. After necropsy on the first, eighth, and twenty-sixth days after birth, samples from tracheal upper portion and lungs were conventionally processed for light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue response was monitored by microscopic examination of trachea and lung. On the first day of observation, fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group) showed extensively damaged tracheal epithelium with exfoliated areas and some active glands with electrodense granules, and in the lung, the primary bronchi epithelium had disorganized cilia and abundant lymphocytes, with emphysematous areas in tertiary bronchus. On day 8 after vaccination, cubical and cylindrical tracheal cell proliferation was observed, and on day 26, ciliated columnar epithelium was almost regenerated with heterophil corion infiltration, and hyaline cartilage nodules appeared in parabronchi. The nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV) revealed less injury on the epithelial surface and a more rapid response to epithelial regeneration than the in only fumigated animals (FNV). The control group did not show remarkable morphologic changes. Postvaccinal and fumigation effects on the upper respiratory tract were temporary, whereas in lungs, increased emphysema, cartilage nodules in the interchange zone, and general lymphocyte infiltration had caused

  18. Genotyping of infectious bronchitis viruses from broiler farms in Iraq during 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Waleed; GhalyanchiLangeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid; Madadgar, Omid; Marandi, Mehdi Vasfi; Hashemzadeh, Masoud

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the most critical pathogens in the poultry industry, causing serious economic losses in all countries including Iraq. IBV has many genotypes that do not confer any cross-protection. This virus has been genotyped by sequence analysis of the S1 glycoprotein gene. A total of 100 tracheal and kidney tissue specimens from different commercial broiler flocks in the middle and south of Iraq were collected from September 2013 to September 2014. Thirty-two IBV-positive samples were selected from among the total and were further characterized by nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates belong to four groups (group I, variant 2 [IS/1494-like]; group II, 793/B-like; group III, QX-like; group IV, DY12-2-like). Sequence analysis revealed nucleotide sequence identities within groups I, II, and III of 99.68 %-100 %, 99.36 %-100 %, and 96.42 %-100 %, respectively. Group I (variant 2) was the dominant IBV genotype. One Chinese-like recombinant virus (DY12-2-like) that had not been reported in the Middle East was detected. In addition, the presence of QX on broiler chicken farms in the area studied was confirmed. This is the first comprehensive study on the genotyping of IBV in Iraq with useful information regarding the molecular epidemiology of IBV. The phylogenetic relationship of the strains with respect to different time sequences and geographical regions displayed complexity and diversity. Further studies are needed and should include the isolation and full-length molecular characterization of IBV in this region. PMID:26887967

  19. Infectious bronchitis in Brazilian chickens: current data and observations of field service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EN Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV was detected for the first time in Brazil by Hipólito in 1957 in chickens sold life in the municipal market of Belo Horizonte, MG, when commercial poultry production was just starting in that country. The Massachusetts (Mass serotype was identified. However, the clinical disease was only observed in 1975, when poultry production was intensely growing. The extensive outbreak produced the classical condition in layers and breeders, affecting egg production and quality, whereas broilers presented respiratory and "nephritis-nephrosis" signs. The disease rapidly spread to all poultry-producing regions in the country, and in 1979, both the imports and the manufacturing of live vaccines against IB strains Mass, H120 and H52, were licensed. In 1980, inactivated vaccines were introduced. Molecular techniques, particularly PCR, started to bed in the identification of IBV. A retrospective analysis showed that, up to 1989, the main IBV strain circulating in Brazil was Mass. However, other studies shows the presence of a wide diversity of IBV strains in Brazil since the first strains were isolated, even before vaccination was introduced. Most researchers agree that the incidence of IBV different from Mass has increased, including of exclusively Brazilian genotypes, different from those described in other countries. Indeed, during the last few years, the number of genotypical variants has been much higher than that of the classical Mass serotype. Clinically, in addition of the classic presentations, atypical forms such as testicular atrophy and stones in the epidydimis associated to low fertility have been described. Serological techniques started to be used in vaccination monitoring and as a diagnostic tool. Serological response standards were developed, and have shown to be very useful to determine the expected profile in vaccination programs and when clinical disease is suspected. However, the immuno-enzymatic test

  20. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1 Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins.

  1. The detection of cytotoxic lymphocyte activity in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus or fowl pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, R C; Huynh, V; Law, R

    1987-01-01

    A cytotoxic lymphocyte assay, using cells that adhered to plastic as the target cells and neutral red as the indicator for lysis, was applied to chickens infected with either infectious bronchitis virus or fowl pox virus. Both target and effector cells were derived from the same bird. Cytotoxic lymphocytes were generated in birds infected with either virus. The activity was confined to cells of the spleen after initial immunisation, but could be detected in white cells from the blood after challenge at a peripheral site, with both virulent and avirulent virus strains. It is likely that the cytotoxic cells are T-lymphocytes. The cytotoxic assay system used was an economical and convenient method for chickens which overcame the need for inbred lines of birds. PMID:18766629

  2. Elisa evaluation of the levels of antibodies against Infectious Bronchitis Virus in laying hens using egg yolk as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Rauber

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to compare Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibody titers in serum and egg yolk samples from laying hens. Sixty paired blood and egg samples were collected from laying hens of two farms. Serum samples were frozen, while egg yolk samples were diluted (1:500 before freezing. Serum and yolk samples were tested for the presence of IBV antibodies by indirect ELISA (commercial kit and titers were compared by a correlation test (alpha=0.05. There was a high correlation (r=0.62 between the two kinds of samples, which means that titers of IBV antibodies in the egg yolk and in serum samples are quite the same. Considering that blood collection causes deep stress that leads to economic losses, and since eggs are collected daily on the farm, results reported here are of importance to poultry production.

  3. Watercress Formula for Chicken Kidney Type Infectious Bronchitis%荆芥组方对鸡肾型传染性支气管炎防治效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯善祥

    2011-01-01

    We used the method of randomization and duplication of pathological model to do this research. In order to validate the effects of the compound preparation of Chinese traditional medicine to the avian infectious bronchitis, we divided the 2-week-old AA kreo-chicken into 8 groups (30 chicken for each group), including the investigational drug groups (which include the high dose group and the moderate dose group as well as the low dose group) and the following control groups: the control group of traditional Chinese medicine and the Western medicine group, the vaccine control group and the negative control group as well as the health control group. The chickens were artificially infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) to observe the protection of the compound preparation of Chinese traditional medicine. The results indicated that the compound preparation of Chinese traditional medicine has a great protection to chicken infected by (IBV). Therefore, the compound preparation of Chinese traditional medicine can be used to the prevention and cure of avian infectious bronchitis.%本试验采取随机分组,病理模型复制的方法,试验中将14日龄AA肉雏鸡240只随机分为受试药物组(高、中、低3个剂量)、中药对照组、西药对照组、疫苗对照组、阴性对照组、健康对照组共8个组,每组30只,以验证中药荆芥组方对鸡肾型传染性支气管炎的效果.将试验鸡人T感染肾型传染性支气管炎病毒(IBV),观察中药组方对雏鸡保护作用.结果表明,本组方对肾型传染性支气管炎病毒感染雏鸡具有明显的保护作用,可以用于鸡肾型传染性支气管炎的预防和治疗.

  4. Similarity of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 isolates of low virulence for chickens obtained from contaminated poultry vaccines and from poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, K. J.; Ahrens, Peter; Manvell, R.J.; Frost, K.M.; Alexander, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    At present Denmark has the status of a 'non-vaccinating' country for Newcastle disease and its poultry population should therefore be free of antibodies to avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1). Three live avian vaccines against infectious bronchitis, avian encephalomyelitis, and chick anaemia which had...

  5. A recombinant turkey herpesvirus expressing chicken interleukin-2 increases the protection provided by in ovo vaccination with infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, I; van Loon, A A; de Haas, N; Davis, P J; Orbell, S; Cavanagh, D; Britton, P; Casais, R; Sondermeijer, P; Sundick, R

    2007-12-12

    In ovo vaccination remains an attractive option for the mass application of vaccines to poultry, ensuring a uniform application of vaccine in a cost-effective manner. However, the number of vaccines that can be delivered safely by this method is limited. Several infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines can be given in ovo though most are delivered post-hatch and there are no currently licensed embryo-safe infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Reduction in the dose of vaccines given in ovo is one possibility to ensure embryo safety though efficacy can be reduced when low doses are used. We have investigated the use of embryo-safe IBDV and IBV vaccines and the effects of co-delivery of a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing bioactive chicken IL-2 (IL-2/HVT). Co-delivery of the IL-2/HVT with low doses of the IBDV or IBV vaccines significantly increased the antibody response against these viruses. In addition the protection against challenge with virulent IBDV or IBV was increased significantly. This suggests that the co-delivery of IL-2/HVT with low doses of other vaccines in ovo may be one method to increase the number of vaccines that can be given safely and efficaciously via in ovo vaccination. PMID:17996994

  6. Cloning and Sequencing of S Gene of Novel Variant of Infectious Bronchitis Virus ZJ971 Isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-yong; CHENG Li-qin; SHEN Xing-yan; DING Hong-mei; WU Jian-xiang

    2002-01-01

    A novel proventriculopathogic variant (isolate ZJ971) of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was identified from enlarged proeventriculus of the sick chickens in the study. The S gene cDNA segment with 3.6 kb in length was amplified by RT-PCR with special primers from the ZJ971 viral isolate of (IBV) and cloned into plasmid pBluescript SK( + ). The recombinants containing S gene of IBV-ZJ971 isotate were identified by digestion of restriction enzyme EcoRI, BamHI and PCR amplification. The cloned S gene from isolate IBVZJ971 was composed of 3492 bp in length encoding for a polypeptide of 1080 amino acids. Comparing the nucleotide of S gene of IBV isolate ZJ971 with that of reported IBV strains Beaudette, M41, Ark99 and CuT2,the homology was 97.3%, 97.5%, 88.6% and 85.6%, respectively; and the homology of the deduced amino acids of S protein of IBV isolate ZJ971 was 96%, 96.3%, 86.1% and 83.1% respectively; especially, the mutation of 3241st nucleotide of S gene of IBV isolate ZJ971 from G to T resulted in the translating termination of S protein at 3240th nucleotide site.

  7. The virion N protein of infectious bronchitis virus is more phosphorylated than the N protein from infected cell lysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because phosphorylation of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) nucleocapsid protein (N) may regulate its multiple roles in viral replication, the dynamics of N phosphorylation were examined. 32P-orthophosphate labeling and Western blot analyses confirmed that N was the only viral protein that was phosphorylated. Pulse labeling with 32P-orthophosphate indicated that the IBV N protein was phosphorylated in the virion, as well as at all times during infection in either chicken embryo kidney cells or Vero cells. Pulse-chase analyses followed by immunoprecipitation of IBV N proteins using rabbit anti-IBV N polyclonal antibody demonstrated that the phosphate on the N protein was stable for at least 1 h. Simultaneous labeling with 32P-orthophosphate and 3H-leucine identified a 3.5-fold increase in the 32P:3H counts per minute (cpm) ratio of N in the virion as compared to the 32P:3H cpm ratio of N in the cell lysates from chicken embryo kidney cells, whereas in Vero cells the 32P:3H cpm ratio of N from the virion was 10.5-fold greater than the 32P:3H cpm ratio of N from the cell lysates. These studies are consistent with the phosphorylation of the IBV N playing a role in assembly or maturation of the viral particle

  8. Differential detection of turkey coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus, and bovine coronavirus by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loa, C C; Lin, T L; Wu, C C; Bryan, T A; Hooper, T A; Schrader, D L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for differential detection of turkey coronavirus (TCoV), infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), and bovine coronavirus (BCoV). Primers were designed from conserved or variable regions of nucleocapsid (N) or spike (S) protein gene among TCoV, IBV, and BCoV and used in the same PCR reaction. Reverse transcription followed by the PCR reaction was used to amplify a portion of N or S gene of the corresponding coronaviruses. The PCR products were detected on agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Two PCR products, a 356-bp band corresponding to N gene and a 727-bp band corresponding to S gene, were obtained for TCoV isolates. In contrast, one PCR product of 356 bp corresponding to a fragment of N gene was obtained for IBV strains and one PCR product of 568 bp corresponding to a fragment of S gene was obtained for BCoV. There were no PCR products with the same primers for Newcastle disease virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey pox virus, pigeon pox virus, fowl pox virus, reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, enterovirus, astrovirus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Performance of the assay with serially diluted RNA demonstrated that the multiplex PCR could detect 4.8x10(-3) microg of TCoV RNA, 4.6x10(-4) microg of IBV RNA, and 8.0x10(-2) microg of BCoV RNA. These results indicated that the multiplex PCR as established in the present study is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for differential detection of TCoV, IBV, and BCoV in a single PCR reaction. PMID:16137773

  9. Bronquitis infecciosa aviar: diagnóstico y control -Avian infectious bronchitis: diagnosis and control

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Beiras, Ana María.

    2010-01-01

    ResumenLa bronquitis infecciosa aviar (BIA) es una enfermedad que ocasiona unimpacto socio-económico severo en la industria avícola mundial. Es unaenfermedad respiratoria aguda, altamente contagiosa, caracterizadaprimariamente por signos respiratorios en los pollos en crecimiento. En las ponedoras, la sintomatología respiratoria es menor pero provoca una disminución marcada en la producción y calidad del huevo. El agente etiológico de esta enfermedad es el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa av...

  10. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  11. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  12. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  13. Protection induced by infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines alone and combined with Newcastle disease virus and/or infectious bronchitis virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; García, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Zavala, Guillermo

    2010-12-01

    Two types of live attenuated vaccines have been used worldwide for the control of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV): 1) chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines; and 2) tissue culture origin vaccines (TCO). However, the disease persists in spite of extensive use of vaccination, particularly in areas of intense broiler production. Among the factors that may influence the efficiency of ILTV live attenuated vaccines is a possible interference of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines with the protection induced by ILTV vaccines. The protection induced by CEO and TCO vaccines was evaluated when administered at 14 days of age alone or in combination with the B1 type strain of NDV (B1) and/or the Arkansas (ARK) and Massachusetts (MASS) serotypes of IBV vaccines. Two weeks after vaccination (28 days of age), the chickens were challenged with a virulent ILTV field strain (63140 isolate, group V genotype). Protection was evaluated at 5 and 7 days postchallenge by scoring clinical signs and quantifying the challenge virus load in the trachea using real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, the viral load of the vaccine viruses (ILTV, NDV, and IBV) was quantified 3 and 5 days postvaccination also using qPCR. The results of this study indicate that the NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK) vaccines and a multivalent vaccine constituted by NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK and MASS) did not interfere with the protection induced by the CEO ILTV vaccine. However, the NDV (BI) and the multivalent (B1/MASS/ARK) vaccines interfered with the protection induced by the TCO vaccine (P vaccines decreased the tracheal replication of the TCO vaccine and the protection induced by this vaccine, since the ILTV-vaccinated and -challenged chickens displayed significantly more severe clinical signs and ILTV load (P vaccinated with the TCO vaccine alone. Although NDV and IBV challenges were not performed, the antibody responses elicited by NDV and/or the IBV vaccinations were significantly

  14. Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yingshun; Li, Jianan; Fu, Li; Ji, Gaosheng; Zeng, Fanya; Zhou, Long; Gao, Wenqian; Wang, Hongning

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are common viral diseases of chickens, which are caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Vaccination with live attenuated strains of IBV-H120 and NDV-LaSota are important for the control of IB and ND. However, conventional live attenuated vaccines are expensive and result in the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated chickens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new efficacious vaccines. In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases, and the generation of IBV R-H120-HN/5a provides a solid foundation for the development of an effective bivalent vaccine against IBV and NDV. PMID:26873815

  15. Psittacid Herpesvirus 1 and Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus: Comparative Genome Sequence Analysis of Two Avian Alphaherpesviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Thureen, Dean R.; Keeler, Calvin L.

    2006-01-01

    Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1) is the causative agent of Pacheco's disease, an acute, highly contagious, and potentially lethal respiratory herpesvirus infection in psittacine birds, while infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is a highly contagious and economically significant avian herpesvirus which is responsible for an acute respiratory disease limited to galliform birds. The complete genome sequence of PsHV-1 has been determined and compared to the ILTV sequence, assembled from pub...

  16. Bronquite infecciosa das galinhas: conhecimentos atuais, cepas e vacinas no Brasil Infectious bronchitis of chickens: current knowledge, strains and vaccines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Figueiredo Pitangui Mendonça

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (IB é uma doença viral aguda e altamente contagiosa que provoca grandes perdas econômicas à indústria avícola em todo o mundo. Considerando que surtos têm ocorrido no Brasil com emergência de novas variantes de IBV, desafiando as estratégias de vacinação atuais, este trabalho objetiva revisar os conhecimentos sobre IB e IBV, a sua distribuição, as cepas e as vacinas utilizadas no Brasil.Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute, highly contagious disease of chickens, caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, which results in great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide, despite the routine use of vaccines. Several outbreaks do occur periodically in densely populated poultry regions in Brazil and there are constant emergence of new variants. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about IBV and IB, the distribution, strains and vaccines in Brazil.

  17. Protection conferred by a recombinant Marek’s disease virus that expresses the spike protein from infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen-free chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaorong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, the predominant field isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV have been classified as QX-like strains since 1996. However, no commercial vaccines that are specific for this type of IBV are currently available. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel vaccines that prevent QX-like IBV infection. Results A recombinant Marek’s disease virus (MDV, rMDV-S1, that expresses the S1 subunit of the spike (S protein from the QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV was constructed by inserting the IBV S1 gene into the genome of the CVI988/Rispens strain of MDV. Specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens that were vaccinated with rMDV-S1 were protected when challenged with the QX-like IBV. They were observed to have mild clinical signs of disease, a short virus-shedding period and low mortality. Additionally, the rMDV-S1 conferred full protection to chickens against virulent MDV, as did the CVI988/Rispens strain. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rMDV-S1 is an effective and promising recombinant vaccine for the prevention of QX-like IBV infection.

  18. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  19. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages that carry air to the lungs. The swelling narrows ... makes it harder to breathe. Another symptom of bronchitis is a cough. Acute means the symptoms have ...

  20. Infectieuze bronchitis bij leghennen

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, S.

    1996-01-01

    Het Infectieuze Bronchitis Virus (IB) is een van de meest voorkomende virussen in de pluimveehouderij. Men mag rustig zeggen dat waar kippen gehouden worden, ook het IB virus voorkomt. Infecties met dit virus kunnen bij kippen van alle leeftijden ziekte m

  1. Construction and immunogenicity studies of recombinant fowl poxvirus containing the S1 gene of Massachusetts 41 strain of infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuqing; Schnitzlein, William M; Tripathy, Deoki N; Girshick, Theodore; Khan, Mazhar I

    2002-01-01

    The spike 1 (S1) surface glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the major inducer of the generation of virus neutralizing antibodies, and the administration of purified S1 has been shown to elicit a protective immune response against virulent virus challenge. On the basis of these observations, recombinant fowl poxvirus (rFPV) containing a cDNA copy of the S1 gene of IBV Mass 41 (rFPV-S1) was constructed and its immunogenicity and vaccine potential were evaluated. Initially, rFPV-S1 was shown to express the S1 in vito by indirect immunofluorescence staining and western blot analyses. Later, in vivo expression was demonstrated by the detection of IBV-specific serum immunoglobulin G and neutralization antibodies in the sera of chickens immunized with rFPV-S1. That the recombinant virus elicited anti-IBV protective immunity was indicated by the manifested, relatively mild clinical signs of disease, decreased titers of recovered challenge virus, and less severe histologic changes of the tracheas in virulent IBV Mass 41-challenged chickens previously receiving rFPV-S1 as compared with parental fowl poxvirus (FPV)-vaccinated control birds. In contrast, chickens immunized with either recombinant or parental FPV were resistant to a subsequent virulent FPV challenge. As to a preferred method of immunization, wing web administration appeared to be superior to the subcutaneous route because a greater percentage of birds vaccinated by the former protocol exhibited an anti-IBV humoral immune response. Thus, rFPV-S1 has potential as a poultry vaccine against both fowl pox and infectious bronchitis. PMID:12495043

  2. Securitization of infectious diseases in Vietnam: the cases of HIV and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    The frequent and swift emergence of new and devastating infectious diseases has brought renewed attention to health as an issue of international importance. Some states and regional organizations, including in Asia, have begun to regard infectious disease as a national and international security issue. This article seeks to examine the Vietnamese government's response to the epidemics of avian influenza and Human immunodeficiency virus. Both diseases have been recognized at different times as threats to international security and both are serious infectious disease problems in Vietnam. Yet, the character of the central government's response to these two epidemics has been starkly different. How and why this disparity in policy approaches occurs depends largely on the epidemiological, economic and political context in which they occur. Although epidemiological factors are frequently explored when discussing disease as a security issue, seldom are the political, social and economic characteristics of the state invoked. These dimensions, and their interaction with the epidemiology of the disease, are central to understanding which diseases are ultimately treated by states as security issues. In particular, the role of economic security as a powerful motivator for resistance to control measures and the role that local implementation of policies can have in disrupting the effect of central government policy are explored. In exploring both the outcomes of securitization, and its facilitating conditions, I suggest some preliminary observations on the potential costs and benefits of securitizing infectious disease and its utility as a mechanism for protecting health in Asia. PMID:20961947

  3. Psittacid Herpesvirus 1 and Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus: Comparative Genome Sequence Analysis of Two Avian Alphaherpesviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thureen, Dean R.; Keeler, Calvin L.

    2006-01-01

    Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1) is the causative agent of Pacheco's disease, an acute, highly contagious, and potentially lethal respiratory herpesvirus infection in psittacine birds, while infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is a highly contagious and economically significant avian herpesvirus which is responsible for an acute respiratory disease limited to galliform birds. The complete genome sequence of PsHV-1 has been determined and compared to the ILTV sequence, assembled from published data. The PsHV-1 and ILTV genomes exhibit similar structural characteristics and are 163,025 bp and 148,665 bp in length, respectively. The PsHV-1 genome contains 73 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), while the ILTV genome contains 77 predicted ORFs. Both genomes contain an inversion in the unique long region similar to that observed in pseudorabies virus. PsHV-1 is closely related to ILTV, and it is proposed that it be assigned to the Iltovirus genus. These two avian herpesviruses represent a phylogenetically unique clade of alphaherpesviruses that are distinct from the Marek's disease-like viruses (Mardivirus). The determination of the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of PsHV-1 and ILTV provides a tool for further comparative and functional analysis of this unique class of avian alphaherpesviruses. PMID:16873243

  4. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  5. Plastic bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar Singhi; Bharathi Vinoth; Sarah Kuruvilla; Kothandam Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its curre...

  6. What Causes Bronchitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Bronchitis? Acute Bronchitis Infections or lung irritants cause acute bronchitis. The ... fire, also may lead to acute bronchitis. Chronic Bronchitis Repeatedly breathing in fumes that irritate and damage ...

  7. Plastic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Quysner, Annie; Surani, Salim; Roberts, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is not yet well understood. There have been less than 500 reported cases in adults worldwide. This patient presented with a one month history of productive sputum consisting of bronchial casts resulting in a diagnosis of plastic bronchitis. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1):118-119.

  8. Research Regarding some Live Attenuated Vaccines Used in Immunoprophylaxis of the Avian Infectious Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Tirziu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In our research four live attenuated vaccines against avian infectious bursitis (two inland produced and two imported were tested: Biavac, Biaromvac-Pa, Gumboro Vaccine Nobilis 228e and Live Virus Vaccine Tablets Gumboro, M.B. Strain. The research was made in production conditions on 44,400 broiler chickens maintained in industrial system and raised on bedding and in batteries. The broilers were kept in four poultry houses, each of them representing an experimental group. We mention that vaccines were administered only one time. Vaccines efficiency was assessed by immunoenzymatic test. In that purpose, for each poultry house, 20 broilers were isolated and identified by a tibial ring, their immune response being followed between 5 and 42 days of age. Analyzing the results about individual antibodies titer during the experiment, the significant differences were observed both in poultries and phases. The best results were obtained using Live Virus Vaccine Tablets Gumboro, M.B. strain.

  9. Development, standardization and assessment of PCR systems for purity testing of avian viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottiger, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) requires avian viral vaccines to be free of adventitious agents. Purity testing is an essential quality requirement of immunological veterinary medicinal products (IVMPs) and testing for extraneous agents includes monitoring for many different viruses. Conventional virus detection methods include serology or virus culture, however, molecular tests have become a valid alternative testing method. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is fast, highly sensitive and has a higher degree of discrimination than conventional approaches. These advantages have led to the development and standardization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of avian leucosis virus, avian orthoreovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, influenza A virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, egg drop syndrome virus, chicken anaemia virus, avian adenovirus and avian encephalomyelitis virus. This paper reviews the development, standardization and assessment of PCR for extraneous agent testing in IVMPs with examples from an Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). PMID:20338785

  10. Eggshell apex abnormalities in a free-range hen farm with mycoplasma synoviae and infectious bronchitis virus in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FC dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A farm with 3,000 free-range hens between 24 and 65 weeks of age was investigated. These hens were separated in small flocks of 400 to 700 birds, presenting 10 to 23% egg production reduction. Twenty serum samples were collected during the period of drop in egg production and three weeks later for the investigation of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, M. gallisepticum (MG and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibodies using ELISA. At the time of the second collection, egg production had resumed to normal levels; however, with 10.23% of the eggs showed eggshell abnormalities limited to the apex. Eggshell strength was significantly different between normal and those with eggshell apex abnormalities, but not other egg-quality parameters. ELISA tests showed that MS and IBV titers increased during the evaluated period. MS infection was confirmed by culture and by PCR of tracheal swabs. All samples were negative for MG by ELISA and PCR. Further studies with larger samples to ensure the occurrence of this disease in industrial layer flocks in Brazil are under way.

  11. Bronchitis (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Wark, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Acute bronchitis, with transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi, affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.A third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  12. Ameliorative effect of a microbial feed additive on infectious bronchitis virus antibody titer and stress index in broiler chicks fed deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Böhm, J

    2012-04-01

    Although acute mycotoxicoses are rare in poultry production, chronic exposure to low levels of mycotoxins is responsible for reduced productivity and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known to modulate immune function, but only a few studies have investigated the effect of DON on the vaccinal immune response. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, an experiment with 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) was carried out to examine the effects of feeding DON-contaminated low-protein grower diets on performance, serum biochemical parameters, lymphoid organ weight, and antibody titers to infectious bronchitis vaccination in serum and to evaluate the effects of Mycofix select dietary supplementation in either the presence or absence of DON in broilers. In total, thirty-two 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control; 2) artificially contaminated diets with 10 mg of DON/kg of diet; 3) DON-contaminated diets supplemented with Mycofix select; and 4) control diet supplemented with Mycofix select. Feeding of contaminated diets decreased (P = 0.000) the feed intake, BW (P = 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.044), and feed efficiency during the grower phase. Deoxynivalenol affected the blood biochemistry, whereas plasma total protein and uric acid concentrations in birds fed contaminated grains were decreased compared with those of the controls. Moreover, in birds fed contaminated feeds, there was a tendency to reduce triglycerides in the plasma (P = 0.090), suggesting that DON in the diets affected protein and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens. The feeding of contaminated diets altered the immune response in broilers by reducing the total lymphocyte count. Similarly, the antibody response against infectious bronchitis vaccination

  13. Production of monoclonal antibodies against conserved components of infectious bronchitis virus Produção de anticorpos monoclonais contra componentes do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Souza

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Murine hybridomas producing IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs against N and S2 proteins (53KDa and 82KDa, respectively from avian infection bronchitis virus (IBV strain M41 were generated by the fusion of a myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14 with spleen cells from Balb/c mice previously immunized with whole virus IBV M41. Post-fusion screening criterion was by ELISA and 36 positive hybrids were generated after fusions. Two hybrids specific to N (N3F10 and S2 (S12B2 proteins from M41 (serotype Massachusetts were selected by western blotting. These Mabs recognized the Ark-99 (serotype Arkansas and A5968 (serotype Connecticut IBV strains in addition to M41. By ELISA, the Mab against the S2 (S12B2 recognized all reference and Brazilian strains (M41, SE-17, H52, 297, 283, PM-1, PM-2, PM-3, 351, 29-78 E 327 studied, while the Mab against N recognized only six (M41, SE-17, H52, 283, 327 e 297 strains. The Mab against S2 may become a useful tool for IBV detection on the routine diagnosis of infectious bronchitis, especially for helping the differential diagnosis of clinically and pathologically confusing diseases, while the Mab against N (N3F10 recognized a probably less conserved region among the strains and may be interesting to comparing IBV isolates.Foram produzidos anticorpos monoclonais (AcM da subclasse IgG1 contra as proteínas N (53KDa e S2 (82KDa do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (VBIG amostra M41. Os híbridos secretores originaram-se da fusão entre células de mielomas da linhagem Sp2/0-Ag14 e linfócitos B de camundongos Balb/c previamente imunizados com o vírus completo. O primeiro critério de seleção foi por ELISA, no qual 36 híbridos originados de duas fusões reagiram positivamente; destes, foram selecionados dois AcM que reagiram contra as proteínas N (N3D4 e S2 (S12B2 do VBIG da amostra M41 (sorotipo Massachusetts no western blotting. Os mesmos AcM foram também capazes de reconhecer as estirpes Ark-99 (sorotipo Arkansas

  14. Serum levels of mannan-binding lectin in chickens prior to and during experimental infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Munch, M.; Handberg, Kurt; Sørensen, P.; Johnson, A.A.; Norup, L.R.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a glycoprotein and a member of the C-type lectin super family, the collectin family, and the acute phase protein family. The MBL exerts its function by directly binding to microbial surfaces through its carbohydrate recognition domains, followed by direct opsonization...

  15. [Sequencing and Serologic Identification of S1 Genes of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses Isolated during 2012-2013 in Guangxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihua; Wu, Cuilan; Zhang, Zhipeng; He, Yining; Li, Heming; Qin, Lili; Wei, Tianchao; Mo, Meilan; Wei, Ping

    2016-01-01

    We wished to ascertain the prevalence as well as the genetic and antigenic variation of infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) circulating in the Guangxi Province of China in recent years. The S1 gene of 15 IBV field isolates during 2012-2013 underwent analyses in terms of the similarity of amino-acid sequences, creation of phylogenetic trees, recombination, and serologic identification. Similarities in amino-acid sequences among the 15 isolates of the S1 gene were 54.3%-99.6%, and 43.3%-99.3% among 15 isolates and reference strains. Compared with the vaccine strain H120, except for GX-YL130025, the other 14 isolates showed a lower similarity of amino-acid sequences of the S1 gene (65.1-81.4%). Phylogenetic analyses of the S1 gene suggested that 15 IBV isolates were classified into eight genotypes, with the predominant genotype being new-type II. Recombination analyses demonstrated that the S1 gene of the GX-NN130048 isolate originated from recombination events between vaccine strain 4/91 and a LX4-like isolate. Serotyping results suggested that seven serotypes prevailed during 2012-2013 in Guangxi Province, and that only one isolate was consistent with the vaccine strain H120 in serotype (which has been used widely in recent years). The serotype of recombinant isolate GX-NN130048 was different from those of its parent strains. These results suggested that not only the genotype, but also the serotype of IBV field isolates in Guangxi Province had distinct variations, and that increasing numbers of genotypes and serotypes are in circulation. We showed that recombination events can lead to the emergence of new serotypes. Our study provides new evidence for understanding of the molecular mechanisms of IBV variations, and the development of new vaccines against IBVs. PMID:27295885

  16. Genetic Diversity of Spike, 3a, 3b and E Genes of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses and Emergence of New Recombinants in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seon Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleotide sequences of a region including S1, S2, 3a, 3b and E genes of twenty-seven infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates in Korea between 1990–2011 were determined and phylogenetic and computational recombination analyses were conducted. The sizes of coding regions of some genes varied among IBV isolates due to deletion or insertion of nucleotides; the nucleotide similarities of S1, S2, 3a, 3b and E genes among the 27 isolates were 75.9%–100.0%, 85%–100.0%, 64.0%–100.0%, 60.4%–100.0% and 83.1%–100.0%, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene, the 27 isolates were divided into five genotypes, Mass, Korean-I (K-I, QX-like, KM91-like and New cluster 1. The phylogenetic trees based on the S2, 3a, 3b, E genes and S1-S2-3a-3b-E (S1-E region nucleotide sequences did not closely follow the clustering based on the S1 sequence. The New cluster 1 prevalent during 2009 and 2010 was not found in 2011 but QX-like viruses became prevalent in 2011. The recombination analysis revealed two new S gene recombinants, 11036 and 11052 which might have been derived from recombinations between the New cluster 1 and QX-like viruses and between the K-I and H120 (vaccine viruses, respectively. In conclusion, multiple IBV genotypes have co-circulated; QX-like viruses have recurred and new recombinants have emerged in Korea. This has enriched molecular epidemiology information of IBV and is useful for the control of IB in Korea.

  17. Analysis of similarity of the SI gene in infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates in Shanghai, China Análisis de similaridad del gen S1 de aislados del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (IBV) en Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, J. G.; H D Qian; Y. L. Zhang; Hua, X.G.; ZL, Wu

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the similarity of the SI gene in 5 novel viral strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolated in Shanghai, China, using a pair of specific primers which were designed based on the published sequences of the S gene of IBV. The 5 full-length cDNA segments of the SI gene were amplified from the 5 isolated strains with RT-PCR. It was confirmed that the nucleotide sequences of the SI gene in the 5 strains isolated from chickens and pigeon have a length of...

  18. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  19. In Ovo Delivery of CpG DNA Reduces Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Induced Mortality and Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Simrika Thapa; Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul Cader; Kalamathy Murugananthan; Eva Nagy; Shayan Sharif; Markus Czub; Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal toll-like receptor-21 and -9 sense CpG DNA activating production of pro-inflammatory mediators with antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the induction of antiviral response of in ovo delivered CpG DNA against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces ILTV infection pre-hatch correlating with the expression of IL-1β and increase of macrophages in lungs. As assessed in vitro, CpG DNA stimulated avian macro...

  20. Development of FPV140 antigen-specific ELISA differentiating fowlpox virus isolates from all other viral pathogens of avian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Hong, Q; Ren, Y; Lillehoj, H S; He, C; Ren, X

    2012-10-01

    The FPV140 gene encodes an envelope protein of fowlpox virus (FPV). In this study, the FPV140 gene of FPV Chinese isolate HH2008 was cloned and the comparison of its sequence with other FPV isolates showed it to be highly conserved across all FPV isolates. A recombinant plasmid pET-FPV140 carrying FPV140 gene was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli. The optimal expression condition for the FPV140 gene was developed and purified FPV140 recombinant protein was used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibody. An indirect ELISA using this anti-FPV140 polyclonal antibody was capable of distinguishing avian FPV isolates from other common avian pathogens such as mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus. This ELISA will serve as a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of FPV in clinical samples. PMID:22991535

  1. Serosurvey for selected infectious agents in two sympatric species of cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps and Phalacrocorax magellanicus) from coastal Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luciana; Quintana, Flavio; Uhart, Marcela

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a serologic survey for selected infectious agents on two sympatric cormorants, the Imperial Cormorant (Phalacrocorax atriceps) and the Rock Shag (Phalacrocorax magellanicus). Blood was collected from 267 Imperial Cormorants and 106 Rock Shags at 17 colonies along the Patagonia Atlantic shore during nine breeding seasons (1994, 1999-2001-2005-2008-2010). Antibodies to four pathogens were common to both species and frequently observed: avian paramyxovirus type 1 (56% of Imperial Cormorants and 56% of Rock Shags); avian adenovirus (67% of Imperial Cormorants and 40% of Rock Shags); infectious bronchitis virus serotypes IBV-41, IBV-46, IBV-99, and IBV-JMK (53% of Imperial Cormorants and 64% of Rock Shags); and Salmonella pullorum (18% of Imperial Cormorants and 7% of Rock Shags). Antibody prevalence for these pathogens varied significantly between species, except for avian paramyxovirus type 1. Exposure to avian paramyxovirus type 1 and all serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus varied significantly among seasons in both species. In contrast, the sporadic occurrence of positive titers suggest that cormorants had occasional exposure to Aspergillus spp. (3% of Rock Shags, only in 2000), avian paramyxovirus type 3 (5% of Rock Shags, only in 2008), Chlamydophila spp. (1% of Imperial Cormorants, only in 2010), and avian reovirus (1% of Rock Shags, only in 1999; 29% of Imperial Cormorants, in 2008 and 2010). Both species were antibody negative for avian encephalomyelitis virus, avian influenza virus, avian laryngotracheitis virus, avian paramyxovirus type 2, and infectious bursal disease virus. We provide the first information on pathogen exposure, indicated by detection of antibody in blood samples, for two sympatric species of South Atlantic cormorants. To determine major causes of morbidity and mortality in these birds future efforts should focus on necropsy surveys in cormorant colonies. PMID:23778597

  2. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Disease Lookup > Acute Bronchitis Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis It is important to get your questions about ... Symptoms that last a few weeks How Is Acute Bronchitis Diagnosed? Healthcare providers diagnose acute bronchitis by asking ...

  3. How Is Bronchitis Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms and make breathing easier. If you have acute bronchitis, your doctor may recommend rest, plenty of fluids, ... treat fever. Antibiotics usually aren't prescribed for acute bronchitis. This is because they don't work against ...

  4. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of avian leukosis virus p27 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bingling; Li, Delong; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Wen; Qin, Liting; Liu, Zaisi; Wu, Guan; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2013-02-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against p27 was developed for the detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV). The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A), avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Fowlpox virus (FPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and Escherichia coli. The only specimens that yielded a strong signal were ALV-J, ALV-A and ALV-B, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of ALV. The limit of detection of this assay was 1.25 ng/ml of rp27 protein and 10(1.79)TCID(50) units of HLJ09MDJ-1 (ALV-J). Moreover, this AC-ELISA can detect ALV in cloacal swabs of chickens experimentally infected as early as 12 days post-infection. The AC-ELISA detected the virus in the albumin and cloacal swabs of naturally infected chickens, and the results were confirmed by PCR, indicating that the AC-ELISA was a suitable method for the detection of ALV. This test is rapid and sensitive and could be convenient for epidemiological studies and eradication programs. PMID:23201286

  5. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  6. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Mary H; Kelly, Terra R; Rideout, Bruce A; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  7. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H Straub

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus, turkey vulture (Cathartes aura and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos. California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats.

  8. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms, but since not all smokers develop chronic bronchitis and since chronic bronchitis is also diagnosed in never-smokers, it has been suggested that some individuals are more susceptible to develop chronic...... bronchitis due to genetics. OBJECTIVE: To study the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in the susceptibility to chronic bronchitis. METHODS: In a population-based questionnaire study of 13,649 twins, 50-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we calculated sex......-specific concordance rates and heritability of chronic bronchitis. The response rate was 75%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 9.3% among men and 8.5% among women. The concordance rate for chronic bronchitis was higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins among women; 0.30 vs. 0.17, but not...

  9. Lack of evidence that avian oncogenic viruses are infectious for humans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, Karel A; Erb, Hollis N

    2014-09-01

    Chickens may be infected with three different oncogenic viruses: avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and Marek's disease herpesvirus (MDV). Several epidemiological studies have suggested a link between these viruses and different types of cancer in people working in poultry processing plants and with multiple sclerosis. In this article, we analyze the epidemiological evidence that these viruses are causative agents for human cancer, followed by description of the relevant key characteristics of ALV, REV, and MDV. Finally, we discuss the biological evidence or lack thereof that avian tumor viruses are involved in the etiology of human cancer and multiple sclerosis (MS). The recent primary epidemiologic articles that we reviewed as examples were only hypothesis-generating studies examining massive numbers of risk factors for associations with various imprecise, non-viral-specific outcomes. The studies lacked precise evidence of exposure to the relevant viruses and the statistical methods failed to adjust for the large risks of false-positive claims. ALV subgroups A-D and J have been eradicated in the United States from the pure lines down to the parent stocks by the breeder companies, which have greatly reduced the incidence of infection in layer flocks and broilers. As a consequence, potential exposure of humans to these viruses has greatly diminished. Infection of humans working in processing plants with ALV-A and ALV-B is unlikely, because broilers are generally resistant to infection with these two subgroups. Moreover, these viruses enter cells by specific receptors present on chicken, but not on mammalian, cells. Infection of mammalian cell cultures or animals with ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-J has not been reported. Moreover, humans vaccinated with exogenous or endogenous ALV-contaminated vaccines against yellow fever, measles, and mumps did not become antibody- or virus-positive for ALV. The risks for human infection with REV are similarly

  10. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Avian Poxvirus (APV) in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Freitas Nunes; Fabiane Fonseca; Alice Teixeira Meirelles Leite; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Paula Fonseca Finger; Clarissa Caetano Castro; Geferson Fischer; Gilberto D'Avila Vargas; Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian poxvirus (APV) in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELI...

  11. In Ovo Delivery of CpG DNA Reduces Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Induced Mortality and Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simrika Thapa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Endosomal toll-like receptor-21 and -9 sense CpG DNA activating production of pro-inflammatory mediators with antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the induction of antiviral response of in ovo delivered CpG DNA against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV infection. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces ILTV infection pre-hatch correlating with the expression of IL-1β and increase of macrophages in lungs. As assessed in vitro, CpG DNA stimulated avian macrophages could be a potential source of IL-1β and other pro-inflammatory mediators. Since we also found that in ovo CpG DNA delivery maintains increased macrophages in the lungs post-hatch, we infected the chickens on the day of hatch with ILTV. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces mortality and morbidity resulting from ILTV infection encountered post-hatch. Thus, CpG DNA can be a candidate innate immune stimulant worthy of further investigation for the control of ILTV infection in chickens.

  12. In ovo delivery of CpG DNA reduces avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus induced mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Simrika; Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul; Murugananthan, Kalamathy; Nagy, Eva; Sharif, Shayan; Czub, Markus; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2015-04-01

    Endosomal toll-like receptor-21 and -9 sense CpG DNA activating production of pro-inflammatory mediators with antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the induction of antiviral response of in ovo delivered CpG DNA against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces ILTV infection pre-hatch correlating with the expression of IL-1β and increase of macrophages in lungs. As assessed in vitro, CpG DNA stimulated avian macrophages could be a potential source of IL-1β and other pro-inflammatory mediators. Since we also found that in ovo CpG DNA delivery maintains increased macrophages in the lungs post-hatch, we infected the chickens on the day of hatch with ILTV. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces mortality and morbidity resulting from ILTV infection encountered post-hatch. Thus, CpG DNA can be a candidate innate immune stimulant worthy of further investigation for the control of ILTV infection in chickens. PMID:25856635

  13. Bronchitis and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the difference between bronchitis and pneumonia? Bronchitis is most often a bacte- rial or viral infection that causes swelling of the tubes (bronchioles) leading to the lungs. Pneumonia is an acute or chronic disease marked by inflammation of the ...

  14. Identification and functional analysis of the small membrane-associated protein pUL11 of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Walter; Granzow, Harald; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2012-02-01

    pUL11 is a highly conserved, small, acylated, membrane-associated tegument protein of herpesviruses. It is involved in final envelopment of nascent virions in the cytoplasm, although the precise mechanism is still unknown. By screening of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) raised against purified particles of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) of chickens (Veits et al., 2003a), we identified two mAb recognizing the 15 kDa UL11 protein (pUL11) of this avian alphaherpesvirus. These mAb permitted detection and precise localization of pUL11 in mature ILT virions, as well as in the cytoplasm of infected chicken cells by Western blot analyses, indirect immunofluorescence tests, and immunoelectron microscopy. For investigation of gene function UL11-deleted ILTV recombinants were generated. Like its homologues in several other alphaherpesviruses, ILTV-pUL11 was shown to be nonessential for productive virus replication. However, compared to wild-type and UL11 rescued ILTV the deletion mutants exhibited significantly reduced virus yields and moderately impaired spread in cell culture. In the absence of pUL11, electron microscopy of infected cells revealed accumulations of tegument proteins with nucleocapsids, and marked distortions of Golgi membranes in the cytoplasm, which obviously inhibited the formation of mature, enveloped virus particles. Taken together, our results demonstrate that pUL11 is relevant for secondary envelopment of ILTV, and confirm functional conservation of this protein in herpesviruses. The now available unique pUL11-specific mAb will help to further analyze this function, which is presumably mediated by physical interactions with other viral gene products, in cultured cells and in the natural animal host of ILTV. PMID:22226986

  15. Simultaneous typing of nine avian respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyzer-based multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixun; Luo, Sisi; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Khan, Mazhar I

    2014-10-01

    A new, rapid, and high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyzer-based multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. The respiratory pathogens included in this study were avian influenza subtypes H5, H7, and H9, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG). Ten pairs of primers were designed using conserved and specific sequence genes of AIV subtypes and respiratory pathogens from GenBank. Single and mixed pathogen cDNA/DNA templates were used to evaluate the specificity of the GeXP-multiplex assay. The corresponding specific DNA products were amplified for each pathogen. The specific DNA product amplification peaks of nine respiratory pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyzer. Non-respiratory avian pathogens, including chicken infectious anemia virus, fowl adenovirus, avian reovirus and infectious bursal disease virus, did not produce DNA products. The detection limit for the GeXP-multiplex assay was determined to be 100 copies/μl using various pre-mixed plasmids/ssRNAs containing known target genes of the respiratory pathogens. Further, GeXP-multiplex PCR assay was 100% specific when 24 clinical samples with respiratory infections were tested in comparison with conventional PCR method. The GeXP-multiplex PCR assay provides a novel tool for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. PMID:25025815

  16. The classification of avian infectious bronchitis field isolates in Henan province%河南IBV肾变型地方分离株的分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽霖; 王宪文; 席瑞珍; 李建丽; 李华民

    2004-01-01

    在气管环上进行交叉中和试验,结果显示河南分离的肾变型宜毒株与除T株以外的其余标准血清型毒株(M41、Holte、Arka、Conn、Gray)均有不同程度的交叉,但与Ark株相关性最大,为25%.将除Holte株以外的5株标准株和宜株的0.6kb扩增产物,用三种限制性内切酶AluⅠ、TaqⅠ和AfaⅠ进行酶切,RFLP分析可分为三种模式,宜株与Ark株、Gray株、CoNn株属同一模式,AluⅠ和AfaⅠ酶切阳性而TaqⅠ酶切阴性.另AluⅠ、TaqⅠ、AfaⅠ酶切均阳性的M41模式和TaqⅠ、AfaⅠ酶切阳性而AluⅠ酶切阴性的T株模式.将地方株宜株的0.6kb扩增片段进行测序并与标准株Ark株、Gray株、Conn株、Holte株和M41株的相应序列进行分析比较,核苷酸、氨基酸同源性的分析显示,宜毒株与同一酶切类型的Ark-1529-29株同源性最高,核苷酸同源性为93%,氨基酸同源性为91.6%.推测宜株可能是Ark血清型毒株的变异株.宜株与Ark株在血清学分型与基因分型上的一致性,表明这两种分型方法之间有一定的内在联系.

  17. Productive replication of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus in peripheral blood monocytic cells, a strategy for viral dissemination and kidney infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Trus, Ivan; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Li, Yewei; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the replication kinetics of nephropathogenic (B1648) and respiratory (Massachusetts-M41) IBV strains were compared in vitro in respiratory mucosa explants and blood monocytes (KUL01(+) cells), and in vivo in chickens to understand why some IBV strains have a kidney tropism. B1648 was replicating somewhat better than M41 in the epithelium of the respiratory mucosa explants and used more KUL01(+) cells to penetrate the deeper layers of the respiratory tract. B1648 was productively replicating in KUL01(+) monocytic cells in contrast with M41. In B1648 inoculated animals, 10(2.7-6.8) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 days post inoculation (dpi), 10(2.4-4.5) viral RNA copies/mL in plasma at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 dpi and 10(1.8-4.4) viral RNA copies/10(6) mononuclear cells in blood at 2, 4, 6 and 8 dpi. In M41 inoculated animals, 10(2.6-7.0) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dpi, but viral RNA was not demonstrated in plasma and mononuclear cells (except in one chicken at 6 dpi). Infectious virus was detected only in plasma and mononuclear cells of the B1648 group. At euthanasia (12 dpi), viral RNA and antigen positive cells were detected in lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys of only the B1648 group and in tracheas of both the B1648 and M41 group. In conclusion, only B1648 can easily disseminate to internal organs via a cell-free and -associated viremia with KUL01(+) cells as important carrier cells. PMID:27412035

  18. 中药防治鸡传染性支气管炎存在的问题及对策%Problems in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Bronchitis with Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Counter Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 陈炅然; 郭天芬; 李宏胜; 杨峰; 胡广胜; 周绪正; 牛建荣

    2012-01-01

      The infectious bronchitis(IB)vaccines lack of cross immunity or have no cross immunity,and there is no specific drug for IB cases. Some traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)has virucidal effect,can adjust the immune function,has nonspecific antiviral function,and has good results and unique advantages compared with Western medicine in clinical prevention and treatment of IB. This paper is focused on the problems in research and development of TCM to control IB and discuss the research thinking and way,and suggests that the simple clinical validation for draft prescription should be avoided,the pharmacodynamics,pharmacology, pharmacokinetics,toxicology,TCM chemistry and mechanism should be studied in-depth way,and it is necessary to have strict scientific test design and test data,in order to further improve and expand the application of TCM in the prevention and treatment on livestock and poultry infectious diseases.%  鸡传染性支气管炎(IB)疫苗缺乏交叉免疫或完全无交叉免疫,发病后无特效药物治疗。有些中药具有抑杀病毒的作用,且能调节机体的免疫功能,具有非特异性的抗病毒功能,用于鸡IB的临床防治收效甚好,所用方剂与西药相比具有独特的优势。本文针对研发防治鸡传支中药存在的主要问题,探讨了研究的思路和途径,应避免仅对草拟方剂做简单的临床验证,需要对中药方剂的药效学、药理学、药代动力学、毒理学、中药化学及作用机理做深入研究,以及科学严谨的试验设计支持,大量试验数据证明,以期进一步完善并扩大中药在防治畜禽传染性疾病上的应用。

  19. Induction of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in avian macrophages inhibits infectious laryngotracheitis virus replication in a nitric oxide dependent way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Siamak; Kim, Dae-Sun; Jasmine, Hui; van der Meer, Frank; Czub, Markus; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2013-10-01

    LPS is one of the pathogen associated molecular patterns that activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway eliciting antiviral host responses in mammals although information on such responses in avian species is scarce. Our objectives were to characterize the LPS induced innate responses particularly the expression of LPS receptors (TLR4, CD14) in avian macrophages and observe whether TLR4 mediated induction of NO can elicit antiviral response against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) replication. We found that LPS was capable of inducing the expression of TLR4, CD14 and NO production but not the type 1 interferons in an avian macrophage cell line, MQ-NCSU. We also showed that TLR4 mediated NO production can lead to antiviral response against ILTV replication when MQ-NCSU cells were treated with LPS and the resultant supernatant was then transferred to ILTV replicating cells to assess antiviral activity. Antiviral activity of NO was blocked by a selective inhibitor, S-methylisothiourea sulfate that inhibits inducible NO synthase. This observation confirms that the antiviral activity is positively correlated with NO production. The data show that LPS can be a potential innate immune stimulant that can be used against ILTV infection in chickens that require further evaluation in vivo. PMID:24034933

  20. Afinidades antigênicas de amostras de campo do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas com a amostra Massachusetts M41 Antigenic affinities of infectious bronchitis virus field isolates to Massachusetts M41 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Souza

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as afinidades antigênicas entre 14 amostras de vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (VBIG isoladas de casos clínicos ocorridos entre 1972 e 1989 no Estado de Minas Gerais, sua reatividade frente a dois anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs específicos contra a glicoproteína S1 do sorotipo Massachusetts de VBIG foi examinada em ELISA. As 14 amostras de campo estudadas foram agrupadas, de acordo com o relacionamento antigênico aos AcMs, em relacionadas (três amostras e não relacionadas (onze amostras à amostra M41 do sorotipo Massachusetts. As amostras de campo não reconhecidas, considerando a alta especificidade dos AcMs à amostra M41, compõem uma diversidade que pode variar de integrantes do sorotipo Massachusetts de origem vacinal a sorotipos heterólogos. Amostras com afinidade antigênica à M41 (208-1972, PM1-1987 e PM2-1987 foram detectadas, o que configura a preservação da amostra no campo, apesar da alta variabilidade da glicoproteína S1, já que foram isoladas de surtos de doença natural nas regiões de avicultura de Minas Gerais. A detecção de antígenos de alta variabilidade que caracterizam a amostra M41, apesar das pressões da imunidade dos plantéis e da mutabilidade, pode indicar que os antígenos de alta afinidade aos receptores celulares (best fit que atingiram alto estágio evolutivo podem estar sendo preservados.Aiming to the evaluation of antigenic relationships among isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV through their reactivity against Massachusetts M41 S1 glycopolypeptide specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab an ELISA was developed. Fourteen IBV isolates obtained from field cases of disease, reported from 1972 to 1989 in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The IBV isolates could be grouped into related or not to M41, based on the reactivity to M41 S1 specific Mabs. The unrecognized field isolates conform a diversity of representatives, which may range from Massachusetts

  1. Pre-validation study for testing of avian viral vaccines for extraneous agents by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, L; Ottiger, H P

    2007-12-01

    The biological nature of vaccines imposes a permanent risk for contamination with extraneous agents. Therefore, testing of vaccines for freedom from extraneous agents is essential in the manufacturing process and quality control. Relevant methods for testing for extraneous agents of avian viral vaccines are specified in the monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). Currently, most of these methods involve the use of embryonated eggs or chickens. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a widely used and suitable tool for the amplification and detection of extraneous nucleic acids. Different PCR assays have been developed for the application in routine testing of veterinary vaccines. However, before introduction of new methods in monographs of the Ph. Eur., they must undergo validation. Here we report about a pre-validation study performed in Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs). Diluted samples of avian infectious laryngotracheitis, avian infectious bronchitis and avian infectious bursal disease viruses have been analysed using standardised procedures and reagents. The study demonstrated that PCR methods can be transferred to other laboratories. The results also show that further work is warranted for full validation of the method. PMID:18413134

  2. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after ... and the production of thick yellow mucus. If acute bronchitis occurs because of a bacterial infection antibiotics are ...

  3. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV and Avian Poxvirus (APV in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Freitas Nunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.

  4. Analysis of similarity of the SI gene in infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates in Shanghai, China Análisis de similaridad del gen S1 de aislados del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (IBV en Shanghai, China

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    J G Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the similarity of the SI gene in 5 novel viral strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolated in Shanghai, China, using a pair of specific primers which were designed based on the published sequences of the S gene of IBV. The 5 full-length cDNA segments of the SI gene were amplified from the 5 isolated strains with RT-PCR. It was confirmed that the nucleotide sequences of the SI gene in the 5 strains isolated from chickens and pigeon have a length of 1626 bp and encode 541 amino acid residues. Compared to the sequence of selected reference IBV strains published in GenBank, the 4 strains from chickens exhibited 77.4%-82.9% identity in the SI gene sequence, with the deduced similarity of the protein sequence being 74.7%-82.6%, while the strain from pigeon exhibited 79.3%-99.6% similarity in the SI gene sequence, with a deduced identity of the protein sequence of 81.6%-99.6%. The SI protein cleavage site sequence of these isolates contains 5 consecutive basic amino acids, named, Arg-Arg-Phe-Arg-Arg (RRFRR similar to most of IBV strains. The results indicated that the variability range of the SI gene structure is high, corresponding with the biological character of IBV, and that molecularly the five isolated strains from Shanghai have a close relationship with the IBV reference strains. It was concluded that the five isolated strains belong to IBV, even though one of them was isolated from pigeonsEl objetivo del estudio fue analizar la similaridad del gen SI de 5 nuevas cepas virales del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (IBV aislado en Shangai, China, para lo cual se usaron un par de partidores específicos, los cuales fueron designados en base a las secuencias publicadas del gen S del IBV. Los 5 segmentos completos de cDNA del gen SI fueron amplificados de las 5 cepas aisladas con RT-PCR. Se pudo confirmar que las secuencias de nucleótidos de genes SI en las 5 cepas aisladas de gallinas y palomas tienen

  5. Practical application of nucleic acid techniques to avian disease problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, H G

    1989-01-01

    A workshop in which 17 practicing scientists participated was intended to address primarily people who use or could use biotechnology in their work and was confined to five techniques. Endonuclease fingerprinting and mapping involved cleaving nucleic acid with a specific restriction enzyme and separating the nucleic acid fragments by electrophoresis. Field and vaccine isolates of Pasteurella multocida could be distinguished; Salmonella enteritidis could be divided into three groups; chlamydia could be grouped into seven groups; and vaccinia, quail pox, and fowl pox could be clearly distinguished. Preparation of nucleic acid probes involved producing large amounts of labeled oligonucleotides, usually of unknown sequence. Successful probes had been made for infectious bursal disease virus, avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus. In Southern, Northern, and dot blotting, either DNA or RNA fragments were placed on or transferred to a solid substrate and probed. The procedure was able to detect infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Marek's disease virus. In situ hybridization involved applying a labeled probe to frozen or fixed sections or to intact cells. In Polymerase chain reaction, two primers, some distance apart, were annealed to a denatured target DNA. Repeated cycles of DNA synthesis with a thermostable polymerase, denaturing, and reannealing resulted in great amplification of a rare sequence. After 30 cycles, a rare gene sequence could be amplified more than 10(6) times. It was used successfully to detect minute quantities of influenza virus and infectious bursal disease virus, and the process was used to facilitate DNA sequencing of coccidiosis gene segments. PMID:2559697

  6. Survey of infectious laryngotracheitis outbreak in layer hens and differential diagnosis with other respiratory pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLV Chacón

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Trachea, lung, and conjunctive samples from 51 commercial layer farms from Bastos region, São Paulo, Brazil, were submitted to nested-PCR and virus isolation in SPF chicken embryos for ILT diagnosis. This region experienced an outbreak characterized by respiratory signs, decrease in egg production and increased mortality. Out of the 51 tested field samples, 23 were positive for ILT by nested-PCR, 22 were positive after the virus isolation, and 24 were positive when both techniques were used. Newcastle disease virus, Avian pneumovirus, or Mycoplasma gallisepticum were not detected. Infectious bronchitis virus was detected in one farm and Mycoplasma synoviae was detected in eight farms. The high incidence of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV detection, the high correlation between the observed clinical signs and the ILTV detection, and the results of differential diagnosis demonstrated that ILTV was the causative agent of the outbreak of respiratory disease observed in Bastos region, São Paulo, Brazil.

  7. Therapeutic Effect of Budesonide Inhalation on Acute Infectious Laryngitis and Bronchitis%布地奈德吸入治疗急性喉炎、喉气管支气管炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明达

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析探讨布地奈德吸入治疗急性喉炎、喉气管支气管炎症的临床效果。方法选取88例患有急性喉炎、喉气管支气管炎的患者作为研究对象,将其随机分成对照组和观察组,每组44例患者。对照组患者采用地塞米松静脉注射进行治疗,观察者则采取布地奈德雾化吸入进行治疗;治疗结束后,对比两组患者的治疗效果。结果采取布地奈德雾化吸入治疗的观察组患者在治疗效果及症状缓解上明显优于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论采用布地奈德雾化吸入治疗急性喉炎、喉气管支气管炎具有显著的治疗效果,患者症状能够得到迅速恢复。%Objective To explore the clinical effect analysis of budesonide inhalation in the treatment of acute laryngitis, bronchitis disease. Methods 88 cases with acute laryngitis, bronchitis of children as the research object, and were randomly separated into the observation group and the control group, 44 cases in each group of patients. The control group was treated with intravenous dexamethasone treatment, observers take budesonide inhalation treatment,in the end of the treatment, compared two groups of patients with treatment effect.Results Take budesonide atomization inhalation treatment observation group patients in the treatment and remission of symptoms signiifcantly better than the control group,P<0.05,with significant difference.Conclusion Inhalation in the treatment of acute laryngitis, bronchitis has signiifcant therapeutic effect of budesonide in children with symptoms, can be quickly restored.

  8. Detection of wild- and vaccine-type avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in clinical samples and feather shafts of commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Irit; Nagar, Sagit; Ribshtein, Israel; Shkoda, Irena; Perk, Shimon; Garcia, Maricarmen

    2009-12-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus (ILTV). To evaluate differential detection of ILTVs belonging to the two types, wild-type or vaccine-type, both causing clinical signs, five PCRs were evaluated to detect wild-type and vaccine-type ILTV in clinical samples. By directly sampling the organs, we aimed to avoid changes in the virus genome and to facilitate a fast diagnosis. The samples were tracheal and spleen homogenates and feather shafts. The latter are easy to collect, nonlethal for the bird, and advantageous for monitoring purposes. We investigated the time interval for vaccine virus detection following commercial vaccination by the vent application, which is successfully practiced in Israel. The study indicated that ILTV amplification from feather shafts was possible in clinical cases for about a one-month period after vaccination. Vaccine strains were identified by nested PCR for the ILTV-gE gene and differed from wild-type ILTV strains by two criteria: (1) While avirulent vaccines could be detected for about a month after the vent application, wild-type virus could be detected, in conjunction with clinical signs, for an unlimited time period; and (2) The ILTV vaccine was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. We assessed the virus type that appeared in conjunction with the clinical signs and determined that the clinical signs appeared in conjunction with both molecular forms of ILTV. The vaccine virus-type and the wild-type ILTV differed by their distinct restriction pattern when using the HaeIII restriction enzyme digestion of the nested amplification product. PMID:20095166

  9. Live vaccination with an H5-hemagglutinin-expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinant protects chickens against different highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sophia P; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2009-08-13

    Recently, we described an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1) recombinant, which had been attenuated by deletion of the viral dUTPase gene UL50, and abundantly expressed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a H5N1 type highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of Vietnamese origin. In the present study, efficacy of this vectored vaccine (ILTV-DeltaUL50IH5V) against different H5 HPAIV was evaluated in 6-week-old chickens. After a single ocular immunization all animals developed HA-specific antibodies, and were protected against lethal infection not only with the homologous HPAIV isolate A/duck/Vietnam/TG24-01/2005 (H5N1, clade 1, hemagglutinin amino acid sequence identity 100%), but also with heterologous HPAIV A/swan/Germany/R65/2006 (H5N1, clade 2.2, identity 96.1%) or HPAIV A/chicken/Italy/8/98 (H5N2, identity 93.8%). No symptoms of disease were observed after challenge with the H5N1 viruses, and only 20% of H5N2 challenged animals developed minimal clinical signs. Real-time RT-PCR analyses of oropharyngeal swabs revealed limited challenge virus replication, but the almost complete absence of HPAIV RNA from cloacal swabs indicated that no generalized infections occurred. Thus, unlike several previous vectors, ILTV-DeltaUL50IH5V was able to protect chickens against different HPAIV isolates of the H5 subtype. Vaccination with HA-expressing ILTV also allowed differentiation of immunized from AIV-infected animals by serological tests for antibodies against influenza virus nucleoprotein. PMID:19573638

  10. The UL47 gene of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus is not essential for in vitro replication but is relevant for virulence in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helferich, Dorothee; Veits, Jutta; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2007-03-01

    The genome of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) exhibits several differences from those of other avian and mammalian alphaherpesviruses. One of them is the translocation of the conserved UL47 gene from the unique long (UL) to the unique short (US) genome region, where UL47 is inserted upstream of the US4 gene homologue. As in other alphaherpesviruses, UL47 encodes a major tegument protein of ILTV particles, whereas the US4 gene product is a non-structural glycoprotein, gG, which is secreted from infected cells. For functional characterization, an ILTV recombinant was isolated in which US4 together with the 3'-terminal part of UL47 was replaced by a reporter gene cassette encoding green fluorescent protein. From this virus, UL47 and US4 single-gene deletion mutants without foreign sequences were derived and virus revertants were also generated. In vitro studies revealed that both genes were non-essential for ILTV replication in cultured cells. Whereas US4-negative ILTV exhibited no detectable growth defects, maximum virus titres of the double deletion mutant and of UL47-negative ILTV were reduced about 10-fold compared with those of wild-type virus and rescued virus. Experimental infection of chickens demonstrated that UL47-negative ILTV was significantly attenuated in vivo and was shed in reduced amounts, whereas wild-type and rescued viruses caused severe disease and high mortality rates. As all immunized animals were protected against subsequent challenge infection with virulent ILTV, the UL47 deletion mutant might be suitable as a live-virus vaccine. PMID:17325345

  11. Detecção molecular de vírus da bronquite infecciosa em plantéis de avós, matrizes e frangos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul e Mato Grosso Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis virus in flocks of grandmothers, mothers and broiler chicken in Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa das galinhas (VBI pertence ao grupo 3 da família Coronaviridae e é o causador de desordens respiratórias e renais em frangos de corte. A vacinação com vacinas vivas é praticada em matrizes e avós e muitas vezes também nos plantéis destinados ao abate. As vacinas utilizadas no Brasil são usualmente do sorogrupo Massachusetts e baseadas nas amostras H120 e H52. É comum que após a vacinação o vírus vacinal seja detectado por isolamento em ovos embrionados ou por métodos moleculares por até 4 semanas. Após essa data, normalmente, não há detecção de vírus e o VBI, quando encontrado, pode representar recirculação do vírus vacinal no plantel ou a introdução de uma nova cepa do vírus. No presente estudo, para avaliar a circulação do vírus em plantéis de frangos e reprodutoras nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Mato Grosso do Sul, foram coletadas 240 traqueias e rins de aves de 48 plantéis, sendo (20 exemplares/4 plantéis de avós, (80 exemplares/16 plantéis de matrizes e (140 exemplares/28 plantéis de frangos de corte, as quais foram analisadas em misturas de cinco amostras. Todos os animais eram vacinados e as amostras foram coletadas ao redor de 2 a 48 semanas após a vacinação. A presença de VBI foi determinada com auxílio de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase tipo nested, direcionada ao gene da proteína S1, padronizada neste estudo. Das 48 amostras testadas, 14 resultaram positivas: cinco foram oriundas de aves vacinadas há menos de quatro semanas na data da coleta e nove eram de amostras de aves vacinadas há mais de quatro semanas, o que pode ser devido à recirculação do vírus vacinal ou mesmo introdução de vírus selvagem nos plantéis.Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, Avian Coronavirus from chickens belongs to group 3 of the family Coronaviridae and causes respiratory and renal disorders in broilers. Vaccination using live vaccines is generally performed in

  12. Clinical Features of Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Jae Hak; Park, Sang Joon; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, June Hyuk; Kim, Do Jin; Uh, Soo Taek; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2002-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic inflammation of the airway is usually associated with airway hyper-responsiveness in bronchial asthma. However, there is a small group of patients which has the eosinophilic inflammation in the bronchial tree with normal spirometry and no evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness, which was named eosinophilic bronchitis. The objectives of this study are 1) to investigate the incidence of eosinophilic bronchitis in the chronic cough syndrome and 2) to evaluate the clinica...

  13. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis? Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis caused by an infection usually develops after you ... nose, vomiting, and diarrhea. The main symptom of acute bronchitis is a persistent cough , which may last 10 ...

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11901-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M41, complete ... 46 5.0 1 ( AY851295 ) Avian infectious bronchitis virus strain ...Mass 41,... 46 5.0 1 ( AY641576 ) Avian infectious bronchitis virus isolate Peafowl... 46 5.0 1 ( AY514485 )

  15. Plastic Bronchitis in an Adult with Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jaehee

    2012-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare disease characterized by marked airway obstruction, via the formation of large gelatinous or rigid airway cast. In Korea, there were a few case reports with plastic bronchitis not in adults, but in children. So we report a case of an adult who was diagnosed as plastic bronchitis with eosinophilic casts, with no history of atopic and cardiac disease.

  16. Infectious and lethal doses of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus for house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columbia livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrestrial wild birds commonly associated with poultry farms have the potential to contribute to the spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus within or between poultry facilities or between domesticated and wild bird populations. This potential, however, varies between species and is...

  17. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Bronchitis (Chest Cold)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Bronchitis (Chest Cold) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... types—acute bronchitis. Causes Acute bronchitis, or chest cold, often occurs after an upper respiratory infection like ...

  18. Homologous and nonhomologous retroviral recombinations are both involved in the transfer by infectious particles of defective avian leukosis virus-derived transcomplementing genomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Girod, A.; Drynda, A; Cosset, F L; Verdier, G; Ronfort, C.

    1996-01-01

    We previously described avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell lines that produce stocks of retroviral vectors in which replication-competent viruses were not detectable. However, following infection of target cells with these retroviral stocks, we recently obtained colonies resulting from the transmission of recombinant genomes. Here, we have analyzed their genetic structure and shown that (i) each of them results from recombination between the packaging- and integration-defective transco...

  19. Protection of chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection by live vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing H5 hemagglutinin and N1 neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sophia P; Veits, Jutta; Keil, Günther M; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2009-01-29

    Attenuated vaccine strains of the alphaherpesvirus causing infectious laryngotracheitis of chickens (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1) can be used for mass application. Previously, we showed that live virus vaccination with recombinant ILTV expressing hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) protected chickens against ILT and fowl plague caused by HPAIV carrying the corresponding hemagglutinin subtypes [Lüschow D, Werner O, Mettenleiter TC, Fuchs W. Protection of chickens from lethal avian influenza A virus infection by live-virus vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (H5) gene. Vaccine 2001;19(30):4249-59; Veits J, Lüschow D, Kindermann K, Werner O, Teifke JP, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Deletion of the non-essential UL0 gene of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus leads to attenuation in chickens, and UL0 mutants expressing influenza virus haemagglutinin (H7) protect against ILT and fowl plague. J Gen Virol 2003;84(12):3343-52]. However, protection against H5N1 HPAIV was not satisfactory. Therefore, a newly designed dUTPase-negative ILTV vector was used for rapid insertion of the H5-hemagglutinin, or N1-neuraminidase genes of a recent H5N1 HPAIV isolate. Compared to our previous constructs, protein expression was considerably enhanced by insertion of synthetic introns downstream of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter within the 5'-nontranslated region of the transgenes. Deletion of the viral dUTPase gene did not affect in vitro replication of the ILTV recombinants, but led to sufficient attenuation in vivo. After a single ocular immunization, all chickens developed H5- or N1-specific serum antibodies. Nevertheless, animals immunized with N1-ILTV died after subsequent H5N1 HPAIV challenge, although survival times were prolonged compared to non-vaccinated controls. In contrast, all chickens vaccinated with either H5-ILTV alone, or H5- and N1-ILTV simultaneously, survived

  20. Detección y caracterización del virus de bronquitis infecciosa aviaria en Chile mediante RT-PCR y análisis secuencial Detection and characterization of infectious bronchitis virus in Chile by RT-PCR and sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J C Lopez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Una técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa transcriptasa reversa (RT-PCR junto a una secuenciación fue usada para detectar y caracterizar genéticamente virus diferentes de bronquitis infecciosa aviar (VBIA aislados en Chile. El procedimiento de RT-PCR incluyó el uso de los partidores NT1 y NT2, los cuales se localizaron cerca del término N del gen S1 y cubrieron la región hipervariable. La secuencia amplificada fue alineada y analizada con el programa computacional DNAman, y comparada con secuencias reportadas en GenBank. El nivel de detección de la técnica de RT-PCR fue equivalente al aislamiento viral en huevos cuando se usaron directamente tejidos, pero el ensayo fue más sensitivo cuando fue usado para detectar virus almacenados en fluido alantoideo. Los amplificados de todos los aislados históricos de Chile fueron idénticos en tamaño (193pb y exhibieron entre ellos, al analizar la secuencia una similitud del 71 al 96%. Estos aislados mostraron entre 68 y 97% de similitud con cepas de Estados Unidos, Europa, Asia, Nueva Zelandia y Australia.A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, coupled with sequencing, was used to detect and genetically characterize different infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates in Chile. The RT-PCR procedure included the use of the primers NT1 and NT2 that were located close to the N-terminus of the S1 gene and bracketed the hypervariable region, and the amplified sequences were aligned and analyzed with DNAman software, and compared with sequences from GenBank. The level of detection of the RTPCR assay was equivalent to virus isolation in eggs when testing tissues directly, but the assay was more sensitive when used to detect virus stored in allantoic fluid. The amplimers from all historical Chilean isolates were identical in size (193 bp and exhibited 71-96% similarity on sequence analysis. These isolates showed between 68-97% similarity to strains from North America

  1. Chronic bronchitis in an elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Parner, Jan; Prescott, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    in order to describe the prevalence and prognostic implications of chronic bronchitis in individuals 65 years or older we analysed data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study.......in order to describe the prevalence and prognostic implications of chronic bronchitis in individuals 65 years or older we analysed data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study....

  2. Plastic bronchitis in beta thalassemia minor

    OpenAIRE

    Makaresh Yadav; Sneha Tirpude; Joshi, Jyotsna M.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare pulmonary disorder associated with various conditions like cystic fibrosis, asthma, pulmonary infection and characterized by formation and expectoration of cast which assumes the shape of the bronchial tree. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with beta thalassemia minor who developed plastic bronchitis.

  3. Detection and Quantification of Infectious Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Environmental Water by Using Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dovas, C. I.; Papanastassopoulou, M.; Georgiadis, M. P.; Chatzinasiou, E.; Maliogka, V. I.; Georgiades, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    Routes of avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal among aquatic birds involve direct (bird-to-bird) and indirect (waterborne) transmission. The environmental persistence of H5N1 virus in natural water reservoirs can be assessed by isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs. Here we describe development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for detection of H5N1 AIV in environmental water. This method is based on adsorption of virus partic...

  4. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  5. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  6. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Acute Bronchitis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/acutebronchitis.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  7. Characterization of western European field isolates and vaccine strains of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, C; Sudler, C; Hoop, R K

    2008-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis is a dramatic disease of the upper respiratory tract in poultry caused by a herpesvirus. In this study we investigated the characteristics of western European field isolates of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) to gain more information on their diversity. The examined 104 isolates, collected from acute outbreaks during the last 35 years, originated from eight different countries: Switzerland (48), Germany (21), Sweden (14), the United Kingdom (9), Italy (5), Belgium (4), Austria (2), and Norway (1). Two vaccines, a chicken embryo origin product and a tissue culture origin product, were included in the survey. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a 2.1-kb DNA fragment of ILTV using primers generated for the thymidine kinase (TK) gene. After digestion of the resulting PCR products by restriction endonuclease HaeIII, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was carried out. PCR amplicons of three field isolates and both vaccine strains were selected for sequencing. Here 98 field isolates showed the same cleavage pattern and were identical to both vaccine strains (clone 1). They differed from five Swiss isolates with identical cleavage pattern (clone 2) and one Swedish isolate (clone 3). The present study demonstrated that at least three clones of ILTV have been circulating in western Europe during the last 35 years. The 104 isolates analyzed showed a high genetic similarity regarding the TK gene, and a large majority of the field isolates (98/104) were genetically related to the vaccine strains. PMID:18646457

  8. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... poultry caused by a paramyxovirus. END is one of most infectious diseases of poultry in the world. A death... avian influenza (HPAI) is an extremely infectious and potentially fatal form of the disease in birds and... birds' or poultry's freedom from END, HPAI subtype H5N1, and other communicable diseases,...

  9. J亚型禽白血病病毒的拯救与鉴定%Rescue and identification of the infectious clone of subgroup J avian leucosis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 缪华先; 谢宝婵; 张伟伟; 吴润; 刘光清

    2011-01-01

    为鉴定含J亚群禽白血病病毒(ALV-J)全长cDNA分子克隆(pBlALV)的感染性,首先将pBlALV转染CEF细胞,拯救出病毒(rALV),然后连续传代3次,对拯救病毒进行增殖培养.分别利用RT-PCR、western blot、IFA等方法,对拯救病毒进行鉴定,并应用实时荧光定量PCR方法对拯救病毒的复制动力学进行了测定.研究结果证明,本研究成功拯救出了具有感染性的rALV-J,为研究禽白血病的致病机理和探讨新的防制措施等提供了良好的ALV的反向遗传操作技术平台.%To confirm the infectivity of the fiill-length cDNA clone (pBlALV) of subgroup J avian leucosis virus (ALV-J) HPRS103 strain, pBlALV was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and the ALV was rescued. The rescued ALV (rALV-J) was identified by RT-PCR, western blot and indirect immunofiuorescence assay, respectively. Besides, the real-time PCR was applied to evaluate the replication dynamic of the rescued virus. The results showed that the rALV-J was able to well replicate in CEF. This study provides an useful platform for investigation of the pathogenesis and molecular biology of ALV-J.

  10. AcEST: DK944231 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available efinition sp|P12650|SPIKE_IBVK Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain KB8523) Align...significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|P12650|SPIKE_IBVK Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious bron... 32 ...1.3 >sp|P12650|SPIKE_IBVK Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus

  11. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  12. Molecular mechanisms of recurrent acute obstructive bronchitis in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Abaturov A.E.; Rusakova E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the clinical and immunological features and mechanisms of recurrent acute obstructive bronchitis in infants. We have examined 102 children aged from 6 months to 3 years with acute obstructive bronchitis and signs of respiratory insufficiency of the I-II degree. There were 28 children with recurrent acute obstructive bronchitis and 74 patients with acute obstructive bronchitis,developed for the first time. We determined the concentration of total IgE, content of IFN-і, IL...

  13. [Progress in microRNAs associated with major avian viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Chaolai; Mu, Weitao; Zhao, Dongxue; Chang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Recently, avian viral diseases have become one of the main models to study mechanisms of viral infections and pathogenesis. The study of regulatory relationships and mechanisms between viruses and microRNAs has also become the focus. In this review, we briefly summarize the general situations of microRNAs encoded by avian herpesviruses. Also, we analyze the regulatory relationships between tumorigenicity of avian herpesviruses and microRNAs. Additionally, the possible applications for prevention and treatment of viral diseases (such as infectious bursal disease, avian influenza and avian leucosis) using the regulatory mechanisms of microRNAs are also discussed. PMID:26955707

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-AV08 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4e-42 AY338732_1( AY338732 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... 34 1.4 EU637854_1( EU637854 |pi... Z30541 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus mRNA... 33 3.1 AY319651_1( A...Y319651 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... 33 3.1 FJ807652_2( FJ807652 |pid:none) Infectious b...1( AY641576 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... 33 3.1 protein updat

  15. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... respiratory signs or death shall be counted as failures. Two-stage sequential testing may be conducted if the.... Final container samples of completed product shall be tested for virus titer using the procedure... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327...

  16. Chronic Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Bronquitis crónica Ukrainian (Українська) Bronchitis Бронхіт - Українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual ...

  17. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Bronquitis aguda Ukrainian (Українська) Bronchitis Бронхіт - Українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual ...

  18. Measurement of airborne influenza virus during hen slaughtering in an ABSL-3E bioBUBBLE®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several avian viral diseases, including avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis or laryngotracheitis, are transmitted via respiratory droplets or by contact with contaminated fomites. Using high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus as a model, the objective of the present st...

  19. Emerging infectious diseases: Focus on infection control issues for novel coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa and Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Fischer, William A; Kanamori, Hajime; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E

    2016-05-01

    Over the past several decades, we have witnessed the emergence of many new infectious agents, some of which are major public threats. New and emerging infectious diseases which are both transmissible from patient-to-patient and virulent with a high mortality include novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa, Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9). All healthcare facilities need to have policies and plans in place for early identification of patients with a highly communicable diseases which are highly virulent, ability to immediately isolate such patients, and provide proper management (e.g., training and availability of personal protective equipment) to prevent transmission to healthcare personnel, other patients and visitors to the healthcare facility. PMID:27131142

  20. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  1. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  2. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  3. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  4. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  5. Frequency Distribution of Opportunistic Avian Pathogens in Respiratory Distress Cases of Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Baker Siddique*, Sajjad-ur-Rahman, Iftikhar Hussain and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of opportunistic pathogens in the respiratory distress cases of poultry was detected from the poultry flocks scattered in some districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Serum plate agglutination (SPA test for serological screening of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS were performed separately and it revealed 80% flocks were sero-positive among respiratory distress cases. Specimen samples including trachea (n=157, lungs (n=40, spleen (n=93, oral (n=201 and nasal swabs (n=147 were collected from both sero-positive and sero-negative flocks. On the basis of multiplex PCR, the percentage of opportunistic pathogens in sero-positive flocks was found maximum with Newcastle disease virus (28.6%, followed by E. coli (24.4%, Avibacterium paragallinarum (5.7%, Infectious bronchitis virus (4.7% and Avian Influenza (1.6%, while in case of sero-negative flocks highest distribution was found in NDV (12.6%, followed by E. coli (8.4%, Av. Paragallinarum (3.8%, IBV (3.1% and AIV (1.1%. The Frequency of respiratory tract pathogens including NDV and E. coli in combination with MG and MS was recorded significantly high.

  6. AcEST: DK948675 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available complex proteins psbY, ... 31 2.6 sp|P0C6V4|R1A_IBVBC Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious... 29 7....5 sp|P0C6V3|R1A_IBVB Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious ... 29 7.5 sp|P...plicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain Beaudette CK) GN=1a PE=3 SV=1 Length = 3...Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain Beaudette) ... Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain Beaudette

  7. Comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of patients with deforming bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 1067 patients aged from 15 to 82 years who suffered from deforming bronchitis were examined. All the patients underwent X-ray examination, forced external respiration test, bronchofibroscopy with biopsy and radionuclide study of the lungs whose results were the basis for establishing a diagnosis of deforming bronchitis with an accuracy of 99,8%. Therapeutical bronchoscopies made in patients with deforming bronchitis were an effective therapeutical tool in 96,9-98,1% of cases

  8. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Zu Wu; Li-Min Huang

    2005-01-01

    Influenza is an old disease but remains vital nowadays. Three types of influenza viruses,namely A, B, C, have been identified; among them influenza A virus has pandemic potential.The first outbreak of human illness due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) occurred in1997 in Hong Kong with a mortality of 30%. The most recent outbreak of the avian influenzaepidemic has been going on in Asian countries since 2003. As of March 2005, 44 incidentalhuman infections and 32 deaths have been documented. Hum...

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08402-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iparum 3D7 chromo... 35 5.3 Z30541_1( Z30541 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus mRNA... 35 5.3 AY3...19651_1( AY319651 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... 35 5.3 AL844505_76( AL844505 |pid:none) P...rotein 1ab; Short... 35 5.3 AY646283_1( AY646283 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... 35 5.3 M94...356_3( M94356 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus ORF1... 35 5.3 AY692454_2( AY692454 |pid:none) Avian infectious... bronchitis virus ... 35 5.3 DQ001339_2( DQ001339 |pid:none) Avian infectious

  10. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  11. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  12. The Relationships Between Weather and Climate and Attacks of Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaia, M. A. R.; Saraiva, M. A. C.; Vieira da Cruz, A. A.

    The area of Aveiro, more concretely Aveiro lagoon, a natural laboratory has been con- sidered, for promoting the development and the application of several investigations worked. The importance of the influences of weather and climate on human health has been well known since ancient teams and many decisions concerning human be- haviour it are clearly weather related. However, decisions related to weather criteria can be important and economically significant, but the real economic effect of the weather is difficult to assess. Talaia et al. (2000) and Talaia and Vieira da Cruz (2001) have shown the possible harmful effect of certain meteorological factors on respiratory conditions. Bronchitis is a disease caused by inflammation of the bronchi as a result of infectious agents or air pollutants. In this study our attention is to relate, the be- ginning of bronchitis attacks in the services of urgency of the Hospital of Aveiro with meteorological factors, and the risk group are studied. We used the medical records and the database of meteorological factors. The obtained analysis allows to conclude that some meteorological factors have correlation with the occurrences of the disease and to allow improving the work in the urgency services in the requested periods. The knowledge that will be extracted of this study can be used later in studies that inte- grate other important components for the characterisation of the environmental impact in the area. References: Talaia, M.A.R., Vieira da Cruz, A.A., Saraiva, M.A.C., Amaro, G.S., Oliveira, C.J. and Carvalho, C.F., 2000, The Influence of Meteorological Fac- tors on Pneumonia Emergencies in Aveiro, International Symposium on Human- Biometeorology, St. Petersburg (Pushkin), Russia, pp. 67-68. Talaia, M.A.R. and Vieira of Cruz, A.A., (2001), Meteorological Effects on the Resistance of the Body to Influenza - One Study in Aveiro Region, Proceedings 2nd Symposium of Meteorol- ogy and Geophysics of APMG and 3rd Meeting

  13. Mucociliary clearance in early simple chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance was measured in 37 patients with early simple chronic bronchitis. A non-invasive radio-aerosol technique with inhalation of 99Tcm labelled 5-μm polystyrene particles followed by assessment of radio-nuclide distribution by posterior gamma-camera scans was employed. The mucociliary clearance of the bronchitics was significantly slower than clearance of a non-smoker control group. An interim analysis of the effect of treatment with a surfactant stimulating drug, ambroxol, suggested a dosage-dependent tendency to a faster mucociliary clearance than seen in placebo-treated bronchitics. (author)

  14. Radioisotope hepatography in patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examination carried out by means of radioisotope hepatography with bengal-rose-iodine 131 in 69 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis associated with respiratory insufficiency of grades 1, 2, 3 at the phase of remission revealed disturbances of the absorptive-excretory function of the liver. A direct dependence was found between the intensity of disorder of the functionsl state of parenchymatous cells and degree of resperatory insufficiency in this category of patients. The disorders of the absorptive-excretory function of the liver were most pronounced in respiratory insufficiency of grade 3

  15. Plastic Bronchitis in a Child Presenting as Surgical Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Tripathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis (PB refers to the presence of inspissated Bronchial casts (BC is uncommon in children.Our case presented with subcutaneous emphysema as the dominant manifestation and was suspected to have foreign body in airway, but bronchoscopy revealed a bronchial cast. Subcutaneous emphysema as the initial/sole manifestation of plastic bronchitis is very rare in children.

  16. Tingkat Pengetahuan Mahasiswa Semester V dan VII Tahun 2010/2011 Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sumatera Utara Mengenai Avian Influenza.

    OpenAIRE

    Rajoodorai, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infectious disease caused by type A strains of influenza virus. Since January 2004, Thailand and several other Southeast Asian countries have experienced outbreaks of avian influenza in poultry, and more than 100 million poultry have been culled or have died. Experts fear that the avian influenza virus now circulating in Asia will mutate into a highly infectious strain and pass not only from animals to humans, but also among humans, which would lead to a p...

  17. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  18. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection and differentiation of avian influenza viruses and other poultry respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, S; Naeem, K; Ahmed, Z; Saddique, N; Abbas, M A; Malik, S A

    2009-12-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the detection of type A influenza viruses, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7, H9, and H5 hemagglutinin gene with simultaneous detection of 3 other poultry respiratory pathogens, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Seven sets of specific oligonucleotide primers were used in this study for the M gene of AIV and hemagglutinin gene of subtypes H7, H9, and H5 of AIV. Three sets of other specific oligonucleotide primers were used for the detection of avian respiratory pathogens other than AIV. The mRT-PCR DNA products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and consisted of DNA fragments of 1,023 bp for M gene of AIV, 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, and 647 bp for ILTV. The second set of primers used for m-RT-PCR of H7N3, H9N2, and H5N1 provided DNA products of 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The mRT-PCR products for the third format consisted of DNA fragments of 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, 647 bp for ILTV, 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The sensitivity and specificity of mRT-PCR was determined and the test was found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of AIV and other poultry respiratory pathogens. In this present study, multiplex PCR technique has been developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate the 3 most important subtypes of AIV along with the 3 most common avian respiratory pathogens prevalent in poultry in Pakistan. Therefore, a mRT-PCR that can rapidly differentiate between these pathogens will be very important for the control of disease transmission in poultry and in humans, along with the identification of 3 of the most common respiratory pathogens often seen as mixed infections in poultry, and hence economic losses will be reduced in poultry. PMID:19903950

  19. SEROLOGIC DYNAMIC OF INFECTIO US BRONCHITIS VIRUS IN A BROILER FLOCK IN CUNDINAMARCA DINÁMICA SEROLÓGICA DEL VIRUS DE BRONQUITIS INFECCIOSA EN UNA GRANJA DE POLLO DE ENGORDE DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CUNDINAMARCA

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Alfonso Victor Julio; Jaime Correa Jairo; Usma Jorge Alberto; Alvarez Espejo Diana Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious disease, spread worldwide, leading to serious economic losses. Sometimes the disease is associated with other entities such as infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli. The highly genetic variability of the virus has generated a large number of viral strains with different clinical presentations. The objective was to assess the dynamics of the virus antibodies in bir...

  20. Bronchial inflammation in chronic bronchitis assessed by measurement of cell products in bronchial lavage fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Riise, G. C.; Ahlstedt, S.; Larsson, S.; Enander, I.; Jones, I; Larsson, P.; Andersson, B

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Bronchial inflammation in chronic bronchitis has not been characterised as well as in asthma. The present study was undertaken to assess whether a characteristic pattern of bronchial inflammatory markers could be found in patients with chronic bronchitis. METHODS--Bronchoscopy with bronchial lavage was performed in 42 patients with chronic bronchitis and in 13 healthy controls. Twenty three of the patients had non-obstructive chronic bronchitis and 19 had chronic bronchitis and ch...

  1. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  2. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%). Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%). AI cases...

  3. Risk of chronic bronchitis in twin pairs discordant for smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Harmsen, Lotte;

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that smoking is a major risk factor for lung disease and respiratory symptoms. We examined the association between smoking and the risk of chronic bronchitis in a large twin sample....

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... of adults who have ever been diagnosed with emphysema: 3.4 million Percent of adults who have ...

  5. Comparison of airway immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Brightling, C.; Symon, F; Birring, S; Bradding, P; Wardlaw, A; PAVORD, I

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Exhaled nitric oxide was measured and induced sputum, bronchoscopy, bronchial wash (BW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and bronchial biopsy were performed in 16 subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis, 15 with asthma, and 14 normal controls.

  6. Hydrator Therapies for Chronic Bronchitis. Lessons from Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William D; Henderson, Ashley G; Donaldson, Scott H

    2016-04-01

    Patients with the chronic bronchitis form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis share similar clinical features, including mucus obstruction of airways and the development of chronic/recurrent airways infections that often manifest as disease exacerbations. There is growing evidence that these diseases may have parallels in disease pathogenesis as well, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator dysfunction, mucus dehydration, and defective mucociliary clearance. As progress is made in the development of therapies that target the basic defects that lead to cystic fibrosis lung disease, it is possible that similar approaches could also benefit patients with chronic bronchitis. A deeper understanding of how tobacco smoke and other triggers of chronic bronchitis actually lead to disease, and exploration of the concept that therapies that restore cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function, mucus hydration, and/or mucociliary clearance may benefit patients with chronic bronchitis, hold the prospect of significant progress in treating this prevalent disease. PMID:27115955

  7. Molecular mechanisms of recurrent acute obstructive bronchitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaturov A.E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the clinical and immunological features and mechanisms of recurrent acute obstructive bronchitis in infants. We have examined 102 children aged from 6 months to 3 years with acute obstructive bronchitis and signs of respiratory insufficiency of the I-II degree. There were 28 children with recurrent acute obstructive bronchitis and 74 patients with acute obstructive bronchitis,developed for the first time. We determined the concentration of total IgE, content of IFN-і, IL-4, IL-12 and IL-13 in serum by ELISA and the expression of the transcription factor NF-єB in lymphocytes of peripheral blood by flow cytometry in all the children. High level of IL-12 as compared to physiological norms in the dynamics of the disease was the characteristic feature of the children of both groups. And it was the factor, which detected a voltage of cell-mediated immune response and inflammation. The second specific feature was the high concentration of IgE. It was shown that the transcription factor NF-єB determined the cytokine status at the beginning of the disease, and in the period of convalescence. That fact did not depend on the number of previous acute obstructive bronchitis. However, there were violations of the mechanisms of NF-єB-associated signaling pathways activation, which manifested itself in an advantageous enhancement of the chains, determining the production of Th2-associated cytokines in children with recurrent acute obstructive bronchitis.

  8. Crossing the species barrier: the threat of an avian influenza pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (H5N1) has recently been recognized as a new emerging infectious disease that may pose a threat to international public health. Most recent developments lead to the belief that H5N1 could become the cause of the next influenza pandemic. This review discusses the characteristics of H5N1 avian influenza virus as an emerging infectious disease with the potential for pandemic development. In addition, the current pandemic influenza alert status and guidelines for pandemic prepared...

  9. AcEST: BP921698 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ptide repeat-containing protei... 30 5.6 sp|P0C6V4|R1A_IBVBC Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious...... 30 9.5 sp|P0C6V3|R1A_IBVB Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious ... 30 9....BC Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain Beaudett...3460 VLQSVTQEFSHIPSYAEYERAKNLYEKVLV 3489 >sp|P0C6V3|R1A_IBVB Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious...1AB_IBVBC Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain

  10. AcEST: BP921648 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us... 31 1.7 sp|P0C6V3|R1A_IBVB Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious ... 31..._IBVBC Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain Beau... ++C GG + +T+R+ Sbjct: 2878 YKFIKANCGDSFTIACAYGGTVVGLYPVTMRS 2909 >sp|P0C6V3|R1A_IBVB Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious...KANCGDSFTIACAYGGTVVGLYPVTMRS 2909 >sp|P0C6Y2|R1AB_IBVBC Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Avian infectious bronch...VB Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain Beaudet

  11. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  12. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  13. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  14. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  15. Anti-inflammatory drugs and experimental bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, P K

    1986-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis (chronic hypersecretion) and chronic bronchiolitis (small airways disease) are two conditions associated with cigarette smoking: both contribute to airflow obstruction in man, the latter associated with progressive deterioration in lung function. Mucous metaplasia and hyperplasia are characteristic histological changes. Experimentally, cigarette smoke given daily for two weeks, induces similar histological changes in the airways of specific pathogen-free rats, providing a suitable animal model for study: an early proliferation of basal cells, accompanied by mucous metaplasia of surface epithelial serous cells is followed by proliferation of newly formed mucous cells. There is also a significant increase in epithelial thickness due to cell hypertrophy without stratification or prior ulceration. Experimentally, secretory cell hyperplasia is inhibited completely or to varying degrees by prophylactic administration (intraperitoneal injection) of either indomethacin, flurbiprofen, dexamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone (each at 2 or 4 mg/kg body weight) or a mucolytic drug, N-acetylcysteine(Nac), given orally as a 1% solution of the drinking water. Nac also inhibits the associated mucus-hypersecretion. It takes between 21 and 84 days, depending on airway level, for the increase in secretory cell number to return to control values (ie recover). Indomethacin and flurbiprofen (4 mg/kg, by ip injection) shorten recovery to between 4 and 9 days in intrapulmonary airways but have no effect on recovery time in the rat trachea. Nac is effective in 6 of 7 airway levels which showed cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, in the rat, the response to cigarette smoke is one of mucous cell metaplasia and both basal and mucous cell proliferation. Cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia can be inhibited when selected drugs are given concurrently with the cigarette smoke: indomethacin, fluriprofen and Nac are also therapeutic

  16. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  17. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Avian Influenza Virus Infection via Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven FJ; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Using literature data, daily infection risks of chickens and humans with H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) by drinking water consumption were estimated for the Netherlands. A highly infectious virus and less than 4 log10 drinking water treatment (reasonably inefficient) may lead to a high infection r

  18. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: Intersecting Humans, Animals, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Eurasian-African H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused an unprecedented epizootic affecting mainly poultry, but has crossed multiple species barriers to infect captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. There is still great concern over the continued infecti...

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSF511 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erized transmembrane protein DDB... 223 4e-57 AY338732_1( AY338732 |pid:none) Avian infectious...d:none) Infectious bronchitis virus RNA (defec... 33 6.2 Z30541_1( Z30541 |pid:none) Avian infectious... bronchitis virus mRNA... 33 6.2 AY319651_1( AY319651 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronch...RecName: Full=Replicase polyprotein 1ab; Short... 33 6.2 AY641576_1( AY641576 |pid:none) Avian infectious

  20. Effect of Co-Administration of 3',5'-Cyclic Diguanylic Acid with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine on Serum Antibody Levels in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Malouin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP is an intra-cellular bacterial signalling molecule previously shown to possess immune-stimulatory activities. However, the effects of this molecule on chicken immune responses have not been investigated. This study evaluated the humoral immune response following oral administration or Intra-Muscular injection (IM of saline, 10 or 100 nmol c-di-GMP in conjunction with the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV vaccine S-706 in 96 broiler chickens. The oral vaccine and the test compounds were administrated at age 14 days and the chickens were then monitored until day 35. Blood samples were collected weekly from 8 birds per treatment to determine the antibody titers. Results showed that oral or IM administration of c-di-GMP did not induce any adverse effect in broiler chickens. Significant increases (p<0.05 in the total Immunoglobulin (Ig A concentrations were observed regardless of the treatments as the birds aged. No significant effect was noted for total IgG and IgM concentrations after any of the sampling days immediately following administration of the compounds. However, on day 35, serum of birds orally administered with 10 and 100 nmol of c-di-GMP showed higher serum IgA antibody concentrations when compared to the serum of birds from the saline control (p<0.05 indicating that c-di-GMP stimulated IgA production in serum and confirming the potential of this molecule as a mucosal adjuvant. No significant effect on serum antivirus antibodies (IBDV infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus and avian Reovirus was observed for the 10 or 100 nmol c-di-GMP treatments. The results indicate that studies are warranted on the potential beneficial effects of c-di-GMP on broiler immunity.

  1. A duplex real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of avian reovirus and Mycoplasma synoviae

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Jiaoling; Zeng, Tingting; Feng, Jiaxun

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious arthritis in broilers represents an economic and health problem, resulting in severe losses due to retarded growth and downgrading at the slaughterhouse. The most common agents associated with cases of infectious arthritis in poultry are avian reovirus (ARV) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). The accurate differentiation and rapid diagnosis of ARV and MS are essential prerequisites for the effective control and prevention of these avian pathogens in poultry flocks. This study...

  2. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-09-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. PMID:27297208

  3. PULMONARY FUNCTION ADAPTATION TO OZONE IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty smokers with chronic bronchitis were exposed to 0.41 ppm ozone for 3 hr-day for 5 consecutive days and reexposed 4 days later to determine (1) if they are sensitive to ozone, (2) if they adapt, and (3) if the adaptation lasts longer than 4 days. There were significant decr...

  4. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  5. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Background Information > Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Using computers to prepare ... Content Area Predicting the potential spread of an infectious disease requires much more than simply connecting cities on ...

  6. About Infectious Mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Infectious Mononucleosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... may cause the spleen to rupture. Diagnosing Infectious Mononucleosis Healthcare providers typically diagnose infectious mononucleosis based on ...

  7. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Haemophilus paragallinarum isolated from suspected cases of infectious coryza in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Gayatri Rajurkar; Ashish Roy; Mahendra Mohan Yadav

    2010-01-01

    Among infectious diseases of avian species Infectious coryza is one of the major problems affecting commercial poultry industry in the country. Infectious coryza is an upper respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with H. paragallinarum (HPG). The disease is characterized by swollen infra-orbital sinuses, nasal discharge, and depression. The disease is seen most commonly in adult chickens and can cause a very significant reduction in the rate of egg production. Considering the eco...

  8. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature. PMID:22740548

  9. LOSSES DUE TO INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN LAYING AND BREEDING HENS

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Akram Muneer, K.Munir Chaudhry and K.Naeem Khawaja

    2000-01-01

    This study indicates that 1BV infection of laying chickens is of high economical importance as it adversely affects their production potentials. 18V-infected hens lay eggs of inferior quality compared to the uninfected hens. There were significant differences in the daily egg production, egg weight, shell weight and in the internal quality of eggs laid by the 18V infected and uninfected hens. The 1BV infection of developing embryos resulted into mortality, kidney lesions, stunting and curling...

  10. Molecular and antigenic characteristics of Massachusetts genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingfeng; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Liang, Shuling; Xu, Yang; Xu, Qianqian; Chen, Yuqiu; Zhao, Yan; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Wang, Kexiong; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-12-31

    In this study, 418 IBVs were isolated in samples from 1717 chicken flocks. Twenty-nine of the isolates were classified as the Massachusetts genotype. These 29 isolates, as well as two previously isolated Massachusetts genotype IBV strains, were studied further. Of the 31 strains, 24 were H120-like and two were M41-like isolates as determined by complete genomic sequence analysis, indicating that most of the IBV isolates were likely the reisolated vaccine virus. The remaining five IBV isolates, ck/CH/LHB/111172, ck/CH/LSD/111219, ck/CH/LHB/130598, ck/CH/LDL/110931, and ck/CH/LHB/130573, were shown to have originated from natural recombination events between an H120-like vaccine strain and other types of viruses. The virus cross-neutralization test found that the antigenicity of ck/CH/LHB/111172, ck/CH/LSD/111219, and ck/CH/LHB/130598 was similar to that of H120. Vaccination with the H120 vaccine offered complete protection against challenge with these isolates. However, isolates ck/CH/LDL/110931 and ck/CH/LHB/130573 were serotypically different from their parental viruses and from other serotypes in this study. Furthermore, vaccination with the H120 vaccine did not provide protection against challenge with these two isolates. The results of this study demonstrated that recombination is the mechanism that is responsible for the emergence of new serotype strains, and it has the ability to alter virus serotypes. Therefore, IBV surveillance of chicken flocks vaccinated with IBV live vaccines, as well as the consideration of new strategies to effectively control IBV infection using inactivated or/and genetically engineered vaccines, is of great importance. PMID:26482289

  11. Infectious bronchitis virus S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing the IBV S2 gene (rLS/IBV.S2). The recombinant virus showed reduced pathogenicity compared to the parental LaSota strain but effectively elicited hemagglutination inhibition antibodies and protected chickens against lethal...

  12. AcEST: BP915474 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R1A_IBVM Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain M4...bits) Value sp|P0C6V5|R1A_IBVM Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious ... 2...in OS=Mus musculus GN=Espl1 PE=2 SV=1 29 8.4 >sp|P0C6V5|R1A_IBVM Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Avian infectious...VVPLATVPIVCSN 3594 >sp|P0C6Y3|R1AB_IBVM Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (stra

  13. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis). PMID:26350325

  14. Role of PGE2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Sastre; Victoria del Pozo

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, ...

  15. Oral Fluoroquinolones in the Treatment of Pneumonia, Bronchitis and Sinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mittmann, Nicole; Jivraj, Farah; Wong, Angelina; Yoon, Alice

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite a relatively large number of clinical studies comparing oral fluoroquinolones to one antibiotic class comparator, there is limited information on the relative efficacy of different fluoroquinolones.OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and tolerability of oral fluoroquinolones in the treatment of mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and sinusitis.METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken with a MEDLINE search for antibioti...

  16. Carbon monoxide and exercise tolerance in chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Calverley, P. M.; Leggett, R J; Flenley, D C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide on exercise tolerance as assessed by the distance walked in 12 minutes were studied in 15 patients with severe chronic bronchitis and emphysema (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 0.56 1, mean forced vital capacity 1.54 1). Each subject walked breathing air and oxygen before and after exposure to sufficient carbon monoxide to raise their venous carboxyhaemoglobin concentration by 9%. There was a significant reduction in the walking distance when the pat...

  17. Controlled trial of supervised exercise training in chronic bronchitis.

    OpenAIRE

    D. J. Sinclair; Ingram, C G

    1980-01-01

    In a controlled trial of exercise retraining in patients with severe chronic bronchitis, 33 subjects were followed for a mean period of 10.3 months. The exercise programme was supervised once a week, and daily training comprised a 12-minute walk and simple stair climbing exercises. The subjects in the exercise group showed a highly significant improvement in their walking distance, attaining a maximum increase of 24% after eight to 12 months. There was also considerable subjective improvement...

  18. Canine chronic bronchitis: a pathophysiologic evaluation of 18 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen dogs with chronic bronchitis were studied using physiologic, radiologic, microbiologic, and pathologic techniques. Twelve of these dogs were evaluated before and after two weeks of oral bronchodilator administration. Thoracic radiographs, tidal breathing flow-volume loops, radioaerosol ventilation scans, airway appearance at bronchoscopy, and airway pathology were abnormal in the majority of dogs studied. There was a significant relationship between abnormal ventilation scans and abnormal results for PaO2 and end-tidal airflow. Bronchoscopy revealed excessive mucus and inflammation of airway mucosa in all 16 dogs undergoing this procedure. Endoscopically obtained aerobic bacterial cultures grew mixed bacterial flora in only three dogs. Increased numbers of neutrophils in 14 dogs were detected by airway lavage cytology. A large number of eosinophils were seen in airway lavages obtained from two dogs; these two dogs also had evidence for eosinophilic bronchitis on endobronchial biopsy. Oral bronchodilator administration resulted in clinical and expiratory airflow improvements in most dogs, but had no effect on PaO2 or on the radioaerosol-scan abnormalities. The presence of both the physiologic and pathologic airway abnormalities of chronic bronchitis in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital with chronic unexplained cough was confirmed, suggesting that aerobic bacteria do not play an etiologic role in most cases

  19. [Chronic bronchitis and its sequelae. Therapy--prognosis--insurance medicine aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, A; Schmidt, E W

    1996-12-01

    Chronic bronchitis is of enormous epidemiological, socio-medical and economical importance. The main cause of chronic bronchitis is active but also passive cigarette smoking. Other etiologic factors are: viral or bacterial infections, chronic dust exposure in occupational settings and air pollution. Cease of cigarette smoking is considered the most valuable action in the treatment of the chronic bronchitis. In addition to drug therapy, physical therapy and other measures of rehabilitation may be a supportive benefit. ABout 10-20% of all patients with chronic bronchitis develop airway obstruction and/or lung emphysema. Obstructive bronchitis with or without lung emphysema should be treated with corticosteroids, beta 2-agonists and/or theophylline. Evidence for the socio-economical burden of chronic bronchitis and its complications are the enormous costs for the social economy (direct costs: in- and outpatient treatment; indirect costs: premature pensions, sick leave). PMID:9082644

  20. Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/24/2013.

  1. The Helper Activities of Different Avian Viruses for Propagation of Recombinant Avian Adeno-Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-AS05 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cterized transmembrane protein DDB... 305 8e-82 AY338732_1( AY338732 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis ...virus ... 34 4.6 EU637854_1( EU637854 |pid:none) Infectious bronchitis virus strain... 34 6.0 CP001055_1360(

  3. Dyspnea and Wheezing after Adenosine Injection in a Patient with Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser Lim; Marie Christine Aubry; Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba

    2009-01-01

    A 58-year-old nonsmoker female was referred for evaluation of chronic cough of 13 months duration. After an initial work-up, the patient was diagnosed to have chronic cough due to eosinophilic bronchitis. The diagnostic work-up for eosinophilic bronchitis and bronchial biopsy is discussed. Eosinophilic bronchitis is differentiated from asthma. In addition, the patient developed dyspnea, flushing, and wheezing after the administration of adenosine during a cardiac stress test in spite of a neg...

  4. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene abnormalities in patients with asthma and recurrent neutrophilic bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Goodwin; Naomi Spitale; Asma Yaghi; Myrna Dolovich; Parameswaran Nair

    2012-01-01

    The present case series describes four patients with asthma, airway hyper-responsiveness and neutrophilic bronchitis who harboured abnormal cystic fibrosis transmembrance conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations. It serves both to alert clinicians to consider CFTR-related disease in both young and elderly patients with persistent neutrophilic bronchitis, and to highlight the potential utility of future genetic testing for CFTR abnormalities in patients with asthma and recurrent bronchitis ...

  5. Clinical efficacy of Vyaghriharitaki Avaleha in the management of chronic bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Jaiprakash; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vyaghriharitaki Avaleha (VHA), a polyherbal classical Ayurvedic formulation has been used in Kasa (cough), Swasa (asthma), Rajayakshma (tuberculosis) etc., conditions. Aim: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of VHA in the management of chronic bronchitis. Materials and Methods: Patients of chronic bronchitis were given 10 g of VHA twice a day with lukewarm water before meals for 12 weeks. Improvement in clinical symptoms of chronic bronchitis as the primary outcome measures and S...

  6. Childhood respiratory infection and adult chronic bronchitis in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, D J P; Osmond, Clive

    1986-01-01

    The high mortality from chronic bronchitis in England and Wales and the excess of urban over rural mortality are unexplained. On dividing England and Wales into 212 local authority areas a strong geographical relation was found between death rates from chronic bronchitis and emphysema in 1959-78 and infant mortality from bronchitis and pneumonia during 1921-5. It was concluded that this relation provided strong evidence of a direct casual link between acute lower respiratory infection in earl...

  7. Molecular Detection of Avian Pathogens in Poultry Red Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) Collected in Chicken Farms

    OpenAIRE

    HUONG, Chu Thi Thanh; MURANO, Takako; UNO, Yukiko; USUI, Tatsufumi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Poultry red mite (PRM, Dermanyssus gallinae) is a blood-sucking ectoparasite as well as a possible vector of several avian pathogens. In this study, to define the role of PRM in the prevalence of avian infectious agents, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to check for the presence of seven pathogens: Avipox virus (APV), Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER), Salmonella enterica (SE), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (M...

  8. Incidence of Avian Mycoplasmosis in the region of Batna, Eastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Heleili; N.; Mamache; B. and Chelihi; A.

    2011-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmosis is infectious and contagious disease which affects chicken and turkey as well as many other species with many economics losses. The absence of data on avian mycoplasmosis in Algeria and the importance of the poultry breeding in Batna encouraged us to undertake the prevalence of the most pathogenic mycoplasmas in broiler and layer chickens in this area, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). 143 Mycoplasmas were isolate from 237 samples, at a rate of 60.33%. MG was isolate at a rat...

  9. Enhanced inhibition of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication by multi-target miRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Qing-Wen; Zhang Zai-Ping; Wang Wei; Tian Jin; Xiao Zhi-Guang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a major infectious disease that impacts the poultry industry worldwide. Despite intensive efforts, no effective vaccine has been developed against ALV because of mutations that lead to resistant forms. Therefore, there is a dire need to develop antiviral agents for the treatment of ALV infections and RNA interference (RNAi) is considered an effective antiviral strategy. Results In this study, the avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) provira...

  10. Cambodia’s patient zero: The political economy of foreign aid and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2009-01-01

    The article of record may be found at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/21825/ What happens when a developing country with poor health infrastructure and even poorer animal health surveillance is thought to be a potential source for the next emerging infectious disease? This is the story of Cambodia and Avian Influenza. This paper undertakes a review of the relevant literature and analyzes the results of detailed semi-structured interviews of individuals highly engaged in Avian I...

  11. Measurement of tracheobronchial clearance after sauna in subjects with chronic bronchitis.

    OpenAIRE

    van Hengstum, M; Festen, J.; Corstens, F.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of sauna on tracheobronchial clearance was studied in five male patients with chronic bronchitis by a radioaerosol technique. No enhancement of tracheobronchial clearance could be detected.

  12. Assessment of the accuracy of thoracic radiography in the diagnosis of canine chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoracic radiographs from 23 dogs with chronic bronchitis were mixed with those taken from 11 dogs (matched by age and bodyweight) without respiratory disease and interpreted twice by two blinded, independent examiners in an attempt to determine the accuracy of radiography for the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. The only radiographic signs found more often in dogs with chronic bronchitis were thickening of the bronchial walls and increased numbers of visible bronchial walls (P 0.64). The accuracy of radiographic diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is limited principally by insensitivity for bronchial lesions

  13. Immune responses to infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2013-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. Despite the extensive use of attenuated, and more recently recombinant, vaccines for the control of this disease, ILT continues to affect the intensive poultry industries worldwide. Innate and cell-mediated, rather than humoral immune responses, have been identified as responsible for protection against disease. This review examines the current understandings in innate and adaptive immune responses towards ILTV, as well as the role of ILTV glycoprotein G in modulating the host immune response towards infection. Protective immunity induced by ILT vaccines is also examined. The increasing availability of tools and reagents for the characterisation of avian innate and cell-mediated immune responses are expected to further our understanding of immunity against ILTV and drive the development of new generation vaccines towards enhanced control of this disease. PMID:23567343

  14. Infectious mononucleosis #3 (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is a viral infection causing high temperature, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Infectious mononucleosis can be contagious if the infected person comes ...

  15. Avian influenza – Review

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-01-01

    Recent spread of avian influenza A H5N1 virus to poultry and wild birds has increased the threat of human infections with H5N1 virus worldwide In this review the epidemiology virolgy clinical and laboratory characteristics and management of avian influenza is described The virus has demonsrated considerable pandemic potential and is the most likely candidate of next pandemic threat For pandemic preparedness stockpiling antiviral agents and vaccination are the most important intervention measu...

  16. Editorial: Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Wang; Guangmei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    <正>Welcome to Avian Research!This new journal is a continuation and enhancement of Chinese Birds,which has been and continues to be sponsored by the China Ornithological Society and Beijing Forestry University.In the four years since its inception,the original journal—the only one in China focusing on avian research—has published over 130 manuscripts,with authors from all continents across the world,garnering global respect in

  17. Factors affecting the decline of ventilatory function in chronic bronchitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, A H; Barter, C. E.; O'Connell, J M; Huggins, R

    1985-01-01

    Ninety six middle aged male patients with chronic bronchitis with relatively well preserved ventilatory function who were resident in Queensland, New South Wales, or Victoria took part in a prospective study to determine the relationship of various factors to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Thirty of the subjects withdrew, leaving 66 to be followed for four to six years. The mean rate of decline of the FEV1 was 58.6 (SD 51.4) ml/year. The subjects' ventilatory responses to bronchodilator and...

  18. Atopy: a predisposing factor for chronic bronchitis in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Terho, E O; Koskenvuo, M.; Kaprio, J

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate the predictive value of atopy, smoking, and living in a farm environment in the development of chronic bronchitis. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional and longitudinal study. SETTING--Postal surveys carried out in Finland in 1975 and 1981. PARTICIPANTS--The study was part of the Finnish twin cohort study, which included adult twin pairs born in Finland before 1958. The cross sectional sample consisted of 18,351 subjects, including 1025 prevalent cases, and the f...

  19. Recurrent Plastic Bronchitis in a Child with 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) and Influenza B Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sun; Cho, Hwa Jin; Han, Dong Kyun; Choi, Yoo Duk; Yang, Eun Seok; Cho, Young Kuk; Ma, Jae Sook

    2012-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the formation of bronchial casts. It is associated with congenital heart disease or pulmonary disease. In children with underlying conditions such as allergy or asthma, influenza can cause severe plastic bronchitis resulting in respiratory failure. A review of the literature showed nine cases of plastic bronchitis with H1N1 including this case. We report a case of a child with recurrent plastic bronchitis with eosinophilic cast assoc...

  20. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike. PMID:27217172

  1. 77 FR 59929 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Patients With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... August 22, 2008 (73 FR 49684), which in turn revised the draft guidance for industry entitled ``Acute... ``Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary... treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients with chronic...

  2. Barotrauma as aetiological cascade of fatal intrapulmonary plastic bronchitis in a post-Fontan child

    OpenAIRE

    Elahi, Maqsood; Poh, Chin-Leng; Ravindranathan, Hari; Grant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The role of barotrauma in the exaggeration of plastic bronchitis after Fontan circulation has yet to be examined. We aim to describe a case of a 4-year old post-Fontan circulation girl where barotrauma suffered during commercial air travel played a role in the aetiological cascade of plastic bronchitis.

  3. The identification of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in prednisone-dependent eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Parameswaran; Ochkur Sergei I; Protheroe Cheryl; Simms Elizabeth; Lee Nancy A; Lee James J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This case reports the unique association of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with eosinophilic bronchitis, asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis and some features of lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome, describes a diagnostic protocol for patients with asthma and persistent eosinophilic bronchitis, and suggests that the use of a novel EPX-mAb provides a reliable method to identify eosinophilic inflammation.

  4. Risk based culling for highly infectious diseases of livestock

    OpenAIRE

    te Beest Dennis E; Hagenaars Thomas J; Stegeman J; Koopmans Marion PG; van Boven Michiel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The control of highly infectious diseases of livestock such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and avian influenza is fraught with ethical, economic, and public health dilemmas. Attempts to control outbreaks of these pathogens rely on massive culling of infected farms, and farms deemed to be at risk of infection. Conventional approaches usually involve the preventive culling of all farms within a certain radius of an infected farm. Here we propose a novel culling strat...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09099-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1233( CP001185 |pid:none) Thermosipho africanus TCF52B, c... 42 0.080 DQ075323_1( DQ075323 |pid:none) Avian infectious...id:none) Methanobrevibacter smithii ATCC ... 40 0.30 AY606320_1( AY606320 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronch...itis virus ... 39 0.40 AY561715_1( AY561715 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... 39 0.52 AL84450...L36900 |pid:none) Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrion... 39 0.52 AF510565_1( AF510565 |pid:none) Avian infectious...39 0.52 AF352831_1( AF352831 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... 39

  6. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses. PMID:25790045

  7. Role of PGE2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sastre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, respiratory system appears to be unique in that PGE2 has beneficial effects. We described that the difference in airway function observed in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma could be due to differences in PGE2 production. PGE2 present in induced sputum supernatant from NAEB patients decreases BSMC proliferation, probably due to simultaneous stimulation of EP2 and EP4 receptors with inhibitory activity. This protective effect of PGE2 may not only be the result of a direct action exerted on airway smooth-muscle proliferation but may also be attributable to the other anti-inflammatory actions.

  8. Detection and molecular characterization of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in laying hens in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    LYB Villarreal; PEB Brandão; JLV Chacón; L Doretto Junior; Ito, N.; NS Gama; MM Ishizuka; A Luchese; F Buchala; CS Astolfi-Ferreira; AJP Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis, caused by Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV), has been reported for decades in Brazilian laying and broiler flocks. More recently, outbreaks have occurred in São Paulo State. This study reports the application of PCR and DNA sequencing targeted to the p32 gene of ILTV using laying chicken samples from Bastos, São Paulo, Brazil. Three out of four field samples were positive by PCR. DNA sequencing of two samples evidenced homology of the amplified frag...

  9. AcEST: DK963398 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 OS=Dro... 32 3.9 sp|P12651|SPIKE_IBVM Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious bron... 31 5.2 sp|Q820T0|MNME...SASPAKFEVPVRASPS 701 >sp|P12651|SPIKE_IBVM Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain M

  10. AcEST: DK948820 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OS=Caenorhabditis elegans ... 32 3.7 sp|P05136|VME1_IBV6 Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious...401 >sp|P05136|VME1_IBV6 Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain 6/82) GN=M PE=3 SV=1

  11. AcEST: DK961387 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ative heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha A... 34 0.71 sp|P12651|SPIKE_IBVM Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious..._IBVM Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain M41) GN=S PE=3 SV=1 Length = 1162 Scor

  12. AcEST: DK962121 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2616|NCAP_IBVM Nucleoprotein OS=Avian infectious bronchitis... 31 5.0 sp|Q03385|G...ct: 387 WNEDKAAAILEAWQRMYVEVVHQSVAQN-----STQKVLSFTTTTLDD 429 >sp|Q82616|NCAP_IBVM Nucleoprotein OS=Avian infectious

  13. AcEST: DK960299 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 LRALKTNEESAKMILLSDPTITIKSYHLWPSFTDEQWITIESQM 2055 >sp|P0C6Y2|R1AB_IBVBC Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Avian infectious...B_IBVB Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain Bea...LELEDAVHIALLTLKETIEGEMNGDTIEIGIVGPPAD 218 >sp|P0C6Y3|R1AB_IBVM Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Avian infectious

  14. Dicty_cDB: VFL494 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 881 |pid:none) Hemiselmis andersenii chromosome ... 34 3.2 AY302747_1( AY302747 |pid:none) Avian infectious ...25731_1( AY325731 |pid:none) Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... 33 7.1 (Q9J3N8) RecName: Full=Membrane pr...otein; Short=M protei... 32 9.3 AF206269_1( AF206269 |pid:none) Avian infectious

  15. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  16. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  17. Effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment versus antibiotic therapy and placebo for patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis with purulent sputum. The BAAP Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Yvonne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute bronchitis is one of the most prevalent respiratory infections in primary care, and in more than 90% of the cases antibiotics are prescribed, mainly when purulent expectoration is present. However, this process is usually viral in origin and the benefits of antibiotic treatment are marginal. On the other hand, in recent years bronchitis has been considered more as an inflammatory than an infectious process. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a schedule of an oral anti-inflammatory compared with an antibiotic regimen and another group assigned to receive a placebo. Methods and design A total of 420 patients from 15 to 70 years of age with no associated comorbidity, presenting respiratory tract infection of at least one week of evolution, with cough as the predominant symptom, the presence of purulent expectoration and at least one other symptom of the respiratory tract (dyspnoea, wheezing, chest discomfort or pain, with no alternative explanation such as pneumonia, will be included in a prospective, randomised and controlled, clinical trial with placebo. The patients will be randomised to receive one of three treatments: ibuprofen, amoxycillin and clavulanic acid or placebo for 10 days. The main outcome measure is the number of days with frequent cough defined by the symptom diary with a score of 1 or more. Discussion This trial is designed to evaluate the number of days with frequent cough with anti-inflammatory treatment compared with antimicrobial treatment and placebo in previously healthy patients with a clinical picture of acute bronchitis and purulent expectoration. It is hypothesized that anti-inflammatory treatment is more effective than antibiotic treatment to reduce cough, which is the most disturbing symptom for patients with this infection. Trial registration ISRCTN07852892

  18. Combat with emerging infectious diseases: clinicians should do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongzhou

    2013-10-01

    In the spring of 2013, an emerging infectious disease emerged in China, 132 cases of human were infected with the H7N9 avian influenza virus, 39 cases were resulted in death within 3 month, which sparked a global concern about public health. Many reports have been published about this disease, including clinical characteristics and genomic information. However, more emerging infectious disease may infect human in the future. Confronted with the escalating scale of compounding probabilities, physicians or clinicians as the first line that meet patients who suffering from emerging infectious disease, we should do better by using our intellect and strong will to carry out public health measures, biomedical research, and technological advances. PMID:24241178

  19. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  20. Avian pox in ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwright, D M; Burger, W P; Geyer, A; Wessles, J

    1994-03-01

    Nodular cutaneous and diphtheric oral lesions, resembling avian pox were observed in 2 flocks of young ostrich chicks. Typical eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in histological sections and a pox virus was isolated from the lesions. A commercial fowl pox vaccine was used to protect young ostriches in the field. PMID:7745588

  1. Avian dark cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  2. Enhanced Surveillance for Detection and Management of Infectious Diseases: Regional Collaboration in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Leventhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Formed before international negotiations of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR, the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS is a regional collaboration aimed at facilitating implementation of the revised IHR and, more broadly, improving the detection and control of infectious disease outbreaks among neighboring countries in an area of continuous dispute. Initially focused on enhancing foodborne disease surveillance, MECIDS has expanded the scope of its work to also include avian and pandemic influenza and other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Here, we describe the history and governance of MECIDS, highlighting key achievements over the consortium's seven-year history, and discuss the future of MECIDS.

  3. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence of six infectious diseases among adults in ...

  4. Study on the serum thyroid hormones levels in patients with acute and chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of serum thyroid hormones levels in patients with acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis. Methods: Serum T3, FT3, T4, FT4, TSH (with CLIA) and rT3 (with RIA) levels were measured in 107 patients with acute bronchitis, 87 patients with chronic bronchitis and 47 controls. Results: The serum thyroid hormones levels in all these patients were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05), except that the serum T3 levels were significantly lower and rT3 levels significantly higher (P3 levels increased significantly and rT3 levels decreased significantly after treatment (P3 levels could reflect the severity of the disease, the T3/rT3 ratio was lowest in the 10 deceased patients. (authors)

  5. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  6. Early warning: Avian flu and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian flu has spread to 51 countries, 36 this year alone, many of which are densely populated and deprived. The joint FAO/IAEA programme is working on the rapid detection of emerging diseases, including bird flu, and using nuclear and radiation techniques in the process. The problems are serious and challenging, but nuclear technologies may offer a solution. For most developing countries, TAD (transboundary animal diseases) detection is still vital. The bottleneck is their inability to rapidly detect the virus and to determine early enough whether it is H5N1 or another subtype, so that authorities can take appropriate control measures. Serious efforts are focused on the early detection of the agents. Timely recognition of such viral infections would prevent the spread of the diseases to large animal populations in huge geographic areas. Thus, the development of novel, powerful diagnostic nuclear and nuclear-related assays is a crucial issue today in veterinary research and animal health care. Molecular virology offers a range of new methods, which are able to accelerate and improve the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals and in man. The molecular detection assays, like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, provide possibilities for a very rapid diagnosis. The detection of viruses can be completed within hours or hopefully even within minutes with a sensitivity level of less than one pathogenic organism. Molecular approaches have contributed significantly to the rapid detection of well-established, as well as newly emerging, infectious agents such as Nipah and Hendra viruses or corona viruses in the SARS scenario and the detection and molecular characterisation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype that threatens the world today. The nucleic acid amplification assays, although they were at first expensive and cumbersome, have become relatively cheap and user-friendly tools in the diagnostic laboratories

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung in French dairy farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dalphin, J.C.; Debieuvre, D.; Pernet, D.; Maheu, M F; Polio, J. C.; Toson, B.; Dubiez, A.; Monnet, E; Laplante, J. J.; Depierre, A

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and of clinical farmer's lung was studied in 30 districts of the French Doubs province in relation to individual (age, sex, smoking) and geographical (altitude) factors. 5703 exclusively dairy farmers (response rate 83%) participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. Prevalences of chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung were 9.3% and 1.4% respectively. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate risk factors for chronic bronchi...

  8. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Activation by Roflumilast Contributes to Therapeutic Benefit in Chronic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, James A.; Raju, S. Vamsee; Tang, Li Ping; McNicholas, Carmel M.; Li, Yao; Courville, Clifford A.; Farris, Roopan F.; Coricor, George E.; Smoot, Lisa H.; Mazur, Marina M.; Dransfield, Mark T; Bolger, Graeme B.; Rowe, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes acquired cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction and is associated with delayed mucociliary clearance and chronic bronchitis. Roflumilast is a clinically approved phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor that improves lung function in patients with chronic bronchitis. We hypothesized that its therapeutic benefit was related in part to activation of CFTR. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, Calu-3, and T84 monolayers were exposed to whol...

  9. Bedeutung von Mykoplasmenspezies bei Katzen mit chronischer Bronchitis/felinem Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Etiology of feline bronchial disease remains unknown so far. However, in human medicine, Mycoplasma spp. infections have been made responsible for the exacerbation of asthmatic lung disease for a long time. Aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of Mycoplasma spp. infections for the development of chronic bronchitis/feline asthma. For this purpose, lavage samples of lungs and nose and nasal swabs where taken from cats with chronic bronchitis/feline asthma and from cats without ...

  10. Determinants of chronic bronchitis and lung dysfunction in Western Australian gold miners

    OpenAIRE

    Humble, C; Wing, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relation of chronic bronchitis and respiratory dysfunction to age, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure to surface and underground mining operations were examined in a cross sectional survey of 1363 men employed in the Kalgoorlie mining industry in 1985. Overall, the prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 14%. Eleven per cent of the workers had obstructive lung disorder (FEV1/FVC less than 0.70) and 9% had restrictive lung disorder (FVC less than 0.80 of predicted for height and age)....

  11. Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis in a double-lung transplanted patient: unusual radiographic and CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis is considered as an early form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, a well-known airway infection in immunocompromised patients. Radiologic features concerning invasive aspergillosis of the airways have been reported. However, we describe here an unusual feature of invasive aspergillus bronchitis, never reported to date, observed in a double-lung transplanted patient. Chest radiograph and CT revealed significant peribronchial thickening without any parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  12. Clinical Peculiarities of Recurrent and Chronic Bronchitis in Children (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Makian, M. V.; Harhaun, V. A.; Maidannyk, V. H.

    2015-01-01

    Subjective manifestations in children with recurrent and chronic bronchitis were the subject of the research.The objective of the research was to evaluate the main clinical manifestations of recurrent and chronic bronchitis, analyze risk factors and preconditions for their occurence in children.Materials and methods of research. The comprehensive clinical and anamnestic examination of 120 children with bronchopulmonary pathology at the age of 3 to 18 (average age was 10.5±1.1 years) was condu...

  13. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained by using hybridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,en- zyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT) and Western- blotting assay (WBA). The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class. No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV) ,in- fectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV). All of McAbs were positively specific reac- tive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity. Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  14. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYan-Fei; WangWei; 等

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) against infections bursal disease virus(IBDV) were obtained by using hydridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),virus neutralization test(VNT) and Western-blotting assay (WBA).The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class.No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV),infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV).All of McAbs were positively specific reactive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity.Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  15. Effects of N2-laser radiation on the immune system cells of patients with chronic bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provorov, Alexander S.; Kozhevnikova, T. A.; Salmin, Vladimir V.

    2001-05-01

    In spite of various investigations devoted to a problem of chronic bronchitis, many problems concerning both the reasons of the origin of this disease, and the essence of the processes, explicating in the bronchial tubes, especially on early stages of the disease, remain insufficiently studied. It makes it difficult to use an integrated approach to chronic bronchitis, that would reflect the peculiarities of its etiology, pathogenesis, its clinical course and efficiency of the therapy. During the last years the data of the clinical laboratory analysis of chronic bronchitis in connection with its immune therapy have been accumulated. In the literature there is a lot of information about the violation of immune reactions in the organism of patients, methods of the immune therapy, the data of the successful application of the intravenous laser therapy in the treatment of obstructive chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. However, there is no research explaining the mechanisms of the laser radiation impact on the immune status of patients suffering from chronic bronchitis. According to this it has become extremely urgent to research the mechanisms of the laser radiation impact on immune competent cells of patients suffering from chronic bronchitis.

  16. An overview on avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA), with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS) for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the confo...

  17. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  18. SEKILAS TENTANG AVIAN INFLUENZA (AI)

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Elytha

    2011-01-01

    Fluburung atau Avian Influenza (AI) adalah penyakit zoonosis fatal dan menular serta dapat menginfeksi semua jenis burung, manusia, babi, kuda dan anjing, Virus Avian Influenza tipe A (hewan) dari keluarga Drthomyxoviridae telah menyerang manusia dan menyebabkan banyak korban meninggal dunia. Saat ini avian Influenza telah menjadi masalah kesehatan global yang sangat serius, termasuk di Indonesia. Sejak Juli 2005 Sampai 12 April 2006 telah ditemukan 479 kasus kumulatif dan dicurigai flu burun...

  19. The avian haemophili.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackall, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    There are four currently recognized taxa to accommodate the avian haemophili: Haemophilus paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, and Pasteurella species A (the last three being formerly united as Haemophilus avium). A range of other taxa has also been recognized, but they have been neither named nor assigned to a genus. All of these various taxa, legitimate and otherwise, have the common characteristic of requiring V factor, but not X factor, for in vitro growth. Several re...

  20. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Ali; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  1. Avian psychology and communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the i...

  2. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    OpenAIRE

    ER Nascimento; VLA Pereira; MGF Nascimento; ML Barreto

    2005-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI) is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorga...

  3. [Proteomics in infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of «Omics» sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research. PMID:25583331

  4. Infectious optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Karl C

    2002-03-01

    A wide variety of infectious agents are known to cause optic neuropathy. This article will consider the bacteria, spirochetes, fungi, and viruses that most commonly affect the optic nerve. Clinical presentation is variable, but some pathogens often produce a characteristic funduscopic pattern. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical suspicion and serologic testing. Polymerase chain reaction is also increasingly utilized. Most infectious agents can be effectively treated but visual recovery is highly variable. PMID:15513450

  5. Applications of avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Benjamin B; Velho, Tarciso A; Sim, Shuyin; Lois, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The ability to introduce foreign DNA into the genome of an organism has proven to be one of the most powerful tools in modern biology. Methods for the manipulation of the animal genome have been developed at an impressive pace for 3 decades, but only in the past 5 years have useful tools for avian transgenesis emerged. The most efficient technique involves the use of replication-deficient lentiviral vectors to deliver foreign DNA into the avian germline. Although lentiviral-mediated transgenesis presents some constraints, progress in this area has garnered interest in both industry and academia for its potential applications in biological research, biotechnology, and agriculture. In this review we evaluate methods for the production of transgenic birds, focusing on the advantages and limitations of lentiviral-mediated transgenesis. We also provide an overview of future applications of this technology. The most exciting of these include disease-resistant transgenic poultry, genetically modified hens that produce therapeutic proteins in their eggs, and transgenic songbirds that serve as a model to study communication disorders. Finally, we discuss technological advances that will be necessary to make avian transgenesis a more versatile tool. PMID:21131712

  6. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  7. Fight against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  8. Avian cholera, a threat to the viability of an Arctic seabird colony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available Evidence that infectious diseases cause wildlife population extirpation or extinction remains anecdotal and it is unclear whether the impacts of a pathogen at the individual level can scale up to population level so drastically. Here, we quantify the response of a Common eider colony to emerging epidemics of avian cholera, one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild waterfowl. We show that avian cholera has the potential to drive colony extinction, even over a very short period. Extinction depends on disease severity (the impact of the disease on adult female survival and disease frequency (the number of annual epidemics per decade. In case of epidemics of high severity (i.e., causing >30% mortality of breeding females, more than one outbreak per decade will be unsustainable for the colony and will likely lead to extinction within the next century; more than four outbreaks per decade will drive extinction to within 20 years. Such severity and frequency of avian cholera are already observed, and avian cholera might thus represent a significant threat to viability of breeding populations. However, this will depend on the mechanisms underlying avian cholera transmission, maintenance, and spread, which are currently only poorly known.

  9. Psychological Distress in Women with Chronic Bronchitis in a Fishing Community in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Aniedi Umoh; Andrew Ibok; Bassey Edet; Ekpe Essien; Festus Abasiubong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Biomass smoke exposure is a known risk factor for chronic bronchitis. Psychiatric comorbidities may have significant impact on the quality of life of patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods. Women who engage in fish preservation by drying over burning firewood in a fishing community were recruited for this survey. The British medical research questionnaire was used to determine chronic bronchitis, and psychological distress was determined using the hospital anxiety and depressio...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chicken Embryo Fibroblast-Adapted Attenuated Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolate from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, T M A; Priyadharsini, C V; Raja, P; Kumanan, K

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is an avian pathogen that causes huge morbidity and mortality in the poultry sector all over the world. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence of an Indian strain, MB11/ABT/MVC/2016, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. This is a first report of a complete genome sequence of infectious bursal disease virus from India. PMID:27174268

  11. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients. PMID:15719666

  12. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  13. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

  14. Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7 virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus still has gaps, complicating epidemic control. A model was developed to back-calculate the day HPAI virus was introduced into a flock, based on within-flock mortality data of the Dutch HPAI H7N7 epidemic (2003). The method was based on a stochastic epidemic model in which birds move from being susceptible, latently infected and infectious, to death. Our results indicated that two weeks can elapse before a noticeab...

  15. Emergent infectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairallah Moncef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  16. Risk Mapping for Avian Influenza: a Social–Ecological Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme S. Cumming

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen dynamics are inseparable from the broader environmental context in which pathogens occur. Although some pathogens of people are primarily limited to the human population, occurrences of zoonoses and vector-borne diseases are intimately linked to ecosystems. The emergence of these diseases is currently being driven by a variety of influences that include, among other things, changes in the human population, long-distance travel, high-intensity animal-production systems, and anthropogenic modification of ecosystems. Anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems have both direct and indirect (food-web mediated effects. Therefore, understanding disease risk for zoonoses is a social–ecological problem. The articles in this special feature focus on risk assessment for avian influenza. They include analyses of the history and epidemiological context of avian influenza; planning and policy issues relating to risk; the roles of biogeography and spatial and temporal variation in driving the movements of potential avian influenza carriers; approaches to quantifying risk; and an assessment of risk-related interactions among people and birds in Vietnamese markets. They differ from the majority of published studies of avian influenza in that they emphasize unknowns and uncertainties in risk mapping and societal responses to avian influenza, rather than concentrating on known or proven facts. From a systems perspective, the different aspects of social–ecological systems that are relevant to the problem of risk mapping can be summarized under the general categories of structural, spatial, and temporal components. I present some examples of relevant system properties, as suggested by this framework, and argue that, ultimately, risk mapping for infectious disease will need to develop a more holistic perspective that includes explicit consideration of the roles of policy, disease management, and feedbacks between ecosystems and societies.

  17. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  18. The book of infectious diseases—a living document

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Planet Earth continues to be pillaged by its dominant species. Man’s incursions into forests have resulted in denudation of massive tracts of land, and the displaced inhabitants—vectors carrying exotic infectious agents—have begun to wander deeper into man’s territory. In 1993, in South-Western United States, the Sin Nombre virus (the first Hantavirus) normally a pathogen of mice, developed its first taste for Homo sapiens. In 1997, the avian influenza H5N1 virus, jumped species to man. I...

  19. CT findings of plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Jhang, Won Kyoung; Kim, Young Hwee; Ko, Jae Kon; Park, In Sook [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Park, Jeong-Jun; Yun, Tae-Jin; Seo, Dong-Man [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare cause of acute obstructive respiratory failure in children. Life-threatening events are much more frequent in patients with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, and most frequent following a Fontan operation. Commonly, the diagnosis is not made until bronchial casts are expectorated. Detailed CT findings in plastic bronchitis have not been described. To describe the CT findings in plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation. Three children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation were evaluated by chest CT. Bronchial casts were spontaneously expectorated and/or extracted by bronchoscopy. Airway and lung abnormalities seen on CT were analyzed in the three children. CT demonstrated bronchial casts in the central airways with associated atelectasis and consolidation in all children. The affected airways were completely or partially obstructed by the bronchial casts without associated bronchiectasis. The airway and lung abnormalities rapidly improved after removal of the bronchial casts. CT can identify airway and lung abnormalities in children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation. In addition, CT can be used to guide bronchoscopy and to monitor treatment responses, and thereby may improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  20. CT findings of plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare cause of acute obstructive respiratory failure in children. Life-threatening events are much more frequent in patients with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, and most frequent following a Fontan operation. Commonly, the diagnosis is not made until bronchial casts are expectorated. Detailed CT findings in plastic bronchitis have not been described. To describe the CT findings in plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation. Three children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation were evaluated by chest CT. Bronchial casts were spontaneously expectorated and/or extracted by bronchoscopy. Airway and lung abnormalities seen on CT were analyzed in the three children. CT demonstrated bronchial casts in the central airways with associated atelectasis and consolidation in all children. The affected airways were completely or partially obstructed by the bronchial casts without associated bronchiectasis. The airway and lung abnormalities rapidly improved after removal of the bronchial casts. CT can identify airway and lung abnormalities in children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation. In addition, CT can be used to guide bronchoscopy and to monitor treatment responses, and thereby may improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  1. Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Felissa R

    2004-04-01

    We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure

  2. Effect of infection route and concurrent infectious bronchitis virus vaccination on Mycoplasma gallisepticum disease pathology in an experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections is needed, not only to understand the disease process, but also to understand the mechanisms by which M. gallisepticum vaccines protect the host. Many model systems have been used to study the M. gallisepticum disease process. This work compared two...

  3. β-carotene protects rats against bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞宝森; 王辰; 翁心植; 唐小奈; 张红玉; 牛淑洁; 毛燕玲; 辛平; 黄秀霞; 张海燕; 祝锦

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of β-carotene in rats against the development of chronic bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking. Results Long-term cigarette smoking caused an obvious increase in the amount of IL-6, IL-8 and LPO and a sharp decrease in the levels of NO and SOD in smoking animals compared to controls. β-carotene intake reversed all the changes induced by smoking and alleviated the pathological changes caused by chronic bronchitis. Conclusions Quantitative oral intake of β-carotene had protective effects against chronic bronchitis induced by long-term cigarette smoking, which was associated with the increased production of NO, the clearance of some oxidative free radicals (OFR) and the alleviation of chronic inflammation.

  4. Can eosinophilic bronchitis be considered as an occupational disease? Medical certification aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kleniewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB is a condition which can be associated with occupational exposure to low, as well as to high molecular weight allergens. The prevalence of occupational eosinophilic bronchitis is unknown and the data concerning its work-related etiology are available only from the case reports. However, there is a need to establish the principles, especially in the context of medical certification among workers occupationally exposed to allergens. This paper reviews current knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, and diagnostic procedures in the eosinophilic bronchitis. The importance of EB, especially in view of the problems emerging in the prophylactic care taken by occupational health services and the principles of medical certification when occupational etiology is suspected are also presented. Med Pr 2013;64(4:569–578

  5. [Early detection of chronic dust-induced bronchitis in the workers of coal mines in Rostov region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotnikova, O D; Piktushanskaia, I N; Kutovoĭ, V I

    1994-01-01

    To diagnose mild forms of dust bronchitis in miners, the medical examination covered pulmonary ventilation parameters. The examination revealed bronchial obstruction, so early stages of bronchitis became 2-2.5 times more frequently diagnosed. Registration of flow-volume curve in forced expiration appeared to be the most productive functional test. PMID:7866714

  6. Psychological Distress in Women with Chronic Bronchitis in a Fishing Community in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Aniedi Umoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Biomass smoke exposure is a known risk factor for chronic bronchitis. Psychiatric comorbidities may have significant impact on the quality of life of patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods. Women who engage in fish preservation by drying over burning firewood in a fishing community were recruited for this survey. The British medical research questionnaire was used to determine chronic bronchitis, and psychological distress was determined using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Results. A total of 342 women were recruited for this study and 63 of them had chronic bronchitis. 96 women had features suggestive of psychological distress: 57 (16.6% women with anxiety, 51 (14.9% women with depression and 12 women (3.5% had combined features. Psychological distress was more common among women with chronic bronchitis. Anxiety was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis and the level of biomass exposure while depression was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis, level of exposure, and a history of sleeping in the fish smoking room. Conclusion. Anxiety and depression show significant association with chronic bronchitis among women with biomass smoke exposure with the level of exposure having an aggravating effect on the relationship.

  7. Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious haematopoietic necrosis. This disease is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Novirhabdoviridae. IHN is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  8. Infectious Salmon Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  9. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  10. Avian Influenza Infection Dynamics in Minor Avian Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Dols, Kateri

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) has become one of the most important challenges that ever emerged from animal reservoirs. The constant outbreaks detected worldwide in domestic and wild bird species are of concern to the economics of the poultry industry, wildlife conservation, and animal and public health. Susceptibility to AI viruses (AIVs) varies deeply among avian species, as well as their possible role as sentinels, intermediate hosts or reservoirs. To date, several experimental studies and natural ...

  11. Radionuclide methods of assessment of external respiration in chronic obstructive bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial was designet to study shifts in various mechanisms of external respiration (ER)distress in chronic obstructive bronchitis by type of respiration insufficiency (RI). Combinet clinicoroentgenological, spirographic, endoscopic and radionuclide (133Xe radiopneumography and 99Tc scintigraphy) examinations were conducted in 66 patients. The following parameters appeared most informative in studying ER in the bronchitis patients with radionuclide techniques: the volume of ventilated alveoli, respiratory capacity, total and functional residual lung capacity, index ventilation/blood flow, capillary blood flow, time of half elimination of Xe from the alveoli and vascular bed. The above parameters change for the worse with progressive deterioration of external respiration

  12. Nebuhaler or nebulizer for high dose bronchodilator therapy in chronic bronchitis: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M B; Pugh, J; Wilson, R S

    1988-10-01

    We have compared the clinical efficacy of high dose terbutaline sulphate (10 mg four times daily) delivered by either a Nebuhaler or jet nebulizer in 13 patients with chronic bronchitis in a 2-week, open, crossover study. Both treatment regimens improved run-in symptom scores but no significant changes were recorded in peak flow and spirometry. Side-effects were more common with the Nebuhaler and more patients preferred the nebulizer. However, the Nebuhaler is an alternative therapeutic option for delivery of high doses of bronchodilators in patients with chronic bronchitis. PMID:3076792

  13. High incidence of rickets in children with wheezy bronchitis in a developing country1

    OpenAIRE

    El-Radhi, A Sahib; Mansor, N; Majeed, M; Ibrahim, M

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of rickets in 100 Iraqi infants with wheezy bronchitis (24%) exceeded by two and a half times that found in age-matched controls (9%), and by ten times when only those with severe rickets were considered. The reason for this is not entirely clear, but could be related to the fact that the infants with wheezy bronchitis weighed more and therefore had grown faster than the control group. This itself could be related to the higher incidence of breastfeeding in the infants with whee...

  14. Clinical X-ray characteristics of chronic bronchitis in workers of coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    100 workers of coal mines with chronic dusty bronchitis are examined. The roentgenological manifestations of different stages of the diseases with respect to the clinical picture and function of external breath according to the data of roentgenopneumopolygraphy, are characterized. The attention is paid to a most pronounced violation of external breath function in this category of patients. The peculiarities of clinico-roentgenological picture of dust bronchitis found should be taken into account when solving the problems of medical labor examination. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Radioimmunological allergy diagnostics in infants suffering from asthmatoid bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and hay fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurence of circulating specific antibodies against milk protein, hen protein, fish (cod), against cat, dog and horse epithelium as well as against 2 types of house dust was investigated with 11 children in the age of 1-6 years having asthmatoid bronchitis, 23 children aging from 2-15 years with bronchial asthma and 3 children aging from 6-13 years with hay fever, using the radioallergosorbens test (RAST). Children having asthmatoid bronchitis for the first time exhibited a smaller number and a lesser extent of positive radioallergosorben test results then children with bronchial asthma. The children with hay fever exhibited exclusively negative test results. (orig./LN)

  16. Dynamic scintigraphy of the lungs with 133Xe in chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of dynamic scintigraphy with 133Xe Was used to study regional ventilation and regional pulmonary blood flow in 58 persons (14 practically healthy persons and 44 patients with chronic bronchitis). This data obtained were assessed visUally and sub ected to a quantitative processing according to the above-mentioned program. Quantitative distinctions in regional values of the residnal volume, a ratio of the residual volume to the general capacity, the time of mixing, a half-period of washing off made it possible to distinguish clearly between two forms of chronic bronchitis (non-obstructive and a form with the noticeable obstructive syndrome)

  17. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles ...

  18. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  19. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... included in this RFI. The primary routes of infectious disease transmission in US healthcare settings are... reducing the risk of infectious disease transmission to patients and HCWs, the guidelines are non-mandatory... patients or clients who may have an infectious disease, please explain how your workplace...

  20. Low Speed Avian Maneuvering Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Low speed avian maneuvering flight is an ecologically crucial behavior that has contributed to the explosive diversification of several avian taxa by allowing access to complex spatial environments. Negotiating a sharp aerial turn requires finely tuned interactions between an animal's sensory-motor system and its environment. My thesis work focuses on how aerodynamic forces, wing and body dynamics, and sensory feedback interact during aerial turning in the pigeon (Columba livea).

  1. Avian influenza : a review article

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalda; EMADI H; M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu) and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1), that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO) , world organization for animal health (OIE) , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO) information and recommendations and review of th...

  2. The Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  3. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  4. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  5. Isolation of Avian Paramyxovirus 1 from a Patient with a Lethal Case of Pneumonia▿

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel, Scott J.; Taylor, Jill; Barr, Bradd C.; Kiehn, Timothy E.; Castro-Malaspina, Hugo R.; Hedvat, Cyrus V.; Rush-Wilson, Kim A.; Kelly, Cassandra D.; Davis, Stephen W.; Samsonoff, William A.; Hurst, Kelley R.; Behr, Melissa J.; Masters, Paul S.

    2007-01-01

    An unknown virus was isolated from a lung biopsy sample and multiple other samples from a patient who developed a lethal case of pneumonia following a peripheral blood stem cell transplant. A random PCR-based molecular screening method was used to identify the infectious agent as avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1; a group encompassing Newcastle disease virus), which is a highly contagious poultry pathogen that has only rarely been found in human infections. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed ...

  6. Epidemiology and pathology of avian malaria in penguins undergoing rehabilitation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; da Silva-Filho, Rodolfo Pinho; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane Kiyomi Miyaji; Bhering, Renata Cristina Campos; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Amaku, Marcos; Junior, Francisco Carlos Ferreira; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Seabird rehabilitation is a valuable strategy to mitigate the impacts of oil pollution and other anthropogenic factors, and can significantly contribute to the conservation of penguins. However, infectious diseases such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) can hamper the success of rehabilitation efforts. We combined morphological and molecular diagnostic methods to investigate the epidemiology and pathology of Plasmodium in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at rehabilitation center...

  7. Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

    OpenAIRE

    H Hidalgo

    2003-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a) chickens with acute upper respiratory...

  8. Role of Urbanization, Land-Use Diversity, and Livestock Intensification in Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh; Castrence, Miguel; Nong, Duong; Spencer, James; Lam, Nguyen; Finucane, Melissa; Duc Vien, Tran; Wilcox, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) continue to significantly threaten human and animal health. While there has been some progress in identifying underlying proximal driving forces and causal mechanisms of disease emergence, the role of distal factors is most poorly understood. This article focuses on analyzing the statistical association between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and urbanization, land-use diversity and poultry intensification. A special form of the urban transiti...

  9. An impedance immunosensor based on low-cost microelectrodes and specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in chicken swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianhan; Wang, Ronghui; Jiao, Peirong; Li, Yuntao; Li, Yanbin; Liao, Min; Yu, Yude; Wang, Maohua

    2015-05-15

    Early screening of suspected cases is the key to control the spread of avian influenza (AI) H5N1. In our previous studies, an impedance biosensor with an interdigitated array microelectrode based biochip was developed and validated with pure AI H5 virus, but had limitations in cost and reliability of the biochip, specificity of the antibody against Asian in-field H5N1 virus and detection of H5N1 virus in real samples. The purpose of this study is to develop a low-cost impedance immunosensor for rapid detection of Asian in-field AI H5N1 virus in chicken swabs within 1h and validate it with the H5N1 virus. Specific monoclonal antibodies against AI H5N1 virus were developed by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from an H5N1-virus-immunized mouse. Dot-ELISA analysis demonstrated that the developed antibodies had good affinity and specificity with the H5N1 virus. The microelectrodes were redesigned with compact size, fabricated using an improved wet-etching micro-fabrication process with a higher qualified production rate of 70-80%, and modified with the antibodies by the Protein A method. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated that electron transfer resistor was effective with the increase in impedance after capturing of the H5N1 viruses. Linear relationship between impedance change and logarithmic value of H5N1 virus at the concentrations from 2(-1) to 2(4) HAU/50 μl was found and the lower limit of detection was 2(-1) HAU/50 μl. No obvious interferences from non-target viruses such as H6N2, H9N2, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus were found. Chicken swab tests showed that the impedance immunosensor had a comparable accuracy with real-time RT-PCR compared to viral isolation. PMID:25263315

  10. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Outpatient Visits for Acute Bronchitis in a Chinese City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li Juan; ZHAO Ang; CHEN Ren Jie; KAN Hai Dong; KUANG Xing Ya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the short-term association between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for acute bronchitis, which is a rare subject of research in the mainland of China. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011). Results Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to 0.94%(95%CI:0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12%(95%CI:10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84%(95%CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (P Conclusion Our analyses have provided the first evidence that the current air pollution level in China has an effect on acute bronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened.

  11. Lung mucociliary transport function in chronic bronchitis and radionuclide methods of its investigation (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods for studying lung clearance of smokers and non-smoking patients with chronic bronchitis (CB) are described. Modified technique for investigating mucociliary transport (MCT) in CB patients, using 99mTc-macroaggregate of human serum albumin, is suggested. The method enables to examine more patients and obtain the most comprehensive data on MCT state on any level of tracheobronchial tree

  12. Histone deacetylase activity and recurrent bacterial bronchitis in severe eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, L; Cox, A; Pray, C; Radford, K; Novakowski, K; Dorrington, M; Surette, M G; Bowdish, D; Nair, P

    2016-04-01

    An increase in P13 Kinase activity and an associated reduction in histone deacetylase activity may contribute to both relative steroid insensitivity in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma and impaired macrophage scavenger function and susceptibility to recurrent infective bronchitis that may, in turn, contribute to further steroid insensitivity. PMID:26715426

  13. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  14. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents. The majority (90% of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3% than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%. Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia.

  15. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF PHAGOCYTIC CELLS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE LEUKEMIA WITH AN INFECTIOUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Plotnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate some characteristics of neutrophils and monocytes in patients with acute leukemia, depending on presence of an infectious syndrome, as based on studying of CD16, CD64, HLA-DR receptors, along with assaying myeloperoxidase (MPO and functional activity of the cells. Infectious syndrome in acute leukemia patients was accompanied by changes in antibody-dependent cytotoxicity against neutrophils (decreased CD16 and increase in CD64 expression, lower phagocytic capacity of the cells, and myeloperoxidase deficiency of neutrophils and monocytes. In patients with inflammatory manifestations of infectious syndrome (i.e., acute tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, etc., the signs of neutrophilic insussiciency were more pronounced, i.e., CD16+ neutrophils comprised 24.36±7.43%, as compared with 74.21±5.43% in controls, p < 0.001; MPO positivity was detected in 29.15±12.6% of the cells against 96.1±1.94% in controls, p < 0.01; MPO expression: 5.34±3.07 MFI, with 32.9±10.76 in controls, p < 0,05. These data suggest significant disturbances of anti-infectious elimination mechanisms.

  17. Infectious abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs

  18. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  19. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  20. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat. PMID:22390054

  1. The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, James

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium (CIDC) was established to provide a multi-institutional, world class quality environment for infectious disease research addressing important questions and for the recruitment and training of high quality veterinarians into careers in infectious disease research. The programme has been a demonstrable success in achieving these overall aims. The institutions that have played a key role in the consortium include the Department of Veterinary Medic...

  2. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  3. Correlates of COPD and chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers: data from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayat G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Waked,1 Joseph Salame,2 Georges Khayat,3 Pascale Salameh41Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, and St George Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Lebanese University, Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculty of Medicine, St Joseph University and Hôtel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Lebanese University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Beirut, LebanonPurpose: Our objective was to assess the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and their correlates among a Lebanese nonsmoker group.Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and September 2010, using a multistage cluster sample throughout Lebanon including Lebanese residents aged 40 years and above with no exclusion criteria. Pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry measurements were performed and carbon monoxide level was measured in exhaled air. COPD was defined and classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines or according to the lower limit of normal (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity postbronchodilator < 5th percentile of the healthy population having the same age and sex. Chronic bronchitis was defined by the declaration of morning cough and expectorations for more than 3 months a year over more than 2 years in individuals with normal spirometry.Results: Out of 2201 individuals, 732 were never-smokers: 25 (3.4% of them had COPD, and 86 (11.75% fulfilled the definition of chronic bronchitis. Correlates of COPD included a childhood respiratory disease, house heated by diesel, and older age. On the other hand, correlates of chronic bronchitis included childhood respiratory diseases, living in southern Lebanon versus other regions, heating home by gas, older age, number of smokers at work, and lower height.Conclusion: A substantial percentage of the nonsmoking population may exhibit chronic bronchitis or COPD. The

  4. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan M; Trevor Francis Fernandez and Feroz Mohammed.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe dise...

  5. 人感染禽流感病毒的传播%The spread of human infection with avian influenza virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅帅; 郭潮潭

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza virus belongs to type A influenza virus,its infection lead to infectious disease that spread among the avian.During 1997,some avian influenza viruses that present in poultry have across the species barrier,so that it can transmit from avian to humans directly.It has caused the death of many infections in Asia and the whole world,and became a potential pandemic factor.Therefore,the situation of avian influenza infection in humans from 1997 are aualyzed in this review,in order to provide science basis for the prevention and control about the outbreak of new avian influenza in the future.%禽流感病毒属于A型流感病毒,其感染导致的传染病一般只在禽类间传播,然而1997年以来,存在于家禽中的一些禽流感病毒已经突破了动物种间屏障,能够直接从禽类传播给人类,导致亚洲及全球范围内很多感染病例的死亡,存在潜在大流行的威胁.此文对1997年以来禽流感病毒感染人类的状况进行分析,为今后新型禽流感暴发的预防和控制提供参考.

  6. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  7. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  8. Comparison of right ventricular weight at necropsy in interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and in chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Packe, G E; Cayton, R M; Edwards, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The ventricular weights in 43 patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis were retrospectively compared with those in 172 patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The mean right ventricular weight of patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and those with emphysema and chronic bronchitis was 85.5 g (SD 23.2) and 88.8 g (34.3), respectively. Thirty five patients (81%) with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis had a right ventricular weight over 65 g compared with 124 (72%) of those wi...

  9. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  10. [Infectious diseases (beside AIDS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, C; Senn, L; Zanetti, G

    2008-01-01

    A simplified version of the US guidelines for prophylaxis of infectious endocarditis was published in 2007. Changes are expected in Switzerland as well. Posaconsole is a new antifungal agent available mostly for prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections warrants screening in young adults and after one episode. A meta-analysis clarified the impact of antibiotic therapy in patients with Campylobacter spp. infection. In the field of emerging diseases, we discuss Norovirus epidemics, community-acquired bacteria producing extended-spectrum betalactamases, extensively resistant tuberculosis, and new respiratory viruses. Finally, we address a basic research topic that may change practice in the future: the relationship between individual susceptibility to infection and innate immunity. PMID:18251213

  11. Investigation into the effect of fenoterol on mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effects of fenoterol, a selective β2 adrenoceptor stimulant, on mucociliary clearance in 12 patients with chronic bronchitis. Mucociliary clearance was measured with a scintillation camera after inhalation of a 99mTc labeled aerosol. Fenoterol was administered one h after acquisition commenced and imaging was maintained for a further two h. Three regions of interest (ROI) were selected over each lung to generate time activity curves. Corrections for decay, alveolar deposition (using 24 h image), cough and movement of activity through each ROI were carried out. An exponential function was fitted to the clearance curves to determine clearance rates. The increase in percentage clearance after fenoterol administration for the left and right whole lung ROI was 35% and 36% per h respectively (P = 0.006 and 0.020). Fenoterol enhances cilial clearance in chronic bronchitis patients. (orig.)

  12. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ...OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings to explore the possible development of a proposed rule to protect workers from occupational exposure to infectious agents in settings, either where workers provide direct patient care or where......

  13. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  14. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis*,**

    OpenAIRE

    Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Maurici, Rosemeri; Trevisol, Daisson José; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emílio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating par...

  15. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis,

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Mamôru Sakae; Rosemeri Maurici; Daisson José Trevisol; Marcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini; Emílio Pizzichini

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating par...

  16. Role of P G E 2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre, Beatriz; del Pozo, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, ...

  17. Investigation of Neurokinin‐1 Receptor Antagonism as a Novel Treatment for Chronic Bronchitis in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Grobman, M.; Reinero, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Canine chronic bronchitis (CCB) results in cough lasting ≥2 months and airway inflammation. Adverse effects include risk of secondary infection associated with lifelong corticosteroid administration and prompt investigation into alternative therapies. Neurogenic pathways mediated by tachykinins that bind neurokinin (NK) 1 receptors may induce cough and airway inflammation. Maropitant,1 a NK‐1 receptor antagonist, has been advocated for treatment of CCB based on anecdotal improvemen...

  18. Moxifloxacin in the management of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Miravitlles, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria are isolated in more than 50% of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The most prevalent respiratory pathogens include Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis) microorganims. Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including atypicals and those resistant to most common antibiotics. The bi...

  19. [Effects of essential oil on lipid peroxidation and lipid metabolism in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siurin, S A

    1997-01-01

    Natural concentrations of some essential oils were examined for effects on the system lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense and lipid metabolism in 150 patients with chronic bronchitis. Lowering of plasm levels of dienic conjugates and ketons, activation of catalase in red cells characteristic of antioxidant effect were observed in exposure to essential oils of rosemary, basil, fir, eucalyptus. Lavender essential oil promotes normalization of the level of total lipids, ratio of total cholesterol to its alpha-fraction. PMID:9490339

  20. Comparative evaluation of lung ventilation in patients with dust bronchitis and pneumoconiosis by roentgenopneumopolygraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of roentgenopneumopolygraphy in 290 coal miners are analyzed. Localized diffuse ventilation disorders are detected, that are most pronounced in the upper and central lung regions. In all patients with dust bronchitis local and diffuse emphysematous ventilation disorders were detectable. In all patients with pneumoconiosis combined functional and morphologic changes were found. The use of X-ray function tests in coal miners facilitates an early detection of pathologic lung processes. (author)

  1. Effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation of rats with chronic bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-yun; HUANG Shao-guang; WAN Huan-ying; WU Hua-cheng; ZHOU Tong; LI Min; DENG Wei-wu

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is the major cause of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and smoking cessation is regarded as one of the important strategies for prevention and treatment of the inflammation.The inflammation of the chronic airway may be present and deteriorated even if the COPD patients stop smoking.Whether and how early smoking cessation affects the progress of inflammation is still obscure. This study was conducted to find the appropriate time for smoking cessation to terminate the airway inflammation in rats with smoke-induced chronic bronchitis.Methods A rat model of COPD was established by passively inhaling smoke mixture. Fifty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups with different periods of smoke exposure and different time points of cessation. The inflammation markers to be detected included inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the myeloperoxidose (MPO) activity, the morphologic changes and the expression of ICAM-1 on the airway epithelium.Results When smoking was terminated at early stage, the inflammatory markers and related indexes were different from those of the typical chronic bronchitis group (group M7) (P<0.01). The pathologic score of group SC7 (2 weeks of smoking cessation after occurrence of typical chronic bronchitis ) was not different from that of group M7, and the level of ICAM-1 was still up-regulated (compared to group M7, P>0.05). Meanwhile, most of inflammatory cells in BALF were neutrophils compared to other groups (P<0.01).When smoking was terminated, the MPO activity was significantly lower than that of group M7 (P<0.01).Conclusions Smoking cessation at early stage can effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction of COPD. Once chronic bronchitis occurs, little could be improved by smoking cessation.

  2. Impact of heterozygote CFTR Mutations in COPD patients with Chronic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, S. Vamsee; Tate, Jody H; Peacock, Sandra KG; Fang, Ping; Oster, Robert A.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Steven M Rowe

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking causes Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S. CFTR ion transport dysfunction has been implicated in COPD pathogenesis, and is associated with chronic bronchitis. However, susceptibility to smoke induced lung injury is variable and the underlying genetic contributors remain unclear. We hypothesized that presence of CFTR mutation heterozygosity may alter susceptibility to cigarette smoke induced CFTR dysfunction. Con...

  3. Radioisotopic examinations of the functional state of reticuloendothelial cells of the liver in chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic hepatography carried out in 65 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and respiratory insufficiency (grades 1-2 and 3) at the phase of remission revealed disorders of the liver circulation and absorptive capacity of reticuloendothelial liver cells. There was a direct dependence between the degree of liver circulation disorders, inhibition of absorptive function of the reticuloendothelial cells of the liver and degree of respiratory insufficiency in these patients

  4. Immunological status in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunological status in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up with chronic bronchitis was investigated. Patients had more tension elements of immune system at increased level of obstruction. Adaptive reaction in the liquidators was formed on lower level of organism reaction and imbalance in immune competence subsystems developed. This phenomenon is a negative prognostic sign of more serious disease and can cause invalidation of the patients

  5. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  6. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M;

    2015-01-01

    . Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest...

  7. OFFLU Network on Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Steven

    2006-01-01

    OFFLU is the name of the network of avian influenza expertise inaugurated jointly in 2005 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health. Achievements and constraints to date and plans for the future are described.

  8. Avian Influenza: Our current understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) has become one of the most important diseases of the poultry industry around the world. The virus has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infection. T...

  9. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  10. Evaluation of effectiveness of hydrolyzed dextran in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinchenko, N.Z.; Filipchenko, L.L.; Volkova, V.M.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental group and a control group identical in age, work experience, dust exposure and expression of disease were treated for dust-induced bronchitis. The control group received broncholytics, anti-inflammatory preparations and physiotherapy; the experimental group received same treatment plus 200 ml of rheopolyglucin, a 10% solution of dextran (water-soluble polysaccharide of glucose), twice a week for 2 to 3 weeks. In addition to general laboratory and clinical methods of investigation, cytologic analysis of sputum before and after treatment was carried out. Results of experiment are given in 3 tables showing: Dynamics of Allergic Signs after Treatment with Rheopolyglucin, Dynamics of Content of Eosinophils in Blood after Treatment, and Cytologic Characteristics of Mucus of Patients with Dust-Induced Bronchitis. Patients treated with rheopolyglucin improved more than control group in abatement of suppurative process in lungs, strengthening of specific cellular and humoral mechanisms of immune response at level of bronchopulmonary system, increased expulsion of mineral dust from lungs and significant reduction of allergic reaction. Results quantitated in tables prove advantages of adding rheopolyglucin to traditional therapy in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. 19 refs.

  11. Spirometric abnormalities associated with chronic bronchitis, asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness among boilermaker construction workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, R.; Eisen, E,A,; Pothier, L,; Lewis, D,; Bledsoe, T,; Christiani, D.C. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health

    2002-06-01

    In a 2-year longitudinal study of boilermaker construction workers, authors found a significant association between working at oil-fired, coal-fired, and gas-fired industries during the past year and reduced lung function. In the present study, authors investigated whether chronic bronchitis, asthma, or baseline methacholine airway responsiveness can explain the heterogeneity in lung function response to boilermaker work. Exposure was assessed with a work history questionnaire. Spirometry was performed annually to assess lung function. A generalized estimating equation approach was used to account for the repeated-measures design. One hundred eighteen boilermakers participated in the study. Self-reported history of chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a larger FEV1 reduction in response to workplace exposure at coal-fired and gas-fired industries. Although a high prevalence (39%) of airway hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEVI of {lt} 8 mg/mL) among boilermakers was found, there was no consistent pattern of effect modification by airway responsiveness. Conclusions: Although chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a greater loss in lung function in response to hours worked as a boilermaker, and therefore they acted as effect modifiers of the exposure-lung function relationship, airway hyperresponsiveness did not. However, the high prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness found in the cohort may be a primary consequence of long-term workplace exposure among boilermakers.

  12. Acupuncture as method of treatment and arresting progress of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baburina, E.B.; Bykova, E.A.

    1983-10-01

    Acupuncture is an effective therapy for treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. It can be used independently or in combination with medicaments. Fifty men were divided into two groups of 20 and 30. One group was treated by acupuncture alone, the other with combined therapy. Acupuncture produced excellent results; combined treatment, good and satisfactory results. Since acupuncture reduced the possibility of complications, allergic reactions and side effects due to medication, it is an excellent means of preventing progress of dust-induced bronchitis. Patients experience 9 months remission of symptoms after treatment with acupuncture while medical therapy alone only relieves them for 1 to 1 1/2 months. Patients with chronic dust-induced bronchitis should receive a second course of acupuncture in 6 to 8 months to prevent recurrence of symptoms and progress of disease. Because of insufficient study of lasting effects of acupuncture, final conclusions about its effectiveness cannot be made, however, current evidence indicates it is a highly useful therapy. 6 references.

  13. Therapeutic Approaches to Acquired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Dysfunction in Chronic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, George M; Raju, S Vamsee; Dransfield, Mark T; Rowe, Steven M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common cause of morbidity and a rising cause of mortality worldwide. Its rising impact indicates the ongoing unmet need for novel and effective therapies. Previous work has established a pathophysiological link between the chronic bronchitis phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis as well as phenotypic similarities between these two airways diseases. An extensive body of evidence has established that cigarette smoke and its constituents contribute to acquired dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein in the airways, pointing to a mechanistic link with smoking-related and chronic bronchitis. Recent interest surrounding new drugs that target both mutant and wild-type CFTR channels has paved the way for a new treatment opportunity addressing the mucus defect in chronic bronchitis. We review the clinical and pathologic evidence for modulating CFTR to address acquired CFTR dysfunction and pragmatic issues surrounding clinical trials as well as a discussion of other ion channels that may represent alternative therapeutic targets. PMID:27115953

  14. AcEST: BP919061 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ike B1 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana G... 31 3.1 sp|P05136|VME1_IBV6 Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronchi....ous bronch... 30 6.8 sp|P69601|VME1_IBVB Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronc...VKTC 595 >sp|P69602|VME1_IBVBC Membrane protein OS=Avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain Beaudette CK) G...5.2 sp|P00533|EGFR_HUMAN Epidermal growth factor receptor OS=Homo sa... 30 5.2 sp|P69602|VME1_IBVBC Membrane protein OS=Avian infecti...ctious bronchitis virus (strain 6/82) GN=M PE=3 SV=1 Len

  15. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  16. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  17. Infectious endocarditis: rlieumatologic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Tarasova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess rheumatologic aspects of modern infectious endocarditis (IE and to determine role of anti-inflammatory therapy in complex treatment of the disease. Material and methods. 50 pts with IE (24 female, 26 male aged 16 to 60 years were included. Primary IE was diagnosed in 15, secondary - in 35 cases. 7 pts had acute and 43 — subacute course. 40 pts had definite and 10 — probable IE. Results. Mean period till correct diagnosis establishment was 112± 116,5 days. Diagnostic difficulties were more frequent in subacute variant of IE (p=0,03. Heart diseases prevailed among cardiac risk factors (p=0,0l. Clinical picture of IE was very polymorphous. Glucocorticoids (GC were administered to 21 pts in addition to antibiotics due to signs of organ immunopatology and high laboratory measures of immune activity. Positive effect of glucocorticoids was achieved in 64% of pts. Conclusion. Development of immunological changes complicates timely diagnosis of IE and requires exclusion of different diseases including rheumatic pathology. IE treatment strategy does not exclude administration of GC low doses for prominent immunopathological signs in addition to massive antibacterial therapy.

  18. Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo H

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

  19. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  20. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  1. Herpesvirus infection and infectious mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sharipova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present current information on various aspects of infectious mononucleosis in children. Based on the analysis of scientific literature highlights the major etiological factors that lead to the development of this disease. The paper describes the clinical and laboratory features of infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus type VI. Presents literature data on the impact of herpes infection on the development of mononucleosis. Showing modern aspects of an integrated diagnosis of herpesvirus infection in infectious mononucleosis in children.

  2. AcEST: DK955549 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12650|SPIKE_IBVK Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infectious bron... 32 1.5 sp|P02548|NFL_BOVIN Neurofilament lig...D AEGG G+R Sbjct: 34 ANGNAENEENGDQENEVDEEDD-DVAEEDEEDDGEGDDDDEDEEAEGGTGKR 84 >sp|P12650|SPIKE_IBVK Spike glycoprotein OS=Avian infect...ious bronchitis virus (strain KB8523) GN=S PE=3 SV=1 Len

  3. Prevalence Patterns of Avian Plasmodium and Haemoproteus Parasites and the Influence of Host Relative Abundance in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhua Zhang; Yuchun Wu; Qiang Zhang; Dongdong Su; Fasheng Zou

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases threaten the health and survival of wildlife populations. Consequently, relationships between host diversity, host abundance, and parasite infection are important aspects of disease ecology and conservation research. Here, we report on the prevalence patterns of avian Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infections and host relative abundance influence based on sampling 728 wild-caught birds representing 124 species at seven geographically widespread sites in southern China. The ov...

  4. Anatomic distribution of avian Borna virus in parrots, its occurrence in clinically healthy birds and ABV- antibody detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lierz, Michael; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Honkavuori, Kirsi; Gruber, Achim D.; Olias, Philipp; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M; Kohls, Andrea; Lipkin, Ian W; Briese, Thomas; Hauck, Ruediger

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a fatal infectious disease of birds that primarily affects psittacine birds. Although a causative agent has not been formally demonstrated, the leading candidate is a novel avian Borna virus (ABV) detected in post-mortem tissue samples of psittacids with PDD from the USA, Israel and recently Germany. Here we describe the presence of ABV in a parrot with PDD as well as in clinically normal birds exposed to birds with PDD. In two AB...

  5. A Recombinant Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J for Directly Monitoring Viral Infection and the Selection of Neutralizing Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaofei; Ji, Xiaolin; Wang, Jingfei; Shen, Nan; Gao, Yulong; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Zhang, Shide; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has induced serious clinical outbreaks and has become a serious infectious disease of chickens in China. We describe here the creation of a recombinant ALV-J tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (named rHPRS-103EGFP). We successfully utilize the rHPRS-103EGFP to visualize viral infection and for development of a simplified serum-neutralization test.

  6. Chymotrypsin and trypsin sensitivities of avian reoviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Drastini, Y; McKenna, P K; Kibenge, F S; Lopez, A

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to examine the chymotrypsin sensitivity and trypsin sensitivity of 13 avian reoviruses, and to determine if there was any correlation with pathogenicity of some chicken reoviruses. A wide variation in the degree of sensitivity of avian reoviruses to chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed. Overall, the infectivity of the 13 avian reoviruses for Vero cells was markedly reduced by treatment with 0.01% chymotrypsin (the lowest concentration tested) while 0.5% trypsin si...

  7. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    N.L.P.I Dharmayanti; R Damayanti; R Indriani; A Wiyono; R.M.A Adjid

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1). Mo...

  8. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Haahr, Sven; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the...... Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  9. Infectious spondylitis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In adults, infectious spondylitis is a rare but sever disease, caused by a bacterial thrombus in tissue of reduced resistance. In conventional radiographs initial findings are a narrowing of the intervertebral space, local osteoporosis and poorly defined erosive borders of the vertebral endplates. These changings can be found at least three to six weeks after the onset of disease. However, in Szintigraphy and MRT pathologic alterations are evident after ten to twelve days. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment becomes possible. In early stages of the disease of localized lysis surrounded by a reactive sclerosis appears in predisposed areas of the vertebral body (subchondral, anterobasal, ventral, central). Apparently, a soft tissue tumor is associated. Sclerosis and reduction of the soft tissue tumor are the first signs of repair processes. After at least 12 weeks, computed tomography can reveal typical sintering of the vertebral body and occasionally the development of a bony sequester. In addition, MRT as well as CT can be helpful in the detection and localization of complications as abscesses or affection of the vertebral canal. The tuberculous spondylitis can sometimes cause difficulties in differential diagnosis. Clinical findings, affection of several vertebral bodies, large soft tissue tumors with appearance of calcification as well as not typical locations are strongly suggestive of tuberculous spondylitis, but these findings are not specific of the disease. Degenerative disorders such as erosive osteochondrosis or changings due ot chronic dialysis (e.g amyloid or crystal arthropathies) may cause even more problems in differential diagnosis. Typical for a blastomatous process is the integrity of the interverebral disc space, which is a rare finding in spondylitis. (orig.)

  10. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  11. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief s...

  12. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Noopur; Tandon Radhika

    2008-01-01

    Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few o...

  13. Herpesvirus infection and infectious mononucleosis

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Sharipova; I. V. Babachenko

    2014-01-01

    In this review we present current information on various aspects of infectious mononucleosis in children. Based on the analysis of scientific literature highlights the major etiological factors that lead to the development of this disease. The paper describes the clinical and laboratory features of infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus type VI. Presents literature data on the impact of herpes infection on the development of mononucleosis. S...

  14. Global mapping of infectious disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, SI; Battle, KE; Pigott, DM; Smith, DL; Moyes, CL; S. Bhatt; Brownstein, JS; Collier, N.; Myers, MF; George, DB; Gething, PW

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for ...

  15. Non-infectious orbital vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

    2012-01-01

    Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and...

  16. Climate change and avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Marius; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in ...

  17. Simulating Avian Wingbeats and Wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Parslew, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Analytical models of avian flight have previously been used to predict mechanical and metabolic power consumption during cruise. These models are limited, in that they neglect details of wing kinematics, and model power by assuming a fixed or rotary wing (actuator disk) weight support mechanism. Theoretical methods that incorporate wing kinematics potentially offer more accurate predictions of power consumption by calculating instantaneous aerodynamic loads on the wing. However, the success o...

  18. Avian zoonoses – a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kozdruń Wojciech; Czekaj Hanna; Styś Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other h...

  19. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  20. Outbreak patterns of the novel avian influenza (H7N9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ya-Nan; Lou, Jing-Jing; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2014-05-01

    The attack of novel avian influenza (H7N9) in East China caused a serious health crisis and public panic. In this paper, we empirically analyze the onset patterns of human cases of the novel avian influenza and observe several spatial and temporal properties that are similar to other infectious diseases. More specifically, using the empirical analysis and modeling studies, we find that the spatio-temporal network that connects the cities with human cases along the order of outbreak timing emerges two-regime-power-law edge-length distribution, indicating the picture that several islands with higher and heterogeneous risk straggle in East China. The proposed method is applicable to the analysis of the spreading situation in the early stage of disease outbreak using quite limited dataset.

  1. Incidence of Avian Mycoplasmosis in the region of Batna, Eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmosis is infectious and contagious disease which affects chicken and turkey as well as many other species with many economics losses. The absence of data on avian mycoplasmosis in Algeria and the importance of the poultry breeding in Batna encouraged us to undertake the prevalence of the most pathogenic mycoplasmas in broiler and layer chickens in this area, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG. 143 Mycoplasmas were isolate from 237 samples, at a rate of 60.33%. MG was isolate at a rate of 21.67% (2.09% in layer hens and 19.58% in broiler chickens. The serological screening using of breedings showed a sensitivity of 83.10%. This study shows that mycoplasmosis and in particular MG infection, represent a serious problem in chickens in Algeria in the absence of hygiene conditions and vaccination especially. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 101-105

  2. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  3. The spread of non-OIE-listed avian diseases through international trade of chicken meat: an assessment of the risks to New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, S P; Smith, H

    2015-12-01

    Twelve avian diseases are listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), although more than 100 infectious diseases have been described in commercial poultry. This article summarises a recent assessment of the biosecurity risks posed by non-listed avian diseases associated with imports of chilled or frozen chicken meat and meat products into New Zealand. Following the guidelines described in Chapter 2.1 of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, avian adenovirus splenomegaly virus, avian paramyxovirus-2 (APMV-2), Bordetella avium, Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma spp., Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Salmonella arizonae have been identified as hazards. However, of all the non-listed avian diseases discussed here, only APMV-2 and S. arizonae are assessed as being risks associated with the commercial import of chicken meat into New Zealand. Specific control measures may have to be implemented to mitigate such risks. This conclusion is likely to reflect both the high-health status of New Zealand poultry and the threat posed by these infectious agents to New Zealand's unique population of native psittacine species. PMID:27044152

  4. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Activation by Roflumilast Contributes to Therapeutic Benefit in Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James A.; Raju, S. Vamsee; Tang, Li Ping; McNicholas, Carmel M.; Li, Yao; Courville, Clifford A.; Farris, Roopan F.; Coricor, George E.; Smoot, Lisa H.; Mazur, Marina M.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Bolger, Graeme B.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes acquired cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction and is associated with delayed mucociliary clearance and chronic bronchitis. Roflumilast is a clinically approved phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor that improves lung function in patients with chronic bronchitis. We hypothesized that its therapeutic benefit was related in part to activation of CFTR. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, Calu-3, and T84 monolayers were exposed to whole cigarette smoke (WCS) or air with or without roflumilast treatment. CFTR-dependent ion transport was measured in modified Ussing chambers. Airway surface liquid (ASL) was determined by confocal microscopy. Intestinal fluid secretion of ligated murine intestine was monitored ex vivo. Roflumilast activated CFTR-dependent anion transport in normal HBE cells with a half maximal effective concentration of 2.9 nM. Roflumilast partially restored CFTR activity in WCS-exposed HBE cells (5.3 ± 1.1 μA/cm2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2 μA/cm2 [control]; P < 0.05) and was additive with ivacaftor, a specific CFTR potentiator approved for the treatment of CF. Roflumilast improved the depleted ASL depth of HBE monolayers exposed to WCS (9.0 ± 3.1 μm vs. 5.6 ± 2.0 μm [control]; P < 0.05), achieving 79% of that observed in air controls. CFTR activation by roflumilast also induced CFTR-dependent fluid secretion in murine intestine, increasing the wet:dry ratio and the diameter of ligated murine segments. Roflumilast activates CFTR-mediated anion transport in airway and intestinal epithelia via a cyclic adenosine monophosphate–dependent pathway and partially reverses the deleterious effects of WCS, resulting in augmented ASL depth. Roflumilast may benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with chronic bronchitis by activating CFTR, which may also underlie noninfectious diarrhea caused by roflumilast. PMID:24106801

  5. Effective use of corticosteroids in treatment of plastic bronchitis with hemoptysis in Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang WANG; You-juan WANG; Feng-ming LUO; Lei WANG; Li-li JIANG; Lin WANG; Bing MAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of plastic bronchitis with hemoptysis. Methods: A retrospective, clinical study was undertaken. Thirty two patients with only first episodes of plastic bronchitis with hemoptysis were divided into a steroid group (n=18) treated with glucocorticoids, and a non-steroid group (n=14). The supportive therapy was uniformly applied to both groups, except for glucocorticoids. Variables such as temperature and white blood cell counts were determined. Furthermore, the volume of hemoptysis and bronchial casts were evaluated in detail daily. Results: There was no difference in the demographic data and variables at baseline between both groups (all P>0.05).On days 5,6,7 and 8, the volume of hemoptysis was significantly decreased in the steroid group compared with the non-steroid group (43±15 mL vs 117±33 mL on d 5,29±12mL vs 97±23mL on d 6,18±10mL vs 80±20mL on d 7,and 13±8mL vs 66±14 mL on d 8; all P<0.05), and on d 10 after fibreoptic bronchoscopy, the cases with bronchial casts was reduced evidently in the steroid group in comparison with the non-steroid group (OR=5.69,95% CI=1.76-43.6; P=0.005). There was no significance in mechanical ventilation and mortality between both groups. Conclusion: Despite some limitations of this study, it has been demonstrated that, on the basis of common supportive therapy, corticosteroids would be effective and safe for the treatment of plastic bronchitis with hemoptysis.

  6. THE USAGE OF HALOAEROSOLOTHERAPY IN THE REHABILITATIONAL TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH RECCURENT BRONCHITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEMKO Ivan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of various therapeutic complexes on the basis of haloaerosoltherapy in the rehabilitational treatment of children with recurrent bronchitis on the ground of clinical and functional data and further development of recommendations for differentiated treatment. Objectives. Children (at the age of 6-10 years with recurrent bronchitis, who received treatment in conditions of artificial rock salt aerosol medium (haloaerosoltherapy. Material and Methods. 35 children with recurrent bronchitis (RB were examined. All children’s clinical data were monitored; respiratory function was evaluated using spirography. Forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC, forced expiratory volume for the 1-st second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at the point of 25% from FIVC(FEF25, forced expiratory flow at the point of 50% from FIVC (FEF50, and forced expiratory flow at the point of 75% from FIVC (FEF75 were defined. The patients were treated with the help of two therapeutic complexes (TC. 12 children were treated by the first TC which included haloaerosoltherapy (14 procedures, in well-equipped room with the initial concentration of rock salt aerosol 40 mg/m3 and the predominance of fine powder fraction (<80%. The first procedure lasted 10 minutes, the second – 20 minutes, the third and the following ones – 30 minutes. The concentration and dispersity of haloaerosol were measured with the help of special laser optical system. 23 children underwent second TC, which included 12 procedures of singlet oxygen therapy in the form of foam additionally to the haloaerosoltherapy sessions. Results. At the beginning of the treatment children had no signs of the acute phase of the disease. Though there were some symptoms which testify that the inflammatory process and functional recovery are not finished yet after the acute phase of the recurrent bronchitis. The clinical picture was confirmed by the major

  7. Study on the salivary contents of secretory immunoglobulin A (SigA) and lysome (Lys) in patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the sailic levels of SIgA and lys in patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods: Sailic SIgA (with RIA) and lys (with immunodiffusionassay) levels were measured in 38 patients with chronic bronchitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the saliac SIgA and lys levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). After treatment for 2 weeks, the sailic SIgA and lys levels, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of sailic SIgA and lys levels content after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with chronic bronchitis. (authors)

  8. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Haemophilus paragallinarum isolated from suspected cases of infectious coryza in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Rajurkar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Among infectious diseases of avian species Infectious coryza is one of the major problems affecting commercial poultry industry in the country. Infectious coryza is an upper respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with H. paragallinarum (HPG. The disease is characterized by swollen infra-orbital sinuses, nasal discharge, and depression. The disease is seen most commonly in adult chickens and can cause a very significant reduction in the rate of egg production. Considering the economic importance of the disease, the present research pursuit was undertaken with the aim to isolate H. paragallinarum from the suspected cases of Infectious coryza in commercial poultry farms in Gujarat state with reference to their cultural, morphological characterization and antimicrobial drug sensitivity patterns. Further these isolates were confirmed by using specific colony PCR test. The research work aims to characterize Haemophilus paragallinarum field isolates of poultry origin from Infectious coryza outbreak in and around Anand, Kheda and Mahua area of Saurashtra region of Gujarat state, India. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 177-181

  9. Avian influenza and the poultry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nicita, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Because of high mortality rates, high rates of contagion, and the possibility of cross-species infection to mammals including humans, high pathogenic avian influenza is a major concern both to consumers and producers of poultry. The implications of the avian influenza for international poultry markets are large and include the loss of consumer confidence, loss of competitiveness, loss of m...

  10. Atypical Avian Influenza (H5N1)

    OpenAIRE

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Kitphati, Rungrueng; Thongphubeth, Kanokporn; Patoomanunt, Prisana; Anthanont, Pimjai; Auwanit, Wattana; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Saeng-Aroon, Siriphan; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Storch, Gregory A.; Mundy, Linda M.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms. Avian influenza should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly if they have a history of exposure to poultry.

  11. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  12. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  13. The global nature of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  14. Development of a high-throughput cell based 384-well influenza A quantification assay for interpandemic and highly pathogenic avian strains

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Wasko; Melicia R. Gainey; Bigger, John E.; Vela, Eric M.; Jennifer N. Garver; David J. Guistino

    2010-01-01

    Influenza remains a world wide health threat, thus the need for a high-throughput and robust assay to quantify both seasonal and avian in-fluenza A strains. Therefore, a 384-well plate format was developed for the median tissue culture infectious dose assay (TCID50) utilizing the detection of nucleoprotein by an in situ en-zyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which was optimized for sensitivity in this assay. Highly pathogenic avian influenza, A/Vietnam/ 1203/04 (H5N1), and interpandemic s...

  15. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  16. Cryoconservation of avian gonads in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, F G; Robertson, M C; Liu, J

    2013-10-01

    Avian genetic resources have declined dramatically over the past half century as the cost of maintaining populations has exceeded the perceived benefit of keeping them. Despite the early importance of poultry in the development of cryopreservation techniques, very little avian germplasm has been conserved. Cryopreservation and recovery of avian gonads preserve the W chromosome and overcome problems of freezing and recovering semen or conserving and manipulating embryonic cells, and the use of vitrification procedures for preserving gonads minimizes cellular damage. On the basis of research demonstrating the biological possibility of cryopreserving and transplanting avian gonads, 5,125 testicles and 2,667 ovaries from 10 populations of Japanese quail, 9 populations of chickens, and 1 population of Chilean tinamou were cryopreserved and sent to the Canadian Animal Genetic Resources program for long-term storage. These gonads represent 20 of the 33 distinct avian populations currently maintained at Canadian public institutions of agricultural research. PMID:24046407

  17. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yongxiu Yao; Venugopal Nair

    2014-01-01

    With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 ...

  18. Dogs are highly susceptible to H5N1 avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Zhong, Gongxun; Wang, Guojun; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhuo; Guan, Yuntao; Jiang, Yongping; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2010-01-01

    Replication of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in dogs may facilitate their adaptation in humans; however, the data to date on H5N1 influenza virus infection in dogs are conflicting. To elucidate the susceptibility of dogs to this pathogen, we infected two groups of 6 beagles with 106 50% egg-infectious dose of H5N1 AIV A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/05 (BHG/QH/3/05) intranasally (i.n.) and intratracheally (i.t.), respectively. The dogs showed disease symptoms, including anorexic, fever, conjunc...

  19. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josanne H Verhagen

    Full Text Available Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV in wild birds, has largely remained unstudied. During an autumn H3 LPAIV epizootic in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos - a partially migratory species - we identified resident and migratory host populations using stable hydrogen isotope analysis of flight feathers. We investigated the role of migratory and resident hosts separately in the introduction and maintenance of H3 LPAIV during the epizootic. To test this we analysed (i H3 virus kinship, (ii temporal patterns in H3 virus prevalence and shedding and (iii H3-specific antibody prevalence in relation to host migratory strategy. We demonstrate that the H3 LPAIV strain causing the epizootic most likely originated from a single introduction, followed by local clonal expansion. The H3 LPAIV strain was genetically unrelated to H3 LPAIV detected both before and after the epizootic at the study site. During the LPAIV epizootic, migratory mallards were more often infected with H3 LPAIV than residents. Low titres of H3-specific antibodies were detected in only a few residents and migrants. Our results suggest that in this LPAIV epizootic, a single H3 virus was present in resident mallards prior to arrival of migratory mallards followed by a period of virus amplification, importantly associated with the influx of migratory mallards. Thus migrants are suggested to act as local amplifiers rather than the often suggested role as vectors importing novel strains from afar. Our study exemplifies that a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach offers promising opportunities to elucidate the role of migratory and resident hosts in infectious disease dynamics in wildlife.

  20. [Effects of occupational factors on the natural course of chronic bronchitis in a prospective observation of the industrial population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, W

    1978-01-01

    Frequence of occurrence and dynamics of chronic bronchitis symptoms as well as barrier syndrome in the examined men in a plant was connected primarily with tobacco smoking and less with the age. Mean values FEV1 depended on the age of examined workers and the rate of spirometric values decrease increased with the age and was connected with smoking habit. It has been ascertained that there is a direct relationship between air contamination with dusts and fluorides and frequency of occurrence of chronic bronchitis symptoms, maintenance of the symptoms for 5 years and decrease of FEV1 value at that period especially in a group of smokers. PMID:723614

  1. Study of regional ventilation of the lungs in patients with chronic bronchitis, making use of scanning densitometry of tomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method for investigation of regional ventilation of the lungs with the use of tomography and scanning densitometry was suggested. The method makes it possible to assess the expressiveness of changes in the lungs in patients with chronic bronchitis before and in the process of treatment. The new method permitted to reveal the disturbances of regional ventilation of the lungs in patients with chronic obstructive and non-obstructive bronchitis and to establish a latent respiratory insufficiency. The data of suggested method of scanning densitometry of tomograms of the lungs are in agreement with results of examinations of external respiration function

  2. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. E. MacPhee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

  3. Human migration and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, S M

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are defined as diseases that have appeared recently or that have recently increased in their frequency, geographical distribution or both. Commercial globalisation, population movements and environmental changes are the main factors favouring the international spread of microorganisms. Transport and communication development constitutes also a remarkable factor in the worldwide dispersion of microorganisms. The mass movement of large numbers of people creates new opportunities for the spread and establishment of common or novel infectious diseases. A surveillance system to detect emergent and re-emergent infections, a rapid responsiveness of healthcare systems and laboratories, vector control, and the provision of healthcare education programmes to inform the population of how to avoid infections are needed in order to stop the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:19220349

  4. Can "presumed consent" justify the duty to treat infectious diseases? An analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arda Berna; Civaner Murat

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background AIDS, SARS, and the recent epidemics of the avian-flu have all served to remind us the debate over the limits of the moral duty to care. It is important to first consider the question of whether or not the "duty to treat" might be subject to contextual constraints. The purpose of this study was to investigate the opinions and beliefs held by both physicians and dentists regarding the occupational risks of infectious diseases, and to analyze the argument that the notion of ...

  5. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  6. Efficacy and Tolerability of 5- vs 10-Day Cefixime Therapy in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, J; Steinfeld, P; Drath, L; Keienburg, T; Troester, K

    1998-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of oral cefixime 400mg once daily for 5 days was compared with standard 10-day therapy in a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial of 222 patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Clinical and bacteriological efficacy were assessed after 6, 11 and 30 days. A total of 167 patients were evaluable for efficacy on a per-protocol basis. Clinical efficacy (cure or improvement based on the quality and quantity of expectorated sputum and symptoms of dyspnoea) at day 11 was statistically equivalent (p < 0.01) between the treatment groups, with a successful clinical response achieved in 91% (5-day) and 89% (10-day) of patients. Bacteriological efficacy was also similar with 5- and 10-day treatment. During treatment, more patients reported an adverse event possibly or probably related to the study medication in the 10-day than in the 5-day treatment group (19 vs 14%). However, this difference was not statistically significant. Oral cefixime 400mg once daily is an effective and well tolerated treatment for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Short-term (5-day) therapy offers clinical efficacy similar to that of standard (10-day) therapy. PMID:18370461

  7. Airflow, transport and regional deposition of aerosol particles during chronic bronchitis of human central airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhadnia, Fouad; Gorji, Tahereh B; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of airway blockage in chronic bronchitis disease on the flow patterns and transport/deposition of micro-particles in a human symmetric triple bifurcation lung airway model, i.e., Weibel's generations G3-G6 was investigated. A computational fluid and particle dynamics model was implemented, validated and applied in order to evaluate the airflow and particle transport/deposition in central airways. Three breathing patterns, i.e., resting, light activity and moderate exercise, were considered. Using Lagrangian approach for particle tracking and random particle injection, an unsteady particle tracking method was performed to simulate the transport and deposition of micron-sized aerosol particles in human central airways. Assuming laminar, quasi-steady, three-dimensional air flow and spherical non-interacting particles in sequentially bifurcating rigid airways, airflow patterns and particle transport/deposition in healthy and chronic bronchitis (CB) affected airways were evaluated and compared. Comparison of deposition efficiency (DE) of aerosols in healthy and occluded airways showed that at the same flow rates DE values are typically larger in occluded airways. While in healthy airways, particles deposit mainly around the carinal ridges and flow dividers-due to direct inertial impaction, in CB affected airways they deposit mainly on the tubular surfaces of blocked airways because of gravitational sedimentation. PMID:26541595

  8. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis secondary to high dose rate endobronchial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to describe a new clinical entity observed in follow-up bronchoscopies in patients who were treated with high dose rate and medium dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy of the tracheobronchial tree. Patients were treated by protocol with medium dose rate, 47 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 5 mm depth times three fractions, high dose rate 144 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions and high dose rate 151 patients receiving cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions followed by bronchoscopy. Incidence of this entity was 9% for the first group, 12% for the second, and 13% for the third group. Reactions were grade 1 consisting of mild inflammatory response with a partial whitish circumferential membrane in an asymptomatic patient; grade 2, thicker complete white circumferential membrane with cough and/or obstructive problems requiring intervention; grade 3, severe inflammatory response with marked membranous exudate and mild fibrotic reaction; and grade 4 a predominant fibrotic reaction with progressive stenosis. Variables associated with a slightly increased incidence of radiation bronchitis and stenosis included: large cell carcinoma histology, curative intent, prior laser photoresection, and/or concurrent external radiation. Survival was the strongest predictor of the reaction. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis is a new clinical entity that must be identified in bronchial brachytherapy patients and treated appropriately. 23 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  9. [Clinical contribution of the newer fluoroquinolones in acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, M S

    1999-01-01

    Acute exacerbations occur frequently in patients with chronic bronchitis and the majority of these patients benefit from antimicrobial therapy. The ideal antimicrobial agent for the management of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) should have good activity against the common bacterial pathogens associated with these exacerbations (non-typable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and pneumococci); it should be resistant to bacterial betalactamases; penetrate well into pulmonary tissues and secretions; kill bacteria without inducing excessive airway inflammation; be easy to take (given once or twice a day) in order to ensure high patient compliance, and be cost-effective. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of AECB, but because of the limited activity of certain older agents in this class when administered in standard doses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, they have not be extensively used for this indication. Newer agents including levofloxacin, grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin have excellent activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens likely to be involved in AECB. These agents can be administered once daily, making patient compliance and a successful therapeutic outcome more likely. The new quinolones offer promising alternatives for antimicrobial therapy in outpatients with AECB, particularly those with underlying co-morbidity and severe obstruction. PMID:10436551

  10. Immunochemical studies of infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coated-tube method of solid-phase radioimmunoassay has been adapted to the detection of heterophile antibodies and antigens of infectious mononucleosis. Disposable plastic hemagglutination trays were coated with purified glycoprotein from horse erythrocytes and the subsequent uptake of antibody from test sera was detected by radio-iodinated horse erythrocyte glycoprotein. In a preliminary survey of sera from patients with infectious mononucleosis and sera from controls, the assay proved highly sensitive and specific. The test system was also useful in a competitive binding assay for immunochemical studies of glycoproteins from other heterophile antigen-positive species

  11. Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospitalized. An ID specialist may also recommend a vaccination regimen for you and your children. One of ... 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | Phone: (703) 299-0200 | Fax: (703) 299-0204 For ... | HIVMA | Contact Us © Copyright IDSA 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  12. Dilemmas of securitization and health risk management in the People's Republic of China: the cases of SARS and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishnick, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Since the SARS epidemic in 2003, the international community has urged Chinese leaders to do more to address infectious diseases. This paper looks at two cases in which the Chinese government securitized infectious disease (SARS and avian influenza) and examines the pros and cons of securitization. It is argued that the reactive mobilization involved in a securitizing move runs counter to the preventive risk management strategy needed to address infectious diseases. Although the Copenhagen School favours desecuritization as a return to normal practices, in the Chinese cases desecuritizing moves proved detrimental, involving cover-ups and restrictions on activists pressing for greater information. The article begins by examining the contributions of the Copenhagen School and sociological theories of risk to conceptualizing the security challenges that pandemics pose. Although analysis of the cases of SARS and avian influenza gives credence to criticisms of this approach, securitization theory proves useful in outlining the different stages in China's reaction to epidemics involving reactive mobilization and subsequent efforts to return to politics as usual. The second section examines securitizing and desecuritizing moves in Chinese responses to SARS and avian influenza. Each case study concludes with an assessment of the consequences for health risk management in China. The reactive mobilization implicit in Chinese securitization moves in the two cases is contrasted with the preventive logic of risk management. A third section draws out the implications of these cases for theories of securitization and risk. It is argued here that when securitization has occurred, risk management has failed. Although Copenhagen School theorists see the return to politics as usual-what they call 'desecuritization'-as optimal, this turns out to be far from the case in China during SARS and avian influenza, where the process involved retribution against whistleblowers and new

  13. Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Cheng Chang; Yi-Ying Cheng; Shin-Ru Shih

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1), there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is co...

  14. Recovery Based Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor Detection of Pathogenic Avian Influenza DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Heng; Chu, Chia-Jung; Teng, Kang-Ning; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Chii-Dong; Tsai, Li-Chu; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2012-02-01

    Fast and accurate diagnosis is critical in infectious disease surveillance and management. We proposed a DNA recovery system that can easily be adapted to DNA chip or DNA biosensor for fast identification and confirmation of target DNA. This method was based on the re-hybridization of DNA target with a recovery DNA to free the DNA probe. Functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) was demonstrated to monitor such specific DNA-DNA interaction using high pathogenic strain virus hemagglutinin 1 (H1) DNA of avian influenza (AI) as target. Specific electric changes were observed in real-time for AI virus DNA sensing and device recovery when nanowire surface of SiNW FET was modified with complementary captured DNA probe. The recovery based SiNW FET biosensor can be further developed for fast identification and further confirmation of a variety of influenza virus strains and other infectious diseases.

  15. Prion remains infectious after passage through digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt C VerCauteren

    Full Text Available Avian scavengers, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos, have potential to translocate infectious agents (prions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE diseases including chronic wasting disease, scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We inoculated mice with fecal extracts obtained from 20 American crows that were force-fed material infected with RML-strain scrapie prions. These mice all evinced severe neurological dysfunction 196-231 d postinoculation (x =198; 95% CI: 210-216 and tested positive for prion disease. Our results suggest a large proportion of crows that consume prion-positive tissue are capable of passing infectious prions in their feces (ˆp=1.0; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0. Therefore, this common, migratory North American scavenger could play a role in the geographic spread of TSE diseases.

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in laying hens in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYB Villarreal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis, caused by Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV, has been reported for decades in Brazilian laying and broiler flocks. More recently, outbreaks have occurred in São Paulo State. This study reports the application of PCR and DNA sequencing targeted to the p32 gene of ILTV using laying chicken samples from Bastos, São Paulo, Brazil. Three out of four field samples were positive by PCR. DNA sequencing of two samples evidenced homology of the amplified fragments with the p32 gene of ILTV. The results definitely confirmed the presence of ILTV in the birds during the outbreak. Further studies are needed to establish the sources of infection and to determine whether the detected virus was originated from vaccine or field virus strains.

  17. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread. PMID:26542037

  18. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and influenza. Travelers to foreign countries may require vaccinations against yellow fever, cholera, typhoid fever or hepatitis ... 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | Phone: (703) 299-0200 | Fax: (703) 299-0204 For ... | HIVMA | Contact Us © Copyright IDSA 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  19. Global Spread of Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S.; Zee, A.

    2003-01-01

    We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

  20. Presence of avian bornavirus RNA and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in apparently healthy macaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kloet, Siwo R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-12-01

    Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease. PMID:20095158

  1. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can increase your walking speed. You can also increase the length of time you walk to 20 minutes, then 25 minutes, then 30 minutes. Ask your doctor for help creating an exercise plan that's right for you. An exercise program called pulmonary rehabilitation may help you improve your ...

  2. Effect of sputum processing with dithiothreitol on the detection of inflammatory mediators in chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis

    OpenAIRE

    Woolhouse, I.; Bayley, D; Stockley, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Sputum analysis is used increasingly to assess airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including those with chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. However, it is not known whether dithiothreitol (DTT), a reducing mucolytic agent regularly used to homogenise sputum, affects the detection of inflammatory mediators in the sputum soluble phase from such patients.

  3. Treatment of 301 Infantile Acute Bronchitis Patients withQingre Lifei (清热利肺) Oral Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From December 1995 to May 1996, 4 hospitals in Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu had 301 patients with infantile acute bronchitis (IAB) treated with Qingre Lifei (清热利肺, QRLF) oral liquid and the results compared with that of similar cases treated with Shema (射麻, SM) oral liquid. Following is the report.

  4. Study on the red blood cell immuno-function and relevant cytokines levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the changes of red blood cell immuno-function and serum IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10 levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods: The red cell C3b receptor (RBC-C3bR) and red blood cell immune complex rosette (RBC-ICR) (with immune methods), IL-4, IL-8 levels (with RIA) and IL-10, IL-5 levels (with ELISA) were measured were measured in 48 elderly patients with chronic bronchitis and 35 controls. Results: RBC-C3bRR percentage and IL-10 levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic bronchitis than those in controls (P<0.01) while IL-4, IL-5, IL-8 levels were significantly higher (P<0.01), RBC-C3bRR was significantly negatively correlated to IL-4, IL-5 and IL-8 (r=-0.3112, -0.3415, -0. 3718, P<0.05) and RBC-ICRRR was positiviely correlated to IL-10 level (r=0.3715,P<0.05). Conclusion: The lower red cell immuno-function is closely associated with alteration of cytokines levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis. (authors)

  5. Comparison of the results of X-ray, endoscopic and radionuclide investigations in patients with deforming bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive investigation including panoramic chest X-ray, tomography, bronchofibroscopy with biopsy, bronchography, and comprehensive radionuclide investigation, were used in 233 patients with deforming bronchitis. All the patients were divided into 3 groups. Endoscopic findings corresponded to the results of comprehensive radionuclide investigation in all the groups

  6. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approv...

  7. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  8. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for...

  9. Clipping the wings of avian influenza

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the threat of avian influenza has been lessened by effective animal husbandry methods. However, the public health community is trying to ensure enough measures are in place to prevent a possible pandemic. Jane Parry reports.

  10. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  11. Montana 2006 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated a nationwide avian influenza...

  12. Clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic pneumonia in pneumoconiosis and dust bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical and radiologic symptomatology of chronic pneumonia is described for pneumoconiosis and chronic dust bronchitis. Combined X-ray methods of examination permit the physicians to discover this complication in dust diseases of the lungs in the presence of diffuse pneumosclerotic changes in 76.5+-3 % of cases. These data approach the values of chronic pneumonia incidence among the population. Chronic pneumonia diagnosis should be complex. If no less than 2 to 3 X-ray signs of the disease have been found simultaneously, the significance of radiologic diagnosis of chronic pneumonia in dust pathology of the lungs, rises. Radiologic examination, supported by clinical, anamnestic and laboratory data, allows one to differentiate chronic pneumonia from coniotuberculosis. Chest X-rays in dust pathology of the lungs, complicated by chronic pneumonia, should be carried out with regard to clinical indications

  13. Radiation bronchitis in lung cancer patient treated with stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of chronic radiation bronchitis that developed in a patient with lung cancer treated with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. A 73-year-old woman with a medically inoperable T1N0M0 adenocarcinoma of the lung was treated with stereotactic radiation therapy. By using eight non-coplanar ports, 50 Gy/5 fractions was delivered in two weeks. At four weeks, a partial response was obtained with no acute adverse reaction. She developed severe cough at six months. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed thick circumferentially coated bronchial mucosa in close proximity to the tumor site. At 12 months, follow-up study confirmed marked stenotic change in the B6 segmental bronchus without tumor progression. (author)

  14. Pivmecillinam and amoxycillin as combined treatment in purulent exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, A; Nandi, A R; Raafat, H; Rahman, M

    1977-07-01

    One hundred and thirty-two patients with purulent exacerbations of chronic bronchitis were randomly allotted to treatment in three groups. They received (a) amoxycillin 250 mg and pivmecillinam 200 mg; or (b) amoxycillin 500 mg; or (c) amoxycillin 500 mg and pivmecillinam 400 mg: three times daily for 10 days. By the 7th day of treatment there was significant improvement over amoxycillin alone for both groups given combined chemotherapy in conversion of sputum to mucoid and in general improvement; at the end of treatment results in patients given the higher doses of both antibiotics were still superior to amoxycillin alone. Patients were observed 2 to 4 weeks later, when those given amoxycillin alone relapsed much more frequently. The three treatments were well tolerated and succeeded equally in clearing potential pathogens from the sputum. Combined treatment may be superior due to synergy against Haemophilus influenzae or to the elimination of beta-lactamase producing organisms and should be investigated further. PMID:330483

  15. Oseltamivir in human avian influenza infection

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses continue to cause disease outbreaks in humans, and extrapulmonary infection is characteristic. In vitro studies demonstrate the activity of oseltamivir against avian viruses of the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. In animal models of lethal infection, oseltamivir treatment and prophylaxis limit viral replication and improve survival. Outcomes are influenced by the virulence of the viral strain, dosage regimen and treatment delay; it is also critical for the compound to act sy...

  16. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  17. Cell killing by avian leukosis viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, S K; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Infection of chicken cells with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus resulted in the detachment of killed cells from the culture dish. The detached, dead cells contained more unintegrated viral DNA than the attached cells. These results confirm the hypothesis that cell killing after infection with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus is associated with accumulation of large amounts of unintegrated viral DNA. No accumulation of large amounts of integrated viral DNA was found in cells infected with c...

  18. Avian Circadian Organization: A Chorus of Clocks

    OpenAIRE

    Cassone, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to...

  19. A review of avian probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  20. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mamôru Sakae

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone; and evaluating parameters before and after prednisone use, including values for sputum eosinophils, sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, and sputum IL-5-with or without values for post-bronchodilator FEV1-with corresponding 95% CIs or with sufficient data for calculation. The independent variables were the use, dose, and duration of prednisone treatment. The outcomes evaluated were sputum eosinophils, IL-5, and ECP, as well as post-bronchodilator FEV1. RESULTS: The pooled analysis of the pre- vs. post-treatment data revealed a significant mean reduction in sputum eosinophils (↓8.18%; 95% CI: 7.69-8.67; p < 0.001, sputum IL-5 (↓83.64 pg/mL; 95% CI: 52.45-114.83; p < 0.001, and sputum ECP (↓267.60 µg/L; 95% CI: 244.57-290.63; p < 0.0001, as well as a significant mean increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1 (↑8.09%; 95% CI: 5.35-10.83; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic bronchitis, treatment with prednisone caused a significant reduction in sputum eosinophil counts, as well as in the sputum levels of IL-5 and ECP. This reduction in the inflammatory response was accompanied by a significant increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1.

  1. Prevalence of Asthma, COPD, and Chronic Bronchitis in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmaghani, Mehdi; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sharifi, Farshad; Rashidian, Arash; Moin, Mostafa; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis on the results of eligible studies to estimate the prevalence of asthma, COPD, and Chronic bronchitis in Iran. International and Iranian databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Iranmedex, and scientific information database (SID) were searched for population-based studies that had reported the prevalence of asthma and COPD from 1990 to 2015. We conducted the meta-analysis using metaprop application of Stata statistical software. I-Squared was used for calculating heterogeneity among the studies. To determine causes of heterogeneity, subgroup analysis and meta-regression method were used. Based on the results of random effect method, the overall prevalence of asthma ever was 4.56% (3.76%-5.36%) among men while it was 4.17% (3.42%-4.91%) among women. Pooled prevalence of current asthma was 7.95% while confidence interval changed from 5.85% to 10.06% (men 5.83% (2.75%-8.92%), women 9.13% (3.35%-14.94%)). Also based on the results of random effect model pooled prevalence of chronic bronchitis of five studies was 5.57%. It seems that the total crude prevalence of current asthma in Iran is less than many other countries such as Kuwait, Lebanon, Thailand, Japan, Australia and Germany and is higher than some other countries such as Oman, Pakistan, South Korea, India, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Spain, Russia, and Greece. On the other hand, Iran is in middle situation in terms of the prevalence current asthma. Our results can fill the information and knowledge gaps about the status of the prevalence of respiratory diseases in Iran. PMID:27090362

  2. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  3. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  4. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert; Thuny, Franck;

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use...... structural changes and abnormalities in the heart, but it does not uncover the underlying pathophysiological processes at the cellular or molecular level. This problem is addressed with introduction of new molecular imaging methods as (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT and single photon emission...... the search for extra cardial infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested....

  5. Avian reovirus L2 genome segment sequences and predicted structure/function of the encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Wanhong; Coombs Kevin M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The orthoreoviruses are infectious agents that possess a genome comprised of 10 double-stranded RNA segments encased in two concentric protein capsids. Like virtually all RNA viruses, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme is required for viral propagation. RdRp sequences have been determined for the prototype mammalian orthoreoviruses and for several other closely-related reoviruses, including aquareoviruses, but have not yet been reported for any avian orthoreovir...

  6. Estimating the day of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H7N7) virus introduction into a poultry flock based on mortality data

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, M.E.H.; Boven, van, M.; Nielen, M; Bouma, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Nodelijk, G.; Koch, G; Stegeman, A.; Jong, de, J.

    2007-01-01

    International audience Despite continuing research efforts, knowledge of the transmission of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus still has considerable gaps, which complicates epidemic control. The goal of this research was to develop a model to back-calculate the day HPAI virus is introduced into a flock, based on within-flock mortality data. The back-calculation method was based on a stochastic SEIR (susceptible (S) - latently infected (E) - infectious (I) - removed (= dea...

  7. Radiological description about the globally first case of human infected avian influenza virus (H10N8 induced pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian He

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human infected avian influenza (H10N8 is an acute infectious respiratory tract infection caused by JX346-H10N8. The reported case in this paper is the globally first case report about radiological description of human infected avian influenza (H10N8 virus related pneumonia. The patient showed an epidemiological history of contacts to living poultries and the incubation period lasted for 4 days. The condition was clinically characterized by fever, cough, chest distress and obvious hypoxia. CT scan demonstrated the lungs with large flake of hyper-intense consolidation, confined patch of ground glass opacity, dilated bronchi, predominantly dorsal thickening of the interlobular septum, and other types of lesions related to interstitial pulmonary edema. Meanwhile, accompanying interlobar effusion, infrapulmonary effusion and pleural effusion were demonstrated in a small quantity by CT scan. Human infected avian influenza (H10N8 related pneumonia should be differentiated from pneumonia induced by human infected avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9. No characteristic key points for radiological differentiation have been found. And its definitive diagnosis should be based on the etiological examination.

  8. Infectious Diseases and the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pichler, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the interactions between infectious diseases and the economy. The different chapters theoretically and empirically examine different channels of interaction. Within each chapter we initially provide a theoretical foundation which builds upon extensions and adaptations of existing models and partly new models. In a second step we present the empirical analyses and the corresponding results using modern empirical methods. We analyze HIV/AIDS, the Spanish Flu and infec...

  9. Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Holdsworth, Amber M.; Kevlahan, Nicholas K.-R.; Earn, David J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that...

  10. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari A; Agarwal J; Garg A

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD) is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic ...

  11. Infectious and coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Tohidi, Mohammad; Amin SABOURI; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Sadeghi-Ghahrodi, Mohsen; Einollahi, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerotic event is one of the most causes of death in the world. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one manifestation of atherosclerosis. It is well-known that several risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension (HTN), have effects on it. It is proposed that infection can lead to atherosclerosis or even make its process faster. Here, we discuss about the effect of some of infectious agents on the atherosclerosis and CAD. METHODS In this study, first we d...

  12. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high morta...

  13. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  14. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  15. Non-infectious orbital vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

    2012-05-01

    Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and underlying systemic associations. The long-term prognosis visually and systemically must be weighed against the risks and benefits of the treatment regimen. A large variety of corticosteroid formulations currently exist and are the mainstay of initial treatment. Traditional steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents are also an important arsenal against these vasculitides. Recently, a new class of drugs called biologics, which target the various mediators of the inflammation cascade, may potentially provide more effective and less toxic treatment. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on non-infectious orbital vasculitides. PMID:22361845

  16. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Analysis Identifies the Proto-oncogene Tyrosine-Protein Kinase Src as a Crucial Virulence Determinant of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus in Chicken Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hai; Wang, Fengjie; Han, Zongxi; Gao, Qi; Li, Huixin; Shao, Yuhao; Sun, Nana; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the side effects of vaccination against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), novel strategies for ILT control and therapy are urgently needed. The modulation of host-virus interactions is a promising strategy to combat the virus; however, the interactions between the host and avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) are unclear. Using genome-wide transcriptome studies in combination with a bioinformatic analysis, we identified proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (Src) to be an import...

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK288647 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288647 J090056K16 AY338732.1 AY338732 Avian infectious bronchitis virus 1a protei... 5a protein (5a), 5b protein (5b), and nucleocapsid protein (N) genes, complete cds. VRL 0.0 0 ...

  18. Dicty_cDB: AHA244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CP000094 |pid:none) Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1, ... 35 8.3 AY338732_1( AY338732 |pid:none) Avian infec...tious bronchitis virus ... 35 8.3 DQ278233_1( DQ278233 |pid:none) Uncultured microo

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSK578 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctious bronchitis virus ... 34 5.6 EU637854_1( EU637854 |pid:none) Infectious bronc...(bits) Value (Q54QN4) RecName: Full=Uncharacterized transmembrane protein DDB... 305 1e-81 AY338732_1( AY338732 |pid:none) Avian infe

  20. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal

    2014-01-01

    With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs), duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs) and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs). Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR) miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases. PMID:24662606