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Sample records for avian infectious bronchitis

  1. Detection of antibodies to avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of antibodies to avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease viruses in wild birds in three states of Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  2. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Africa: a review.

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    Khataby, Khadija; Fellahi, Siham; Loutfi, Chafiqa; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and extremely difficult to control because it has extensive genetic diversity, a short generation time, and a high mutation rate. IBV is a Gammacoronavirus, single-stranded, and positive-sense RNA virus. Avian infectious bronchitis is well studied in European countries with identification of a large number of IBV variants, whereas in African countries epidemiological and scientific data are poor and not updated. However, previous studies reported that an IBV variant continues to appear regularly in Africa, as currently described in Morocco. No cross-protection between IBV strains was reported, some being unique to a particular country, others having a more general distribution. This review aims to provide a general overview on IB disease distribution in African countries and an update on the available studies of IBV variants in each country.

  3. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

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    Li, Jun; Shen, Wei [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Ming, E-mail: mliao@scau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Avian Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Bartlam, Mark, E-mail: mliao@scau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2007-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV M{sup pro} was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6{sub 1}22. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function.

  4. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Brazil: a highly complex virus meets a highly susceptible host population

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    PE Brandão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is a highly aggressive disease for poultry in terms of symptoms and economic losses, and the control of this disease is difficult if flocks are not protected against type-specific challenges by the Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. This article summarizes data presented by the author at the Workshop on Infectious Bronchitis 2009 on IB and IBV, including future developments on the field.

  5. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

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    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  6. Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Approaches of Avian Infectious Bronchitis.

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    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Abubakar, Muhammad Salisu; Abba, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems. Thus, disease outcome may be influenced by the organ or tissue involved as well as pathotypes or strain of the infecting virus. Knowledge on the epidemiology of the prevalent IBV strains in a particular region is therefore important to guide control and preventions. Meanwhile previous diagnostic methods such as serology and virus isolations are less sensitive and time consuming, respectively; current methods, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing, offer highly sensitive, rapid, and accurate diagnostic results, thus enabling the genotyping of new viral strains within the shortest possible time. This review discusses aspects on pathogenesis and diagnostic methods for IBV infection.

  7. A reverse genetics system for avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus based on targeted RNA recombination

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    van Beurden, Steven J; Berends, Alinda J; Krämer-Kühl, Annika; Spekreijse, Dieuwertje; Chénard, Gilles; Philipp, Hans-Christian; Mundt, Egbert; Rottier, Peter J M; Verheije, M Hélène

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a respiratory pathogen of chickens that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Major advances in the study of the molecular biology of IBV have resulted from the development of reverse genetics systems for

  8. Phylodynamic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus in South America.

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    Marandino, Ana; Pereda, Ariel; Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Craig, María Isabel; Hernández, Diego; Banda, Alejandro; Villegas, Pedro; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2015-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus of chickens that causes great economic losses to the global poultry industry. The present study focuses on South American IBVs and their genetic relationships with global strains. We obtained full-length sequences of the S1 coding region and N gene of IBV field isolates from Uruguay and Argentina, and performed Phylodynamic analysis to characterize the strains and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor. We identified two major South American genotypes, which were here denoted South America I (SAI) and Asia/South America II (A/SAII). The SAI genotype is an exclusive South American lineage that emerged in the 1960s. The A/SAII genotype may have emerged in Asia in approximately 1995 before being introduced into South America. Both SAI and A/SAII genotype strains clearly differ from the Massachusetts strains that are included in the vaccine formulations being used in most South American countries. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. Detection of Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus type QX infection in Switzerland.

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    Sigrist, Brigitte; Tobler, Kurt; Schybli, Martina; Konrad, Leonie; Stöckli, René; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lüschow, Dörte; Hafez, Hafez M; Britton, Paul; Hoop, Richard K; Vögtlin, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis, a disease of chickens caused by Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), leads to severe economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. Various attempts to control the virus based on vaccination strategies are performed. However, due to the emergence of novel genotypes, an effective control of the virus is hindered. In 1996, a novel viral genotype named IBV-QX was reported for the first time in Qingdao, Shandong province, China. The first appearance of an IBV-QX isolate in Europe was reported between 2003 and 2004 in The Netherlands. Subsequently, infections with this genotype were found in several other European countries such as France, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Slovenia, and Sweden. The present report describes the use of a new set of degenerate primers that amplify a 636-bp fragment within the S1 gene by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect the occurrence of IBV-QX infection in Switzerland.

  10. Orchitis in roosters with reduced fertility associated with avian infectious bronchitis virus and avian metapneumovirus infections.

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    Villarreal, L Y B; Brandão, P E; Chacón, J L; Assayag, M S; Maiorka, P C; Raffi, P; Saidenberg, A B S; Jones, R C; Ferreira, A J P

    2007-12-01

    The pathogenesis of infection involving both infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes reproductive damage in hens after viral replication in the epithelium of the oviduct, resulting in loss of cilia and degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial and glandular cells. Although IBV has been indicated as a possible cause of the formation of calcium stones in the epididymus of roosters, a definitive association has not been confirmed. This report describes the detection of IBV and aMPV in the testes of roosters from a Brazilian poultry broiler breeder's flock with epididymal stones and low fertility. Samples of testis, trachea, and lungs from breeder males aged 57 wk were positive for IBV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and virus isolation and testis samples were also positive for aMPV by RT-PCR. The inoculation of testis samples into embryonated chicken eggs via the allantoic cavity resulted in curled, hemorrhagic, and stunted embryos typical of IBV infection. The allantoic fluid was positive by RT-PCR aimed to amplify the region coding for the S1 subunit of the IBV S gene, but it was not positive for aMPV. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment revealed a close relationship with European IBV genotype D274, previously unreported in Brazil. These results indicate that IBV and perhaps aMPV are likely to have played a role in the pathogenesis of the testicular disease described and should be regarded as factors that can influence male fertility disease in chickens.

  11. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus from domestic peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and teal (Anas).

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    Liu, Shengwang; Chen, Jianfei; Chen, Jinding; Kong, Xiangang; Shao, Yuhao; Han, Zongxi; Feng, Li; Cai, Xuehui; Gu, Shoulin; Liu, Ming

    2005-03-01

    Coronavirus-like viruses, designated peafowl/China/LKQ3/2003 (pf/CH/LKQ3/03) and teal/China/LDT3/2003 (tl/CH/LDT3/03), were isolated from a peafowl and a teal during virological surveillance in Guangdong province, China. Partial genomic sequence analysis showed that these isolates had the S-3-M-5-N gene order that is typical of avian coronaviruses. The spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of pf/CH/LKQ3/03 had >99 % identity to those of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus H120 vaccine strain (Massachusetts serotype) and other Massachusetts serotype isolates. Furthermore, when pf/CH/LKQ3/03 was inoculated experimentally into chickens (specific-pathogen-free), no disease signs were apparent. tl/CH/LDT3/03 had a spike protein gene with 95 % identity to that of a Chinese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolate, although more extensive sequencing revealed the possibility that this strain may have undergone recombination. When inoculated into chickens, tl/CH/LDT3/03 resulted in the death of birds from nephritis. Taken together, this information suggests that pf/CH/LKQ3/03 might be a revertant, attenuated vaccine IBV strain, whereas tl/CH/LDT3/03 is a nephropathogenic field IBV strain, generated through recombination. The replication and non-pathogenic nature of IBV in domestic peafowl and teal under field conditions raises questions as to the role of these hosts as carriers of IBV and the potential that they may have to transmit virus to susceptible chicken populations.

  12. Feline aminopeptidase N is not a functional receptor for avian infectious bronchitis virus

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    Harbison Carole E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronaviruses are an important cause of infectious diseases in humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, and have the continued potential for emergence from animal species. A major factor in the host range of a coronavirus is its receptor utilization on host cells. In many cases, coronavirus-receptor interactions are well understood. However, a notable exception is the receptor utilization by group 3 coronaviruses, including avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN serves as a functional receptor for most group 1 coronaviruses including feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV, canine coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. A recent report has also suggested a role for fAPN during IBV entry (Miguel B, Pharr GT, Wang C: The role of feline aminopeptidase N as a receptor for infectious bronchitis virus. Brief review. Arch Virol 2002, 147:2047–2056. Results Here we show that, whereas both transient transfection and constitutive expression of fAPN on BHK-21 cells can rescue FIPV and TGEV infection in non-permissive BHK cells, fAPN expression does not rescue infection by the prototype IBV strain Mass41. To account for the previous suggestion that fAPN could serve as an IBV receptor, we show that feline cells can be infected with the prototype strain of IBV (Mass 41, but with low susceptibility compared to primary chick kidney cells. We also show that BHK-21 cells are slightly susceptible to certain IBV strains, including Ark99, Ark_DPI, CA99, and Iowa97 ( Conclusion We conclude that fAPN is not a functional receptor for IBV, the identity of which is currently under investigation.

  13. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumoviruses in Oman backyard poultry.

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    Al-Shekaili, Thunai; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are economically important viral pathogens infecting chickens globally. Identification of endemic IBV and aMPV strains promotes better control of both diseases and prevents production losses. Orophrayngeal swab samples were taken from 2317 birds within 243 different backyard flocks in Oman. Swabs from each flock were examined by RT-PCR using part-S1 and G gene primers for IBV and aMPV respectively. Thirty-nine chicken flocks were positive for IBV. Thirty two of these were genotyped and they were closely related to 793/B, M41, D274, IS/1494/06 and IS/885/00. 793/B-like IBV was also found in one turkey and one duck flock. Five flocks were positive for aMPV subtype B. Though no disease was witnessed at the time of sampling, identified viruses including variant IBV strains, may still pose a threat for both backyard and commercial poultry in Oman. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequence evidence for RNA recombination in field isolates of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus

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    Kusters, J G; Jager, E J; Niesters, H G; van der Zeijst, B A

    1990-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions coronaviruses were shown to have a high frequency of recombination. In The Netherlands, vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is performed with vaccines that contain several life-attenuated virus strains. These highly effective vaccines may create ideal

  15. Phylodynamic analysis and molecular diversity of the avian infectious bronchitis virus of chickens in Brazil.

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    Fraga, Aline Padilha de; Gräf, Tiago; Pereira, Cleiton Schneider; Ikuta, Nilo; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2018-03-21

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease, which results in severe economic losses to the poultry industry. The spike protein (S1 subunit) is responsible for the molecular diversity of the virus and many sero/genotypes are described around the world. Recently a new standardized classification of the IBV molecular diversity was conducted, based on phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene sequences sampled worldwide. Brazil is one of the biggest poultry producers in the world and the present study aimed to review the molecular diversity and reconstruct the evolutionary history of IBV in the country. All IBV S1 gene sequences, with local and year of collection information available on GenBank, were retrieved. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on a maximum likelihood method for the classification of genotypes occurring in Brazil, according to the new classification. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were performed with the Brazilian clade and related international sequences to determine the evolutionary history of IBV in Brazil. A total of 143 Brazilian sequences were classified as GI-11 and 46 as GI-1 (Mass). Within the GI-11 clade, we have identified a potential recombinant strain circulating in Brazil. Phylodynamic analysis demonstrated that IBV GI-11 lineage was introduced in Brazil in the 1950s (1951, 1917-1975 95% HPD) and population dynamics was mostly constant throughout the time. Despite the national vaccination protocols, our results show the widespread dissemination and maintenance of the IBV GI-11 lineage in Brazil and highlight the importance of continuous surveillance to evaluate the impact of currently used vaccine strains on the observed viral diversity of the country. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus 793B, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry in Ethiopia.

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    Hutton, S; Bettridge, J; Christley, R; Habte, T; Ganapathy, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry. Mycoplasma gallisepticum was also found to be present; however, infectious laryngotracheitis virus was not detected by PCR. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was not detected by PCR, but variable levels of anti-NDV HI antibody titres shows possible exposure to virulent strains or poor vaccine take, or both. For the burgeoning-intensive industry in Ethiopia, this study highlights several circulating infectious respiratory pathogens that can impact on poultry welfare and productivity.

  17. Full-length genome sequencing analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus isolate associated with nephropathogenic infection.

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    Leghari, R A; Fan, B; Wang, H; Bai, J; Zhang, L; Abro, S H; Jiang, P

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) produces infectious bronchitis (IB) disease in poultry worldwide. In spite of proper vaccinations against the IBV, new IBV strains are continually emerging worldwide. In this study, a new highly virulent nephropathogenic IBV strain named CK/CH/XDC-2/2013 was identified from a vaccinated flock with clinical signs of IB in the Jiangsu province of China. The full-length genome sequence of the isolate was 27,714 nucleotides long, and the genome was organized similarly to classical IBV strains. Minimum divergence, phylogenetic analysis, and distance matrix of the genome showed that the CK/CH/XDC-2/2013 isolate had the highest similarity to the IBV BJ strain. The spike glycoprotein (S) gene had the greatest similarity to the nephropathogenic BJ strain and showed an 8 amino acid insertion (YSNGNSDV) at 73 to 80 sites and 3 amino acid deletion at sites 126 to 128 compared to the IBV vaccine strains. A recombination analysis of the S gene showed that the new isolate evolved from the IBV BJ strain and the KM91 vaccine strain. An animal challenge experiment showed a mortality of 60 to 80% in early-age chickens by different inoculation routes. Pathological examinations of the kidneys revealed inflammation, distention with uric acid deposits, and tubular degeneration. It indicated that the CK/CH/XDC-2/2013 isolate has robust kidney tissue tropism, and new nephropathogenic IBV strains are continuously evolving in China. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Recombinant live attenuated avian coronavirus vaccines with deletions in the accessory genes 3ab and/or 5ab protect against infectious bronchitis in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, Steven J; Berends, Alinda J; Krämer-Kühl, Annika; Spekreijse, Dieuwertje; Chenard, Gilles; Philipp, Hans-Christian; Mundt, Egbert; Rottier, Peter J M; Verheije, M Hélène

    2018-01-01

    Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a respiratory pathogen of chickens, causing severe economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. Live attenuated viruses are widely used in both the broiler and layer industry because of their efficacy and ability to be mass applied. Recently,

  19. Avian infectious bronchitis and deep pectoral myopathy - a case control study.

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    Almeida, D O; Tortelly, R; Nascimento, E R; Chagas, M A; Khan, M I; Pereira, V L A

    2012-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis is caused by a coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Infectious bronchitis is an acute and highly contagious disease of economic importance due to the reduction in weight gain observed with infected broilers and the drop in egg quality and production associated with infected laying hens. The presence of deep pectoral myopathy has been associated with IBV variants. This lesion is detected at slaughterhouses and is characterized by paleness and atrophy of the deep pectoral muscle, including necrosis of the region, leading to condemnations of the breast muscle, a valuable meat cut in the market. This work aimed to study the relationship between deep pectoral myopathy and IBV by describing tracheal and muscle lesions and comparing the frequency of IBV detection via reverse-transcription (RT) PCR in muscle, tracheal, and cecal tonsil samples from broilers with and without myopathy. A case-control study was conducted in 40 broiler flocks vaccinated with the Massachusetts strain. The case group consisted of 23 flocks that presented myopathic lesions under sanitary inspection and a control group of 17 flocks without myopathic lesions. The tracheal, cecal tonsil, and supracoracoid muscle (with and without lesions) samples from the 40 broiler flocks were screened by RT-PCR to detect IBV. Histopathology of muscle and tracheal tissue was carried out. Upon microscopic examination, the muscle samples from the case group presented extensive necrosis, intense mononuclear inflammatory infiltration, muscle fiber fragmentation, and fibrotic tissue, confirming myopathy, whereas muscles from the control group showed no alterations. The tracheal samples presented a large number of infiltrated mononuclear inflammatory cells that in some areas formed submucosal nodules. A total of 25 flocks tested IBV positive by RT-PCR: 14 from the case group and 11 from the control group. The IBV was detected by RT-PCR directly in muscle samples. Despite that, the

  20. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

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    Kong Xiangang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.

  1. Differential modulation of avian β-defensin and Toll-like receptor expression in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus.

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    Xu, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Xu, Qianqian; Han, Zongxi; Liang, Shuling; Shao, Yuhao; Ma, Deying; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-11-01

    The host innate immune response either clears invading viruses or allows the adaptive immune system to establish an effective antiviral response. In this study, both pathogenic (passage 3, P3) and attenuated (P110) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were used to study the immune responses of chicken to IBV infection. Expression of avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in 16 tissues of chicken were compared at 7 days PI. The results showed that P3 infection upregulated the expression of AvBDs, including AvBD2, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12, while P110 infection downregulated the expression of AvBDs, including AvBD3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 in most tissues. Meanwhile, the expression level of several TLRs showed a general trend of upregulation in the tissues of P3-infected chickens, while they were downregulated in the tissues of P110-infected chickens. The result suggested that compared with the P110 strain, the P3 strain induced a more pronounced host innate immune response. Furthermore, we observed that recombinant AvBDs (including 2, 6, and 12) demonstrated obvious anti-viral activity against IBV in vitro. Our findings contribute to the proposal that IBV infection induces an increase in the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of some AvBDs and TLRs, which suggests that AvBDs may play significant roles in the resistance of chickens to IBV replication.

  2. Infectious bronchitis corona virus establishes productive infection in avian macrophages interfering with selected antimicrobial functions.

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    Aruna Amarasinghe

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV causes respiratory disease leading to loss of egg and meat production in chickens. Although it is known that macrophage numbers are elevated in the respiratory tract of IBV infected chickens, the role played by macrophages in IBV infection, particularly as a target cell for viral replication, is unknown. In this study, first, we investigated the ability of IBV to establish productive replication in macrophages in lungs and trachea in vivo and in macrophage cell cultures in vitro using two pathogenic IBV strains. Using a double immunofluorescent technique, we observed that both IBV Massachusetts-type 41 (M41 and Connecticut A5968 (Conn A5968 strains replicate in avian macrophages at a low level in vivo. This in vivo observation was substantiated by demonstrating IBV antigens in macrophages following in vitro IBV infection. Further, IBV productive infection in macrophages was confirmed by demonstrating corona viral particles in macrophages and IBV ribonucleic acid (RNA in culture supernatants. Evaluation of the functions of macrophages following infection of macrophages with IBV M41 and Conn A5968 strains revealed that the production of antimicrobial molecule, nitric oxide (NO is inhibited. It was also noted that replication of IBV M41 and Conn A5968 strains in macrophages does not interfere with the induction of type 1 IFN activity by macrophages. In conclusion, both M41 and Con A5968 IBV strains infect macrophages in vivo and in vitro resulting productive replications. During the replication of IBV in macrophages, their ability to produce NO can be affected without affecting the ability to induce type 1 IFN activity. Further studies are warranted to uncover the significance of macrophage infection of IBV in the pathogenesis of IBV infection in chickens.

  3. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the N-terminal domain of nsp2 from avian infectious bronchitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Anqi; Wei, Lei; Zhao, Weiran; Xu, Yuanyuan; Rao, Zihe

    2009-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of nsp2 from avian infectious bronchitis virus has been purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a prototype of the group III coronaviruses and encodes 15 nonstructural proteins which make up the transcription/replication machinery. The nsp2 protein from IBV has a unique and novel sequence and has no experimentally confirmed function in replication, whereas it has been proposed to be crucial for early viral infection and may inhibit the early host immune response. The gene that encodes a double-mutant IBV nsp2 N-terminal domain (residues 9–393 of the polyprotein, with mutations Q132L and L270F) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was subjected to crystallization trials. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6 2 or P6 4 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 114.2, c = 61.0 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Each asymmetric unit contained one molecule

  4. Selection of reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time qPCR in avian cells infected with infectious bronchitis virus.

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    Batra, Ambalika; Maier, Helena J; Fife, Mark S

    2017-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes infectious bronchitis in poultry, a respiratory disease that is a source of major economic loss to the poultry industry. Detection and the study of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus often involve the use of real-time quantitative PCR assays (qPCR). To account for error within the experiments, the levels of target gene transcription are normalized to that of suitable reference genes. Despite publication of the MIQE (Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments) guidelines in 2009, single un-tested reference genes are often used for normalization of qPCR assays in avian research studies. Here, we use the geNorm algorithm to identify suitable reference genes in different avian cell types during infection with apathogenic and pathogenic strains of IBV. We discuss the importance of selecting an appropriate experimental sample subset for geNorm analysis, and show the effect that this selection can have on resultant reference gene selection. The effects of inappropriate normalization on the transcription pattern of a cellular signalling gene, AKT1, and the interferon-inducible, MX1, were studied. We identify the possibility of the misinterpretation of qPCR data when an inappropriate normalization strategy is employed. This is most notable when measuring the transcription of AKT1, where changes are minimal during infection.

  5. Microwave or autoclave treatments destroy the infectivity of infectious bronchitis virus and avian pneumovirus but allow detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

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    Elhafi, G; Naylor, C J; Savage, C E; Jones, R C

    2004-06-01

    A method is described for enabling safe transit of denatured virus samples for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification without the risk of unwanted viable viruses. Cotton swabs dipped in avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) or avian pneumovirus (APV) were allowed to dry. Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza viruses were used as controls. Autoclaving and microwave treatment for as little as 20 sec destroyed the infectivity of all four viruses. However, both IBV and APV could be detected by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR after autoclaving and as long as 5 min microwave treatment (Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza viruses were not tested). Double microwave treatment of IBV and APV with an interval of 2 to 7 days between was tested. After the second treatment, RT-PCR products were readily detected in all samples. Swabs from the tracheas and cloacas of chicks infected with IBV shown to contain infectious virus were microwaved. Swabs from both sources were positive by RT-PCR. Microwave treatment appears to be a satisfactory method of inactivating virus while preserving nucleic acid for PCR identification.

  6. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis virus and it is relation with avian influenza virus (H9 and Mycoplasma gallisepticum from different geographical regions in Iraq

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    A.H. Al-Dabhawe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, Avian influenza virus (AIV and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry cause acute respiratory infection and serous economic problems in Iraq and many other countries all over the world. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of these diseases in commercial chicken flocks in different geographical region in middle part of Iraq by using qPCR. Tracheal swabs and tissue specimens from trachea, lung and kidney were taken from 38 different cases from commercial broiler chicken flocks in (Najaf, Hilla, Muthana and Theqaar governorates in the period from November 2010 to June 2011, all these flocks were showed respiratory symptoms and mortality about 20-90%. The results showed that 92.1% of samples collected from these flocks were infected with IBV, 20% of samples were infected with IB alone and 45.71% of samples with IB combined with both GM and AIV subtype H9 and 25.71% of samples were positive to both IBV and AIV(H9. No samples were positive to AIV (H9 or MG alone. Because of importance of respiratory diseases as a most common conditions noted in commercial flocks in Iraq and no previous study detecting this pathogens by molecular techniques, this study come to detect and confirm the diagnosis of this pathogens by qPCR as new technique used in this field in Iraq.

  7. Immune responses and interactions following simultaneous application of live Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumovirus vaccines in specific-pathogen-free chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-02-01

    Interactions between live Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines following simultaneous vaccination of day old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks were evaluated. The chicks were divided into eight groups: seven vaccinated against NDV, aMPV and IBV (single, dual or triple) and one unvaccinated as control. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) NDV antibody titres were similar across all groups but were above protective titres. aMPV vaccine when given with other live vaccines suppressed levels of aMPV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies. Cellular and local immunity induced by administration of NDV, aMPV or IBV vaccines (individually or together) showed significant increase in CD4+, CD8+ and IgA bearing B-cells in the trachea compared to the unvaccinated group. Differences between the vaccinated groups were insignificant. Simultaneous vaccination with live NDV, aMPV and IBV did not affect the protection conferred against aMPV or IBV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular cloning of S1 glycoprotein gene of infectious bronchitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro protein expression is an important method of obtaining large amounts of viral proteins to investigate their biological properties. The S1 glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus, due to its effective immune-dominant role is an appropriate candidate for production of recombinant vaccine against infectious bronchitis ...

  9. A serological survey for avian infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus antibodies in backyard (free-range) village chickens in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Ruiz, E J; Ramirez-Cruz, G T; Camara Gamboa, E I; Alexander, D J; Gough, R E

    2000-12-01

    The commercial flocks in Yucatan, Mexico are free of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in its velogenic viscerotropic form, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A seroprevalence survey in 30 villages using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV antibodies was carried out from December 1997 to June 1998. The seroprevalences were 56.5% (95% CI 50-63%) for IBV and 2.2% (95% CI 0.5-3.8%) for NDV. All the villages had chickens that were positive for antibodies to IBV and nine of the villages had chickens that were positive for antibodies to NDV. This suggests that IBV may be responsible for a large proportion of the respiratory disease observed in backyard chickens in Yucatan. The implications of these findings are discussed, including the highly susceptible status of the backyard chickens in Yucatan to NDV and the possibility of this virus being one cause of the syndrome known as mortandad by the local people.

  10. Comparison between dot-immunoblotting assay and clinical sign determination method for quantifying avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine by titration in embryonated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Youn, Ha-Na; Heo, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive and specific method for measuring the vaccine titer of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is important to commercial manufacturers for improving vaccine quality. Typically, IBV is titrated in embryonated chicken eggs, and the infectivity of the virus dilutions is determined by assessing clinical signs in the embryos as evidence of viral propagation. In this study, we used a dot-immunoblotting assay (DIA) to measure the titers of IBV vaccines that originated from different pathogenic strains or attenuation methods in embryonated eggs, and we compared this assay to the currently used method, clinical sign evaluation. To compare the two methods, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR, which had the lowest limit of detection for propagated IBV. As a clinical sign of infection, dwarfism of the embryo was quantified using the embryo: egg (EE) index. The DIA showed 9.41% higher sensitivity and 15.5% higher specificity than the clinical sign determination method. The DIA was particularly useful for measuring the titer of IBV vaccine that did not cause apparent stunting but propagated in embryonated chicken eggs such as a heat-adapted vaccine strain. The results of this study indicate that the DIA is a rapid, sensitive, reliable method for determining IBV vaccine titer in embryonated eggs at a relatively low cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RNA sequencing based analysis of the spleen transcriptome following the infectious bronchitis virus infection of chickens selected for different mannose-binding lectin serum concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Mach, Núria

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAvian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper-respiratory tract caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the immune response to IBV infection is a crucial element for further improvements...

  12. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  13. Lithium chloride inhibits the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in cell culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison , Sally; Tarpey , Ian; Rothwell , Lisa; Kasier , Pete; Hiscox , Julian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major economic pathogen of domestic poultry which, despite vaccination, causes mortality and significant losses in production. During replication of the RNA genome there is a high frequency of mutation and recombination which has given rise to many strains of IBV and results in the potential for new and emerging strains. Currently the live-attenuated vaccine gives poor cross strain immunity. Effective antivira...

  14. [Associated vaccination of poultry against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease and infectious bursitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakova, R

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of immunity was studied following a mixed vaccination with live vaccines against infectious bronchitis (strains H120 and H52), Newcastle disease (strain La Sota), and infectious bursitis (strain Th75Vn82). The three vaccines were applied simultaneously via the drinking water, through the spray method, and nasally. Experiments were carried out with a total of 31,466 birds: broilers, growing layers, broiler parents--all without preliminary treatment with biopreparations. Immunity against Newcastle disease was followed up through the hemagglutination-inhibition test and challenging with a virulent virus; against infectious bursitis--through immunodiffusion in agar gel after Ouchterlony; and against infectious bronchitis--through virus-neutralization with strain Beaudette. The birds were treated with mixed vaccines in the following combinations: infectious bronchitis--Newcastle disease; infectious bursitis--Gumboro; infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, Gumboro. The simultaneous application of live vaccines against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, and infectious bursitis was shown to be well tolerated with no harmful aftereffects whatever. The immunity built up with the simultaneous use of the three vaccines was not inferior in effectiveness to that conferred with the use of two vaccines or only one of them.

  15. Detection and strain differentiation of infectious bronchitis virus in tracheal tissues from experimentally infected chickens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Comparison with an immunohistochemical technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Nielsen, O.L.; Pedersen, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    Oligonucleotide pairs were constructed for priming the amplification of fragments of nucleocapsid (N) protein and spike glycoprotein (S) genes of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One oligonucleotide pair amplified a common segment...

  16. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  17. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  18. Infectious Bronchitis Virus Variants: Molecular Analysis and Pathogenicity Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yi Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV variants constantly emerge and pose economic threats to poultry farms worldwide. Numerous studies on the molecular and pathogenic characterization of IBV variants have been performed between 2007 and 2017, which we have reviewed herein. We noted that viral genetic mutations and recombination events commonly gave rise to distinct IBV genotypes, serotypes and pathotypes. In addition to characterizing the S1 genes, full viral genomic sequencing, comprehensive antigenicity, and pathogenicity studies on emerging variants have advanced our understanding of IBV infections, which is valuable for developing countermeasures against IBV field outbreaks. This review of IBV variants provides practical value for understanding their phylogenetic relationships and epidemiology from both regional and worldwide viewpoints.

  19. Factors influencing the outcome of infectious bronchitis vaccination and challenge experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, J J Sjaak; Cook, Jane K A

    2014-01-01

    The factors influencing the outcome of infectious bronchitis vaccination and challenge experiments regarding the respiratory and renal systems are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of the available techniques for measuring protection against an infectious bronchitis virus challenge are discussed, including the definition of protection itself. Suggestions are made regarding some ways in which progress towards standardization of a recognized protocol for performing experimental challenge studies can be made and areas where more work is needed are indicated.

  20. Proteomic analysis of purified coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Dingming

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV is the coronavirus of domestic chickens causing major economic losses to the poultry industry. Because of the complexity of the IBV life cycle and the small number of viral structural proteins, important virus-host relationships likely remain to be discovered. Toward this goal, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis fractionation coupled to mass spectrometry identification approaches to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified IBV particles. Results Apart from the virus-encoded structural proteins, we detected 60 host proteins in the purified virions which can be grouped into several functional categories including intracellular trafficking proteins (20%, molecular chaperone (18%, macromolcular biosynthesis proteins (17%, cytoskeletal proteins (15%, signal transport proteins (15%, protein degradation (8%, chromosome associated proteins (2%, ribosomal proteins (2%, and other function proteins (3%. Interestingly, 21 of the total host proteins have not been reported to be present in virions of other virus families, such as major vault protein, TENP protein, ovalbumin, and scavenger receptor protein. Following identification of the host proteins by proteomic methods, the presence of 4 proteins in the purified IBV preparation was verified by western blotting and immunogold labeling detection. Conclusions The results present the first standard proteomic profile of IBV and may facilitate the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms.

  1. Genetic diversity and selection regulates evolution of infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Haroldo; van Santen, Vicky L; Jackwood, Mark W

    2012-09-01

    Conventional and molecular epidemiologic studies have confirmed the ability of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) to rapidly evolve and successfully circumvent extensive vaccination programs implemented since the early 1950s. IBV evolution has often been explained as variation in gene frequencies as if evolution were driven by genetic drift alone. However, the mechanisms regulating the evolution of IBV include both the generation of genetic diversity and the selection process. IBV's generation of genetic diversity has been extensively investigated and ultimately involves mutations and recombination events occurring during viral replication. The relevance of the selection process has been further understood more recently by identifying genetic and phenotypic differences between IBV populations prior to, and during, replication in the natural host. Accumulating evidence suggests that multiple environmental forces within the host, including immune responses (or lack thereof) and affinity for cell receptors, as well as physical and biochemical conditions, are responsible for the selection process. Some scientists have used or adopted the related quasispecies frame to explain IBV evolution. The quasispecies frame, while providing a distinct explanation of the dynamics of populations in which mutation is a frequent event, exhibits relevant limitations which are discussed herein. Instead, it seems that IBV populations evolving by the generation of genetic variability and selection on replicons follow the evolutionary mechanisms originally proposed by Darwin. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the evolution of IBV is of basic relevance and, without doubt, essential to appropriately control and prevent the disease.

  2. Understanding Immune Resistance to Infectious Bronchitis Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Chicken Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A P; Hauck, R; Zhou, H; Gallardo, R A

    2017-09-01

    Genetic resistance or susceptibility to infectious diseases has been largely associated with the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Our goal was to determine resistance and susceptibility of MHC B haplotype in congenic and inbred chicken lines in order to establish a resistant-susceptible model. Eight congenic lines (253/B18, 254/B15, 330/B21, 312/B24, 331/B2, 335/B19, 336/B21, and 342/BO), two inbred lines (003/B17 and 077/B19), and three commercial lines (white leghorn, brown layers, and broilers) were used in two experiments. We analyzed and compared immunologic responses and the effect of challenge by measuring viral load, IgG and IgA humoral responses, histopathology and histomorphometry, clinical signs, and immune cell populations in the different MHC B haplotype lines. We found that respiratory signs, tracheal deciliation and inflammation, airsacculitis, viral shedding in tears, and local humoral responses were good parameters to determine resistance or susceptibility. Based on these results, we identified 331/B2 as the most resistant and 335/B19 as the most susceptible congenic chicken lines. These two lines will be used as an animal model in subsequent experiments to understand the mechanisms by which the immune system in chickens generates resistance to infectious bronchitis virus.

  3. Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chronic bronchitis, the airway becomes permanently infected with bacteria.) Pneumonia is more common among smokers and people who ... X-ray to rule out a condition like pneumonia, and may sometimes order a ... work against bacteria, not viruses). The doctor will recommend that you ...

  4. Genetic grouping of avian infectious bronchitis virus isolated in Brazil based on RT-PCR/RFLP analysis of the S1 gene Agrupamento genético de isolados do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das aves no Brasil com base na análise do gene S1 por RT-PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima S. Montassier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Brazilian isolates and one reference vaccine strain of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV were propagated in embryonating chicken eggs. The entire S1 glycoprotein gene of these viruses was analysed by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RT-PCR-RFLP, using the restriction enzymes HaeIII, XcmI and BstyI. The RFLP patterns led to the classification of these isolates into five distinct genotypes: A, B, C, D and Massachusetts. Five of twelve isolates were grouped in Massachusetts genotype and the remaining seven viruses were classified into four distinct genotypes: A (2, B (2, C (2 or D (1. Such genotyping classification agreed with previous immunological analysis for most of these viruses, highlighting the occurrence of a relevant variability among the IBV strains that are circulating in Brazilian commercial poultry flocks.Doze isolados de campo do Brasil e uma estirpe de referência vacinal do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das aves (VBI foram propagadas em ovos embrionados SPF. O gene S1 dessas amostras foi analisado por RT-PCR seguido de RFLP, empregando-se as enzimas de restrição HaeIII, XcmI e BstyI. Observou-se a existência de cinco genotipos diferentes: M (Massachusetts, A , B, C e D. Cinco dos doze isolados de campo do VBI foram classificados no genótipo Massachusetts e os sete vírus restantes foram classificados em quatro genotipos diferentes; A (2, B (2, C (2 ou D (1. Os resultados desta genotipagem concordam com os dados obtidos na análise imunológica previamente realizada para a maior parte destes vírus, destacando a ocorrência de uma variabilidade marcante entre os isolados do VBI que estão circulando nas granjas avícolas comerciais do Brasil.

  5. Use of RT-PCR and elisa techniques for the diagnostic of infectious bronchitis virus in broilers at slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi de Oliveira Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Almeida D.O., Tortely R., Nascimento E.R., Khan M., Pereira V.L.A & Babapoor S. [Use of RT-PCR and elisa techniques for the diagnostic of infectious bronchitis virus in broilers at slaughter.] Uso das técnicas de RT-PCR e elisa no diagnóstico da bronquite infecciosa em frangos de corte ao abate. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(1:55-59, 2015. Departamento de Saúde Coletiva Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brazil Filho, 64, Santa Rosa, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: elmiro@vm.uff.br Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is a viral, acute and highly contagious disease caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. The disease affects broilers improvement and performance causing major economic losses in the world poultry industry. Generally, IBV infections can be diagnosed by detection of IBV itself or the specific antibody response. This study aimed to detect IBV in broilers under Sanitary Inspection by RT-PCR and ELISA, comparing the results and relating them with the average weight of the flock. Samples were collected from 40 vaccinated broiler flocks under Sanitary Inspection at slaughter. Ten birds from every flock were randomly selected and blood samples were collected for ELISA as well three birds had their trachea and caecal tonsils collected for RT- -PCR test. From 40 flocks, 30 were IBV positive by ELISA and 26 by RT-PCR, in which 15 were detected simultaneously in trachea and caecal tonsil and 5 in each sample. There was no agreement between ELISA and RT-PCR results regarding IBV diagnosis as well positivity in both tests was not statistically significant with the average weight of the flock. There was an improvement on IBV diagnosis when caecal tonsils and tracheas were used instead of just one of them. Considering the only vaccine serotype allowed by Brazilian government is the Mass serotype and its persistence in broilers would only be detected up to 28 days

  6. A liquid phase blocking ELISA for the detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA was developed for the detection and measurement of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. The purified and nonpurified virus used as antigen, the capture and detector antibodies, and the chicken hyperimmune sera were prepared and standardized for this purpose. A total of 156 sera from vaccinated and 100 from specific pathogen-free chickens with no recorded contact with the virus were tested. The respective serum titers obtained in the serum neutralization test (SNT were compared with those obtained in the LPB-ELISA. There was a high correlation (r2 = 0.8926 between the two tests. The LPB-ELISA represents a single test suitable for the rapid detection of antibodies against bronchitis virus in chicken sera, with good sensitivity (88%, specificity (100% and agreement (95.31%.

  7. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of infectious bronchitis coronaviruses: complicated evolution and epidemiology in china caused by cocirculation of multiple types of infectious bronchitis coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengwang; Zhang, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chengren; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang

    2009-01-01

    To monitor and study the molecular epidemiology, evolution and pathogenicity of infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) in China in recent years and further our knowledge of the evolution of IBVs. Thirty-seven IBV isolates were isolated from commercial chickens in China. The isolates were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, typing and analyzing the entire S1 gene. In addition, 4 selected IBV isolates were used to experimentally infect the specific pathogen-free chickens to study their pathogenicity. Three types of IBV have been cocirculating in chicken flocks in China in recent years. Unique insertions and deletions in S1 protein regions were identified among different types of IBV. Moreover, a new IBV strain was isolated and identified in a layer hen. S1 gene analysis showed that a recombination event had occurred in the virus's evolutionary process. In addition, experimental infection has shown that IBV isolates have been nephropathogenic in China in recent years. Mutations, insertions, deletions and recombination of the S1 protein gene contribute to the genetic diversity of IBV in China. Cocirculation of multiple types of IBV in field conditions in China renders its epidemiology and evolution very complicated, indicating the necessity for development of new vaccines or vaccine strategies. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Adjuvant effects of mannose-binding lectin ligands on the immune response to infectious bronchitis vaccine in chickens with high or low serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    that MBL participates in the protection of hosts against virus infections. Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease of economic importance in the poultry industry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). MBL has earlier been described to play a potential role...

  9. Detection of variant infectious bronchitis viruses in broiler flocks in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Awad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of broiler flocks with respiratory disease and high mortality in five broiler farms in Libya were sampled for detection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Twelve IBV strains from these farms were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and differentiated by nucleotide sequencing of the hypervariable region of the S1 gene. A pair-wise comparison of the sequences showed two distinctive patterns. Those from farms 1, 2, 4 and 5, formed a separate cluster with 94–99% relatedness to the Egyptian IBV strains CK/Eg/BSU-2/2011, CK/Eg/BSU-3/2011 and Eg/1212B. Sequences from the farm 3 formed another cluster with 100% relatedness to Eg/CLEVB-2/IBV/012 and IS/1494/06. This appears to be the first report on the co-circulation these variant IBVs in Libya.

  10. Heterologous live infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in day-old commercial broiler chicks: clinical signs, ciliary health, immune responses and protection against variant infectious bronchitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via the oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines: Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274 or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their tracheas collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post-vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce high levels of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells in the trachea. Significantly higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ expression were observed in the Mass2 + 793B2-vaccinated group compared to the other groups (subscripts indicate different manufacturers). Protection studies showed that the group of chicks vaccinated with Mass2 + 793B2 produced 92% ciliary protection against QX challenge; compared to 53%, 68% and 73% ciliary protection against the same challenge virus by Mass1 + D274, Mass1 + 793B1 and Mass3 + Ark, respectively. All vaccination programmes produced more than 85% ciliary protection against M41 and 793B challenges. It appears that the variable levels of protection provided by different heterologous live IBV vaccinations are dependent on the levels of local tracheal immunity induced by the respective vaccine combination. The Mass2 + 793B2 group showed the worst clinical signs, higher mortality and severe lesions following vaccination, but had the highest tracheal immune responses and demonstrated the best protection against all three challenge viruses.

  11. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Novel Infectious Bronchitis Virus Variants from Vaccinated Broiler Flocks in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sabour, Mohammed A; Al-Ebshahy, Emad M; Khaliel, Samy A; Abdel-Wanis, Nabil A; Yanai, Tokuma

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of circulating infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains in vaccinated broiler flocks in the Giza and Fayoum governorates. Thirty-four isolates were collected, and egg propagation revealed their ability to induce typical IBV lesions after three to five successive passages. Three selected isolates were identified as IBV using a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay targeted the nucleocapsid (N) gene and further characterized by partial spike (S) gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed their clustering into two variant groups. Group I consisted of one variant (VSVRI_F3), which had 99.1% nucleotide sequence identity to the Q1 reference strain. Group II consisted of variants VSVRI_G4 and VSVRI_G9, which showed 92.8%-94.3% nucleotide identity with the Egyptian variants Eg/12120S/2012, Eg/12197B/2012, and Eg/1265B/2012. Regarding the deduced amino acid sequence, the three variants had 77.1%-85.2% similarity with the vaccine strains currently used in Egypt. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring the prevalence of IBV variants in vaccinated broiler flocks as well as adopting an appropriate vaccination strategy.

  12. S1 gene-based phylogeny of infectious bronchitis virus: An attempt to harmonize virus classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valastro, Viviana; Holmes, Edward C; Britton, Paul; Fusaro, Alice; Jackwood, Mark W; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease that results in severe economic losses to the global poultry industry. The virus exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct viral types, and both phylogenetic analysis and measures of pairwise similarity among nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been used to classify IBV strains. However, there is currently no consensus on the method by which IBV sequences should be compared, and heterogeneous genetic group designations that are inconsistent with phylogenetic history have been adopted, leading to the confusing coexistence of multiple genotyping schemes. Herein, we propose a simple and repeatable phylogeny-based classification system combined with an unambiguous and rationale lineage nomenclature for the assignment of IBV strains. By using complete nucleotide sequences of the S1 gene we determined the phylogenetic structure of IBV, which in turn allowed us to define 6 genotypes that together comprise 32 distinct viral lineages and a number of inter-lineage recombinants. Because of extensive rate variation among IBVs, we suggest that the inference of phylogenetic relationships alone represents a more appropriate criterion for sequence classification than pairwise sequence comparisons. The adoption of an internationally accepted viral nomenclature is crucial for future studies of IBV epidemiology and evolution, and the classification scheme presented here can be updated and revised novel S1 sequences should become available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic and clinical observation on the infectious bronchitis virus strain Q1 in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Toffan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the diagnostic and clinical observations of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV variant, referred to as Q1, in clinically ill chickens in Italy. This IBV variant was described for the first time in 1998 in China. In the autumn of 2011 it caused a small-scale epidemic in non-vaccinated meat chickens in farms located in Northern Italy. The disease was characterized by increased mortality, kidney lesions and proventriculitis. Histopatological observations confirmed the nephritis and described an unusual erosive/necrotic proventriculitis with infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and heterophils, as well as fibroplasia in the lamina propria. Despite these findings and the isolation of the Q1 IB virus directly from proventricular tissue, further studies are necessary to confirm the role of this IBV strain in the development of proventricular lesions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the IBV isolates were very similar and probably had a common origin. The IBV Q1 variant appears to be now endemic in the North of Italy and at times it is detected in vaccinated backyard and commercial broiler farms. The importance of continuous monitoring in controlling the spread of known or emerging IBV variants is underlined.

  14. Genetic characterisation and analysis of infectious bronchitis virus isolated from Brazilian flocks between 2010 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Claudia; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Santander Parra, Silvana H; Nuñez, Luis F N; Penzes, Zoltan; Chacón, Jorge L; Sesti, Luiz; Chacón, Ruy D; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J

    2017-12-01

    1. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants in Brazil were isolated during 2010-2015 for epidemiological and molecular analysis to characterise the different variants and perform a bioinformatic analysis to compare with sequences of variants collected over the previous 40 years. 2. Of the 453 samples examined, 61.4% were positive for IBV and 75.9% of these were considered to have the BR-I genotype and were detected in birds of all ages distributed in all five Brazilian regions. 3. The ratio of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN) to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS), i.e. dN/dS, revealed a predominance of codons with non-synonymous substitutions in the first third of the S1 gene and a dN/dS ratio of 0.67. Additionally, prediction of N-glycosylation sites showed that most of the BR-I variants (from 2003 to early 2014) had an extra site at amino acid position 20, whereas the newest variants lacked this extra site. 4. These results suggest that Brazilian IBV variants probably underwent drastic mutations at various points between 1983 and 2003 and that the selection processes became silent after achieving a sufficiently effective antigenic structure for invasion and replication in their hosts. Brazilian IBV genotype BR-I is currently the predominant genotype circulating in Brazil and South America.

  15. Analysis of synonymous codon usage in spike protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Aditi; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is responsible for causing respiratory, renal, and urogenital diseases in poultry. IBV infection in poultry leads to high mortality rates in affected flocks and to severe economic losses due to a drop in egg production and a reduced gain in live weight of the broiler birds. IBV-encoded spike protein (S) is the major protective immunogen for the host. Although the functions of the S protein have been well studied, the factors shaping synonymous codon usage bias and nucleotide composition in the S gene have not been reported yet. In the present study, we analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage and effective number of codons (Nc) using the 53 IBV S genes. The major trend in codon usage variation was studied using correspondence analysis. The plot of Nc values against GC3 as well as the correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggest that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage bias in the S gene. Interestingly, no association of aromaticity, degree of hydrophobicity, and aliphatic index was observed with the codon usage variation in IBV S genes. The study represents a comprehensive analysis of IBV S gene codon usage patterns and provides a basic understanding of the codon usage bias.

  16. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF VITAMIN E ADJUVANTED OIL EMULSIFIED INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS EXPERIMENTAL VACCINE

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    S. ALI, M. ARSHAD, M. SIDDIQUE AND M. ASHRAF

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to prepare oil emulsified (OE infectious bronchitis (IB experimental vaccines. The vaccines were prepared using the vaccinal strain H-120 Infectious Bonchitis virus (IBV. The virus was cultivated in 9-day old embryonated eggs via allantoic cavity route. Allantoic-amniotic fluid (AAF was collected and inactivated with formalin @ 0.12%. Water in oil emulsion was prepared by adding one part of AAF to four parts of mineral oil containing water phase (Tween 80 and oil phase (Span 80 surfactants. Hydrophile lypohile balance (HLB of the emulsion was maintained at 7.0. Two oil emulsified experimental vaccines were prepared. Vaccine-I was prepared without vitamin E and Vaccine-II with vitamin E (300 mg/ml. A total of 120 day-old broiler breeder chickens were divided into 4 groups, A, B, C, and D, each having 30 birds. At the age of 21 days, experimental Vaccine-I, experimental vaccine-II and commercial IB killed (H-120 vaccine were inoculated @ 0.5 ml in the birds of groups A, B and C, respectively. Group D was maintained as nonvaccinated control. Efficacy of the vaccines was evaluated on the basis of humoral immune response (haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres against IB in the four groups. The seven weeks cumulative mean antibody titres (CMT of each group were calculated. The highest CMT was observed in group B (130, followed by group C (69, group A (58 and group D (17. Statistical analysis showed that haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titres in group B (vaccine- II were significantly higher than those of groups A, B and C (P< 0.05.

  17. Quality of broilers infected with autochthonous MGA strain, alone or in combination with Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV vaccine

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    Cátia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. da Silva C.C., dos Santos F.F., Faria T.S., José D.S., Tortelly R., Abreu D.L. da C., do Nascimento E.R., Machado L. dos S., Soares M.V. & Pereira V.L.A. [Quality of broilers infected with autochthonous MGA strain, alone or in combination with Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV vaccine.] Qualidade de frangos de corte infectados com Mycoplasma gallinarum isoladamente ou em combinação com o vírus vacinal da Bronquite Infecciosa das Galinhas. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:420-430, 2016. Departamento de Saúde Coletiva, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brazil Filho, 64, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: catinha_cardoso@hotmail.com Brazil is the world’s largest exporter and third largest producer of poultry meat. Advances in management, biosecurity and genetics have contributed to the increase in productivity of the poultry industry, at the same time the pronounced production increased the risk of spreading respiratory diseases, such as avian mycoplasmosis and Infectious Bronchitis. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Mycoplasma meleagridis (MM are recognized as indisputable pathogens for the poultry industry, however Mycoplasma gallinarum (MGA has been considered commensal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of broilers infected with autochthonous MGA strain, alone or in combination with Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV vaccine. There were raised 96 broiler chicks since one-day-old, Cobb line, mycoplasma free. They were separated in four groups of 24 birds kept in isolation units: Group 1 (G1, uninfected and unvaccinated; Group 2 (G2, infected with autochthonous MGA strain; Group 3 (G3, vaccinated with commercial IBV strain H120 (Bio-bronk-vet ®, Biovet, SP; Group 4 (G4, infected with MGA and vaccinated with commercial IBV. The infection was monitored by MGA PCR and IBV vaccination was confirmed by RT-PCR. The feed intake record was

  18. Genome characterization, antigenicity and pathogenicity of a novel infectious bronchitis virus type isolated from south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Wenjun; Han, Zongxi; Chen, Yuqiu; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Junfeng; Li, Huixin; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Liangliang; Liu, Shengwang

    2017-10-01

    In 2014, three infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, designated as γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14, γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14 and γCoV/ck/China/I0118/14, were isolated and identified from chickens suspected to be infected with IBV in Guangxi province, China. Based upon data arising from S1 sequence and phylogenetic analyses, the three IBV isolates were genetically different from other known IBV types, which represented a novel genotype (GI-29). Virus cross-neutralization tests, using γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 as a representative, showed that genotype GI-29 was antigenically different from all other known IBV types, thus representing a novel serotype. Complete genomic analysis showed that GI-29 type viruses were closely related to and might originate from a GX-YL5-like virus by accumulation of substitutions in multiple genes. These GI-29 viral genomes are still evolving and diverging, particularly in the 3' region, although we cannot rule out the possibility of recombination events occurring. For isolate γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14, we found that recombination events had occurred between nsps 2 and 3 in gene 1 which led to the introduction of a 4/91 gene fragment into the γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14 viral genome. In addition, we found that the GI-29 type γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 isolate was a nephropathogenic strain and high pathogenic to 1-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens although cystic oviducts were not observed in the surviving layer chickens challenged with γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 isolate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphologic observations on respiratory tracts of chickens after hatchery infectious bronchitis vaccination and formaldehyde fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, A M; Soñez, M C; Plano, C M; von Lawzewitsch, I

    2000-01-01

    The histologic changes in the respiratory tracts of chickens were evaluated after hatchery fumigation with 40% formaldehyde vapors and vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus with live attenuated vaccine (Massachusetts serotype). One-day-old chickens were housed in four isolation units in controlled environmental conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, and separated into four groups: 1) fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group); 2) nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV group); 3) fumigated and nonvaccinated birds (FNV group); and 4) control group (C group). All birds were tested to be free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. After necropsy on the first, eighth, and twenty-sixth days after birth, samples from tracheal upper portion and lungs were conventionally processed for light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue response was monitored by microscopic examination of trachea and lung. On the first day of observation, fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group) showed extensively damaged tracheal epithelium with exfoliated areas and some active glands with electrodense granules, and in the lung, the primary bronchi epithelium had disorganized cilia and abundant lymphocytes, with emphysematous areas in tertiary bronchus. On day 8 after vaccination, cubical and cylindrical tracheal cell proliferation was observed, and on day 26, ciliated columnar epithelium was almost regenerated with heterophil corion infiltration, and hyaline cartilage nodules appeared in parabronchi. The nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV) revealed less injury on the epithelial surface and a more rapid response to epithelial regeneration than the in only fumigated animals (FNV). The control group did not show remarkable morphologic changes. Postvaccinal and fumigation effects on the upper respiratory tract were temporary, whereas in lungs, increased emphysema, cartilage nodules in the interchange zone, and general lymphocyte infiltration had caused

  20. Evaluation of infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas-type vaccine failure in commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Hilt, Deborah A; Williams, Susan M; Jackwooda, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens and is highly contagious. Many different types of the virus exist, but only a few types are used as attenuated live vaccines in the commercial poultry industry. Of the vaccine types used, the Arkansas (Ark)-type virus is most frequently reisolated from vaccinated broilers. Previous research has suggested that incomplete clearance of Ark-type vaccine virus plays a role in the inadequate protection observed when vaccinated broilers are challenged with pathogenic Ark virus. In this study, we examine routes of vaccine administration using multiple IBV types including Ark in an effort to understand why Ark vaccines do not provide good protection and persist in commercial broilers. We found that interference between different types of IBV vaccines was not occurring when combined and administered using a commercial hatchery spray cabinet. Also, Ark vaccine virus was not efficacious in 1-day-old broilers when sprayed using a hatchery spray cabinet, but it gave good protection when administrated by eyedrop inoculation. We also found that the amount of Ark vaccine virus was low or undetectable in choanal swabs out to 35 days postvaccination when vaccine was administered by eyedrop or drinking water. Alternatively, a subpopulation of the Ark vaccine isolated from a vaccinated bird, Ark-RI-EP1, showed a peak titer at 7-10 days of age when given by the same routes, suggesting that the Ark-RI-EP1 was more fit with regard to infection, replication in the birds, or both. Moreover, we found that detection of IBV vaccine virus early after administration, regardless of strain or route, correlated with protection against homologous challenge and may thus be a good indicator of vaccine efficacy in the field because humoral antibody titers are typically low or undetectable after vaccination. These experiments provided key findings that can be used to direct efforts for improving the efficacy of IBV

  1. Detection of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (4/91 type in Broiler Chickens in Chahrmahal-va-bakhtiyari Province

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    M Gholami-Ahangaran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB disease is a viral contagious respiratory disease. The causing agent of this disease has several serotypes. In this study, 4/91 type of Infectious bronchitis (IB was identified. For this, tracheal samples were taken from 18 broiler chickens flocks having respiratory signs suspected to IB disease with one percent mortality in day. After RNA extraction from tissue samples in one step RT-PCR reaction, a fragment of S1 gene was amplified by common primers for all IB viruses. Then RT-PCR product was amplified for identification of 4/91(793/B type by type specific primers in Nested-PCR. Results showed, 11 out 18 flocks (61.1% were infected to IB that 45.45% of IB infected flocks were infected to 4/91 type. Therefore it seems 4/91 type of IB has role in forming and complexing of respiratory signs in broiler chickens suffering to respiratory syndrome in Chahrmahal-va-bakhtiyari province and it is necessary to give a suitable controlling strategy for prevention of 4/91 infection.

  2. Infectious bronchitis in Brazilian chickens: current data and observations of field service personnel

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    EN Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV was detected for the first time in Brazil by Hipólito in 1957 in chickens sold life in the municipal market of Belo Horizonte, MG, when commercial poultry production was just starting in that country. The Massachusetts (Mass serotype was identified. However, the clinical disease was only observed in 1975, when poultry production was intensely growing. The extensive outbreak produced the classical condition in layers and breeders, affecting egg production and quality, whereas broilers presented respiratory and "nephritis-nephrosis" signs. The disease rapidly spread to all poultry-producing regions in the country, and in 1979, both the imports and the manufacturing of live vaccines against IB strains Mass, H120 and H52, were licensed. In 1980, inactivated vaccines were introduced. Molecular techniques, particularly PCR, started to bed in the identification of IBV. A retrospective analysis showed that, up to 1989, the main IBV strain circulating in Brazil was Mass. However, other studies shows the presence of a wide diversity of IBV strains in Brazil since the first strains were isolated, even before vaccination was introduced. Most researchers agree that the incidence of IBV different from Mass has increased, including of exclusively Brazilian genotypes, different from those described in other countries. Indeed, during the last few years, the number of genotypical variants has been much higher than that of the classical Mass serotype. Clinically, in addition of the classic presentations, atypical forms such as testicular atrophy and stones in the epidydimis associated to low fertility have been described. Serological techniques started to be used in vaccination monitoring and as a diagnostic tool. Serological response standards were developed, and have shown to be very useful to determine the expected profile in vaccination programs and when clinical disease is suspected. However, the immuno-enzymatic test

  3. Elisa evaluation of the levels of antibodies against Infectious Bronchitis Virus in laying hens using egg yolk as substrate

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    RH Rauber

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to compare Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibody titers in serum and egg yolk samples from laying hens. Sixty paired blood and egg samples were collected from laying hens of two farms. Serum samples were frozen, while egg yolk samples were diluted (1:500 before freezing. Serum and yolk samples were tested for the presence of IBV antibodies by indirect ELISA (commercial kit and titers were compared by a correlation test (alpha=0.05. There was a high correlation (r=0.62 between the two kinds of samples, which means that titers of IBV antibodies in the egg yolk and in serum samples are quite the same. Considering that blood collection causes deep stress that leads to economic losses, and since eggs are collected daily on the farm, results reported here are of importance to poultry production.

  4. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1) Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahwan, Katarina; Hesse, Martina; Mork, Ann-Kathrin; Herrler, Georg; Winter, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins. PMID:23896748

  5. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1 Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

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    Christine Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins.

  6. Characterization of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus DMV/1639/11 recovered from Delmarva broiler chickens in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Jack; Ladman, Brian S; Pope, Conrad R; Ruano, J Miguel; Brannick, Erin M; Bautista, Daniel A; Coughlin, Colleen M; Preskenis, Lauren A

    2013-03-01

    A limited outbreak of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis (NIB) occurred in three Delmarva (DMV) commercial broiler chicken flocks in 2011. Isolates of NIB virus (NIBV)--DMV/1639/11, DMV/3432/11, and DMV/3902/11--were characterized by sequence analysis of the N-terminal subunit (S1) of the spike (S) gene. Findings indicated that the isolates were identical to each other and to PA/9579A/10, a 2010 isolate from poultry in Pennsylvania. The 2010 and 2011 isolates appear to have originated from a 1997-2000 NIB outbreak in Pennsylvania. DMV/1639/11 and PA/9579A/10 were determined to be nephropathogenic in susceptible chickens, yielding virus reisolations from kidney and inducing characteristic interstitial nephritis microscopic lesions. In a controlled laboratory study, 40% of chickens vaccinated with a combination live vaccine containing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains Massachusetts (Mass) + Connecticut (Conn) were positive on virus isolation attempts after challenge with DMV/1639/11, compared with only 13% of Mass + Arkansas (Ark) vaccinates. Both combination vaccines gave partial protection against the development of DMV/1639/11-induced renal lesions. Although numerically fewer chickens vaccinated with Mass + Conn had interstitial nephritis compared with those vaccinated with Mass + Ark, neither vaccine combination offered greater protection (P chickens challenged with DMV/1639/11. Mass + Ark vaccinations, applied under commercial conditions in the hatchery (spray) and on-farm (spray), did not protect the trachea or kidney from DMV/1639/11 challenge. Serologic testing of broiler flocks found < 3% (2 of 69) tested to possess specific antibodies to DMV/1639/11, indicating the virus had not become established in the region.

  7. Development and efficacy of a novel live-attenuated QX-like nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus vaccine in China.

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    Feng, Keyu; Xue, Yu; Wang, Jinglan; Chen, Weiguo; Chen, Feng; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2015-02-25

    In this study, we attenuated a Chinese QX-like nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain, YX10, by passaging through fertilized chicken eggs. The 90th passage strain (YX10p90) was selected as the live-attenuated vaccine candidate strain. YX10p90 was found to be safe in 7-day-old specific pathogen free chickens without induction of morbidity or mortality. YX10p90 provided nearly complete protection against QX-like (CH I genotype) strains and partial protection against other two major Chinese genotype strains. YX10p90 also showed no reversion to virulence after five back passages in chickens. An IBV polyvalent vaccine containing YX10p90 was developed and showed that it could provide better protection against major Chinese IBV virulent strains than commercial polyvalent vaccines. In addition, the complete genome sequence of YX10p90 was sequenced. Multiple-sequence alignments identified 38 nucleotide substitutions in the whole genome which resulted in 26 amino acid substitutions and a 110-bp deletion in the 3' untranslated region. In conclusion, the attenuated YX10p90 strain exhibited a fine balance between attenuation and immunogenicity, and should be considered as a candidate vaccine to prevent infection of Chinese QX-like nephropathogenic IBV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated level of renal xanthine oxidase mRNA transcription after nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus infection in growing layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huayuan; Huang, Qiqi; Guo, Xiaoquan; Liu, Ping; Liu, Weilian; Zou, Yuelong; Zhu, Shuliang; Deng, Guangfu; Kuang, Jun; Zhang, Caiying; Cao, Huabin; Hu, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    To assess relationships between xanthine oxidase (XOD) and nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (NIBV) infection, 240 growing layers (35 days old) were randomly divided into two groups (infected and control) of 120 chickens each. Each chicken in the control and infected group was intranasally inoculated with 0.2 mL sterile physiological saline and virus, respectively, after which serum antioxidant parameters and renal XOD mRNA expression in growing layers were evaluated at 8, 15 and 22 days post-inoculation (dpi). The results showed that serum glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in the infected group were significantly lower than in the control group at 8 and 15 dpi (p < 0.01), while serum malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.01). The serum uric acid was significantly higher than that of the control group at 15 dpi (p < 0.01). In addition, the kidney mRNA transcript level and serum activity of XOD in the infected group was significantly higher than that of the control group at 8, 15 and 22 dpi (p < 0.05). The results indicated that NIBV infection could cause the increases of renal XOD gene transcription and serum XOD activity, leading to hyperuricemia and reduction of antioxidants in the body.

  9. The effect of diatomaceous earth in live, attenuated infectious bronchitis vaccine, immune responses, and protection against challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmi, Ali; Hauck, Rüdiger; Corbeil, Lynette B; Gallardo, Rodrigo A

    2017-08-01

    Live virus vaccines are commonly used in poultry production, particularly in broilers. Massive application and generation of a protective local mucosal and humoral immunity with no adverse effects is the main goal for this strategy. Live virus vaccines can be improved by adding adjuvants to boost mucosal innate and adaptive responses. In a previous study we showed that diatomaceous earth (DE) can be used as adjuvant in inactivated vaccines. The aim of this study was to test DE as adjuvant in an Ark-DPI live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine after ocular or spray application. Titrating the virus alone or after addition of DE showed that DE had no detrimental effect on the vaccine virus. However, adding DE to the vaccine did not induce higher IgG titers in the serum and IgA titers in tears. It also did not affect the frequency of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and monocytes/macrophages in the blood and the spleen determined by flow cytometry. In addition, protection generated against IBV homologous challenges, measured by viral load in tears, respiratory signs and histopathology in tracheas, did not vary when DE was present in the vaccine formulation. Finally, we confirmed through our observations that Ark vaccines administered by hatchery spray cabinet elicit weaker immune responses and protection against an IBV homologous challenge compared to the same vaccine delivered via ocular route. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Interaction of avian infectious bronchitis virus S1 protein with heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction between S1 and HSP47 was verified by colocalization experiment and co-immunoprecipitation of HeLa cell lysates expressing both proteins. The mapping studies localized the critical S1 sequences for this interaction to amino acids 340-470. Based on these results, we speculate that HSP47 is a functional ...

  11. Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yingshun; Li, Jianan; Fu, Li; Ji, Gaosheng; Zeng, Fanya; Zhou, Long; Gao, Wenqian; Wang, Hongning

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are common viral diseases of chickens, which are caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Vaccination with live attenuated strains of IBV-H120 and NDV-LaSota are important for the control of IB and ND. However, conventional live attenuated vaccines are expensive and result in the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated chickens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new efficacious vaccines. In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases, and the generation of IBV R-H120-HN/5a provides a solid foundation for the development of an effective bivalent vaccine against IBV and NDV.

  12. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  13. Comparison of sequences of hypervariable region (HVR subunit S-1 gene of field isolate I-37 infectious bronchitis virus with Connecticut serotype

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    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bronchitis is a contagious and acute respiratory disease in chickens caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV.Antigenic differences in IBV are associated with changes in the sequence of the spike glycoprotein (S. The subunit S1 which demonstrates more sequence variability than S-2 have been identified as hypervariable region (HVR-1 and 2. There were several IB virus field isolates included I-37 have been identified in Indonesia by serum neutralization method. However, gene sequence variation in HVR subunit S-1 had not yet been identified. Isolate I-37 was close to the serotype Connecticut 46 (Conn 46. The aim of this study is to identify sequence variation of HVR subunit S-1 gene of isolate I-37 produced by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR and sequencing. Several procedures were carried out in the study including virus titration, propagation and was concentrated from the allantoic fluid infected with IBV. Then, RNA was extracted for RTPCR. urther the product was sequnced and its homology with IBV references from GenBank was compared by GenMac version 8.0. Result showed that isolate I-37 produced 515 bp of amplification product. Isolate I-37 and Conn 46 are same serotype, yet their HVR subunit S-1 nucleotides and amino acids (protein differ by 6.9% and 15.6% respectively. It might be concluded that isolate I-37 was variant of Conn 46.

  14. Bronquite infecciosa das galinhas: conhecimentos atuais, cepas e vacinas no Brasil Infectious bronchitis of chickens: current knowledge, strains and vaccines in Brazil

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    Juliana Figueiredo Pitangui Mendonça

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (IB é uma doença viral aguda e altamente contagiosa que provoca grandes perdas econômicas à indústria avícola em todo o mundo. Considerando que surtos têm ocorrido no Brasil com emergência de novas variantes de IBV, desafiando as estratégias de vacinação atuais, este trabalho objetiva revisar os conhecimentos sobre IB e IBV, a sua distribuição, as cepas e as vacinas utilizadas no Brasil.Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute, highly contagious disease of chickens, caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, which results in great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide, despite the routine use of vaccines. Several outbreaks do occur periodically in densely populated poultry regions in Brazil and there are constant emergence of new variants. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about IBV and IB, the distribution, strains and vaccines in Brazil.

  15. Plastic bronchitis

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    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  16. Seroprevalence of Selected Avian Pathogens of Backyard Poultry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A serological survey for Newcastle (ND), avian influenza (AI), Gumboro (IBD) and Infectious bronchitis (IB) viruses was conducted in 310 serum samples in village chickens in Sinar State, Sudan. The studied chickens had no history of previous vaccination and showed no clinical signs. Results of indirect enzyme-linked ...

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Prevention5. Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is acute bronchitis? Acute ... heartburn, you can get acute bronchitis when stomach acid gets into the bronchial tree. How is acute ...

  18. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant fusion proteins containing spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus and hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lijuan; Zeng, Yuyao; Wang, Wei; Wei, Ying; Xue, Chunyi; Cao, Yongchang

    2016-09-02

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious viral respiratory disease of chickens and vaccination is the main method for disease control. The S1 protein, which contains several virus neutralization epitopes, is considered to be a target site of vaccine development. However, although protective immune responses could be induced by recombinant S1 protein, the protection rate in chickens was still low (proteins with HA2 protein (rS1-HA2) or transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail (rS1-H3(TM)) from hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza virus. After immunization, animals vaccinated with fusion proteins rS1-HA2 and rS1-H3(TM) demonstrated stronger robust humoral and cellular immune responses than that of rS1 and inactivated M41 vaccine. The protection rates of groups immunized with rS1-HA2 (87%) were significantly higher than the groups inoculated with rS1 (47%) and inactivated M41 vaccine (53%). And chickens injected with rS1-H3(TM) had similar level of protection (73%) comparing to chickens vaccinated with rS1 (47%) (P=0.07). Our data suggest that S1 protein fused to the HA2 or TM proteins from hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza virus may provide a new strategy for high efficacy recombinant vaccine development against IBV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Eggshell apex abnormalities in a free-range hen farm with mycoplasma synoviae and infectious bronchitis virus in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FC dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A farm with 3,000 free-range hens between 24 and 65 weeks of age was investigated. These hens were separated in small flocks of 400 to 700 birds, presenting 10 to 23% egg production reduction. Twenty serum samples were collected during the period of drop in egg production and three weeks later for the investigation of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, M. gallisepticum (MG and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibodies using ELISA. At the time of the second collection, egg production had resumed to normal levels; however, with 10.23% of the eggs showed eggshell abnormalities limited to the apex. Eggshell strength was significantly different between normal and those with eggshell apex abnormalities, but not other egg-quality parameters. ELISA tests showed that MS and IBV titers increased during the evaluated period. MS infection was confirmed by culture and by PCR of tracheal swabs. All samples were negative for MG by ELISA and PCR. Further studies with larger samples to ensure the occurrence of this disease in industrial layer flocks in Brazil are under way.

  20. Securitization of infectious diseases in Vietnam: the cases of HIV and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    The frequent and swift emergence of new and devastating infectious diseases has brought renewed attention to health as an issue of international importance. Some states and regional organizations, including in Asia, have begun to regard infectious disease as a national and international security issue. This article seeks to examine the Vietnamese government's response to the epidemics of avian influenza and Human immunodeficiency virus. Both diseases have been recognized at different times as threats to international security and both are serious infectious disease problems in Vietnam. Yet, the character of the central government's response to these two epidemics has been starkly different. How and why this disparity in policy approaches occurs depends largely on the epidemiological, economic and political context in which they occur. Although epidemiological factors are frequently explored when discussing disease as a security issue, seldom are the political, social and economic characteristics of the state invoked. These dimensions, and their interaction with the epidemiology of the disease, are central to understanding which diseases are ultimately treated by states as security issues. In particular, the role of economic security as a powerful motivator for resistance to control measures and the role that local implementation of policies can have in disrupting the effect of central government policy are explored. In exploring both the outcomes of securitization, and its facilitating conditions, I suggest some preliminary observations on the potential costs and benefits of securitizing infectious disease and its utility as a mechanism for protecting health in Asia.

  1. Ameliorative effect of a microbial feed additive on infectious bronchitis virus antibody titer and stress index in broiler chicks fed deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Böhm, J

    2012-04-01

    Although acute mycotoxicoses are rare in poultry production, chronic exposure to low levels of mycotoxins is responsible for reduced productivity and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known to modulate immune function, but only a few studies have investigated the effect of DON on the vaccinal immune response. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, an experiment with 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) was carried out to examine the effects of feeding DON-contaminated low-protein grower diets on performance, serum biochemical parameters, lymphoid organ weight, and antibody titers to infectious bronchitis vaccination in serum and to evaluate the effects of Mycofix select dietary supplementation in either the presence or absence of DON in broilers. In total, thirty-two 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control; 2) artificially contaminated diets with 10 mg of DON/kg of diet; 3) DON-contaminated diets supplemented with Mycofix select; and 4) control diet supplemented with Mycofix select. Feeding of contaminated diets decreased (P = 0.000) the feed intake, BW (P = 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.044), and feed efficiency during the grower phase. Deoxynivalenol affected the blood biochemistry, whereas plasma total protein and uric acid concentrations in birds fed contaminated grains were decreased compared with those of the controls. Moreover, in birds fed contaminated feeds, there was a tendency to reduce triglycerides in the plasma (P = 0.090), suggesting that DON in the diets affected protein and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens. The feeding of contaminated diets altered the immune response in broilers by reducing the total lymphocyte count. Similarly, the antibody response against infectious bronchitis vaccination

  2. Serum levels of mannan-binding lectin in chickens prior to and during experimental infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Munch, M.; Handberg, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a glycoprotein and a member of the C-type lectin super family, the collectin family, and the acute phase protein family. The MBL exerts its function by directly binding to microbial surfaces through its carbohydrate recognition domains, followed by direct opsonizati...

  3. Serum levels of mannan-binding lectin in chickens prior to and during experimental infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Munch, M.; Handberg, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a glycoprotein and a member of the C-type lectin super family, the collectin family, and the acute phase protein family. The MBL exerts its function by directly binding to microbial surfaces through its carbohydrate recognition domains, followed by direct opsonization......, the highest value was found in chickens inoculated after 12 h of activity. Thus, an inverse relation exists between the MBL response and the IBV specific antibody response. The ability of MBL to activate the complement cascade was tested in a heterologous system by deposition of human C4 on the chicken MBL...

  4. Protection of chickens against infectious bronchitis by a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing IBV-S1 and chicken IFNgamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yong-Ke; Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Shi, Xing-Ming; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Wang; Zhi, Hai-Dong; Kong, Xian-Gang; Wang, Mei

    2009-11-23

    A fowlpox virus expressing the chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene of the LX4 strain (rFPV-IBVS1) and a fowlpox virus co-expressing the S1 gene and the chicken type II interferon gene (rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma) were constructed. These viruses were assessed for their immunological efficacy on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged with a virulent IBV. Although the antibody levels in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated group were lower than those in the attenuated live IB vaccine H120 group and the rFPV-IBVS1 group, the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma provided the strongest protection against an IBV LX4 virus challenge (15 out of 16 chickens immunized with rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma were protected), followed by the attenuated live IB vaccine (13/16 protected) and the rFPV-IBVS1 (12/16 protected). Compared to those of the rFPV-IBVS1 and the attenuated live IB vaccine groups, chickens in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma group eliminated virus more quickly and decreased the presence of viral antigen more significantly in renal tissue. Examination of affected tissues revealed abnormalities in the liver, spleen, kidney, lung and trachea of chickens vaccinated with the attenuated live IB vaccine and the rFPV-IBVS1 vaccine. In rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated chickens, pathological changes were also observed in those organs, but were milder and lasted shorter. The lesions in the mock control group were the most severe and lasted for at least 20 days. This study demonstrated that chicken type II interferon increased the immunoprotective efficacy of rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma and normal weight gain in vaccinated chickens although it inhibited serum antibody production.

  5. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) recovered from a clinically healthy chicken in the United States and characterization of its pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Moo; LeRoith, Tanya; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F William; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-27

    A genetically distinct strain of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV-VA strain) was isolated from a healthy chicken in Virginia, and thus it is important to characterize and compare its pathogenicity with the prototype strain (avian HEV-prototype) isolated from a diseased chicken. Here we first constructed an infectious clone of the avian HEV-VA strain. Capped RNA transcripts from the avian HEV-VA clone were replication-competent after transfection of LMH chicken liver cells. Chickens inoculated intrahepatically with RNA transcripts of avian HEV-VA clone developed active infection as evidenced by fecal virus shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. To characterize the pathogenicity, RNA transcripts of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype clones were intrahepatically inoculated into the livers of chickens. Avian HEV RNA was detected in feces, serum and bile samples from 10/10 avian HEV-VA-inoculated and 9/9 avian HEV-prototype-inoculated chickens although seroconversion occurred only in some chickens during the experimental period. The histopathological lesion scores were lower for avian HEV-VA group than avian HEV-prototype group in the liver at 3 and 5 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and in the spleen at 3 wpi, although the differences were not statistically significant. The liver/body weight ratio, indicative of liver enlargement, of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype groups were significantly higher than that of the control group at 5 wpi. Overall, the avian HEV-VA strain still induces histological liver lesions even though it was isolated from a healthy chicken. The results also showed that intrahepatic inoculation of chickens with RNA transcripts of avian HEV infectious clone may serve as an alternative for live virus in animal pathogenicity studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Research Regarding some Live Attenuated Vaccines Used in Immunoprophylaxis of the Avian Infectious Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Tirziu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In our research four live attenuated vaccines against avian infectious bursitis (two inland produced and two imported were tested: Biavac, Biaromvac-Pa, Gumboro Vaccine Nobilis 228e and Live Virus Vaccine Tablets Gumboro, M.B. Strain. The research was made in production conditions on 44,400 broiler chickens maintained in industrial system and raised on bedding and in batteries. The broilers were kept in four poultry houses, each of them representing an experimental group. We mention that vaccines were administered only one time. Vaccines efficiency was assessed by immunoenzymatic test. In that purpose, for each poultry house, 20 broilers were isolated and identified by a tibial ring, their immune response being followed between 5 and 42 days of age. Analyzing the results about individual antibodies titer during the experiment, the significant differences were observed both in poultries and phases. The best results were obtained using Live Virus Vaccine Tablets Gumboro, M.B. strain.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Cluster Analysis of Field Isolates of Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Craig

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is a worldwide infectious disease that causes important economic losses in the poultry industry. Although it is known that ILT virus (ILTV is present in Argentina, there is no information about the circulating strains. With the aim to characterize them, seven different genomic regions (thymidine kinase, glycoproteins D, G, B, C, and J, and infected cell polypeptide 4 were partially sequenced and compared between field samples. The gJ sequence resulted to be the most informative segment, it allowed the differentiation among field sample strains, and also, between wild and vaccine viruses. Specific changes in selected nucleotidic positions led to the definition of five distinct haplotypes. Tests for detection of clustering were run to test the null hypothesis that ILTV haplotypes were randomly distributed in time in Argentina and in space in the most densely populated poultry region of this country, Entre Rios. From this study, it was possible to identify a 46 km radius cluster in which higher proportions of haplotypes 4 and 5 were observed, next to a provincial route in Entre Rios and a significant decline of haplotype 5 between 2009 and 2011. Results here provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of ILT in Argentina, including data on specific genome segments that may be used for rapid characterization of the virus in the field. Ultimately, results will contribute to the surveillance of ILT in the country.

  8. Efficacy of Massachusetts and 793B Vaccines Against Infectious Bronchitis Moroccan-Italy 02 Virus in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens and Commercial Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkasmi, Sakhia F Z; Fellahi, Siham; Umar, Sajid; Delpont, Mattias; Delverdier, Maxence; Lucas, Marie-Noëlle; Bleuart, Céline; Kichou, Faouzi; Nassik, Saâdia; Guerin, Jean-Luc; Fihri, Ouafaa Fassi; Ducatez, Mariette F; El Houadfi, Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    The ability of commercial vaccines H120 and 4/91 to protect against Moroccan-Italy 02 infectious bronchitis virus (Mor-It02) was investigated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and commercial broiler chickens. Commercial broiler chicks (Experiment 1) were vaccinated at the hatchery with H120 vaccine at Day 1, and challenged at Day 21 with 10 4 50% egg-infective dose (EID 50 ) of Mor-It02. All chicks were observed daily for clinical signs attributable to Mor-It02 infection during the 10 days postchallenge (pc). At 5 and 10 days pc, chicks were humanely sacrificed for necropsy examination, and tissues were collected for histopathology evaluation. To better understand the findings on commercial broilers, day-old SPF chicks were divided into five groups in a second experiment: Group Mass/4-91, vaccinated with H120 and 4/91 respectively at Days 1 and 15 of age; Group Mass/Mass, vaccinated by H120 at Days 1 and 15; Group Mass, vaccinated with H120 at Day 1; Group NV, kept unvaccinated; and Group NC, kept as a negative control (unchallenged). At Day 24 of age, Groups Mass/4-91, Mass/Mass, Mass, and NV were challenged with 10 4 EID 50 of Mor-It02. In both experiments, blood samples were collected at different periods for serologic analyses. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected for virus detection by reverse-transcription PCR. In Experiments 1 and 2, respiratory signs started as early as 24 hr pc and maximum severity was observed on Days 3 and 4 pc. The viral shedding rate was significantly lower in Group Mass/4-91 compared to other challenged groups. Serologic analysis in both experiments showed that the sera of challenged group exhibited significantly higher antibody titers than sera collected before challenge. Histopathologic investigations in SPF birds showed deciliation and hyperplasia in Group NV and less-pronounced lesions in Groups Mass/Mass and Mass. In commercial broilers vaccinated with H120 alone, hyperplasia and deciliation were observed in 90% of the

  9. A survey for selected avian viral pathogens in backyard chicken farms in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Tammiranta, N; Ek-Kommonen, C; Soveri, T; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson Ahomaa, M; Huovilainen, A

    2017-04-01

    Backyard poultry are regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious avian diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anaemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5.4%) had chickens seropositive for avian influenza virus. No farms had chickens seropositive for Newcastle disease virus. Of the 51 farms, five (10%) had chickens positive for coronavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all backyard chicken coronaviruses collected were QX type infectious bronchitis viruses. All chickens tested for avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were negative. To our knowledge, there is no evidence to date to suggest that these diseases would have been transmitted between commercial and non-commercial flocks.

  10. From SARS to Avian Influenza: The Role of International Factors in China's Approach to Infectious Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldizen, Fiona C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades global environmental change, globalization, urbanization, and the rise in movement of people have increased the risk for pandemic disease outbreaks. As environmental exposures do not respect state borders, a globalist concept of global health response has developed, which requires transparency and cooperation for coordinated responses to disease outbreaks. Countries that avoid cooperation on health issues for social or political reasons can endanger the global community. The aim of this study was to examine the rapid change in China's infectious disease policy between 2000 and 2013, from actively rejecting the assistance of international health experts during the HIV/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome crises to following best-practice disease response policies and cooperating with international health actors during the 2013 avian influenza outbreak. Using international relations theory, I examined whether international political factors had a major influence on this change. Using the case studies of international reputation, socialization with international organizations, and the securitization of infectious disease, this study examined the influence of international and domestic pressures on Chinese infectious disease policy. Although international relations theory, especially theories popular in global health diplomacy literature, provide valuable insight into the role of international factors and foreign policy interests in China's changing approach to infectious disease control, it cannot provide viable explanations without considering the domestic interests of the Chinese government. Analysis of state responses to infectious disease using international relations theories must consider domestic political factors. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infectious disease characterized by acute cough with or without sputum but without signs of pneumonia. About 90% of cases are caused by viruses. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotics for acute bronchitis have been associated with an approximately half......-day reduction in duration of cough. However, at follow-up there are no significant differences in overall clinical improvement inpatients treated with antibiotics compared with those receiving placebo. Despite this, antibiotics are administered to approximately two thirds of these patients. This review...... discusses the reason for this antibiotic overprescription. Other therapies targeted to control symptoms have also demonstrated a marginal or no effect. EXPERT COMMENTARY: Clinicians should be aware of the marginal effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. Some strategies like the use of rapid tests, delayed...

  12. Serosurvey for selected infectious agents in two sympatric species of cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps and Phalacrocorax magellanicus) from coastal Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luciana; Quintana, Flavio; Uhart, Marcela

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a serologic survey for selected infectious agents on two sympatric cormorants, the Imperial Cormorant (Phalacrocorax atriceps) and the Rock Shag (Phalacrocorax magellanicus). Blood was collected from 267 Imperial Cormorants and 106 Rock Shags at 17 colonies along the Patagonia Atlantic shore during nine breeding seasons (1994, 1999-2001-2005-2008-2010). Antibodies to four pathogens were common to both species and frequently observed: avian paramyxovirus type 1 (56% of Imperial Cormorants and 56% of Rock Shags); avian adenovirus (67% of Imperial Cormorants and 40% of Rock Shags); infectious bronchitis virus serotypes IBV-41, IBV-46, IBV-99, and IBV-JMK (53% of Imperial Cormorants and 64% of Rock Shags); and Salmonella pullorum (18% of Imperial Cormorants and 7% of Rock Shags). Antibody prevalence for these pathogens varied significantly between species, except for avian paramyxovirus type 1. Exposure to avian paramyxovirus type 1 and all serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus varied significantly among seasons in both species. In contrast, the sporadic occurrence of positive titers suggest that cormorants had occasional exposure to Aspergillus spp. (3% of Rock Shags, only in 2000), avian paramyxovirus type 3 (5% of Rock Shags, only in 2008), Chlamydophila spp. (1% of Imperial Cormorants, only in 2010), and avian reovirus (1% of Rock Shags, only in 1999; 29% of Imperial Cormorants, in 2008 and 2010). Both species were antibody negative for avian encephalomyelitis virus, avian influenza virus, avian laryngotracheitis virus, avian paramyxovirus type 2, and infectious bursal disease virus. We provide the first information on pathogen exposure, indicated by detection of antibody in blood samples, for two sympatric species of South Atlantic cormorants. To determine major causes of morbidity and mortality in these birds future efforts should focus on necropsy surveys in cormorant colonies.

  13. [The primordial reservoir in the infectious contagion cicle. The avian influenza model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Fernández, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    An update of the role of the primordial reservoir in the biological cycle of the process of infection and contagion is made, using diseases of very frequent incidence at the present moment in the Mediterranean Area and the Iberian Peninsula. These diseases are, amongst others Severe and Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Rabies, Lyme disease, African Horse Sickness, Blue Tongue, African Swine Fever, Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Hantavirosis, and Avian Influenza. The zoonoses classification proposed by the WHO Control Center in Athens in 1994 for the Mediterranean Area, based on the type of reservoir, the importance of the process and the type of transmission, and not focusing on the etiological agent, is very positively valued. Finally, the problem of Avian Influenza and the real risk posed by aquatic migratory birds in the diffusion and contagion of the present Avian Influence epidemics is reviewed.

  14. New oligonucleotide microarray for rapid diagnosis of avian viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Kozhabergenov, Nurlan S; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Burashev, Yerbol D; Shorayeva, Kamshat A; Chervyakova, Olga V; Rametov, Nurkuisa M; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Orynbayev, Mukhit B

    2017-04-05

    We developed a new oligonucleotide microarray comprising 16 identical subarrays for simultaneous rapid detection of avian viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infection bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in single- and mixed-virus infections. The objective of the study was to develop an oligonucleotide microarray for rapid diagnosis of avian diseases that would be used in the course of mass analysis for routine epidemiological surveillance owing to its ability to test one specimen for several infections. The paper describes the technique for rapid and simultaneous diagnosis of avian diseases such as avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease with use of oligonucleotide microarray, conditions for hybridization of fluorescent-labelled viral cDNA on the microarray and its specificity tested with use of AIV, NDV, IBV, IBDV strains as well as biomaterials from poultry. Sensitivity and specificity of the developed microarray was evaluated with use of 122 specimens of biological material: 44 cloacal swabs from sick birds and 78 tissue specimens from dead wild and domestic birds, as well as with use of 15 AIV, NDV, IBV and IBDV strains, different in their origin, epidemiological and biological characteristics (RIBSP Microbial Collection). This microarray demonstrates high diagnostic sensitivity (99.16% within 95% CI limits 97.36-100%) and specificity (100%). Specificity of the developed technique was confirmed by direct sequencing of NP and M (AIV), VP2 (IBDV), S1 (IBV), NP (NDV) gene fragments. Diagnostic effectiveness of the developed DNA microarray is 99.18% and therefore it can be used in mass survey for specific detection of AIV, NDV, IBV and IBDV circulating in the region in the course of epidemiological surveillance. Rather simple method for rapid diagnosis of avian viral diseases that several times shortens duration of assay versus classical diagnostic

  15. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms, but since not all smokers develop chronic bronchitis and since chronic bronchitis is also diagnosed in never-smokers, it has been suggested that some individuals are more susceptible to develop chronic br...

  16. Global well-posedness of infectious disease models without life-time immunity: the cases of cholera and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2017-10-27

    We study the systems of partial differential equations with diffusion that model the dynamics of infectious diseases without life-time immunity, in particular the cases of cholera from Wang & Wang (2015, J. Biol. Dyn., 9, 233-261) and avian influenza from Vaidya et al. (2012, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 17, 2829-2848). In both works, similarly to all others in the literature on various models of infectious diseases and more, it had to be assumed for a technical reason that the diffusivity coefficients of the susceptible, infected and recovered individuals, humans or birds, had to be identical in order to prove the existence of their unique solutions for all time. Considering that such uniform diffusivity strengths among the susceptible, infected and recovered hosts may not always be plausible in real world, we investigate the global well-posedness issue when such conditions are relaxed. In particular for the cholera model from Wang & Wang (2015, J. Biol. Dyn., 9, 233-261), we prove the global well-posedness with no condition on the diffusivity coefficients at all. For the avian influenza model from Vaidya et al. (2012, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 17, 2829-2848), we prove the global well-posedness with no condition on the diffusivity coefficients if the spatial dimension is one, and under a partial condition that the diffusivity coefficients of the susceptible and the infected hosts are same otherwise. © The author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  17. Serological survey of the infectious disease status of Old English Game fowl in the lower North Island, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, N H

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the serological status of Old English Game (OEG) cockerels for a range of infectious diseases of poultry. Standard methods were used to screen serum collected from approximately 200 birds during routine dubbing operations, in 2004 and 2005. There was no serological evidence of infection with Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease, or Salmonella Pullorum. Antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis (AE) virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae were detected. The disease status of OEG birds is similar to that of commercial poultry.

  18. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H Straub

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus, turkey vulture (Cathartes aura and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos. California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats.

  19. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  20. Molecular Characterization of QX-Like and Variant Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strains in Malaysia Based on Partial Genomic Sequences Comprising the S-3a/3b-E-M-Intergenic Region-5a/5b-N Gene Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh, N P; Tan, S W; Yeap, S K; Satharasinghe, D A; Hair-Bejo, M; Bich, T N; Omar, A R

    2017-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the major poultry pathogens of global importance. However, the prevalence of IBV strains in Malaysia is poorly characterized. The partial genomic sequences (6.8 kb) comprising the S-3a/3b-E-M-intergenic region-5a/5b-N gene order of 11 Malaysian IBVs isolated in 2014 and 2015 were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. Phylogenetic and pairwise sequence comparison analysis showed that the isolated IBVs are divided into two groups. Group 1 (IBS124/2015, IBS125/2015, IBS126/2015, IBS130/2015, IBS131/2015, IBS138/2015, and IBS142/2015) shared 90%-95% nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities to the QX-like strain. Among these isolates, IBS142/2015 is the first IBV detected in Sarawak state located in East Malaysia (Borneo Island). Meanwhile, IBV isolates in Group 2 (IBS037A/2015, IBS037B/2015, IBS051/2015, and IBS180/2015) were 91.62% and 89.09% identical to Malaysian variant strain MH5365/95 (EU086600) at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. In addition, all studied IBVs were distinctly separate from Massachusetts (70%-72% amino acid similarity) and European strains including 793/B, Italy-02, and D274 (68%-73% amino acid similarity). Viruses in Group 1 have the insertion of three amino acids at positions 23, 121, and 122 of the S1 protein and recombinant events detected at nucleotide position 4354-5864, with major parental sequence derived from QX-like (CK-CH-IBYZ-2011) and a minor parental sequence derived from Massachusetts vaccine strain (H120). This study demonstrated coexistence of the IBV Malaysian variant strain along with the QX-like strain in Malaysia.

  1. Hatchery Spray Cabinet Administration Does Not Damage Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine Based on Analysis by Electron Microscopy and Virus Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Jordan, Brian J; Hilt, Deborah A; Ard, Mary B; Jackwood, Mark W

    2015-03-01

    studies in our laboratory showed that the Arkansas-Delmarva Poultry Industry (Ark-DPI) vaccine given to 1-day-old chickens by hatchery spray cabinet replicated poorly and failed to adequately protect broilers against homologous virus challenge, whereas the same vaccine given by eye-drop did replicate and the birds were protected following homologous virus challenge. To determine if mechanical damage following spray application plays a role in failure of the Ark-DPI vaccine, we examined the morphology of three Ark-DPI vaccines from different manufacturers using an electron microscope and included a Massachusetts (Mass) vaccine as control. One of the Ark-DPI vaccines (vaccine A) and the Mass vaccine had significantly (P hatchery spray cabinet, suggesting that some other factor is contributing to the failure of that vaccine when given by that method.

  2. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found t h at non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk.

  3. Innovation and discovery: the application of nucleic acid-based technology to avian virus detection and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, D

    2001-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches to the detection, differentiation and characterization of avian pathogens continue to be developed and refined. The PCRs, or reverse transcriptase-PCRs, may be general, designed to detect all or most variants of a pathogen, or to be serotype, genotype or pathotype specific. Progress is being made with respect to making nucleic acid approaches more suitable for use in diagnostic laboratories. Robotic workstations are now available for extraction of nucleic acid from many samples in a short time, for routine diagnosis. Following general PCR, the DNA products are commonly analyzed by restriction endonuclease mapping (restriction fragment length polymorphism), using a small number of restriction endonucleases, based on a large body of sequence data. Increasingly, however, nucleotide sequencing is being used to analyze the DNA product, in part due to the expanding use of non-radioactive sequencing methods that are safe and enable high throughout. In this review, I highlight some recent developments with many avian viruses: Newcastle disease virus; circoviruses in canary and pigeon; infectious bursal disease virus (Gumboro disease virus); avian adenoviruses, including Angara disease/infectious hydropericardium virus, haemorrhagic enteritis virus of turkeys, and egg drop syndrome virus; avian herpesviruses, including infectious laryngotracheitis virus, duck plague virus, psittacine herpesvirus (Pacheco's parrot disease virus), Marek's disease virus and herpesvirus of turkeys; avian leukosis virus (associated with lymphoid leukosis or myeloid leukosis, and egg transmission); avian pneumoviruses (turkey rhinotracheitis virus); avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus, turkey coronavirus and pheasant coronavirus; astrovirus, in the context of poult enteritis and mortality syndrome, and avian nephritis virus; and avian encephalomyelitis virus, a picornavirus related to hepatitis A virus.

  4. Afinidades antigênicas de amostras de campo do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas com a amostra Massachusetts M41 Antigenic affinities of infectious bronchitis virus field isolates to Massachusetts M41 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Souza

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as afinidades antigênicas entre 14 amostras de vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (VBIG isoladas de casos clínicos ocorridos entre 1972 e 1989 no Estado de Minas Gerais, sua reatividade frente a dois anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs específicos contra a glicoproteína S1 do sorotipo Massachusetts de VBIG foi examinada em ELISA. As 14 amostras de campo estudadas foram agrupadas, de acordo com o relacionamento antigênico aos AcMs, em relacionadas (três amostras e não relacionadas (onze amostras à amostra M41 do sorotipo Massachusetts. As amostras de campo não reconhecidas, considerando a alta especificidade dos AcMs à amostra M41, compõem uma diversidade que pode variar de integrantes do sorotipo Massachusetts de origem vacinal a sorotipos heterólogos. Amostras com afinidade antigênica à M41 (208-1972, PM1-1987 e PM2-1987 foram detectadas, o que configura a preservação da amostra no campo, apesar da alta variabilidade da glicoproteína S1, já que foram isoladas de surtos de doença natural nas regiões de avicultura de Minas Gerais. A detecção de antígenos de alta variabilidade que caracterizam a amostra M41, apesar das pressões da imunidade dos plantéis e da mutabilidade, pode indicar que os antígenos de alta afinidade aos receptores celulares (best fit que atingiram alto estágio evolutivo podem estar sendo preservados.Aiming to the evaluation of antigenic relationships among isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV through their reactivity against Massachusetts M41 S1 glycopolypeptide specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab an ELISA was developed. Fourteen IBV isolates obtained from field cases of disease, reported from 1972 to 1989 in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The IBV isolates could be grouped into related or not to M41, based on the reactivity to M41 S1 specific Mabs. The unrecognized field isolates conform a diversity of representatives, which may range from Massachusetts

  5. Think globally, act locally: Phylodynamic reconstruction of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV QX genotype (GI-19 lineage reveals different population dynamics and spreading patterns when evaluated on different epidemiological scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Franzo

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV represents one of the poultry industry major threats, particularly in high density producing countries. The emergence and spread of new IBV genotypes have frustrated the various disease control efforts implemented over time. Despite that, few comprehensive and large scale studies have been performed to understand the international and local spreading dynamics of this virus. In the present work, these phenomena were evaluated by implementing a Bayesian phylodynamic approach to reconstruct the epidemiological patterns and population history of the QX genotype (currently renamed GI-19 lineage, the most relevant IBV lineage of the Old-World. Our analysis, based on 807 partial S1 sequences of strains collected from 18 countries between 1993 and 2015, demonstrates that this genotype originated in China well before its first identification. After a prolonged local circulation, it started spreading to other European, Asian and Middle East countries in successive waves, which were mirrored by concomitant fluctuations in viral population size. Interestingly, the within-Europe spread was characterized by a higher estimated migration rate compared with the inter-continental one, potentially reflecting the closer geographic and economic relationships among these countries. Nevertheless, the colonization of new states by the GI-19 lineage appeared to occur mostly by single introduction events in both intra and inter-continental spread, likely because of epidemiological factor and health policy combination which seems to prevent the frequent introduction and mixing of different strains. On the other hand, the within Italy QX circulation reconstruction showed a much more intricate connection network among different locations, evidencing the difficulty in controlling IBV spread especially in highly densely poultry populated areas. The presence of several well supported epidemiological links among distantly related Italian regions

  6. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Emergence of mammalian species-infectious and -pathogenic avian influenza H6N5 virus with no evidence of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Ha; Song, Daesub; Choi, Young Ki; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Poo, Haryoung

    2011-12-01

    The migratory waterfowl of the world are considered to be the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. Of the 16 hemagglutinin subtypes of avian influenza viruses, the H6 subtype is commonly perpetuated in its natural hosts and is of concern due to its potential to be a precursor of highly pathogenic influenza viruses by reassortment. During routine influenza surveillance, we isolated an unconventional H6N5 subtype of avian influenza virus. Experimental infection of mice revealed that this isolate replicated efficiently in the lungs, subsequently spread systemically, and caused lethality. The isolate also productively infected ferrets, with direct evidence of contact transmission, but no disease or transmission was seen in pigs. Although the isolate possessed the conserved receptor-binding site sequences of avian influenza viruses, it exhibited relatively low replication efficiencies in ducks and chickens. Our genetic and molecular analyses of the isolate revealed that its PB1 sequence showed the highest evolutionary relationship to those of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses and that its PA protein had an isoleucine residue at position 97 (a representative virulence marker). Further studies will be required to examine why our isolate has the virologic characteristics of mammalian influenza viruses but the archetypal receptor binding profiles of avian influenza viruses, as well as to determine whether its potential virulence markers (PB1 analogous to those of H5N1 viruses or isoleucine residue at position 97 within PA) could render it highly pathogenic in mice.

  8. Analysis of human infectious avian influenza virus: hemagglutinin genetic characteristics in Asia and Africa from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jirong; Lei, Fumin

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, we used nucleotide and protein sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1, which were obtained in Asia and Africa, analyzed HA proteins using ClustalX1.83 and MEGA4.0, and built a genetic evolutionary tree of HA nucleotides. The analysis revealed that the receptor specificity amino acid of A/HK/213/2003, A/Turkey/65596/2006 and etc mutated into QNG, which could bind with á-2, 3 galactose and á-2, 6 galactose. A mutation might thus take place and lead to an outbreak of human infections of avian influenza virus. The mutations of HA protein amino acids from 2004 to 2009 coincided with human infections provided by the World Health Organization, indicating a "low-high-highest-high-low" pattern. We also found out that virus strains in Asia are from different origins: strains from Southeast Asia and East Asia are of the same origin, whereas those from West Asia, South Asia and Africa descend from one ancestor. The composition of the phylogenetic tree and mutations of key site amino acids in HA proteins reflected the fact that the majority of strains are regional and long term, and virus diffusions exist between China, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iraq. We would advise that pertinent vaccines be developed and due attention be paid to the spread of viruses between neighboring countries and the dangers of virus mutation and evolution. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  9. Detecção molecular de vírus da bronquite infecciosa em plantéis de avós, matrizes e frangos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul e Mato Grosso Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis virus in flocks of grandmothers, mothers and broiler chicken in Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa das galinhas (VBI pertence ao grupo 3 da família Coronaviridae e é o causador de desordens respiratórias e renais em frangos de corte. A vacinação com vacinas vivas é praticada em matrizes e avós e muitas vezes também nos plantéis destinados ao abate. As vacinas utilizadas no Brasil são usualmente do sorogrupo Massachusetts e baseadas nas amostras H120 e H52. É comum que após a vacinação o vírus vacinal seja detectado por isolamento em ovos embrionados ou por métodos moleculares por até 4 semanas. Após essa data, normalmente, não há detecção de vírus e o VBI, quando encontrado, pode representar recirculação do vírus vacinal no plantel ou a introdução de uma nova cepa do vírus. No presente estudo, para avaliar a circulação do vírus em plantéis de frangos e reprodutoras nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Mato Grosso do Sul, foram coletadas 240 traqueias e rins de aves de 48 plantéis, sendo (20 exemplares/4 plantéis de avós, (80 exemplares/16 plantéis de matrizes e (140 exemplares/28 plantéis de frangos de corte, as quais foram analisadas em misturas de cinco amostras. Todos os animais eram vacinados e as amostras foram coletadas ao redor de 2 a 48 semanas após a vacinação. A presença de VBI foi determinada com auxílio de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase tipo nested, direcionada ao gene da proteína S1, padronizada neste estudo. Das 48 amostras testadas, 14 resultaram positivas: cinco foram oriundas de aves vacinadas há menos de quatro semanas na data da coleta e nove eram de amostras de aves vacinadas há mais de quatro semanas, o que pode ser devido à recirculação do vírus vacinal ou mesmo introdução de vírus selvagem nos plantéis.Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, Avian Coronavirus from chickens belongs to group 3 of the family Coronaviridae and causes respiratory and renal disorders in broilers. Vaccination using live vaccines is generally performed in

  10. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall be...

  11. Novel reassortment of Eurasian avian-like and pandemic/2009 influenza viruses in swine: infectious potential for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Zhou, Boping; Fan, Xiaohui; Lam, Tommy T Y; Wang, Jia; Chen, Antony; Chen, Xinchun; Chen, Honglin; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard; Peiris, Joseph S M; Smith, David K; Guan, Yi

    2011-10-01

    Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts and "mixing vessels," facilitating the genesis of pandemic influenza viruses, as demonstrated by the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pdm/09) virus. The prevalence and repeated introduction of the pdm/09 virus into pigs raises the possibility of generating novel swine influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. To address this, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted with slaughtered pigs in abattoirs in southern China. Over 50% of the pigs tested were found to be seropositive for one or more H1 influenza viruses, most commonly pdm/09-like viruses. Out of 36 virus isolates detected, one group of novel reassortants had Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 surface genes and pdm/09 internal genes. Animal experiments showed that this virus transmitted effectively from pig to pig and from pig to ferret, and it could also replicate in ex vivo human lung tissue. Immunization against the 2009 pandemic virus gave only partial protection to ferrets. The continuing prevalence of the pdm/09 virus in pigs could lead to the genesis of novel swine reassortant viruses with the potential to infect humans.

  12. Eliciting specific humoral immunity from a plasmid DNA encoding infectious bursal disease virus polyprotein gene fused with avian influenza virus hemagglutinin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccine coding for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) polyprotein gene and that for avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene have been shown to induce immunity and provide protection against the respective disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether an IBDV polyprotein gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene could trigger immune response to both IBDV and AIV. After transfection, VP2 and HA were detected in the cytoplasm and at cell membrane, respectively, by immunofluorescent antibody double staining method, suggesting the fusion strategy did not affect the location of protein expression. VP4 cleavage between VP2 and HA was confirmed by Western blot, indicating the fusion strategy did not affect VP4 function in transfected cells. After vaccination in chickens, the DNA construct VP24-HA/pcDNA induced ELISA and virus neutralizing antibodies against VP2 and hemagglutination inhibition antibody against the HA subtype. The results indicated that a single plasmid construct carrying IBDV VP243 gene-based DNA fused with AIV HA gene can elicit specific antibody responses to both IBDV and AIV by DNA vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute bronchitis, he or she might then prescribe antibiotics. « Previous Next » Managing and Preventing » This content was developed in partnership with the CHEST Foundation , the philanthropic arm of the American College of Chest Physicians. News & Events Blog: I Hope One Person Quits Smoking ...

  14. Disclosing respiratory coinfections: a broad-range panel assay for avian respiratory pathogens on a nanofluidic PCR platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croville, Guillaume; Foret, Charlotte; Heuillard, Pauline; Senet, Alexis; Delpont, Mattias; Mouahid, Mohammed; Ducatez, Mariette F; Kichou, Faouzi; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2018-02-27

    Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in edible birds and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys are considered as key co-infectious agents of RS. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks. An innovative quantitative PCR method, based on a nanofluidic technology, has the ability to screen up to 96 samples with 96 pathogen-specific PCR primers, at the same time, in one run of real-time quantitative PCR. This platform was used for the screening of avian respiratory pathogens: 15 respiratory agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi potentially associated with respiratory infections of poultry, were targeted. Primers were designed and validated for SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR and subsequently validated on the Biomark high throughput PCR nanofluidic platform (Fluidigm©, San Francisco, CA, USA). As a clinical assessment, tracheal swabs were sampled from turkeys showing RS and submitted to this panel assay. Beside systematic detection of E. coli, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae were frequently detected, with distinctive coinfection patterns between French and Moroccan flocks. This proof-of-concept study illustrates the potential of such panel assays for unveiling respiratory coinfection profiles in poultry.

  15. Construction of a recombinant duck enteritis virus (DEV) expressing hemagglutinin of H5N1 avian influenza virus based on an infectious clone of DEV vaccine strain and evaluation of its efficacy in ducks and chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jichun; Ge, Aimin; Xu, Mengwei; Wang, Zhisheng; Qiao, Yongfeng; Gu, Yiqi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yamei; Hou, Jibo

    2015-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 remains a threat to poultry. Duck enteritis virus (DEV)-vectored vaccines expressing AIV H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) may be viable AIV and DEV vaccine candidates. Methods To facilitate the generation and further improvement of DEV-vectored HA(H5) vaccines, we first constructed an infectious clone of DEV Chinese vaccine strain C-KCE (DEVC-KCE). Then, we generated a DEV-vectored HA(H5) vaccine (DEV-H5(UL55)) based on the bacteria...

  16. Avian Metapneumovirus circulation in Italian broiler farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Franzo, Giovanni; Lupini, Caterina; Alejo, Carolina Torres; Listorti, Valeria; Mescolini, Giulia; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Martini, Marco; Catelli, Elena; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2018-02-01

    With increasing frequency, avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) is reported to induce respiratory signs in chickens. An adequate knowledge of current aMPV prevalence among Italian broilers is lacking, with little information available on its economical and health impact on the poultry industry. In order to collect preliminary data on the epidemiological context of aMPV in broiler flocks, a survey was performed in areas of Northern Italy with high poultry density from 2014 to 2016. Upper respiratory tract swabs were collected and processed by A and B subtype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Samples were also screened for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by generic RT-PCR and sequencing. Productive data and respiratory signs were detailed where possible. The high prevalence of aMPV was confirmed in broilers older than 26 d and also attested in IBV-negative farms. All aMPV detections belonged to subtype B. Italian strain genetic variability was evaluated by the partial attachment (G) gene sequencing of selected strains and compared with contemporary turkey strains and previously published aMPV references, revealing no host specificity and the progressive evolution of this virus in Italy. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants and Training Grants and Training ...

  18. Differential diagnosis of recurrent bronchitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zakirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest of the doctors — pediatricians to recurrent bronchitis is caused by its high specific weight in the structure of bronchopulmonary pathology in children, the complexity and the need to search the differential selection of an individual regimen and prevention. Recurrent bronchitis with bronchoobstructive syndromes patient is regarded as a predictor of asthma, however, erroneously consider these nosological forms as the stages of a single pathophysiological chain as congenital and acquired diseases of respiratory system, pathology of gastro-intestinal tract, cardio-vascular system can masquerade as recurrent bronchitis. The aim of this work — to analyze the current medical literature on the problem of differential search causes leading recurrent respiratory syndrome in children. Materials and methods. The review publications domestic and foreign authors studied data from clinical and epidemiological studies. Results and its discussion. Anatomical physiological characteristics of the respiratory tract, complicated premorbid background, the re-infection of the child respiratory infection contribute to the recurrent course of bronchitis. The most common recurrent bronchitis is transient, recurrent bronchitis episodes completely stoped with the age of the child. Recurrent respiratory infections can fix bronchial hyperreactivity and with the presence of aggravated allergic history lead to the development of asthma. Severe bronchitis, resistance to standard scheme of therapy, the frequent recurrence of respiratory syndrome dictate the need to expand the diagnostic research to clarify the leading cause of recurrent bronchitis. Conclusion. Recurrent bronchitis is considered as a separate nosological form. At the same time, by repeated episodes of respiratory infection may be masked by malformations, hereditary diseases of respiratory system, bronchus foreign body microaspiration syndrome, pathology of the cardio-vascular system. 

  19. Dynamics of avian coronavirus circulation in commercial and non-commercial birds in Asia--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promkuntod, Naruepol

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to understand the latest situation regarding avian coronaviruses (ACoVs), commonly referred to as the well-known avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), given that new and diverse types of IBV are continually being identified worldwide, particularly ones that are isolated from commercial poultry and associated with a wide range of disease conditions. The existing IBVs continue to evolve in various geographic areas in Asia, which results in the recombination and co-circulation between IBV types. This makes it increasingly difficult to prevent and control IBV infections, despite routine vaccination. Some ACoVs have also been identified in other avian species and they may pose a threat of cross-transmission to commercial sectors. The present review provides an overview of IBV circulation and the dynamic emergence of new variants found throughout Asia via the recombination of IBV strains. In addition to commercial poultry, backyard poultry and free-ranging birds may serve as a 'hub' for ACoV transmission within a particular area. These birds may be capable of spreading viruses, either to areas of close proximity, or to remote places via migration and trade.

  20. Exploratory serosurvey for antibodies to avian pathogens in backyard chickens from a satellite community of Jalapa City, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvin Aquino-Sagastume

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory serosurvey was conducted to determine the presence of circulating antibodies to avian pathogens in backyard chickens from Los Achiotes (LAC, a satellite community of Jalapa City, located in eastern Guatemala. Blood samples from 51 adult chickens belonging to 51 households were taken and investigated for the presence of antibodies to Avian Influenza (AI, Newcastle Disease (ND, Infectious Bronchitis (IB, Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and M. synoviae (MS. Antibodies for AI, ND, were investigated by Hemagglutination Inhibition, for IB and IBD by ELISA (BioChek® and for MG and MS by a rapid serum plate agglutination test. The cut-off point for positive titers was 1:4 for AI and ND and a 0.2 S/P ratio for IB and IBD. All sampled chickens were positive for concomitant antibodies to various pathogens. Over half of the chickens were positive reactors to antibodies to all six tested pathogens; about a third carried antibodies to five and the rest to four or three. The frequencies of positive reactors were: AI = 27 (53%; ND = 49 (96.1%; IB = 50 (98%; IBD = 51 (100%; MG = 45 (88% and MS = 48 (94%. The results show that the dynamic population of backyard chickens in LAC could be a potential threat to backyard poultry, farm poultry, wild birds and human population. The need to develop interventions and policies following the One Health approach (animal health to achieve human health is stressed.

  1. Protection of chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection by live vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing H5 hemagglutinin and N1 neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sophia P; Veits, Jutta; Keil, Günther M; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2009-01-29

    Attenuated vaccine strains of the alphaherpesvirus causing infectious laryngotracheitis of chickens (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1) can be used for mass application. Previously, we showed that live virus vaccination with recombinant ILTV expressing hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) protected chickens against ILT and fowl plague caused by HPAIV carrying the corresponding hemagglutinin subtypes [Lüschow D, Werner O, Mettenleiter TC, Fuchs W. Protection of chickens from lethal avian influenza A virus infection by live-virus vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (H5) gene. Vaccine 2001;19(30):4249-59; Veits J, Lüschow D, Kindermann K, Werner O, Teifke JP, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Deletion of the non-essential UL0 gene of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus leads to attenuation in chickens, and UL0 mutants expressing influenza virus haemagglutinin (H7) protect against ILT and fowl plague. J Gen Virol 2003;84(12):3343-52]. However, protection against H5N1 HPAIV was not satisfactory. Therefore, a newly designed dUTPase-negative ILTV vector was used for rapid insertion of the H5-hemagglutinin, or N1-neuraminidase genes of a recent H5N1 HPAIV isolate. Compared to our previous constructs, protein expression was considerably enhanced by insertion of synthetic introns downstream of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter within the 5'-nontranslated region of the transgenes. Deletion of the viral dUTPase gene did not affect in vitro replication of the ILTV recombinants, but led to sufficient attenuation in vivo. After a single ocular immunization, all chickens developed H5- or N1-specific serum antibodies. Nevertheless, animals immunized with N1-ILTV died after subsequent H5N1 HPAIV challenge, although survival times were prolonged compared to non-vaccinated controls. In contrast, all chickens vaccinated with either H5-ILTV alone, or H5- and N1-ILTV simultaneously, survived

  2. Avian anemia's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raukar Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with avian anemia's classified by MCHC/MCV and with types of anemia's. Father hematological and immunological research is needed to secure information on hematological parameters in different avian species at their earliest age. Anemia is a common clinical finding in birds because the avian erythrocyte half - life is much shorter than the mammalian. Therefore anemia should be determined as soon as possible. Researchers should standardize hematological parameters for every single avian species.

  3. assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2006-01-22

    Jan 22, 2006 ... KEYWORDS: Assessment, Economic, Social Implications, Avian Flu, Nigerian Poultry. INTRODUCTION. Avian flu is a highly infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease of man, poultry and other birds caused by the avian influenza type A virus, Emmanuel et.al. (2006). The avian influenza virus belongs to ...

  4. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  5. Avian anemia's

    OpenAIRE

    Raukar Jelena

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with avian anemia's classified by MCHC/MCV and with types of anemia's. Father hematological and immunological research is needed to secure information on hematological parameters in different avian species at their earliest age. Anemia is a common clinical finding in birds because the avian erythrocyte half - life is much shorter than the mammalian. Therefore anemia should be determined as soon as possible. Researchers should standardize hematologica...

  6. A Rare Case of Idiopathic Plastic Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis is a rare disorder characterized by formation of large, branching bronchial casts, which are often expectorated. We present an interesting case of a 35-year-old woman who presented for evaluation of a chronic cough productive of voluminous secretions. Clinical and radiological examination confirmed a total left lung atelectasis without any pathological mediastinal node. Flexible bronchoscopy demonstrated tenacious, thick, and sticky whitish secretions blocking the left stem bronchus. This material was extracted, and inspection demonstrated a bronchial cast, whose pathological analysis revealed necrotic epithelial cells, some eosinophils, and Charcot-Leyden crystals. Two days after bronchoscopy, the patient rejected more bronchial casts, and dyspnea improved. Control of chest x-ray revealed complete left lung aeration and the diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was obtained. This article shows the interest in clinical practice to evoke the diagnosis of plastic bronchitis in front of a productive chronic cough. Our case illustrates a rare clinical presentation represented by an atelectasis of an entire lung.

  7. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  8. Avian Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate new individuals through differentiation, maturation and fertilization. This means that the manipulation of PGCs is directly linked to the manipulation of individuals, making PGCs attractive target cells in the animal biotechnology field. A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. Following the development of a technique for transplantation, PGCs have become central to avian biotechnology, in contrast to the use of embryo manipulation and subsequent transfer to foster mothers, as in mammalian biotechnology. Today, avian PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced manipulation techniques, including cell purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture in vitro, have enabled the establishment of genetically modified poultry lines and ex-situ conservation of poultry genetic resources. This chapter introduces the principles, history, and procedures of producing avian germline chimeras by transplantation of PGCs, and the current status of avian germline modification as well as germplasm cryopreservation. Other fundamental avian reproductive technologies are described, including artificial insemination and embryo culture, and perspectives of industrial applications in agriculture and pharmacy are considered, including poultry productivity improvement, egg modification, disease resistance impairment and poultry gene "pharming" as well as gene banking.

  9. Measurement of airborne influenza virus during hen slaughtering in an ABSL-3E bioBUBBLE®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several avian viral diseases, including avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis or laryngotracheitis, are transmitted via respiratory droplets or by contact with contaminated fomites. Using high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus as a model, the objective of the present st...

  10. The Relationships Between Weather and Climate and Attacks of Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaia, M. A. R.; Saraiva, M. A. C.; Vieira da Cruz, A. A.

    The area of Aveiro, more concretely Aveiro lagoon, a natural laboratory has been con- sidered, for promoting the development and the application of several investigations worked. The importance of the influences of weather and climate on human health has been well known since ancient teams and many decisions concerning human be- haviour it are clearly weather related. However, decisions related to weather criteria can be important and economically significant, but the real economic effect of the weather is difficult to assess. Talaia et al. (2000) and Talaia and Vieira da Cruz (2001) have shown the possible harmful effect of certain meteorological factors on respiratory conditions. Bronchitis is a disease caused by inflammation of the bronchi as a result of infectious agents or air pollutants. In this study our attention is to relate, the be- ginning of bronchitis attacks in the services of urgency of the Hospital of Aveiro with meteorological factors, and the risk group are studied. We used the medical records and the database of meteorological factors. The obtained analysis allows to conclude that some meteorological factors have correlation with the occurrences of the disease and to allow improving the work in the urgency services in the requested periods. The knowledge that will be extracted of this study can be used later in studies that inte- grate other important components for the characterisation of the environmental impact in the area. References: Talaia, M.A.R., Vieira da Cruz, A.A., Saraiva, M.A.C., Amaro, G.S., Oliveira, C.J. and Carvalho, C.F., 2000, The Influence of Meteorological Fac- tors on Pneumonia Emergencies in Aveiro, International Symposium on Human- Biometeorology, St. Petersburg (Pushkin), Russia, pp. 67-68. Talaia, M.A.R. and Vieira of Cruz, A.A., (2001), Meteorological Effects on the Resistance of the Body to Influenza - One Study in Aveiro Region, Proceedings 2nd Symposium of Meteorol- ogy and Geophysics of APMG and 3rd Meeting

  11. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop flu-like symptoms within 10 days of handling infected birds or being in an area with ... your provider if you become sick after you return from your trip. Current information regarding avian flu ...

  12. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  13. Construction of a recombinant duck enteritis virus (DEV) expressing hemagglutinin of H5N1 avian influenza virus based on an infectious clone of DEV vaccine strain and evaluation of its efficacy in ducks and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jichun; Ge, Aimin; Xu, Mengwei; Wang, Zhisheng; Qiao, Yongfeng; Gu, Yiqi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yamei; Hou, Jibo

    2015-08-13

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 remains a threat to poultry. Duck enteritis virus (DEV)-vectored vaccines expressing AIV H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) may be viable AIV and DEV vaccine candidates. To facilitate the generation and further improvement of DEV-vectored HA(H5) vaccines, we first constructed an infectious clone of DEV Chinese vaccine strain C-KCE (DEV(C-KCE)). Then, we generated a DEV-vectored HA(H5) vaccine (DEV-H5(UL55)) based on the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) by inserting a synthesized HA(H5) expression cassette with a pMCMV IE promoter and a consensus HA sequence into the noncoding area between UL55 and LORF11. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the resulting recombinant vaccine against DEV and AIV H5N1 were evaluated in both ducks and chickens. The successful construction of DEV BAC and DEV-H5(UL55) was verified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Recovered virus from the BAC or mutants showed similar growth kinetics to their parental viruses. The robust expression of HA in chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with the DEV-vectored vaccine was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence and western blotting analyses. A single dose of 10(6) TCID50 DEV-vectored vaccine provided 100 % protection against duck viral enteritis in ducks, and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer of AIV H5N1 with a peak of 8.2 log2 was detected in 3-week-old layer chickens. In contrast, only very weak HI titers were observed in ducks immunized with 10(7) TCID50 DEV-vectored vaccine. A mortality rate of 60 % (6/10) was observed in 1-week-old specific pathogen free chickens inoculated with 10(6) TCID50 DEV-vectored vaccine. We demonstrate the following in this study. (i) The constructed BAC is a whole genome clone of DEV(C-KCE). (ii) The insertion of an HA expression cassette sequence into the noncoding area between UL55 and LORF11 of DEV(C-KCE) affects neither the growth kinetics of the virus nor its

  14. Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial breeders and layers, southwest Nigeria. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Background: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the ...

  15. Bronchitis and Its Associated Risk Factors in First Nations Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandima P. Karunanayake

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis and pneumonia, are common in First Nations children in Canada. The objectives are to determine prevalence and associated risk factors of bronchitis in children 6–17 years old residing in two reserve communities. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 and children from two First Nations reserve communities participated. The outcome was ever presence/absence of bronchitis. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between bronchitis and the individual and environmental factors. A total of 351 First Nations children participated in the study. The prevalence of bronchitis was 17.9%. While 86.6% had at least one parent who smoked, smoking inside home was 43.9%. Signs of mold and mildew in homes were high. Prevalence of houses with any damage caused by dampness was 42.2%, with 44.2% of homes showing signs of mold or mildew. Significant predictors of increased risk of bronchitis were: being obese; having respiratory allergies; exposed to parental cigarette smoking; and signs of mold and mildew in the home. There are several modifiable risk factors that should be considered when examining preventive interventions for bronchitis including obesity, smoking exposure, and home mold or dampness.

  16. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become...... infected. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) may reach similar maximum prevalence levels in wild bird populations to HPAIV but the risk of LPAIV infection of a poultry holding was estimated to be lower than that of HPAIV. Only few non-wild bird pathways were identified having a non...

  17. Cough Culprits: What's the Difference Between Bronchitis and Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bronchitis, it is usually mild (below 101 degrees Fahrenheit). In more serious cases, you may have chest ... 20892-2094 nihnewsinhealth@od.nih.gov Tel: 301-451-8224 Editor: Harrison Wein, Ph.D. Managing Editor: ...

  18. Risk of chronic bronchitis in twin pairs discordant for smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Harmsen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that smoking is a major risk factor for lung disease and respiratory symptoms. We examined the association between smoking and the risk of chronic bronchitis in a large twin sample.......It is well known that smoking is a major risk factor for lung disease and respiratory symptoms. We examined the association between smoking and the risk of chronic bronchitis in a large twin sample....

  19. Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy and plastic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W

    2015-04-01

    To characterize the medical history, disease progression, and treatment of current-era patients with the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis. A novel survey that queried demographics, medical details, and treatment information was piloted and placed online via a Facebook portal, allowing social media to power the study. Participation regardless of PLE or plastic bronchitis diagnosis was allowed. Case control analyses compared patients with PLE and plastic bronchitis with uncomplicated control patients receiving the Fontan procedure. The survey was completed by 671 subjects, including 76 with PLE, 46 with plastic bronchitis, and 7 with both. Median PLE diagnosis was 2.5 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for PLE occurred in 71% with 41% hospitalized ≥ 3 times. Therapy varied significantly. Patients with PLE more commonly had hypoplastic left ventricle (62% vs 44% control; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.43-5.53), chylothorax (66% vs 41%; OR 2.96, CI 1.65-5.31), and cardiothoracic surgery in addition to staged palliation (17% vs 5%; OR 4.27, CI 1.63-11.20). Median plastic bronchitis diagnosis was 2 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for plastic bronchitis occurred in 91% with 61% hospitalized ≥ 3 times. Therapy was very diverse. Patients with plastic bronchitis more commonly had chylothorax at any surgery (72% vs 51%; OR 2.47, CI 1.20-5.08) and seasonal allergies (52% vs 36%; OR 1.98, CI 1.01-3.89). Patient-specific factors are associated with diagnoses of PLE or plastic bronchitis. Treatment strategies are diverse without clear patterns. These results provide a foundation upon which to design future therapeutic studies and identify a clear need for forming consensus approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... But some of them can make you sick. Infectious diseases are diseases that are caused by germs. There ... many different ways that you can get an infectious disease: Through direct contact with a person who is ...

  1. Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  2. Avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera is a contagious disease resulting from infection by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Several subspecies of bacteria have been proposed for P. multocida, and at least 16 different P. multocida serotypes or characteristics of antigens in bacterial cells that differentiate bacterial variants from each other have been recognized. The serotypes are further differentiated by other methods, including DNA fingerprinting. These evaluations are useful for studying the ecology of avian cholera (Fig. 7.1), because different serotypes are generally found in poultry and free-ranging migratory birds. These evaluations also show that different P. multocida serotypes are found in wild birds in the eastern United States than those that are found in the birds in the rest of the Nation (Fig. 7.2).

  3. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the infectious bronchitis virus S1 gene protects chickens against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Sun, Junfeng; Qi, Tianming; Zhao, Wen; Han, Zongxi; Yang, Xiaopu; Liu, Shengwang

    2017-04-25

    The recombinant LaSota strain expressing a chimeric IBV S1 gene (rLaSota-S1) was constructed with the S1 gene of the LX4 type IBV ck/CH/LDL/091022. The expression of the S1 protein was detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. The rLaSota-S1 strain was slightly attenuated, and its growth dynamics were similar to that of the parental LaSota strain. Vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced NDV hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, and it protected chickens from challenge with virulent NDV. In addition, vaccination with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced IBV-specific IgG antibodies and cellular immunity; however, a single vaccination provided partial protection with reduced virus shedding. Better protection efficiency was observed after a booster vaccination, which resulted in higher antibody titers, significantly fewer disease symptoms, and reduced virus replication and shedding. Our results suggest that the rLaSota-S1 strain is a bivalent vaccine candidate against both NDV and IBV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Infectious disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  5. Exploring Risk Perceptions of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. de Zwart (Onno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about risk perception of infectious diseases, with a special focus on the emerging infections SARS and avian influenza, and explores potential determinants of risk perception and the relation of risk perception with precautionary behaviours. In this first chapter I discuss

  6. SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PIDOTIMOD IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Karaulov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of effective and safe immunomodulators for prophylaxis and treatment of frequently ailing children is pidotimod (Imunorix. Efficacy of the drug in pediatric practice was studied in more than 3200 patients with acute and recurrent respiratory infections. The article shows reasonability of pidotimod administration in children with acute and chronic bronchitis. This fact was confirmed with doubleblinded placebo-controlled studies. Treatment with pidotimod results in decreased terms of recovery of chronic bronchitis exacerbation, shortening of exacerbation. Realization of stable effect is related to recovery of key functions of inborn and adaptive immunity, it begins in 15 days after intake of the drug in therapeutic dose. Prophylactic doses of pidotimod should be used during next 30–60 days.Key words: children, bronchitis, pidotimod, immunity, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:139-143

  7. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  8. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  9. Infectious Diseases

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While recent infectious disease events have helped mobilize large amounts of funding and expertise to address pandemic preparedness and vaccine research, many infectious diseases, particularly those affecting the poor, have been neglected. The complexity of environmental diseases like Chagas and dengue defy ...

  10. Cross-sectional evaluation of the Bronchitis Severity Score in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment of acute bronchitis in Egyptian children; and to determine whether simple ... allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, recurrent wheezing or asthma, and those .... Middle childhood. Cough Fever Toxic facies Anorexia Emesis Catarrh Conjunctivitis. 12. P a tien ts, n. Clinical features. 46. 90. 64. 28. 60. 36. 101216 10. 16. 24. 1410 8.

  11. Acute bronchitis: general practitioners' views regarding diagnosis and treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, T.J.M.; Hermans, J.; Kaptein, A.A.; Wijkel, D.; Mulder, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 800 Dutch general practitioners to establish their views on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchitis and related disorders with reference to 12 theoretical patients. The answers of the 467 respondents (response rate 60%) showed no clear relationship between signs and

  12. Infectious neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to address bacterial, viral, and other infectious causes of neuropathy or neuronopathy, with an emphasis on clinical manifestations and treatment. Most infectious neuropathies have been well described for some time and treatments are well established. An exception is HIV-associated distal symmetric polyneuropathy, which is an area of active research. Current work in this area focuses on epidemiology, risk factors, and underlying mechanisms. Infectious diseases are an important part of the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders because they are among the most amenable to treatment. However, diagnosis of infectious peripheral neuropathy may be challenging because of variability in a number of factors, including the pattern of deficits, geographic distribution of pathogens, length of time from the onset of infection to the development of neuropathy, and mechanism of nerve injury.

  13. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as undercooked hamburger or unpasteurized fruit juice. Risk factors While anyone can catch infectious diseases, you may ... only minor complications. But some infections — such as pneumonia, AIDS and ... increased risk of cancer: Human papillomavirus is linked to cervical ...

  14. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  15. Observational study of the natural history of eosinophilic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M A; Hargadon, B; McKenna, S; Shaw, D; Green, R H; Brightling, C E; Wardlaw, A J; Pavord, I D

    2005-05-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is an important cause of chronic cough. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is associated with a short-term improvement in cough and reduced sputum eosinophil count but the long-term outcome is uncertain. To determine the long-term outcome in patients diagnosed with and treated for eosinophilic bronchitis. We have performed a longitudinal study of symptoms, eosinophilic airway inflammation, spirometry and airway hyper-responsiveness in all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic bronchitis over 7 years. We identified 52 patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and longitudinal data of greater than 1 year (mean 3.1 years) was available in 32 patients, all of whom were treated with inhaled steroids. Three (9%) patients developed symptoms consistent with asthma and a methacholine PC20<8 mg/mL on one or more occasion. Five (16%) patients developed fixed airflow obstruction defined by a persistent post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity<70%. One (3%) patient had complete resolution of symptoms and eosinophilic airway inflammation off treatment. The remaining patients had ongoing eosinophilic airway inflammation and/or continuing symptoms. Multiple linear regression identified smoking, female gender and area under the curve of sputum eosinophil count over time as the most important predictors of decline in FEV1. The most common outcome in eosinophilic bronchitis is continuing disease and complete resolution is rare. Asthma and fixed airflow obstruction developed in relatively few patients. The most important factors associated with a more rapid decline in FEV1 were female gender, smoking and prolonged eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of a novel food Cordyceps guangdongensis on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjuan; Li, Taihui; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2014-10-01

    Cordyceps guangdongensis T. H. Li, Q. Y. Lin & B. Song (Cordycipitaceae) is a novel food approved by the Ministry of Public Health of China in 2013. Preliminary studies revealed that this novel food has multiple pharmacological activities such as anti-fatigue effect, antioxidant ability, prolonging life, anti-avian influenza virus activity, and therapeutic effect on chronic renal failure. However, the anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis and the effective constituent are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate both the anti-inflammatory effect of the edible fungus on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking, and the pilot effective constituent. Test rats were intragastrically administered with 3 doses of hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis (0.325, 0.65 and 1.30 g kg(-1) bw daily for low, middle and high dose, respectively) for 26 days. Biochemical indices and histological examinations in rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking were determined. The content and molecular weights of the polysaccharide from the hot-water extract were detected by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and gel permeation chromatography, respectively. Biochemical indices in the low, middle and high-dose groups with the hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis were only 53.4%, 46.0% and 40.4% of those in the model control group (total leukocytes), respectively; 70.7%, 60.3% and 58.1% (macrophages); 33.0%, 26.8% and 16.1% (neutrophils); and 22.2%, 23.5% and 13.6% (lymphocytes) of those in the model control group. The bronchial lesions and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly alleviated in all groups with hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis. This study indicates that the hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis. The content of the polysaccharide was 6.92%; the molecular weights of the 3 polysaccharide components were respectively 1.28 × 10

  17. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  18. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Subtypes Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Related Links Research Glossary of Influenza (Flu) Terms ...

  19. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  20. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Top of Page Avian Influenza in Wild Birds Avian influenza A viruses have ... hours. Some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Avian influenza outbreaks are of concern in domesticated birds for ...

  1. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  2. Human immune response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K; Sethi, S; Murphy, T F

    1997-11-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) causes recurrent respiratory tract infections in patients with chronic bronchitis. To elucidate the human immune response to NTHI, sera from 2 patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to NTHI were characterized. Both patients developed new bactericidal antibodies following infection. Immunoblot assays with homologous strains revealed antibodies to many antigens, with minimal difference between pre- and postexacerbation sera. By contrast, whole cell radioimmunoprecipitation, which detects antibodies exclusively to epitopes exposed on the bacterial surface, revealed that both patients made new antibodies to a limited number of antigens following infection, including P2, the major outer membrane protein of NTHI. Adsorption experiments showed that strain-specific, surface-exposed epitopes on the P2 molecule are targets for bactericidal antibodies. These results indicate that new bactericidal antibodies following infection by NTHI recognize antigenically heterogeneous surface-exposed epitopes on P2 and other surface proteins of NTHI.

  3. Ochroconis gallopava bronchitis mimicking haemoptysis in a patient with bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bernasconi

    2017-01-01

    We describe the case of a 76-year-old woman known for ulcerative colitis-related bronchiectasis treated with low dose oral steroids, who developed a fungal bronchitis with dark, bloody-like, sputum which was initially misinterpreted as haemoptysis. A filamentary mould grew on sputum culture, and was identified by DNA analysis as Ochroconis gallopava. We observed a significant clinical improvement after 6 weeks of itraconazole therapy.

  4. Predicting the risk of chronic bronchitis in teenage smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ilchenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the study was to create a prognostic model of the risk of chronic respiratory pathology in teenage smokers comfortable to use in practical medicine. Materials and methods. 73 teenage smokers aged 14–18 years (average age is 16.4 ± 0.2 years have been exa­mined. They were divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of 36 teenage smo­kers with chronic bronchitis (average age is 16.8 ± 0.2 years and comparison group comprised 37 apparently healthy teenage smokers (average age is 15.9 ± 0.2 years. We have studied clinical-anamnestic, functiona­­linstrumental data (spirometry, radiography of chest organs, level of nitric oxide in expired breath condensate, respiratory muscles strength and molecular-genetic factors of the risk of developing chronic pathology of respiratory organs in teenage smokers — 103 characteristics overall. The method of consequent (sequential analysis of Wald and Bayes strategy were used to create a prognostic model of the risk of chronic bronchitis. Results. The principle of working with a mathematical model for predicting the risk of chronic respiratory pathology development in teenage smokers is to sum up diagnostic factors that are consistent with the signs found in the patient. When the sum of diagnostic components is +13, the deve­lopment of chronic bronchitis is diagnosed in teenage smo­kers with error probability ≤ 5 % (р < 0.05; when the sum is +20 — the probability of diagnosis is 99 % (р < 0.01. Conclusions. Our algorithm for predicting the risk of develo­ping chronic bronchitis in teenage smokers will help early detection of high-risk patients in the formation of this pathology for personalized preventive measures that will allow practitioners to prevent chronic pathological processes and to improve the quality of life.

  5. Canine chronic bronchitis: a pathophysiologic evaluation of 18 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padrid, P.A.; Hornof, W.J.; Kurpershoek, C.J.; Cross, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen dogs with chronic bronchitis were studied using physiologic, radiologic, microbiologic, and pathologic techniques. Twelve of these dogs were evaluated before and after two weeks of oral bronchodilator administration. Thoracic radiographs, tidal breathing flow-volume loops, radioaerosol ventilation scans, airway appearance at bronchoscopy, and airway pathology were abnormal in the majority of dogs studied. There was a significant relationship between abnormal ventilation scans and abnormal results for PaO2 and end-tidal airflow. Bronchoscopy revealed excessive mucus and inflammation of airway mucosa in all 16 dogs undergoing this procedure. Endoscopically obtained aerobic bacterial cultures grew mixed bacterial flora in only three dogs. Increased numbers of neutrophils in 14 dogs were detected by airway lavage cytology. A large number of eosinophils were seen in airway lavages obtained from two dogs; these two dogs also had evidence for eosinophilic bronchitis on endobronchial biopsy. Oral bronchodilator administration resulted in clinical and expiratory airflow improvements in most dogs, but had no effect on PaO2 or on the radioaerosol-scan abnormalities. The presence of both the physiologic and pathologic airway abnormalities of chronic bronchitis in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital with chronic unexplained cough was confirmed, suggesting that aerobic bacteria do not play an etiologic role in most cases

  6. Current situation, genetic relationship and control measures of infectious bronchitis virus variants circulating in African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Khataby

    2016-08-01

    Three S1 gene hypervariable regions were studied and compared to the reference genotypes/serotypes that found emerging in African regions. This comparison was based on phylogenetic trees, nucleotide and amino-acid sequence analysis. It clearly appears that IBV variants reported in Africa, display a low genetic relationship between them and with the majority of the reference strains emerging in neighboring countries, except the case of variants from Libya and Egypt that show a high relatedness. Also the Massachusetts serotypes were the most prevalent co-circulating with both serotypes, Italy02 type in Morocco and Qx-like genotype in South part of the African continent. In order to control the IBV variants in African regions, an efficient vaccination strategy program should be implemented.

  7. Innate resistance to avian influenza: Of MHC's and Mx proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is an economically important virus of poultry that has significant impact on global trade. Recently, increased attention to animal genomics has been applied to enhance innate resistance to infectious diseases in poultry. Two known contributors to innate resistance are the host m...

  8. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Avian Influenza Virus Infection via Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven FJ; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Using literature data, daily infection risks of chickens and humans with H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) by drinking water consumption were estimated for the Netherlands. A highly infectious virus and less than 4 log10 drinking water treatment (reasonably inefficient) may lead to a high infection

  9. Air pollutants, genes and early childhood acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rakesh; Topinka, Jan; Joad, Jesse P; Dostal, Miroslav; Sram, Radim J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2013-09-01

    Studies have reported gene-by-environment interaction for chronic respiratory conditions but none on acute illnesses in children. We investigated, longitudinally, whether genotype modifies the relationship of environmental exposures (second-hand tobacco smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter children below two years. A random sample of 1133 children, born between 1994 and 1998, in two districts of the Czech Republic, was followed-up from birth, of which 793 were genotyped. Pediatric records were abstracted for respiratory illnesses. Second-hand tobacco smoke exposure from household members was obtained through questionnaires and verified using urine cotinine. Air monitoring provided estimates of ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PM2.5. Additionally, we collected information on a range of potential confounders including breastfeeding history, indoor fuel use, other children in household, maternal characteristics, ambient temperature etc. DNA was extracted from tissues taken from the middle of the placenta, opposite the umbilical cord. We examined six single nucleotide polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, CYP1A1 MspI, EPHX1 exon 3 and 4) and one (EPHX1) diplotype. To investigate effect measure modification we constructed logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations (for repeated observations) stratified by genotypes. The EPHX1 low activity diplotype consistently imparts greater susceptibility to bronchitis from second-hand tobacco smoke, polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and PM2.5. Each of these three classes of exposure also showed elevated risk for bronchitis in the presence of either one or two histidines at exon 3 and exon 4 of EPHX1. Additional effect modifiers include CYP1A1 and GSTT1. Several xenobiotic metabolizing genes may modify the impact of second-hand tobacco smoke and ambient air pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PM2.5, on acute bronchitis in preschool children. Copyright © 2013

  10. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  11. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  12. Prediction of the Individual Risk of Bronchial Obstruction in Acute Bronchitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Abaturov

    2015-02-01

    Results. We have examined 80 children aged from 6 months to 3 years with acute obstructive bronchitis, and 40 age-matched children with acute nonobstructive bronchitis. The factors of high risk were determined and the mathematical model for predicting bronchial obstruction in acute bronchitis was created. Father’s age over 38 years, intrauterine growth restriction, maladjustment syndrome, early artificial feeding, genetic predisposition to atopy, passive smoking, fever in the postvaccination period, history of acute obstructive bronchitis and number of its episodes more than 2, paratrophia became prognostically significant. Fever up to 37.7 °C, mild intoxication syndrome up to 3 days, slow nasal breathing, IL-13 within 4.05–6.71 pg/ml and the relative number of lymphocytes expressing NF-kB less than 49.8 % were also associated with the development of bronchial obstruction in acute bronchitis.

  13. Risk based culling for highly infectious diseases of livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beest, te E.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Stegeman, A.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Boven, van R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The control of highly infectious diseases of livestock such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and avian influenza is fraught with ethical, economic, and public health dilemmas. Attempts to control outbreaks of these pathogens rely on massive culling of infected farms, and farms

  14. Chronic bronchitis in West Sweden – a matter of smoking and social class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Axelsson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although chronic bronchitis is associated with impaired quality of life, hospitalisations and increased mortality, it has been less in focus after the introduction of the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There are no recent published data on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis from the Scandinavian countries. Aim: The main aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in West Sweden by using data from a large-scale epidemiological study of the general population. A further aim was to identify current risk factors for chronic bronchitis in a population with a major decrease in the proportion of smokers. Methods: From the 18,087 questionnaire responders out of 30,000 invited to participate at the West Sweden Asthma Study, 2,000 subjects were randomly selected and invited to detailed clinical examinations performed during 2009–2013. A total of 1,172 subjects aged 17–79 participated in the examinations which included, among others, spirometry and structured interviews. Chronic bronchitis was defined according to reported symptoms. Results: The overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 7.2% (men 7.6%; women 6.8% ns, and it was 8.7% in subjects older than age 60. Chronic bronchitis was strongly associated with smoking, defined both as current smoking status and pack-years. Other risk factors were increasing age, low socio-economic class and urban living. Of those with chronic bronchitis, 22% fulfilled the GOLD criteria of COPD. Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was somewhat lower than found by studies in Sweden in the 1980s and the prevalence was now similar in men and women. Although smoking was still the dominating risk factor for chronic bronchitis, the relative importance of smoking had decreased parallel with a decreasing smoking prevalence, while the relative importance of other factors than smoking had increased compared to previous studies.

  15. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Pruett, Christin L.; Meier, Rose; Huettmann, Falk; Wege, Michael; Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; Perdue, Michael L.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird?origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998?2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infecti...

  16. Ochroconis gallopava bronchitis mimicking haemoptysis in a patient with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, M; Voinea, C; Hauser, P M; Nicod, L P; Lazor, R

    2017-01-01

    Ochroconis gallopava is an anamorphic mould characterized by slow growth rate and production of a maroon pigment, which has been isolated worldwide from soil, thermal springs, decaying vegetation, and chicken litter. It has been reported to cause localized, mostly pulmonary, and systemic infection in severely immunocompromised patients. We describe the case of a 76-year-old woman known for ulcerative colitis-related bronchiectasis treated with low dose oral steroids, who developed a fungal bronchitis with dark, bloody-like, sputum which was initially misinterpreted as haemoptysis. A filamentary mould grew on sputum culture, and was identified by DNA analysis as Ochroconis gallopava . We observed a significant clinical improvement after 6 weeks of itraconazole therapy.

  17. Granulomatous Tracheo-Bronchitis Associated With Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kai; Wolf, Jacqueline; Friedman, Sonia

    2004-01-01

    We report a rare case of diffuse tracheo-bronchitis as a complication of Crohn's disease. A young man with a long-standing history of Crohn's enterocolitis initially presented with epigastric pain and melena. Upper endoscopy revealed erythematous, edematous, and friable mucosa with erosions, particularly in the pyloric channel, causing gastric outlet obstruction, and a nonbleeding ulcer in the corpus of stomach. Biopsy of these lesions showed chronic gastritis and a noncaseating epithelioid granuloma, consistent with active Crohn's disease. The patient was treated with a course of corticosteroids and the gastric symptoms resolved. A few months later, he developed fever, cough, hemoptysis, and rash. Bronchoscopy demonstrated a markedly thickened and very inflamed trachea with extensive friable, whitish lesions and ulcerations. Histology showed severe noncaseating granulomatous inflammation. The patient improved with a 6-week oral, followed by an additional 4-week inhaled, corticosteroid treatment. Since then, he has been doing well without relapse of pulmonary symptoms for 2 years. PMID:15208530

  18. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  19. Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/24/2013.

  20. Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis in a double-lung transplanted patient: unusual radiographic and CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducreux, D.; Chevallier, P.; Raffaelli, C.; Padovani, B.; Perrin, C.; Jourdan, J.; Hofman, P.

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis is considered as an early form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, a well-known airway infection in immunocompromised patients. Radiologic features concerning invasive aspergillosis of the airways have been reported. However, we describe here an unusual feature of invasive aspergillus bronchitis, never reported to date, observed in a double-lung transplanted patient. Chest radiograph and CT revealed significant peribronchial thickening without any parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  1. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, María Cecilia; Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Terebiznik, Mauricio R; Colombo, María Isabel; Delgui, Laura Ruth

    2018-03-14

    Birnaviruses are unconventional members of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses group that are characterized by the lack of a transcriptionally active inner core. Instead, the birnaviral particles organize their genome in ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed by dsRNA segments, the dsRNA-binding VP3 protein, and the viral encoded RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). This and other structural features suggests that birnaviruses may follow a completely different replication program from that followed by members of the Reoviridae family, supporting the hypothesis that birnaviruses are the evolutionary link between single-stranded positive RNA (+ssRNA) and dsRNA viruses. Here, we demonstrated that the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), a prototypical member of the Birnaviridae family, hijacks endosomal membranes of infected cells through the interaction of viral protein, VP3, with the phospholipids on the cytosolic leaflet of these compartments for replication. Employing a mutagenesis approach, we demonstrated that VP3 domain PATCH 2 (P2) mediates the association of VP3 with the endosomal membranes. To determine the role of VP3 P2 in the context of virus replication cycle, we used avian cells stably overexpressing VP3 P2 for IBDV infection. Importantly, the intra- and extra-cellular virus yields, as well as the intracellular levels of VP2 viral capsid protein, significantly diminished in VP3 P2 stably overexpressing cells. Altogether, our results indicate that the association of VP3 with endosomes has a relevant role in IBDV replication cycle. This report provides direct experimental evidence for membranous compartments such as endosomes being required by a dsRNA virus for its replication. The results also support the previously proposed role of birnaviruses as an evolutionary link between +ssRNA and dsRNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD, also called Gumboro disease) is an acute, highly contagious immunosuppressive disease that affects

  2. Italian field survey reveals a high diffusion of avian metapneumovirus subtype B in layers and weaknesses in the vaccination strategy applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Mattia; Lupini, Caterina; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Falchieri, Marco; Meini, Amelio; Jones, Richard C; Catelli, Elena

    2012-12-01

    The current information on the prevalence of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in layers is fragmentary and its true impact on egg production often remains unknown or unclear. In order to draw an epidemiologic picture of aMPV presence in layer flocks in Italy, a survey was performed on 19 flocks of pullets and layers based on longitudinal studies or sporadic samplings. aMPV was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and blood samples were collected for serology by aMPV ELISA. Occurrences of respiratory signs and a drop in egg production were recorded. Possible involvement of infectious bronchitis (IB) and egg drop syndrome (EDS) viruses that could have caused loss of egg production we ruled out for IB virus by RT-PCR, and EDS virus was ruled out by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI). Only subtype B of aMPV was found in both pullet and layer farms. Surveys of pullets showed that most groups became infected prior to the onset of lay without showing clear respiratory signs. At the point of lay, these groups were serologically positive to aMPV. In two layer flocks, egg drops were observed and could be strongly linked to the presence of aMPV infection. Results were correlated with aMPV vaccination programs applied to the birds in three flocks on the same farm. Only a vaccination program which included two live and one killed vaccines gave complete protection from aMPV infection to the birds, while a single live vaccine application was not efficacious. The current study gives an inside view of field aMPV diffusion in Italy and its control in layers.

  3. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries. Other avian influenza A( ... outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries. Other avian influenza A( ...

  4. Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Sheng; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Chazara, Olympe; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chang, Poa-Chun; Chen, Jan-Wei; Bed'hom, Bertrand

    2011-06-03

    H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) are frequently isolated in Taiwan and lead to significant economic losses, either directly or indirectly through association with other infectious diseases. This study investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi, Hua-Tung (Taiwan), Quemoy (Quemoy Island), Shek-Ki (China), Nagoya (Japan) and a specific pathogen free (SPF) White Leghorn line. A total number of 338 chickens have been distributed between a control and a challenge group, H6N1 challenge was performed at 7 weeks of age; vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) was performed at 11 weeks. The anti-H6N1 LPAIV antibody titers were measured by ELISA at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after challenge, and the anti-ND, anti-IBD and anti-IB antibody titers were measured by inhibition of hemagglutination test and ELISA at days 0, 14, 28 after vaccination. There was no effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge at 7 weeks of age on the subsequent responses to ND and IBD vaccine at 11 weeks of age, but, surprisingly, the H6N1 LPAIV challenge significantly affected antibody levels to IB vaccine in some breeds, since IB0 and IB14 antibody titers were lower in the challenge groups. However, there was no significant difference in IB28 antibody titers among the experimental groups. Local breeds have different immune response to H6N1 LPAIV challenge and subsequent vaccines. Differences dealt mainly with kinetics of response and with peak values. Quemoy exhibited higher antibody levels to H6N1, ND and IBD. The negative effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge on IB vaccine response may be related to the fact that both viruses target the lung tissues, and the type of local immune response induced by LPAIV challenge may not be

  5. Wetland environmental conditions associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks and the abundance of Pasteurella multocida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, Michael D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, Daniel J.; Creekmore, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera is a significant infectious disease affecting waterfowl across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known about the factors that cause avian cholera outbreaks and what management strategies might be used to reduce disease mortality. Previous studies indicated that wetland water conditions may affect survival and transmission of Pasteurella multocida, the agent that causes avian cholera. These studies hypothesized that water conditions affect the likelihood that avian cholera outbreaks will occur in specific wetlands. To test these predictions, we collected data from avian cholera outbreak and non-outbreak (control) wetlands throughout North America (wintera??spring 1995a??1996 to 1998a??1999) to evaluate whether water conditions were associated with outbreaks. Conditional logistic regression analysis on paired outbreak and non-outbreak wetlands indicated no significant association between water conditions and the risk of avian cholera outbreaks. For wetlands where avian cholera outbreaks occurred, linear regression showed that increased eutrophic nutrient concentrations (Potassium [K], nitrate [NO3], phosphorus [P], and phosphate [PO3]) were positively related to the abundance of P. multocida recovered from water and sediment samples. Wetland protein concentration and an El Ni??o event were also associated with P. multocida abundance. Our results indicate that wetland water conditions are not strongly associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks; however, some variables may play a role in the abundance of P. multocida bacteria and might be important in reducing the severity of avian cholera outbreaks.

  6. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses.

  7. Equine Infectious Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopes, Karl H.

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet gives information on equine infectious anemia, a blood-borne infectious viral disease of horses, donkeys, and mules. It describes transmission, clinical disease, diagnosis and control.

  8. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  9. International adoption: issues in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staat, Dana D; Klepser, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    International adoptions have become increasingly common in the United States. Children awaiting international adoption and families traveling to adopt these children can be exposed to a variety of infectious diseases. Compared with the United States, foreign countries often have different immunization practices and methods of diagnosing, treating, and monitoring disease. Reporting of medical conditions can also differ from that of the United States. The prevalence of infectious diseases varies from country to country and may or may not be common among adopted children. The transmission of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, and measles from adopted children to family members has been documented. Furthermore, infectious organisms (e.g., intestinal parasites), bacterial pathogens (e.g., Bordetella pertussis and Treponema pallidum), and viruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses) may cause clinically significant morbidity and mortality among infected children. Diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome or avian influenza have not been reported among international adoptees, but transmission is possible if infection is present. Family members may be infected by others during travel or by their adopted child after returning home. Families preparing to adopt a child from abroad should pay special attention to the infectious diseases they may encounter and to the precautions they should take on returning home.

  10. Persistent Bacterial Bronchitis: Time to Venture beyond the Umbrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bush

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough in children is common and frequently mismanaged. In the past, cough was diagnosed as asthma and inappropriate asthma therapies prescribed and escalated. It has been realized that persistent bacterial bronchitis (PBB is a common cause of wet cough and responds to oral antibiotics. The initial definition comprised a history of chronic wet cough, positive bronchoalveolar (BAL cultures for a respiratory pathogen and response to a 2-week course of oral amoxicillin–clavulanic acid. This is now termed PBB-micro; PBB-clinical eliminates the need for BAL. PBB-extended is PBB-micro or PBB-clinical but resolution necessitating 4 weeks of antibiotics; and recurrent PBB is >3 attacks of PBB-micro or-clinical/year. However, the airway has only a limited range of responses to chronic inflammation and infection, and neutrophilic airway disease is seen in many other conditions, such as cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia, both chronic suppurative lung disease endotypes, whose recognition has led to huge scientific and clinical advances. There is an urgent need to extend endotyping into PBB, especially PBB-recurrent. We need to move from associative studies and, in particular, deploy sophisticated modern –omics technologies and systems biology, rather as has been done in the context of asthma in U-BIOPRED. In summary, the use of the term PBB has done signal service in pointing us away from prescribing asthma therapies to children with infected airways, but we now need to move beyond a simple description to teasing out underlying endotypes.

  11. CT findings of plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Jhang, Won Kyoung; Kim, Young Hwee; Ko, Jae Kon; Park, In Sook [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Park, Jeong-Jun; Yun, Tae-Jin; Seo, Dong-Man [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare cause of acute obstructive respiratory failure in children. Life-threatening events are much more frequent in patients with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, and most frequent following a Fontan operation. Commonly, the diagnosis is not made until bronchial casts are expectorated. Detailed CT findings in plastic bronchitis have not been described. To describe the CT findings in plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation. Three children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation were evaluated by chest CT. Bronchial casts were spontaneously expectorated and/or extracted by bronchoscopy. Airway and lung abnormalities seen on CT were analyzed in the three children. CT demonstrated bronchial casts in the central airways with associated atelectasis and consolidation in all children. The affected airways were completely or partially obstructed by the bronchial casts without associated bronchiectasis. The airway and lung abnormalities rapidly improved after removal of the bronchial casts. CT can identify airway and lung abnormalities in children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation. In addition, CT can be used to guide bronchoscopy and to monitor treatment responses, and thereby may improve clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  12. Infectious Diseases in a Global Economy - Consequences for Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, McDonald AM

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war the world economy has become dominated by Western [largely US] interests. In this period there have developed several pandemics or epidemics of infectious diseases that have affected most nations. HIV, SARS, Avian Influenza, Hepatitis-C, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, drug-resistant TB, viral zoonoses, are specific examples that will be discussed in terms of their genesis, economic impact and consequences for ways of life in the range of economies – developed,...

  13. Early investigational antibiotics for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Georgiou, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Acute exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis are a leading cause of hospitalizations and death. Bacteria contribute significantly to such exacerbations. The aim of this review was to explore the potential role of investigational antibiotics in the treatment of these episodes. Areas covered: The available literature in PubMed database, in websites related to investigational drugs and in websites of the producing companies has been searched. The in vitro activity against pathogens involved in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and the pharmacokinetic profile of antibiotics currently under development were taken into consideration for inclusion in the review. Expert opinion: Several novel antimicrobial agents have completed preclinical and Phase I studies and were well-tolerated. Further investigation is mandatory in order to evaluate their future in treatment of chronic bronchitis exacerbations and discover potential advantages compared to already approved antimicrobials.

  14. Chronic Bronchitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Among Textile Workers in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafees, A. A.; Fatmi, Z.; Kadir, M. M.; Sathiakumar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and predictors of chronic bronchitis and COPD among textile workers in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Karachi, Pakistan, from October to December 2009. Methodology: Male textile workers from 15 mills of Karachi were inducted. Data was collected using American Thoracic Society respiratory questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-a) and spirometry. Result: Out of 372 participants, 29 (7.8 percentage) workers had chronic bronchitis (4, 9.1 percentage aged =40 years) and 25 (6.7 percentage) had COPD (12, 27.2 percentage aged ≥40 years). Workers with chronic bronchitis had significantly decreased lung function compared to the healthy workers. Those reporting severe self-perceived dust exposure at work, ≥ 10 pack years of smoking, uneducated, longer duration of work (≥11 years), and ever smokers were more likely to have chronic bronchitis or COPD. In the multivariate analyses, severe self-perceived dust exposure at work (AOR = 7.4; 95 percentage CI: 1.9, 28.0), family history of respiratory illness/symptoms (AOR = 4.8; 95 percentage CI: 1.1, 20.9) and lack of education (AOR = 4.2; 95 percentage CI: 1.1, 16.9) were significant predictors of chronic bronchitis. Duration of work ≥11 years (AOR = 5.5; 95 percentage CI: 1.5, 19.7) and pack years of smoking ≥10 years (AOR = 3.5; 95 percentage CI: 1.1, 11.7) were strong predictors for COPD. Conclusion: There is a high frequency of chronic bronchitis and COPD among textile workers. Multiple important predictors for prevention are identified. (author)

  15. Use of Epidemiologic Models in the Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, J.A.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decades, mathematical models have become more and more accepted as a tool to develop surveillance programs and to evaluate the efficacy of intervention measures for the control of infectious diseases such as highly pathogenic avian influenza. Predictive models are used to simulate the

  16. Epidemiological models to assist the management of highly pathogenic avian influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, J.A.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, epidemiological models have been used more and more frequently as a tool for the design of programmes for the management of infectious diseases such as highly pathogenic avian influenza. Predictive models are used to simulate the effects of various control measures on the spread

  17. Perioperative management of shock in two fontan patients with plastic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Niel Raj; Da Cruz, Eduardo M; Nicolarsen, Jeremy; Schwartz, Lawrence Israel; Merritt, Glenn Richard; Barrett, Cindy; Twite, Mark David; Ing, Richard John

    2013-03-01

    Plastic bronchitis is potentially a life-threatening complication of long-standing surgically palliated single ventricle congenital heart disease. Patients can present with hypoxia requiring urgent bronchoscopy for removal of bronchial casts. Perioperative care for these patients is challenging and anesthesia is associated with significant cardiac risk. As more surgically corrected single ventricle patients survive to adulthood, these patients are expected to present more frequently. This report details the perioperative management of 2 Fontan patients with hypoxia and significant plastic bronchitis disease burden.

  18. Clinical X-ray characteristics of chronic bronchitis in workers of coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, L.I.; Shumakov, A.V.; Doroshenko, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    100 workers of coal mines with chronic dusty bronchitis are examined. The roentgenological manifestations of different stages of the diseases with respect to the clinical picture and function of external breath according to the data of roentgenopneumopolygraphy, are characterized. The attention is paid to a most pronounced violation of external breath function in this category of patients. The peculiarities of clinico-roentgenological picture of dust bronchitis found should be taken into account when solving the problems of medical labor examination. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Radioimmunological allergy diagnostics in infants suffering from asthmatoid bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and hay fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siafarikas, K.; Glaubitt, D.; Wanzeck, E.; Staedtische Krankenanstalten Krefeld

    1975-01-01

    The occurence of circulating specific antibodies against milk protein, hen protein, fish (cod), against cat, dog and horse epithelium as well as against 2 types of house dust was investigated with 11 children in the age of 1-6 years having asthmatoid bronchitis, 23 children aging from 2-15 years with bronchial asthma and 3 children aging from 6-13 years with hay fever, using the radioallergosorbens test (RAST). Children having asthmatoid bronchitis for the first time exhibited a smaller number and a lesser extent of positive radioallergosorben test results then children with bronchial asthma. The children with hay fever exhibited exclusively negative test results. (orig./LN) [de

  20. From SARS to Avian Influenza Preparedness in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andrew T Y; Chen, Hong; Liu, Shao-Haei; Hsu, Enoch K; Luk, Kristine S; Lai, Christopher K C; Chan, Regina F Y; Tsang, Owen T Y; Choi, K W; Kwan, Y W; Tong, Anna Y H; Cheng, Vincent C C; Tsang, Dominic N C

    2017-05-15

    The first human H5N1 case was diagnosed in Hong Kong in 1997. Since then, experience in effective preparedness strategies that target novel influenza viruses has expanded. Here, we report on avian influenza preparedness in public hospitals in Hong Kong to illustrate policies and practices associated with control of emerging infectious diseases. The Hong Kong government's risk-based preparedness plan for influenza pandemics includes 3 response levels for command, control, and coordination frameworks for territory-wide responses. The tiered levels of alert, serious, and emergency response enable early detection based on epidemiological exposure followed by initiation of a care bundle. Information technology, laboratory preparedness, clinical and public health management, and infection control preparedness provide a comprehensive and generalizable preparedness plan for emerging infectious diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF AVIAN CHLAMYDIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Šatrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian chlamydiosis is an infectious disease of birds caused by gram-negative bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci. However, this disease can occure among other mammals including humans. Chlamydiosis often presents as an inapparent infection, especially in older birds. During stressful conditions (deficient diet, transportation, great population density in small spaces, etc. and comorbidity, however, the birds usually begin to either present with the clinical signs of chlamydiosis, or secrete many causative agents to the environment. Depending on the serotype of the causative agent, and the type and age of the host, the disease usually causes systemic disorders, and is often fatal. The affected birds present with lethargy, fever, typical yellow-green discharge from the eyes and nose, diarrhea, anorexia and the weight lost. Bearing capacity is reduced. Autopsy findings show hepatomegaly with necrotic foci, splenomegaly and fibrinous inflammation of the pericardium, peritoneum and air sacs. Pathohistological findings reveal elementary bodies in the intercellular space dyed red to reddish purple using the Gimenez technique.Key words: avian chlamydiosis, pathomorphological changes, histopathological changes

  2. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  3. Infectious bronchitis coronavirus limits interferon production by inducing a host shutoff that requires accessory protein 5b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Joeri; Langereis, Martijn A.; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; Kuppeveld, van Frank J.; Koumans, Joseph; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During infection of their host cells, viruses often inhibit the production of host proteins, a process that is referred to as host shutoff. By doing this, viruses limit the production of antiviral proteins and increase production capacity for viral proteins. Coronaviruses from the genera

  4. Activation and evasion of the type I Interferon response by infectious bronchitis virus : roles of the accessory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY

    Viruses are intracellular parasites that exploit the machinery of the host cell to replicate. To defend themselves against invading viruses, animal cells have evolved an anti-viral mechanism, known as the

  5. The use of drug-free technologies in patients with chronic toxicochemical bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illarionov V.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: development and scientific substantiation of a complex application halo-inhaled and flutter-kinesiotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive toxic chemical bronchitis. Material and methods. There was an examination and treatment of 125 patients with chronic obstructive toxic chemical bronchitis at the age from 32 to 65 years (average age 52.2+3,1 with industrial experience from 5 to 27 years (average age 15.9+3,9. Results. Comparative analysis revealed an advantage of an integrated application halo-inhaled and flutter-kinesiotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive toxic chemical bronchitis as in the I, and that is especially important at the II stage of the disease, which is confirmed by the regression of the main clinical symptoms, a significant decrease in the intensity index of inflammation, recovery to normal values of factors of local immunity broncho-pulmonary system. Conclusion. Developed a comprehensive program including halo-inhaled and flutter-kinesiotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive toxic chemical bronchitis has a pronounced anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and immunocorrection effect, improves bronchodilating function and bronchial obstruction in bronchial tubes of large, medium and small caliber. The absence of exacerbations in the past year proves that this method is highly effective secondary prevention of lung disease.

  6. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  7. Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Salameh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country. Objective: To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. Methods: A pilot case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by a pulmonologist and those epidemiologically confirmed. Controls included individuals free of any respiratory signs or symptoms. After obtaining informed consent, a standardized questionnaire was administered. Results: Bivariate, stratified (over smoking status and gender and multivariate analyses revealed that passive smoking at home (ORa: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73–3.80 and at work (ORa: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13–3.17; older age (ORa: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.55–2.39; lower education (ORa: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21–1.72; living close to a busy road (ORa: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31– 2.89 and to a local power plant (ORa: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; and heating home by hot air conditioning (ORa: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00–3.43 were moderately associated with chronic bronchitis; an inverse association was found with heating home electrically (ORa: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39–0.85. A positive dose-effect relationship was observed in those living close to a busy road and to a local diesel exhaust source. Conclusion: Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution.

  8. Chronic Bronchitis Before Age 50 Years Predicts Incident Airflow Limitation and Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Sherrill, Duane L.; Venker, Claire; Ceccato, Christina M.; Halonen, Marilyn; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the relation of chronic bronchitis to incident airflow limitation and all-cause mortality have provided conflicting results, with positive findings reported mainly by studies that included populations of young adults. We sought to determine whether having chronic cough and sputum production in the absence of airflow limitation is associated with onset of airflow limitation, all-cause mortality, and serum levels of CRP and IL-8, and whether subjects’ age influences these relations. Methods We identified 1412 participants in the long-term Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Disease who at enrollment (1972–73) were 21–80 years old and had FEV1/FVC≥70% and no asthma. Chronic bronchitis was defined as cough and phlegm production on most days for ≥three months in ≥two consecutive years. Incidence of airflow limitation was defined as the first follow-up survey with FEV1/FVC<70%. Serum IL-8 and CRP levels were measured in cryopreserved samples from the enrollment survey. Results After adjusting for covariates, chronic bronchitis at enrollment increased significantly the risk for incident airflow limitation and all-cause mortality among subjects <50 years old (Hazard Ratios, 95% CI: 2.2, 1.3–3.8; and 2.2, 1.3–3.8; respectively), but not among subjects ≥50 years old (0.9, 0.6–1.4; and 1.0, 0.7–1.3). Chronic bronchitis was associated with increased IL-8 and CRP serum levels only among subjects <50 years old. Conclusions Among adults <50 years old, chronic bronchitis unaccompanied by airflow limitation may represent an early marker of susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoking on systemic inflammation and long-term risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and all-cause mortality. PMID:19581277

  9. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  10. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  11. Avian cholera, a threat to the viability of an Arctic seabird colony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available Evidence that infectious diseases cause wildlife population extirpation or extinction remains anecdotal and it is unclear whether the impacts of a pathogen at the individual level can scale up to population level so drastically. Here, we quantify the response of a Common eider colony to emerging epidemics of avian cholera, one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild waterfowl. We show that avian cholera has the potential to drive colony extinction, even over a very short period. Extinction depends on disease severity (the impact of the disease on adult female survival and disease frequency (the number of annual epidemics per decade. In case of epidemics of high severity (i.e., causing >30% mortality of breeding females, more than one outbreak per decade will be unsustainable for the colony and will likely lead to extinction within the next century; more than four outbreaks per decade will drive extinction to within 20 years. Such severity and frequency of avian cholera are already observed, and avian cholera might thus represent a significant threat to viability of breeding populations. However, this will depend on the mechanisms underlying avian cholera transmission, maintenance, and spread, which are currently only poorly known.

  12. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  13. Infectious keratitis after keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Jose R; Mian, Shahzad I

    2016-07-01

    Infectious keratitis is an uncommon but serious complication after corneal transplantation that threatens the visual potential of corneal grafts. Several large retrospective studies from sites worldwide have documented the experiences of corneal surgeons with this sight-threatening complication. The present review synthesizes and compares incidence rates, risk factors, common microorganisms, treatments, and visual prognoses of patients with postkeratoplasty infectious keratitis. In 2012, endothelial keratoplasty replaced penetrating keratoplasty as the most commonly performed corneal transplantation procedure in the United States. Although reported rates of infectious keratitis after endothelial keratoplasty appear to be less than after penetrating keratoplasty, there are still too few publications documenting infectious keratitis after endothelial keratoplasty or anterior lamellar keratoplasty to adequately assess outcomes. Infectious keratitis continues to be a serious complication among all types of keratoplasty, threatening the viability of the grafted tissues and visual outcomes of patients. Reports from various sites worldwide indicate differences in incidence rates and common infecting microorganisms between high- and middle-income countries. Most reports agree that suture-related problems and factors contributing to a suboptimal ocular surface are the primary risk factors for developing infectious keratitis. In general, patients with infectious keratitis following keratoplasty have a poor visual prognosis because of the difficulty of successful treatment without residual scarring.

  14. The association between mental health and acute infectious illness among a national sample of 18- to 24-year-old college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Troy B; Wharton, Christopher M; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship between poor mental health and acute infectious illnesses (bronchitis, ear infection, sinusitis, strep throat) among 47,202 US college students. The authors used frequency and cross-tabulation analyses to characterize mental health and determine univariate associations among variables. They used binary logistic regression to determine the association between poor mental health and acute infectious illness, controlling for research-derived covariates. The prevalence of acute infectious illness ranged from 8% to 29%. The prevalence of anxiety and depression ranged from 12% to 20%, respectively. Depression, anxiety, and exhaustion were associated with acute infectious illness across all dependent measures, with odds ratios ranging from .56 to .91. Poor mental health is associated with acute infectious illness among college students.

  15. Avian Primordial Germ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Takahiro; Miyahara, Daichi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Germ cells transmit genetic information to the next generation through gametogenesis. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first germ-cell population established during development, and are the common origins of both oocytes and spermatogonia. Unlike in other species, PGCs in birds undergo blood circulation to migrate toward the genital ridge, and are one of the major biological properties of avian PGCs. Germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth. In chicken, gonadal sex differentiation occurs as early as embryonic day 6, but meiotic initiation of female germ cells starts from a relatively late stage (embryonic day 15.5). Retinoic acid controls meiotic entry in developing chicken gonads through the expressions of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2, a major retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme, and cytochrome P450 family 26, subfamily B member 1, a major retinoic acid-degrading enzyme. The other major biological property of avian PGCs is that they can be propagated in vitro for the long term, and this technique is useful for investigating proliferation mechanisms. The main factor involved in chicken PGC proliferation is fibroblast growth factor 2, which activates the signaling of MEK/ERK and thus promotes the cell cycle and anti-apoptosis. Furthermore, the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling is indispensable for the proliferation and survival of chicken PGCs.

  16. Structural and growth characteristics of two avian reoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, H; Cursiefen, D; Becht, H

    1975-01-01

    Two virus strains which had been suspected to be the etiological agents of infectious bursitis (Gumboro disease) and of inclusion body hepatitis of chickens were characterized by their morphology, their peptide composition and the segmented genome of their double-stranded RNA to be typical reoviruses. Although the 2 avian strains did not clearly differ in their serological behaviour, the size of some of their RNA segments were not identical. Both strains replicated in tissue cultures prepared from the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs with growth characteristics of reoviruses.

  17. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Non-Infectious Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This Page Causes and How it Spreads Signs and Symptoms Causes ...

  18. Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. Results: A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. Interpretation & conclusions: The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

  19. SIGNIFICANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIES OF CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT EPISODES OF OBSTRUCTIVE BRONCHITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Karpov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of significance of environmental factors (ecological and social, their interconnection with different somatic types and adaptive capabilities, as well as with peculiarities of preschoolers immunity with recurrent episodes of obstructive bronchitis (ob to work out adequate therapy schemes for periods of exacerbation and rehabilitation. It is proven that children with recurrent ob are characterized by mesomacrosome somatotype, prevalence of vagotonia, sympathicotonia with hyper sympathicotonic type of vegetative reactivity and significant disorder of mucociliary clearance persisting after clinical recovery. The efficiency of ambroxol mugoregulator in complex therapy of ob and expedience of its long term (14–18 administration for recovery of disturbed system of mucociliary transport, were confirmed.Key words: obstructive bronchitis, children, somatotype, vegetative reactivity, immunity, ambroxol.

  20. Effect of Vaporub on the restlessness of children with acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, H; Madreiter, H; Jarosch, E

    1978-01-01

    In this study pneumographs of children with acute bronchitis treated with Vicks Vaporub or Petrolatum were used. Movement artifacts were used as a measure of the so-called "restlessness" of the children. The experimental schedule consisted of a 10-minute phase of recording before a 3-minute treatment with Vaporub or Petrolatum, followed by a 70-minute observation period, during which time pneumograms were also recorded. Thirty-four Vaporub-treated children showed an increase in periods without movement artifacts of up to 213.8%, the Petrolatum controls, twenty-six children, up to 62.4% as compared to the corresponding pre-treatment values. It is concluded that Vaporub is effective in decreasing restlessness in children suffering from acute bronchitis. This effect is quite marked and cannot be due solely to psychological effects of the rub therapy, or to effects of petrolatum without aromatics.

  1. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consultations Fact sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Influenza (Avian and other zoonotic) Fact sheet ... respiratory tract infection (fever and cough), early sputum production and rapid progression to severe pneumonia, sepsis with ...

  2. EFFICIENCY OF HYPERTONIC SOLUTION INHALATION IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHITIS AND BRONCHIOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis in children with congenital malformation are often characterized by the severe course of disease. The efficiency of treatment of those conditions can be increased through addition of sodium chloride (NaCl, hypertonic saline which takes a hydrostatic and osmotic effect on mucous membrane of the bronchial tree in broncholytic therapy. Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of 3% NaCl hypertonic solution inhalation in children with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis in the setting of bronchi congenital malformation (Kartagener's syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia. Patients and methods: The participantsof this study were 28 children in the age of 4–17.5 years with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis in the setting of Kartagener's syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia in the first days o facute exacerbation of the disease (15 patients in treatment group and 13 patients in control group. In the therapy scheme of treatment group the 3 NaCl hypertonic solution in administered dose of 2 ml was applied 2 times/day during 14 days besides other treatment methods. Results: In patients with chronic bronchiolitis 3% NaCl hypertonic saline inhalation in administered dose of 2 ml twice a day had improved the clinical presentation of disease; by the 14th day of studythe FEV-1 value improved from 70.0 ± 2.1 to 82 ± 3.2% (p = 0.024. The side effects in form of cough aggravation were registered in 13% cases. Among additional criteria of efficiency the improvement of MОС-75 from 52.1 ± 5.2 to 71.2 ± 1.4% (p = 0.011 was also marked in patients. The adverse experience, such as shivering, hypoexcitability and sleep disturbance, were registered in 7% of cases. Conclusion: Inhalation of 3% NaCl hypertonic saline allows the fast arresting of wheezing and eliminates the mycostasis in children with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis.

  3. An improved fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm for assisted therapy of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weijia; Yan, Zhuangzhi

    2015-01-01

    Bronchitis is considered a non-specific inflammation in the peripheral tissues of the trachea and bronchus. Many therapeutic schemes for chronic bronchitis have been reported in existing research. This work attempted to conduct optimization analysis of the therapeutic scheme for chronic bronchitis using a data mining method. To overcome the shortfalls of the current fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) algorithm, this research proposed an improved kernel fuzzy C-means (KFCM) clustering algorithm. The improved KFCM algorithm solved traditional cluster algorithm problems in two ways: firstly FCM clustering was mapped in high-dimensional kernel space; and the samples in the initial input space R(S) were mapped to high-dimensional feature space R(p). Finally, the improved and traditional algorithms by computer simulation experiments. Based on the analysis of the simulation experiments on IRIS dataset in this research, improved KFCM algorithm could improve calculation accuracy by 10% because the initial value greatly decreased the number of iterations and improved the accuracy of the calculation. The improved KFCM algorithm was used to optimize the relationship between data structures in the process of iteration clustering so as to accelerate iteration convergence. The simulation results show that the improved KFCM algorithm performs better in terms of both calculating performance and clustering correctness.

  4. Evaluation of effectiveness of hydrolyzed dextran in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinchenko, N.Z.; Filipchenko, L.L.; Volkova, V.M.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental group and a control group identical in age, work experience, dust exposure and expression of disease were treated for dust-induced bronchitis. The control group received broncholytics, anti-inflammatory preparations and physiotherapy; the experimental group received same treatment plus 200 ml of rheopolyglucin, a 10% solution of dextran (water-soluble polysaccharide of glucose), twice a week for 2 to 3 weeks. In addition to general laboratory and clinical methods of investigation, cytologic analysis of sputum before and after treatment was carried out. Results of experiment are given in 3 tables showing: Dynamics of Allergic Signs after Treatment with Rheopolyglucin, Dynamics of Content of Eosinophils in Blood after Treatment, and Cytologic Characteristics of Mucus of Patients with Dust-Induced Bronchitis. Patients treated with rheopolyglucin improved more than control group in abatement of suppurative process in lungs, strengthening of specific cellular and humoral mechanisms of immune response at level of bronchopulmonary system, increased expulsion of mineral dust from lungs and significant reduction of allergic reaction. Results quantitated in tables prove advantages of adding rheopolyglucin to traditional therapy in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. 19 refs.

  5. Acupuncture as method of treatment and arresting progress of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baburina, E.B.; Bykova, E.A.

    1983-10-01

    Acupuncture is an effective therapy for treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. It can be used independently or in combination with medicaments. Fifty men were divided into two groups of 20 and 30. One group was treated by acupuncture alone, the other with combined therapy. Acupuncture produced excellent results; combined treatment, good and satisfactory results. Since acupuncture reduced the possibility of complications, allergic reactions and side effects due to medication, it is an excellent means of preventing progress of dust-induced bronchitis. Patients experience 9 months remission of symptoms after treatment with acupuncture while medical therapy alone only relieves them for 1 to 1 1/2 months. Patients with chronic dust-induced bronchitis should receive a second course of acupuncture in 6 to 8 months to prevent recurrence of symptoms and progress of disease. Because of insufficient study of lasting effects of acupuncture, final conclusions about its effectiveness cannot be made, however, current evidence indicates it is a highly useful therapy. 6 references.

  6. Spirometric abnormalities associated with chronic bronchitis, asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness among boilermaker construction workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, R.; Eisen, E,A,; Pothier, L,; Lewis, D,; Bledsoe, T,; Christiani, D.C. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health

    2002-06-01

    In a 2-year longitudinal study of boilermaker construction workers, authors found a significant association between working at oil-fired, coal-fired, and gas-fired industries during the past year and reduced lung function. In the present study, authors investigated whether chronic bronchitis, asthma, or baseline methacholine airway responsiveness can explain the heterogeneity in lung function response to boilermaker work. Exposure was assessed with a work history questionnaire. Spirometry was performed annually to assess lung function. A generalized estimating equation approach was used to account for the repeated-measures design. One hundred eighteen boilermakers participated in the study. Self-reported history of chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a larger FEV1 reduction in response to workplace exposure at coal-fired and gas-fired industries. Although a high prevalence (39%) of airway hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEVI of {lt} 8 mg/mL) among boilermakers was found, there was no consistent pattern of effect modification by airway responsiveness. Conclusions: Although chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a greater loss in lung function in response to hours worked as a boilermaker, and therefore they acted as effect modifiers of the exposure-lung function relationship, airway hyperresponsiveness did not. However, the high prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness found in the cohort may be a primary consequence of long-term workplace exposure among boilermakers.

  7. The role of environmental transmission in recurrent avian influenza epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus Breban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV persists in North American wild waterfowl, exhibiting major outbreaks every 2-4 years. Attempts to explain the patterns of periodicity and persistence using simple direct transmission models are unsuccessful. Motivated by empirical evidence, we examine the contribution of an overlooked AIV transmission mode: environmental transmission. It is known that infectious birds shed large concentrations of virions in the environment, where virions may persist for a long time. We thus propose that, in addition to direct fecal/oral transmission, birds may become infected by ingesting virions that have long persisted in the environment. We design a new host-pathogen model that combines within-season transmission dynamics, between-season migration and reproduction, and environmental variation. Analysis of the model yields three major results. First, environmental transmission provides a persistence mechanism within small communities where epidemics cannot be sustained by direct transmission only (i.e., communities smaller than the critical community size. Second, environmental transmission offers a parsimonious explanation of the 2-4 year periodicity of avian influenza epidemics. Third, very low levels of environmental transmission (i.e., few cases per year are sufficient for avian influenza to persist in populations where it would otherwise vanish.

  8. Emergent infectious uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

    2009-10-01

    Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  9. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  10. Infectious Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sumit; Grammer, Leslie C.; Peters, Anju T.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a persistent inflammatory disease that affects a multitude of people worldwide. The pathogenesis of CRS involves many factors including genetics, status of the sinonasal microbiome, infections and environmental influences. Comorbidities associated with CRS include asthma, allergic rhinitis, bronchiectasis and certain kinds of immunodeficiency. CRS can be divided into different subtypes based on endotypes and phenotypes. Infectious CRS is one such category. The etiology of infectious CRS is usually secondary to chronic bacterial infection which commonly begins with a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Humoral antibody deficiencies can underlie difficult-to-treat or recurrent CRS. Infectious CRS can be treated with antimicrobials, topical or oral corticosteroids and nasal saline irrigations. Patients with CRS and humoral immunodeficiency may require an aggressive treatment approach including immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Despite advancements in the field of CRS, targeted therapies and reliable biomarkers are still lacking. PMID:27393772

  11. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  12. Avian mycoplasmosis update

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    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  13. Comparative pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens of two strains of avian hepatitis E virus recovered from a chicken with Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome and from a clinically healthy chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billam, P; LeRoith, T; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Meng, X J

    2009-11-18

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is the primary causative agent of Hepatitis-Splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in chickens. Recently, a genetically unique strain of avian HEV, designated avian HEV-VA, was recovered from healthy chickens in Virginia. The objective of this study was to experimentally compare the pathogenicity of the prototype strain recovered from a chicken with HS syndrome and the avian HEV-VA strain in specific-pathogen-free chickens. An infectious stock of the avian HEV-VA strain was first generated and its infectivity titer determined in chickens. For the comparative pathogenesis study, 54 chickens of 6-week-old were assigned to 3 groups of 18 chickens each. The group 1 chickens were each intravenously inoculated with 5x10(2.5) 50% chicken infectious dose of the prototype strain. The group 2 received the same dose of the avian HEV-VA strain, and the group 3 served as negative controls. Six chickens from each group were necropsied at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-inoculation (wpi). Most chickens in both inoculated groups seroconverted by 3wpi, and the mean anti-avian HEV antibody titers were higher for the prototype strain group than the avian HEV-VA strain group. There was no significant difference in the patterns of viremia and fecal virus shedding. Blood analyte profiles did not differ between treatment groups except for serum creatine phosphokinase levels which were higher for prototype avian HEV group than avian HEV-VA group. The hepatic lesion score was higher for the prototype strain group than the other two groups. The results indicated that the avian HEV-VA strain is only slightly attenuated compared to the prototype strain, suggesting that the full spectrum of HS syndrome is likely associated with other co-factors.

  14. Avian influenza : a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalda

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1, that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO , world organization for animal health (OIE , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO information and recommendations and review of the published literature about avian influenza. Since December 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have swept through poultry populations across Asia and parts of Europe. The outbreaks are historically unprecedented in scale and geographical spread. Their economic impact on the agricultural sector of the affected countries has been large. Human cases, with an overall fatality rate around 50%, have also been reported and almost all human infections can be linked to contact with infected poultry. Influenza viruses are genetically unstable and their behaviour cannot be predicted so the risk of further human cases persists. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a re-assortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic.

  15. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  16. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  17. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of...

  18. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J

    2014-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems. (review article)

  19. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  20. Vasculitis and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, R; Biondi, G

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis usually presents without a well-known underline cause (idiopathic vasculitis), nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to find out one or more causative agents (secondary vasculitis). Nowadays, thanks to the increasing amount of precise diagnostic tools, a piece of idiopathic vasculitis is reclassified as associated with probable etiology, which can be set off by several factors, such as infections. Infections are considered to be the most common cause of secondary vasculitis. Virtually, every infectious agent can trigger a vasculitis by different mechanisms which can be divided in two main categories: direct and indirect. In the former, infectious agents destroy directly the vascular wall leading, eventually, to a subsequent inflammatory response. In the latter, indirect form, they stimulate an immune response against blood vessels. Different infectious agents are able to directly damage the vascular wall. Among these, it is possible to recognize Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Treponema spp, Rickettsia spp, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and many others which have a peculiar tropism for endothelial cells. Conversely, another group of microbial agents, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Hepatits B Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and others, trigger vasculitis in the indirect way. This is due to the fact that they can share epitopes with the host or modify self-antigens, thus leading to a cross-self reaction of the immune system. These mechanism, in turn, leads to immunological responses classified as type I-IV by Gell-Coombs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to strictly separate the direct and indirect forms, because most infectious agents can cause vasculitis in both ways (mixed forms). This paper will analyze the link between infectious agents and vasculitis, focusing on direct and indirect secondary vasculitis, and on a group of probable infection-related idiopathic vasculitis, and finally

  1. A mathematical model of avian influenza with half-saturated incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Nyuk Sian; Tchuenche, Jean Michel; Smith, Robert J

    2014-03-01

    The widespread impact of avian influenza viruses not only poses risks to birds, but also to humans. The viruses spread from birds to humans and from human to human In addition, mutation in the primary strain will increase the infectiousness of avian influenza. We developed a mathematical model of avian influenza for both bird and human populations. The effect of half-saturated incidence on transmission dynamics of the disease is investigated. The half-saturation constants determine the levels at which birds and humans contract avian influenza. To prevent the spread of avian influenza, the associated half-saturation constants must be increased, especially the half-saturation constant H m for humans with mutant strain. The quantity H m plays an essential role in determining the basic reproduction number of this model. Furthermore, by decreasing the rate β m at which human-to-human mutant influenza is contracted, an outbreak can be controlled more effectively. To combat the outbreak, we propose both pharmaceutical (vaccination) and non-pharmaceutical (personal protection and isolation) control methods to reduce the transmission of avian influenza. Vaccination and personal protection will decrease β m, while isolation will increase H m. Numerical simulations demonstrate that all proposed control strategies will lead to disease eradication; however, if we only employ vaccination, it will require slightly longer to eradicate the disease than only applying non-pharmaceutical or a combination of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical control methods. In conclusion, it is important to adopt a combination of control methods to fight an avian influenza outbreak.

  2. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Lachish, Shelly; Colvile, Katie M; Durrant, Chris; Peck, Kirsi M; Toms, Mike P; Sheldon, Ben C; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major) from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents) outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents). The majority (90%) of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3%) than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%). Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia.

  3. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents. The majority (90% of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3% than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%. Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia.

  4. Variations in pediatric pneumonia and bronchitis/asthma admission rates. Is appropriateness a factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, S M; Donahue, C; Rappo, P; McNamara, J J; Bass, J; First, L; Kulig, J; Palfrey, S; Siegel, B; Homer, C

    1995-02-01

    To explore through a pilot study the relationship between appropriateness (medical necessity) and variations in pediatric hospital admission rates across several communities in the Boston (Mass) area for two common pediatric conditions with extremely variable admission rates: pneumonia and bronchitis/asthma. We identified five communities in the greater Boston area with high, average, and below-average ratios of observed to expected admissions for the study conditions. Diagnosis-specific, criteria-based utilization review instruments were developed by community-based pediatricians and applied by trained nurse reviewers to medical records. ADMISSIONS STUDIED: All admissions for pneumonia (diagnosis related group [DRG] 91) and bronchitis/asthma (DRG 98) of study area residents younger than 18 years to participating hospitals during fiscal year 1986. For each area, we calculated age-adjusted admission rates, age-adjusted observed to expected ratios, and rates of inappropriate admissions. We tested the hypothesis that admission rates and inappropriateness rates were directly related. We deemed 9.4% of pneumonia admissions and 4.4% of bronchitis/asthma admissions inappropriate. Rates of inappropriate admissions were not significantly associated with admission rates in this local pilot study for either study condition at P < .05. However, in one community both rates were high for both conditions. Feedback of findings to the key local hospital there resulted in sharp decreases in admission rates for DRGs 91 and 98 in subsequent years. Our results suggest that higher pediatric admission rates may not be associated with higher rates of inappropriateness. Further research is needed, with a larger number of communities, to differentiate practice patterns more precisely and explore patient and family preferences.

  5. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  6. THE USAGE OF HALOAEROSOLOTHERAPY IN THE REHABILITATIONAL TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH RECCURENT BRONCHITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEMKO Ivan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of various therapeutic complexes on the basis of haloaerosoltherapy in the rehabilitational treatment of children with recurrent bronchitis on the ground of clinical and functional data and further development of recommendations for differentiated treatment. Objectives. Children (at the age of 6-10 years with recurrent bronchitis, who received treatment in conditions of artificial rock salt aerosol medium (haloaerosoltherapy. Material and Methods. 35 children with recurrent bronchitis (RB were examined. All children’s clinical data were monitored; respiratory function was evaluated using spirography. Forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC, forced expiratory volume for the 1-st second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at the point of 25% from FIVC(FEF25, forced expiratory flow at the point of 50% from FIVC (FEF50, and forced expiratory flow at the point of 75% from FIVC (FEF75 were defined. The patients were treated with the help of two therapeutic complexes (TC. 12 children were treated by the first TC which included haloaerosoltherapy (14 procedures, in well-equipped room with the initial concentration of rock salt aerosol 40 mg/m3 and the predominance of fine powder fraction (<80%. The first procedure lasted 10 minutes, the second – 20 minutes, the third and the following ones – 30 minutes. The concentration and dispersity of haloaerosol were measured with the help of special laser optical system. 23 children underwent second TC, which included 12 procedures of singlet oxygen therapy in the form of foam additionally to the haloaerosoltherapy sessions. Results. At the beginning of the treatment children had no signs of the acute phase of the disease. Though there were some symptoms which testify that the inflammatory process and functional recovery are not finished yet after the acute phase of the recurrent bronchitis. The clinical picture was confirmed by the major

  7. The role of pneumococcal infection in development of exacerbations in children with bronchial asthma and obstructive bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Kukhtinova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal infection remains the key cause of severe diseases of lower airways and deaths in children. The objective: to study the role of pneumococcal infection in pathogenesis of exacerbations of recurrent obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods: etiological structure of lower airways infections was evaluated in 125 patients 1–15 years old with bronchial asthma or recurrent bronchitis. Results: etiologic role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in development of low airways infections was detected in 48% of patients with atopic asthma, 85% — with asthma without atopy, 97% — with recurrent bronchitis. Repeated microbiological examination confirmed chronic carriage of S. рneumoniae in nasopharinx in 31% of patients. Conclusion: early active prophylaxis with vaccine against pneumococcal infection including conjugated vaccines is able to prevent further progression of a disease.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, exacerbation, pneumococcal infection.

  8. Marine infectious disease ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    To put marine disease impacts in context requires a broad perspective on the roles infectious agents have in the ocean. Parasites infect most marine vertebrate and invertebrate species, and parasites and predators can have comparable biomass density, suggesting they play comparable parts as consumers in marine food webs. Although some parasites might increase with disturbance, most probably decline as food webs unravel. There are several ways to adapt epidemiological theory to the marine environment. In particular, because the ocean represents a three-dimensional moving habitat for hosts and parasites, models should open up the spatial scales at which infective stages and host larvae travel. In addition to open recruitment and dimensionality, marine parasites are subject to fishing, filter feeders, dosedependent infection, environmental forcing, and death-based transmission. Adding such considerations to marine disease models will make it easier to predict which infectious diseases will increase or decrease in a changing ocean.

  9. African Journal of Infectious Diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Infectious Diseases accepts original research papers on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and treatment of infectious diseases, impact of infectious agents on the environment and related disciplines. Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of microbiology, parasitology, ...

  10. Acute Infectious Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-23

    intracelLular proteins such as metallothionine, hemosiderin , and ferritin.3 𔃻 6𔃼 1𔃽 5 A large variety of proteins must be produced during infection for...acute infections.50 On the other hand, iron is sequestered through its incorporation into hemosiderin .6,7,16 and ferritin in various tissue storage... hemosiderin and ferritin during infectious or inflammatory states. Concomitantly, plas1a ir. • - concentrations decline, sometimes to almost nondectable

  11. Pasteurella multocida infectious arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, P J

    1978-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a small gram-negative rod, is a domestic animal saprophyte that occasionally causes disease in humans. Infectious arthritis may develop from a superficial animal bite or scratch. Nine previous cases of infectious arthritis due to this organism have been documented in the literature, and a tenth case is reported here. Most patients had recent animal exposure, and half the patients had underlying chronic rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical signs of inflammation were consistently present; however, systemic infection was infrequent. The lack of positive synovial fluid gram-stain smears may make differentiation from other forms of infectious arthritis difficult. Penicillin in moderate doses is effective therapy, with osteomyelitis developing in only two patients. The tendency for this syndrome to affect patients with rheumatoid arthritis may reflect deficient local defense mechanisms, chronic steroid therapy, or increased ownership of pets. The mechanism of spread of infection to the joint space appears to be through contiguous spread from a skin site rather than by the hematogenous route in most cases.

  12. Treatment effect and safety of EPs 7630-solution in acute bronchitis in childhood: report of a multicentre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, M; Heger, M

    2007-01-01

    An open post-marketing surveillance study was conducted to examine the treatment effect and safety of EPs 7630-solution in the treatment of acute bronchitis in children. This study included a total of 742 children (aged between 0 and 12 years) with acute bronchitis (83.4%) or acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (14.3%), who were treated with different doses of the herbal drug for up to 14 days. Five bronchitis specific symptoms (BSS) were summed up to give an overall measure of disease severity. Non-specific disease symptoms (loss of appetite, diarrhoea, headache, vomiting, and fever) were also recorded, together with adverse events and overall ratings of efficacy and tolerability. The overall BSS score decreased during treatment from 6.0+/-3.0 points at baseline to 2.7+/-2.5 points after 7 days and to 1.4+/-2.1 points after 14 days. Remission or improvement in at least 80% of patients was recorded for all the individual component symptoms. The proportion of patients suffering from non-specific symptoms also substantially improved during treatment. For example, loss of appetite was present in 65.8% of patients at study begin, but only in 27.6% at the time point of last observation visit. In 88.3% of cases, the responsible physician rated the treatment as successful. Adverse events were minor and transitory. In conclusion, EPs 7630-solution was shown to be a safe and an effective treatment option for acute bronchitis or acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in children.

  13. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Integration in the Horse Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; He, Xi-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has a unique integration profile in the human genome relative to murine and avian retroviruses. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is another well-studied lentivirus that can also be used as a promising retro-transfection vector, but its integration into its native host has not been characterized. In this study, we mapped 477 integration sites of the EIAV strain EIAVFDDV13 in fetal equine dermal (FED) cells during in vitro infection. Published integrati...

  14. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  15. Control strategies against avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1959, 40 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI...

  16. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  17. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  18. Transmission and immunopathology of the avian influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) human isolate in three commonly commercialized avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaña, B; Dolz, R; Busquets, N; Ramis, A; Sánchez, R; Rivas, R; Valle, R; Cordón, I; Solanes, D; Martínez, J; Majó, N

    2018-05-01

    H7N9 virus infection is a global concern, given that it can cause severe infection and mortality in humans. However, the understanding of H7N9 epidemiology, animal reservoir species and zoonotic risk remains limited. This work evaluates the pathogenicity, transmissibility and local innate immune response of three avian species harbouring different respiratory distribution of α2,6 and α2,3 SA receptors. Muscovy ducks, European quails and SPF chickens were intranasally inoculated with 10 5 embryo infectious dose (EID) 50 of the human H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013) influenza isolate. None of the avian species showed clinical signs or macroscopic lesions, and only mild microscopic lesions were observed in the upper respiratory tract of quail and chickens. Quail presented more severe histopathologic lesions and avian influenza virus (AIV) positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC), which correlated with higher IL-6 responses. In contrast, Muscovy ducks were resistant to disease and presented higher IFNα and TLR7 response. In all species, viral shedding was higher in the respiratory than in the digestive tract. Higher viral shedding was observed in quail, followed by chicken and ducks, which presented similar viral titres. Efficient transmission was observed in all contact quail and half of the Muscovy ducks, while no transmission was observed between chicken. All avian species showed viral shedding in drinking water throughout infection. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. [Bronchial reactivity and mucosal bioamines as criteria for acute bronchitis becoming chronic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'eva, E G; Latfullin, I A

    2002-01-01

    To study bronchial reactivity and sensitivity with consideration of histamine, serotonin and catecholamines concentration in bronchial mucosa in patients with acute bronchitis (AB) as possible criteria of its becoming chronic. Before the treatment 116 patients with verified AB were examined using inhalation provocative tests (IPT) with histamine, serotonin and obsidian in increasing doses. Also, external respiration function was studied. IPT were repeated after the course of treatment. 87 of 116 AB patients exhibited high bronchial sensitivity and reactivity to inhalations of histamine, serotonin, obsidian. In parallel, there was a rise in the levels of histamine and serotonin and a fall in the level of catecholamines in bronchial mucosa (alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast and APUD-cells). Changes in monoamines concentration in bronchial mucosa were relevant to activity of bronchial inflammation and the presence of obstructive syndrome. Persistent bronchial hyperreactivity to inhalations of histamine and obsidian along with high histamine levels and low level of catecholamines in alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes and mucus is a criterion of bronchitis transformation to chronic one.

  20. Gemifloxacin use in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jivcu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cristian Jivcu1, Mark Gotfried21Department of Internal Medicine, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: The newest generation of fluoroquinolones have proven efficacy against bacterial organisms associated with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB. Gemifloxacin, as one of the quinolones in this class, exhibits many of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the class with a few notable differences. Against Streptococccus pneumoniae it has a lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC than the other respiratory fluoroquinolones and it has activity against both bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The increased activity of gemifloxacin against both enzymes may be associated with decreased rates of resistance. Clinically, gemifloxacin has been shown to have positive effects on length of hospitalization and increased success at long-term follow-up in AECB patients. These associations were observed in noninferiority comparison studies. Although an advantage with the use of gemifloxacin in AECB is suggested, there are no comparison data is available to conclude that gemifloxacin is superior to the other respiratory fluoroquinolones. Gemifloxacin is generally well tolerated, but is associated with a characteristic rash and gastrointestinal upset as its most common observed side effects.Keywords: gemifloxacin, respiratory fluoroquinolones, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

  1. Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination for preventing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Edward; Lockhart, Kathleen; Purchuri, Sai Navya; Pushparajah, Jennifer; Cripps, Allan W; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-06-19

    Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people. However, they can cause opportunistic infection. An oral NTHi vaccine has been developed to protect against recurrent infective acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis. To assess the effectiveness of an oral, whole-cell NTHi vaccine in protecting against recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD in adults. To assess the effectiveness of NTHi vaccine in reducing NTHi colonising the respiratory tract during recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of COPD. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2017), Embase (1974 to January 2017), CINAHL (1981 to January 2017), LILACS (1985 to January 2017), and Web of Science (1955 to January 2017). We also searched trials registries and contacted authors of trials requesting unpublished data. We included randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of an oral monobacterial NTHi vaccine in adults with recurrent acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD when there was overt matching of the vaccine and placebo groups on clinical grounds. The selection criteria considered populations aged less than 65 years and those older than 65 years. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from original records and publications for incidence and severity of bronchitis episodes and carriage rate of

  2. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  3. [Keratitis - Infectious or Autoimmune?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, E M

    2016-07-01

    Histopathological evaluation of ocular tissues is important in differentiating between infectious and autoimmune disease. Inflammation, necrosis and keratolysis are common to most forms of keratitis. Histopathology can be of great help in identifying the causative organism, establishing a final diagnosis and/or managing the patient with herpes simplex virus keratitis, mycotic keratitis, acanthamoeba keratitis or microsporidia keratoconjunctivitis. Important pathogenetic knowledge with therapeutic relevance has been gained from histopathological studies in nummular keratitis after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Infectious abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcel, A.; Arrive, L.; Mehdi, M.; Monnier-Cholley, L.; Ayadi, K.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs

  6. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  7. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  8. Military-civilian cooperative emergency response to infectious disease prevention and control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Dong, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Na; Pu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence of severe infectious diseases has increased, and the number of emerging infectious diseases continues to increase. The Chinese government and military forces have paid a great deal of attention to infectious disease prevention and control, and using military-civilian cooperation, they have successfully prevented numerous severe epidemic situations, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza A (H1N1), avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9, and Ebola hemorrhagic fever, while actively maintained public health, economic development, and national construction. This paper focuses on the mechanisms of the military-cooperative emergency response to infectious diseases--the joint working mechanism, the information-sharing mechanism, the research collaboration mechanism, and the joint disposal mechanism--and presents a sorted summary of the practices and experiences of cooperative emergency responses to infectious diseases. In the future, the Chinese military and the civilian sector will further strengthen the cooperative joint command system and emergency rescue force and will reinforce their collaborative information-sharing platform and technical equipment system to further improve military-civilian collaborative emergency infectious diseases disposal, advance the level of infectious disease prevention and control, and maintain public health.

  9. International adoption: infectious diseases issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie C

    2005-01-15

    Nearly 220,000 children have been adopted from other countries by American parents since 1986. Approximately 65,000 children have arrived from China and Russia, mostly in the past 6 years. Most of these children reside in orphanages before adoption, where they may experience malnutrition, environmental deprivation, neglect, and exposure to infectious diseases. After arrival to the United States, international adoptees should undergo specialized screening evaluation for infectious diseases and other conditions. Infectious conditions of special concern include hepatitis B and C, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, tuberculosis, and presence of intestinal parasites. Before the adoption occurs, the infectious disease consultant may be asked to assist the primary care provider and the adoptive family with advice about travel and review of preadoptive medical records. After the adoption, the infectious diseases consultant may be asked to assess the adequacy of the child's vaccination record from the birth country and to assist in screening, evaluation, and management of infectious diseases.

  10. Evidence-Based Advances in Avian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-09-01

    This article presents relevant advances in avian medicine and surgery over the past 5 years. New information has been published to improve clinical diagnosis in avian diseases. This article also describes new pharmacokinetic studies. Advances in the understanding and treatment of common avian disorders are presented in this article, as well. Although important progress has been made over the past years, there is still much research that needs to be done regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of avian diseases and evidence-based information is still sparse in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  12. Urbanization and Daily Exposure to Biomass Fuel Smoke Both Contribute to Chronic Bronchitis Risk in a Population with Low Prevalence of Daily Tobacco Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Johnson, Caroline M; Diette, Gregory B; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors beyond tobacco smoking associated with chronic bronchitis are not well understood. We sought to describe the prevalence and risk factors of chronic bronchitis across four distinct settings in Peru with overall low prevalence of tobacco smoking yet varying degrees of urbanization, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and living at high altitude. We analyzed data of 2,947 participants from rural and urban Puno, Lima and Tumbes including spirometry, blood samples, anthropometry and administered questionnaires about respiratory symptoms. We used multivariable Poisson regression to assess biologic, socioeconomic and environmental risk factors associated with chronic bronchitis. Overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 5.9% (95%CI 5.1%-6.9%) with variation by setting: prevalence was lower in semi-urban Tumbes (1.3%) vs. highly urbanized Lima (8.9%), urban Puno (7.0%) and rural Puno (7.8%; p urbanization (PR = 3.34, 95%CI 2.18-5.11) and daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke (PR = 2.00, 95%CI 1.30-3.07) were all associated with chronic bronchitis. We found important variations in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis across settings. Prevalence increased with both urbanization and with daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke. Having chronic bronchitis was also associated with worse patient-centered outcomes including dyspnea, hospitalization and missed workdays.

  13. Urbanization and daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke both contribute to chronic bronchitis risk in a population with low prevalence of daily tobacco smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Johnson, Caroline M; Diette, Gregory B; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Objective Risk factors beyond tobacco smoking associated with chronic bronchitis are not well understood. We sought to describe the prevalence and risk factors of chronic bronchitis across four distinct settings in Peru with overall low prevalence of tobacco smoking yet varying degrees of urbanization, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and living at high altitude. Methods We analyzed data of 2,947 participants from rural and urban Puno, Lima and Tumbes including spirometry, blood samples, anthropometry and administered questionnaires about respiratory symptoms. We used multivariable Poisson regression to assess biologic, socioeconomic and environmental risk factors associated with chronic bronchitis. Results Overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 5.9% (95%CI 5.1%–6.9%) with variation by setting: prevalence was lower in semi-urban Tumbes (1.3%) vs. highly urbanized Lima (8.9%), urban Puno (7.0%) and rural Puno (7.8%; purbanization (PR=3.34, 95%CI 2.18–5.11) and daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke (PR=2.00, 95%CI 1.30–3.07) were all associated with chronic bronchitis. Conclusions We found important variations in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis across settings. Prevalence increased with both urbanization and with daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke. Having chronic bronchitis was also associated with worse patient-centered outcomes including dyspnea, hospitalization and missed workdays. PMID:26552585

  14. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  15. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Keith A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Atkinson, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  16. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  17. [Silicosis and industrial bronchitis by exposure to silica powders and cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Báez-Revueltas, Fabiola Berenice; López-Rojas, Pablo; Tovalín-Ahumada, José Horacio; Zamudio-Lara, José Othón; Marín-Cotoñieto, Irma Araceli; Villeda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    to identify the association between the exposure of workers to inorganic dust in a quarry and a cement factory and pulmonary diseases. a transverse study on data from 32 quarry workers (QWs) and 57 cement production line workers (CFWs) to inorganic-dust exposure was performed. Pulmonary function tests and chest X ray were done in both groups. there were differences between QWs and the CFWs; QWs were younger, shorter and thinner. The number of sick individuals might be considered significantly different, showing a smaller proportion on the cement production line. The quarry workers have been on the company for a shorter period of time and, in the end, they present more serious pulmonary problems with an average of 3 years working. the amount of free-silica that is managed on the quarry affects the workers in some way, even when literature states that the evolution of industrial bronchitis and silicosis have a period development of approximately 10 years.

  18. Clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic pneumonia in pneumoconiosis and dust bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shniger, N.U.; Blokhina, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical and radiologic symptomatology of chronic pneumonia is described for pneumoconiosis and chronic dust bronchitis. Combined X-ray methods of examination permit the physicians to discover this complication in dust diseases of the lungs in the presence of diffuse pneumosclerotic changes in 76.5+-3 % of cases. These data approach the values of chronic pneumonia incidence among the population. Chronic pneumonia diagnosis should be complex. If no less than 2 to 3 X-ray signs of the disease have been found simultaneously, the significance of radiologic diagnosis of chronic pneumonia in dust pathology of the lungs, rises. Radiologic examination, supported by clinical, anamnestic and laboratory data, allows one to differentiate chronic pneumonia from coniotuberculosis. Chest X-rays in dust pathology of the lungs, complicated by chronic pneumonia, should be carried out with regard to clinical indications

  19. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  20. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  1. Bovine and human-derived passive immunization could help slow a future avian influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of human transmitted avian influenza could have casualties on a scale seen in the great Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918. This paper proposes that should such occur before effective vaccines and antiviral drugs are available, the outbreak could be significantly slowed by consumption of raw milk produced by herds of pathogen-free lactating cows intranasally inoculated with heat-sterilized sputa pooled from avian influenza patients, supplemented by parenteral serum immune globulin from the same cows. Efficiency of bovine antibody production could be enhanced using cholera toxin subunit b, and milk production could be rapidly accelerated using recombinant bovine somatotropin hormone. In this way, it would be possible to quickly create and distribute large quantities of milk-based and serum-based passive immune globulin active against the strains of avian influenza present in a particular geographic area and gain time for production of human convalescent plasma and other public health measures. This novel approach might also have utility for other serious respiratory infectious diseases, including non-avian influenza, SARS, hantavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and pneumonia-causing Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. [Immediate and late results of rehabilitation at the climatic health resorts on the southern coast of the Crimea with sunlight- and meteorolabile patients with chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvionenko, I I; Sidorova, L D; Logvinenko, A S

    1988-01-01

    A study of the social, socioeconomic and economic indices of rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive and nonobstructive bronchitis has shown that one should take account of a degree of expression of heliometeolability when selecting patients with chronic bronchitis residing in West Siberia for climatic treatment in the Crimean South Coast. It has been shown that rehabilitation in the Crimean South Coast health resort area is advisable for heliometeostable patients and patients with mild and marked degrees of heliometeolability. Patients with chronic bronchitis should not be sent to the Crimea in winter and late autumn as the rehabilitation effect in this period is lowered.

  3. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  4. Infectious Disease (ID) Learning Unit:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Amanda A; Eisenberg, Mark P

    2017-01-01

    In the context of an escalating opioid epidemic, infectious disease clinicians increasingly treat the infectious complications of injection drug use. In this learning unit, we review the history, pharmacology, and clinical use of buprenorphine as maintenance therapy for opioid use disorder, and we describe the process by which clinicians can obtain a buprenorphine waiver.

  5. Seasonality, distribution and taxonomic status of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of a new species is based upon morphology of gametocyte development in the peripheral blood of the avian host. This does not distinguish between morphologically identical gametocytes from different avian host families, nor is species or family level a valid taxonomic character. Thus, Haemoproteus and ...

  6. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    The avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is a specialized structure located rather inaccessibly in an air sac close to the heart where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi. The syrinx of different avian taxa varies so much in position and morphology that it has been used for taxonomy. It...

  7. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  8. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governments in Southeast Asia have adopted a range of policies aimed at controlling the disease in animals, preventing its spread to humans and strengthening national preparedness for an avian influenza pandemic. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together national research agencies ...

  9. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  10. Genetic data provide evidence for wind-mediated transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypma, Rolf J F; Jonges, Marcel; Bataille, Arnaud; Stegeman, Arjan; Koch, Guus; van Boven, Michiel; Koopmans, Marion; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-03-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry can cause severe economic damage and represent a public health threat. Development of efficient containment measures requires an understanding of how these influenza viruses are transmitted between farms. However, the actual mechanisms of interfarm transmission are largely unknown. Dispersal of infectious material by wind has been suggested, but never demonstrated, as a possible cause of transmission between farms. Here we provide statistical evidence that the direction of spread of avian influenza A(H7N7) is correlated with the direction of wind at date of infection. Using detailed genetic and epidemiological data, we found the direction of spread by reconstructing the transmission tree for a large outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003. We conservatively estimate the contribution of a possible wind-mediated mechanism to the total amount of spread during this outbreak to be around 18%.

  11. Incidence of Avian Mycoplasmosis in the region of Batna, Eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmosis is infectious and contagious disease which affects chicken and turkey as well as many other species with many economics losses. The absence of data on avian mycoplasmosis in Algeria and the importance of the poultry breeding in Batna encouraged us to undertake the prevalence of the most pathogenic mycoplasmas in broiler and layer chickens in this area, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG. 143 Mycoplasmas were isolate from 237 samples, at a rate of 60.33%. MG was isolate at a rate of 21.67% (2.09% in layer hens and 19.58% in broiler chickens. The serological screening using of breedings showed a sensitivity of 83.10%. This study shows that mycoplasmosis and in particular MG infection, represent a serious problem in chickens in Algeria in the absence of hygiene conditions and vaccination especially. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 101-105

  12. THE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE MICROFLORA OF THE OROPHARYNX IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHITIS AND COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Medvedeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given a steady increase in the number of children with recurrent  respiratory tract infections, to develop methods of their rehabilitation, it is necessary to evaluate  factors of nonspecific resistance. Aim: To study metabolic activity of oropharyngeal microflora in children  with recurrent bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia, based on determination of spectrum  of shortchain fatty acids (SCFA. Materials and methods: This prospective  study included  60 children with recurrent  respiratory  tract  infections  aged  from 3 to 7 years, hospitalized  for inpatient  treatment of bronchitis  (n = 30 and pneumonia (n = 30. The oropharyngeal microflora was assessed by classical bacteriological  method (in mucosal smears; SCFA levels in non-stimulated saliva were measured by gas liquid chromatography. Results: There was no significant difference  in qualitative  and  quantitative composition  of the oropharyngeal microflora between children  with  bronchitis  and  pneumonia. However, assessment of metabolic  functions showed some significant differences. Children with   bronchitis  showed  signs of microflora hyperactivation  with total  SCFA production up  to  118.4% (mean from that of the reference range, with predominant activation of aerobic bacteria (anaerobic index 66.8%. In children with pneumonia, microflora was suppressed (68.13% of the normal range, the difference with the bronchitis group being significant, p < 0.05, with predominance of strictly anaerobic  bacteria (anaerobic index 110.35% from the normal range, p < 0.05. Children with recurrent respiratory tract infections had the following common characteristics: prevalence  of bacterial proteolysis (70% of patients and butyric acid deficiency (63% from the normal level in bronchitis and 33%, in pneumonia, p > 0.05. Conclusion: The data obtained could be used to make a decision on the necessity of antibacterial therapy.

  13. Vector movement underlies avian malaria at upper elevation in Hawaii: implications for transmission of human malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Leonard A; Cann, Rebecca L

    2013-11-01

    With climate warming, malaria in humans and birds at upper elevations is an emerging infectious disease because development of the parasite in the mosquito vector and vector life history are both temperature dependent. An enhanced-mosquito-movement model from climate warming predicts increased transmission of malaria at upper elevation sites that are too cool for parasite development in the mosquito vector. We evaluate this model with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) at 1,900-m elevation on the Island of Hawaii, with air temperatures too low for sporogony in the vector (Culex quinquefasciatus). On a well-defined site over a 14-year period, 10 of 14 species of native and introduced birds became infected, several epizootics occurred, and the increase in prevalence was driven more by resident species than by mobile species that could have acquired their infections at lower elevations. Greater movement of infectious mosquitoes from lower elevations now permits avian malaria to spread at 1,900 m in Hawaii, in advance of climate warming at that elevation. The increase in malaria at upper elevations due to dispersal of infectious mosquitoes is a real alternative to temperature for the increased incidence of human malaria in tropical highlands.

  14. The spread of non-OIE-listed avian diseases through international trade of chicken meat: an assessment of the risks to New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, S P; Smith, H

    2015-12-01

    Twelve avian diseases are listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), although more than 100 infectious diseases have been described in commercial poultry. This article summarises a recent assessment of the biosecurity risks posed by non-listed avian diseases associated with imports of chilled or frozen chicken meat and meat products into New Zealand. Following the guidelines described in Chapter 2.1 of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, avian adenovirus splenomegaly virus, avian paramyxovirus-2 (APMV-2), Bordetella avium, Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma spp., Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Salmonella arizonae have been identified as hazards. However, of all the non-listed avian diseases discussed here, only APMV-2 and S. arizonae are assessed as being risks associated with the commercial import of chicken meat into New Zealand. Specific control measures may have to be implemented to mitigate such risks. This conclusion is likely to reflect both the high-health status of New Zealand poultry and the threat posed by these infectious agents to New Zealand's unique population of native psittacine species.

  15. Malarial birds: modeling infectious human disease in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leo B

    2005-01-01

    Through the examination of avian malarias as models of infectious human disease, this paper reveals the kinds of claims that scientists and physicians made on the basis of animal models-biological systems in the laboratory and the field-and what characteristics made for congruence between these models and human malaria. The focus is on the period between 1895 and 1945, and on the genesis and trajectory of certain animal models of malaria within specific locations, such as the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore and Bayer (I. G. Farben) in Elberfeld. These exemplars illustrate a diversity of approaches to malaria-as-disease, and the difficulties of framing aspects of this disease complex within an animal or laboratory system. The diversity and nearness to wild types of the birds, protozoan parasites, and mosquitoes that made up these malaria models contributed a great deal to the complexity of the models. Avian malarias, adopted with enthusiasm, were essential to the success of the U.S. antimalarial program during World War II.

  16. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  17. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  18. Equine infectious anemia virus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua-Nan; Rao, Dan; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Hu, Ming-Ming; Dong, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia is an equine disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus, which was first reported in 1840. Equine infectious anemia virus research in China started in the 1960s, focusing on etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and immunology. Notably, in 1978 an attenuated vaccine was successfully developed for equine infectious anemia virus, effectively preventing equine infectious anemia virus in China. This article will review equine infectious anemia virus in China, including pa...

  19. Microparticles and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabranche, X; Berger, A; Boisramé-Helms, J; Meziani, F

    2012-08-01

    Membrane shedding with microvesicle (MV) release after membrane budding due to cell stimulation is a highly conserved intercellular interplay. MV can be released by micro-organisms or by host cells in the course of infectious diseases. Host MVs are divided according to cell compartment origin in microparticles (MPs) from plasma membrane and exosomes from intracellular membranes. MPs are cell fragments resulting from plasma membrane reorganization characterized by phosphatidylserine (PhtdSer) content and parental cell antigens on membrane. The role of MPs in physiology and pathophysiology is not yet well elucidated; they are a pool of bioactive molecules able to transmit a pro-inflammatory message to neighboring or target cells. The first acknowledged function of MP was the dissemination of a procoagulant potential via PhtdSer and it is now obvious than MPs bear tissue factor (TF). Such MPs have been implicated in the coagulation disorders observed during sepsis and septic shock. MPs have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac dysfunction in experimental sepsis. Beside a non-specific role, pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis and Ebola Virus can specifically activate blood coagulation after TF-bearing MPs release in the bloodstream with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and Purpura fulminans. The role of MPs in host-pathogen interactions is also fundamental in Chagas disease, where MPs could allow immune evasion by inhibiting C3 convertase. During cerebral malaria, MPs play a complex role facilitating the activation of brain endothelium that contributes to amplify vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes. Phagocytosis of HIV induced MPs expressing PhtdSer by monocytes/macrophages results in cellular infection and non-inflammatory response via up-regulation of TGF-β. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic burden of chronic bronchitis in the United States: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Blanchette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Christopher M Blanchette1, Melissa H Roberts1, Hans Petersen1, Anand A Dalal2, Douglas W Mapel31Division of Clinical and Outcomes Research, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC, USA; 2US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Albuquerque, NM, USABackground: Chronic bronchitis (CB is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed at a later stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We examined how this later diagnosis may impact health care costs and utilization during the 12 months prior to and 24 months post initial CB diagnosis.Methods: This retrospective case-control analysis used claims data from a large US database from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2007. Patients with CB aged 40 years and older were propensity matched (N = 11,674 to patients without evidence of COPD or asthma by demographics, CB diagnosis quarter/year, and comorbidities. Group differences were assessed using Student's t-test and Pearson chi-square test statistics.Results: Six months prediagnosis, CB patients had higher frequencies of any hospitalization (9.6%, 6.7%; P < 0.05, emergency department/urgent care visits (13.3%, 6.7%; P < 0.05, and prescriptions (97.3%, 94.1%; P < 0.05. Six months postdiagnosis, CB patients had 5.6 times more hospitalizations (P < 0.05 and 3.1 times more emergency department/urgent care visits (P < 0.05 compared with controls. Mean total costs (US$ for CB patients 12 months prediagnosis were significantly higher than controls (months 12–7: $4212, $3826; P < 0.05; months 6–1: $5289, $4285; P < 0.05. CB patients had higher mean total costs ($8919; P < 0.05 6 months postdiagnosis. Costs remained $2429 higher for CB patients 19–24 months postdiagnosis (P < 0.05.Conclusion: Health care costs and utilization among CB patients are increased both prior to diagnosis and during the 2 years postdiagnosis. This study suggests that not accurately diagnosing CB early has a

  1. Geo-climatic heterogeneity in self-reported asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic bronchitis in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesce, G., E-mail: giancarlo.pesce@univr.it [Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Bugiani, M. [Unit of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, CPA-ASL TO-2, Turin (Italy); Marcon, A.; Marchetti, P. [Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Carosso, A. [Unit of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, CPA-ASL TO-2, Turin (Italy); Accordini, S. [Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Antonicelli, L. [Dept of Internal Medicine, Immuno-Allergic and Respiratory Diseases, Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, Ancona (Italy); Cogliani, E. [Casaccia Research Centre, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Substainable Economic Development (ENEA), Rome (Italy); Pirina, P. [Institute of Respiratory Diseases, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Pocetta, G. [Dept of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Spinelli, F. [Casaccia Research Centre, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Substainable Economic Development (ENEA), Rome (Italy); Villani, S. [Dept of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Marco, R. de [Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Background: Several studies highlighted a great variability, both between and within countries, in the prevalence of asthma and chronic airways diseases. Aim: To evaluate if geo-climatic variations can explain the heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma and respiratory diseases in Italy. Methods: Between 2006 and 2010, a postal screening questionnaire on respiratory health was administered to 18,357 randomly selected subjects, aged 20–44, living in 7 centers in northern, central, and southern Italy. A random-effects meta-analysis was fitted to evaluate the between-centers heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma, asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and chronic bronchitis (CB). A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to synthetize the geo-climatic information (annual mean temperature, range of temperature, annual rainfalls, global solar radiations, altitude, distance from the sea) of all the 110 Italian province capital towns. The associations between these geo-climatic components obtained with PCA and the prevalence of respiratory diseases were analyzed through meta-regression models. Results: 10,464 (57%) subjects responded to the questionnaire. There was a significant between-centers heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma (I{sup 2} = 59.5%, p = 0.022) and CB (I{sup 2} = 60.5%, p = 0.019), but not in that of asthma-like symptoms or allergic rhinitis. Two independent geo-climatic components explaining together about 80% of the overall geo-climatic variability were identified: the first principally summarized the climatic variables; the second the topographic ones. Variations in the prevalence of asthma across centers were significantly associated with differences in the climatic component (p = 0.017), but not with differences in the topographic one. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that climate play a role in determining the between-center heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma in Italy, with higher prevalence in dry-hot Mediterranean

  2. Genetic applications in avian conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  3. Avian Respiratory Coinfection and Impact on Avian Influenza Pathogenicity in Domestic Poultry: Field and Experimental Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ahmed; Naguib, Mahmoud M

    2018-02-24

    The avian respiratory system hosts a wide range of commensal and potential pathogenic bacteria and/or viruses that interact with each other. Such interactions could be either synergistic or antagonistic, which subsequently determines the severity of the disease complex. The intensive rearing methods of poultry are responsible for the marked increase in avian respiratory diseases worldwide. The interaction between avian influenza with other pathogens can guarantee the continuous existence of other avian pathogens, which represents a global concern. A better understanding of the impact of the interaction between avian influenza virus and other avian respiratory pathogens provides a better insight into the respiratory disease complex in poultry and can lead to improved intervention strategies aimed at controlling virus spread.

  4. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  5. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert; Thuny, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use....... infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested....

  6. Seroevidence for a High Prevalence of Subclinical Infection With Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Among Workers in a Live-Poultry Market in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazufumi; Wulandari, Laksmi; Poetranto, Emmanuel D; Setyoningrum, Retno A; Yudhawati, Resti; Sholikhah, Amelia; Nastri, Aldise M; Poetranto, Anna L; Candra, Adithya Y R; Puruhito, Edith F; Takahara, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Yoshiaki; Yamaoka, Masaoki; Hotta, Hak; Ustumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I; Soetjipto; Shimizu, Yohko K; Soegiarto, Gatot; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-12-15

     In Indonesia, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus has become endemic in poultry and has caused sporadic deadly infections in human. Since 2012, we have conducted fixed-point surveillance of avian influenza viruses at a live-poultry market in East Java, Indonesia. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection among market workers.  Sera were collected from 101 workers in early 2014 and examined for antibody activity against avian A(H5N1) Eurasian lineage virus by a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay.  By the HI assay, 84% of the sera tested positive for antibody activity against the avian virus. Further analysis revealed that the average HI titer in 2014 was 2.9-fold higher than in 2012 and that seroconversion occurred in 44% of paired sera (11 of 25) between 2012 and 2014. A medical history survey was performed in 2016; responses to questionnaires indicated that none of workers had had severe acute respiratory illness during 2013.  This study provides evidence of a high prevalence of avian A(H5N1) virus infection in 2013 among workers at a live-poultry market. However, because no instances of hospitalizations were reported, we can conclude the virus did not manifest any clinical symptoms in workers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Environmental exposure as an independent risk factor of chronic bronchitis in northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pentti; Panychev, Dmitry; Lyalyushkin, Sergei; Komarov, German; Nikanov, Alexander; Borisenko, Mark; Kinnula, Vuokko L; Toljamo, Tuula

    2013-01-01

    In some parts of the northwest Russia, Murmansk region, high exposures to heavy mining and refining industrial air pollution, especially sulphur dioxide, have been documented. Our aim was to evaluate whether living in the mining area would be an independent risk factor of the respiratory symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 200 Murmansk region adult citizens was performed. The main outcome variable was prolonged cough with sputum production that fulfilled the criteria of chronic bronchitis. Of the 200 participants, 53 (26.5%) stated that they had experienced chronic cough with phlegm during the last 2 years. The prevalence was higher among those subjects living in the mining area with its high pollution compared to those living outside this region (35% vs. 18%). Multivariable regression model confirmed that the risk for the chronic cough with sputum production was elevated in a statistical significant manner in the mining and refining area (adjusted OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.07-4.35) after adjustment for smoking status, age and sex. The increased level of sulphur dioxide emitted during nickel mining and refining may explain these adverse health effects. This information is important for medical authorities when they make recommendations and issue guidelines regarding the relationship between environmental pollution and health outcomes.

  8. Environmental exposure as an independent risk factor of chronic bronchitis in northwest Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Toljamo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In some parts of the northwest Russia, Murmansk region, high exposures to heavy mining and refining industrial air pollution, especially sulphur dioxide, have been documented. Objective. Our aim was to evaluate whether living in the mining area would be an independent risk factor of the respiratory symptoms. Design. A cross-sectional survey of 200 Murmansk region adult citizens was performed. The main outcome variable was prolonged cough with sputum production that fulfilled the criteria of chronic bronchitis. Results. Of the 200 participants, 53 (26.5% stated that they had experienced chronic cough with phlegm during the last 2 years. The prevalence was higher among those subjects living in the mining area with its high pollution compared to those living outside this region (35% vs. 18%. Multivariable regression model confirmed that the risk for the chronic cough with sputum production was elevated in a statistical significant manner in the mining and refining area (adjusted OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.07–4.35 after adjustment for smoking status, age and sex. Conclusions. The increased level of sulphur dioxide emitted during nickel mining and refining may explain these adverse health effects. This information is important for medical authorities when they make recommendations and issue guidelines regarding the relationship between environmental pollution and health outcomes.

  9. ChronicPseudomonas aeruginosainfection-induced chronic bronchitis and emphysematous changes in CCSP-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takemasa; Fujita, Masaki; Hirano, Ryosuke; Uchino, Junji; Tajiri, Yukari; Fukuyama, Satoru; Morimoto, Yasuo; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    The club cell secretory protein (CCSP) is a regulator of lung inflammation following acute respiratory infection or lung injury. Recently, the relationship between CCSP and COPD has been reported. Since COPD results from an abnormal inflammatory response, we hypothesized that CCSP could have a protective role against chronic inflammation-induced lung damage. To address this issue, the pathophysiology of chronic lung inflammation induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in CCSP-deficient mice was determined. A tube of 5 mm in length was soaked in a fluid containing P. aeruginosa (PAO01 strain) for 1 week and inserted into the trachea of CCSP-deficient mice. One week later, P. aeruginosa was administered into the trachea. Five weeks after insertion of tube, the mice were sacrificed. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were collected to determine the bacterial growth, and the lung histology and physiology were also examined. P. aeruginosa was continuously detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during the study. Neutrophils were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from the CCSP-deficient mice in comparison to wild-type mice. A histological study demonstrated chronic inflammation around bronchus, serious bronchial stenosis, and alveolar enlargement in the CCSP-deficient mice. The lung physiology study demonstrated an increase in the lung compliance of the CCSP-deficient mice. Chronic P. aeruginosa inflammation resulted in chronic bronchitis and emphysematous changes in the CCSP-deficient mice. CCSP could play an important role in protecting the host from the chronic inflammation-induced lung damage.

  10. [Can obstructive bronchitis be a risk factor of bronchial asthma in infants and small children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowska, Joanna; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława

    2009-01-01

    One of more frequent reasons for hospitalizations concerning infants and small children are obstructive bronchitis. Great prevalence of bronchial tree obturation during infancy and in small children is a result of anatomical and functional differences of airways and immunological differences that occur in infants and small children. The most frequent cause of bronchial tree obturation is infection induced by viruses, rarely by bacteria. Recurrences of bronchial tree obturation are observed in some patients. Obturation recurrences can be caused by number of diseases that appear during infancy and in small children, for example cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Also the presence of foreign body in the airways, immotile cilia syndrome, immunological disturbances, innate anomalies of the respiratory system and the circulatory system and bronchial asthma can result in obturation recurrences. Various clinical criteria are established and new markers of allergic inflammation are searched in view of difficulties to diagnose bronchial asthma in the youngest children. There are no unequivocal rules to diagnose bronchial asthma in infants and small children despite these searches.

  11. A Patient with Bronchial Asthma in Whom Eosinophilic Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis Developed during Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutsugu Fukushima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of dyspnea, wheezing, and a productive cough. Eight years before presentation, bronchial asthma was diagnosed and the patient received inhaled corticosteroids plus antiasthmatic agents (a long-acting inhaled p2-agonist, leukotriene modifiers, and theophylline. Chest radiography showed small diffuse nodular shadows, and a computed tomographic scan showed thickening of the bronchi and bronchioles, with diffuse centrilobular nodules in both lung fields. A blood test and microscopic examination of the bronchoalveolar fluid revealed marked eosinophilia. Transbronchial lung biopsy and transbronchial biopsy showed eosinophilic bronchitis and bronchiolitis. After treatment with oral prednisolone (40 mg daily and inhaled corticosteroids, the symptoms, blood eosinophilia, and radiographic findings improved. Recently, several similar cases of eosinophilic bronchiolitis have been reported. Studies of further cases and elucidation of the pathophysiology of eosinophilic bronchiolitis are necessary to establish a concept for this disease and to determine whether it should be classified as a subtype of bronchial asthma or as a distinct entity.

  12. Lung scintigraphy in the assessment of recurrent bronchitis and pneumonia in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciofetta, G. [Second Pediatric Clinic, Rome (Italy). Lab. of Pediatric Nuclear Medicine

    1997-12-01

    Recurrent bronchitis and pneumonia in childhood are a significant factor in predisposing adults to chronic respiratory disease. Lung scintigraphy in children with recurrent respiratory problems very frequently shows regional abnormalities, even in the absence of radiological sings. Structural changes, also at the histological level, are accompanied bu functional disturbances that cause lung scan abnormalities to become stable with time and are very likely responsible for persisting disease in adulthood. Moreover, any chronic respiratory condition that has been diagnosed,like cystic-fibrosis, bronchiectasis, bronchopulmonary malformations, lung fibrosis, should be assessed and followed-up by means of lung scintigraphy. Suspected radio transparent foreign-body inhalation, radiographical hypernucleus (compensatory or pathological emphysema?), functional assessment before lung surgery, suspected mucociliary function impairment, suspected interstitial pneumonia, all of the above conditions represent important indications to lung scintigraphy in children. Finally, it is wise pointing out that, in order to avoid false positive results towards the diagnosis of structural disease, any easily reversible functional impairment should be removed before the scan, by proper patient preparation: in children this is done by at least aerosol therapy with beta-agonists, local steroids and mucolytics for 1 week - 10 days.

  13. Environmental exposure as an independent risk factor of chronic bronchitis in northwest Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pentti; Panychev, Dmitry; Lyalyushkin, Sergei; Komarov, German; Nikanov, Alexander; Borisenko, Mark; Kinnula, Vuokko L.; Toljamo, Tuula

    2013-01-01

    Background In some parts of the northwest Russia, Murmansk region, high exposures to heavy mining and refining industrial air pollution, especially sulphur dioxide, have been documented. Objective Our aim was to evaluate whether living in the mining area would be an independent risk factor of the respiratory symptoms. Design A cross-sectional survey of 200 Murmansk region adult citizens was performed. The main outcome variable was prolonged cough with sputum production that fulfilled the criteria of chronic bronchitis. Results Of the 200 participants, 53 (26.5%) stated that they had experienced chronic cough with phlegm during the last 2 years. The prevalence was higher among those subjects living in the mining area with its high pollution compared to those living outside this region (35% vs. 18%). Multivariable regression model confirmed that the risk for the chronic cough with sputum production was elevated in a statistical significant manner in the mining and refining area (adjusted OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.07–4.35) after adjustment for smoking status, age and sex. Conclusions The increased level of sulphur dioxide emitted during nickel mining and refining may explain these adverse health effects. This information is important for medical authorities when they make recommendations and issue guidelines regarding the relationship between environmental pollution and health outcomes. PMID:23440671

  14. Sputum colour and bacteria in chronic bronchitis exacerbations: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Kruesmann, Frank; Haverstock, Daniel; Perroncel, Renee; Choudhri, Shurjeel H; Arvis, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    We examined the correlation between sputum colour and the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs). Data were pooled from six multicentre studies comparing moxifloxacin with other antimicrobials in patients with an AECB. Sputum was collected before antimicrobial therapy, and bacteria were identified by culture and Gram staining. Association between sputum colour and bacteria was determined using logistic regression. Of 4,089 sputum samples, a colour was reported in 4,003; 1,898 (46.4%) were culture-positive. Green or yellow sputum samples were most likely to yield bacteria (58.9% and 45.5% of samples, respectively), compared with 18% of clear and 39% of rust-coloured samples positive for potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Factors predicting a positive culture were sputum colour (the strongest predictor), sputum purulence, increased dyspnoea, male sex and absence of fever. Green or yellow versus white sputum colour was associated with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 15% for the presence of bacteria. Sputum colour, particularly green and yellow, was a stronger predictor of potentially pathogenic bacteria than sputum purulence and increased dyspnoea in AECB patients. However, it does not necessarily predict the need for antibiotic treatment in all patients with AECB.

  15. Increased incidence of allergic rhinitis, bronchitis and asthma, in children living near a petrochemical complex with SO2pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tzu-Ying; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Chen-Fang; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate incidence of allergic rhinitis, bronchitis and asthma, in children living near a petrochemical complex with SO 2 pollution obtained by air monitoring stations. A total of 587 children aged 11 to 14 were recruited and classified into high and low exposure groups based on a radius of 10km from the complex. To study the influence of health on children since the operation of complex in 1999 and observe the difference of these diseases' short-term and long-term impact, we obtained the incidence rates of allergic rhinitis (ICD-9: 477), bronchitis (490-491) and asthma (493) from the Taiwan Health Insurance Database for three periods: 1999-2002, 1999-2006, and 1999-2010. Since 2001, the mean and 99th percentile of SO 2 concentrations in the high exposure area have been significantly higher than those in low exposure area. There were significant differences between the high and low exposure groups in the percentage of smoking, alcohol consumption, passive smoking exposure and incense burning habits. The incidence rates of three intervals were 26.9%, 35.7%, 41.7%; 8.3%, 8.8%, 10.2%; 18.5%, 25.0%, 26.9% for allergic rhinitis, bronchitis and asthma in high exposure group. Significant differences were found between groups for allergic rhinitis in all periods, bronchitis in the first two periods, and asthma in the first period using Student's t-test. After we adjusted age, gender, group, living near roads, incense burning and passive smoking exposure, the hazard ratios between exposure groups were 3.05, 2.74, and 1.93 for allergic rhinitis with significant difference in three periods, and 2.53, 1.92 and 1.72 for bronchitis with significant difference in first period and 1.60, 1.28 and 1.29 for asthma with significant difference in first period by Cox regression. The higher incidence of allergic rhinitis was related to boys and living near roads and the higher incidence of asthma was also related to younger children, boys, and passive smoking

  16. PENYEBAB INFEKSI AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1 DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Endah Pracoyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza A (H5N1 is an acute respiratory disease caused by a virus. In Indonesia known as "Flu Burung". This virus is very dangerous that can cause death, and it is the most infectious agent. This disease had spread all over the world as well as in Indonesia. The spread of Avian Influenza A (H5N1 virus started when an out break occurred in poultry in August 2003. The first human case was occurred in July 2005 in Tangerang municipality and then followed by another 8 provinces. Until December 2008 the total cases raised up to 139 people with 113 people of them were died. The purpose of this research was to understand risk factors connected to Avian Influenza A H5N1 occurrence in Indonesia. The research was taken place in the referral hospitals and in about 100 m radius around the place of cases. The study design was case control method with 60 respondents of the cases and 120 respondents of controls and then their age were matched into group with ages <12 year and > 12 year. Measuring instruments was used questionnaires and the result was rechecked with the result of laboratory tests with Elisa test and RT- PCR. All respondents must fill questionnaires which contains questions which deal with the occurrence of Avian Influenza A H5N1. The study result showed that environment variables were not significantly different occurrence of cases, the risk factors P value was 0.057 and the Odd ratio was 2.357. While respondents on contacts with sudden death of poultry had significantly different from their risk factors to the occurrence of cases, p value was < 0.001 and Odd Ratio was 72.6. From this research, it can be assumed that contact with sudden death poultry has risk factors of occurrence of Avian influenza A H5N1 72.6 times, compared to the controls. This research result was expected to give on input to the health program policy makers for improving control measures of Avian Influenza A H5N1 disease in Indonesia. Further more, for medical

  17. Dilemmas of securitization and health risk management in the People's Republic of China: the cases of SARS and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishnick, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Since the SARS epidemic in 2003, the international community has urged Chinese leaders to do more to address infectious diseases. This paper looks at two cases in which the Chinese government securitized infectious disease (SARS and avian influenza) and examines the pros and cons of securitization. It is argued that the reactive mobilization involved in a securitizing move runs counter to the preventive risk management strategy needed to address infectious diseases. Although the Copenhagen School favours desecuritization as a return to normal practices, in the Chinese cases desecuritizing moves proved detrimental, involving cover-ups and restrictions on activists pressing for greater information. The article begins by examining the contributions of the Copenhagen School and sociological theories of risk to conceptualizing the security challenges that pandemics pose. Although analysis of the cases of SARS and avian influenza gives credence to criticisms of this approach, securitization theory proves useful in outlining the different stages in China's reaction to epidemics involving reactive mobilization and subsequent efforts to return to politics as usual. The second section examines securitizing and desecuritizing moves in Chinese responses to SARS and avian influenza. Each case study concludes with an assessment of the consequences for health risk management in China. The reactive mobilization implicit in Chinese securitization moves in the two cases is contrasted with the preventive logic of risk management. A third section draws out the implications of these cases for theories of securitization and risk. It is argued here that when securitization has occurred, risk management has failed. Although Copenhagen School theorists see the return to politics as usual-what they call 'desecuritization'-as optimal, this turns out to be far from the case in China during SARS and avian influenza, where the process involved retribution against whistleblowers and new

  18. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  19. Exposure to cooking oil fumes and chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women aged 40 years and over: a health-care based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huang-Chi; Wu, Chia-Fang; Chong, Inn-Wen; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2018-02-13

    Little is known about the effect of exposure to cooking oil fumes (COFs) on the development of non-malignant respiratory diseases in nonsmoking women. This study investigated the relationship between exposure to COFs and chronic bronchitis in female Taiwanese non-smokers. Searching the 1999 claims and registration records maintained by Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program, we identified 1846 women aged 40 years or older diagnosed as having chronic bronchitis (ICD-9 code: 491) at least twice in 1999 as potential study cases and 4624 women who had no diagnosis of chronic bronchitis the same year as potential study controls. We visited randomly selected women from each group in their homes, interviewed to collect related data including cooking habits and kitchen characteristics, and them a spirometry to collect FEV1 and FVC data between 2000 and 2009. After the exclusion of thirty smokers, the women were classified those with chronic bronchitis (n = 53), probable chronic bronchitis (n = 285), and no pulmonary disease (n = 306) based on physician diagnosis and American Thoracic Society criteria. Women who had cooked ≥ 21 times per week between the ages of 20 and 40 years old had a 4.73-fold higher risk of chronic bronchitis than those cooking kitchen smokiness was significantly associated with decreased FEV1 (- 137 ml, p = 0.021) and FEV1/FVC ratio (- 7.67%, p = 0.008). Exposure to COF may exacerbate the progression of chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women.

  20. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  1. Crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune responses to infectious bronchitis virus after vaccination and challenge of chickens varying in serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, Helle R.; Norup, Liselotte R.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a C-type collectin with structural similarities to C1q, is an innate pattern-recognition molecule that is sequestered to sites of inflammation and infections. MBL selectively binds distinct chemical patterns, including carbohydrates expressed on all kinds of pathogen...

  2. Equine infectious anemia virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Nan; Rao, Dan; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Hu, Ming-Ming; Dong, Jian-Guo

    2018-01-02

    Equine infectious anemia is an equine disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus, which was first reported in 1840. Equine infectious anemia virus research in China started in the 1960s, focusing on etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and immunology. Notably, in 1978 an attenuated vaccine was successfully developed for equine infectious anemia virus, effectively preventing equine infectious anemia virus in China. This article will review equine infectious anemia virus in China, including past and recent research, and commemorate scientists who have made great contributions to equine infectious anemia virus prevention.

  3. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  4. Infectious disease risks in xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jay A

    2018-03-07

    Hurdles exist to clinical xenotransplantation including potential infectious transmission from nonhuman species to xenograft recipients. In anticipation of clinical trials of xenotransplantation, the associated infectious risks have been investigated. Swine and immunocompromised humans share some potential pathogens. Swine herpesviruses including porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV) are largely species-specific and do not, generally, infect human cells. Human cellular receptors exist for porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), which infects certain human-derived cell lines in vitro. PERV-inactivated pigs have been produced recently. Human infection due to PERV has not been described. A screening paradigm can be applied to exclude potential human pathogens from "designated pathogen free" breeding colonies. Various microbiological assays have been developed for screening and diagnosis including antibody-based tests and qualitative and quantitative molecular assays for viruses. Additional assays may be required to diagnose pig-specific organisms in human xenograft recipients. Significant progress has been made in the evaluation of the potential infectious risks of clinical xenotransplantation. Infectious risk would be amplified by intensive immunosuppression. The available data suggest that risks of xenotransplant-associated recipient infection are manageable and that clinical trials can be performed safely. Possible infectious risks of xenotransplantation to the community at large are undefined but merit consideration. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Novel infectious agents causing uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairallah, Moncef; Chee, Soon Phaik; Rathinam, Sivakumar R; Attia, Sonia; Nadella, Venu

    2010-10-01

    In any patient with uveitis, an infectious cause should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinician should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular manifestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, Dengue fever, and Chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help establish an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  6. Avian phenotypic traits related to feeding preferences in two Culex mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiayue; Gangoso, Laura; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2017-10-01

    Host choice by mosquitoes affects the transmission dynamics of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although asymmetries in mosquito attraction to vertebrate species have been reported, the relative importance of host characteristics in mosquito blood-feeding behavior is still poorly studied. Here, we investigate the relationship between avian phenotypic traits—in particular, morphometry, plumage coloration, and nesting and roosting behavior—and the blood-feeding patterns in two common Culex mosquito species on a North American avian community. Forage ratios of the mosquito species were unrelated to the phylogenetic relationships among bird species. Culex pipiens fed preferably on birds with lighter-colored plumage and longer tarsi; furthermore, solitary roosting avian species were both bitten by Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans more often than expected. These associations may be explained by greater mosquito attraction towards larger birds with a greater color contrast against the background. Although communally roosting birds may release more cues and attract more mosquitoes, individuals may in fact receive fewer bites due to the encounter-dilution effect. Mosquito feeding behavior is a highly complex phenomenon, and our results may improve understanding of the non-random interaction between birds and mosquitoes in natural communities.

  7. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  8. Geo-climatic heterogeneity in self-reported asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic bronchitis in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, G; Bugiani, M; Marcon, A; Marchetti, P; Carosso, A; Accordini, S; Antonicelli, L; Cogliani, E; Pirina, P; Pocetta, G; Spinelli, F; Villani, S; de Marco, R

    2016-02-15

    Several studies highlighted a great variability, both between and within countries, in the prevalence of asthma and chronic airways diseases. To evaluate if geo-climatic variations can explain the heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma and respiratory diseases in Italy. Between 2006 and 2010, a postal screening questionnaire on respiratory health was administered to 18,357 randomly selected subjects, aged 20-44, living in 7 centers in northern, central, and southern Italy. A random-effects meta-analysis was fitted to evaluate the between-centers heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma, asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and chronic bronchitis (CB). A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to synthetize the geo-climatic information (annual mean temperature, range of temperature, annual rainfalls, global solar radiations, altitude, distance from the sea) of all the 110 Italian province capital towns. The associations between these geo-climatic components obtained with PCA and the prevalence of respiratory diseases were analyzed through meta-regression models. 10,464 (57%) subjects responded to the questionnaire. There was a significant between-centers heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma (I(2)=59.5%, p=0.022) and CB (I(2)=60.5%, p=0.019), but not in that of asthma-like symptoms or allergic rhinitis. Two independent geo-climatic components explaining together about 80% of the overall geo-climatic variability were identified: the first principally summarized the climatic variables; the second the topographic ones. Variations in the prevalence of asthma across centers were significantly associated with differences in the climatic component (p=0.017), but not with differences in the topographic one. Our findings suggest that climate play a role in determining the between-center heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma in Italy, with higher prevalence in dry-hot Mediterranean climates, and lower in rainy-cold northern climates. Copyright © 2015

  9. Diverging trends of chronic bronchitis and smoking habits between 1998 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accordini Simone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No study has been carried out on the time trend in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB in recent years, despite its clinical and epidemiological relevance. We evaluated the trend in CB prevalence during the past decade among young Italian adults. Methods A screening questionnaire was mailed to general population samples of 20–44 year-old subjects in two cross-sectional surveys: the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA (1998/2000; n = 18,873, 9 centres and the screening stage of the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study (2007/2010; n = 10,494, 7 centres. CB was defined as having cough and phlegm on most days for a minimum of 3 months a year and for at least 2 successive years. The prevalence rates and the risk ratios (RRs for the association between CB and each potential predictor were adjusted for gender, age, season of response, type of contact, cumulative response rate, and centre. Results CB prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 12.1-12.9% in 1998/2000 and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.7-13.7% in 2007/2010; it increased among never smokers (from 7.6 to 9.1%, p = 0.003, current light smokers ( Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in current smoking, CB prevalence did not vary among young Italian adults. The temporal pattern of CB prevalence can only be partly explained by the increase of unemployment/premature retirement, asthma and allergic rhinitis, and suggests that other factors could have played a role.

  10. Echocardiographic characteristics in Fontan patients before the onset of protein-losing enteropathy or plastic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bois, Florian; Stiller, Brigitte; Borth-Bruhns, Thomas; Unseld, Bettina; Kubicki, Rouven; Hoehn, René; Reineker, Katja; Grohmann, Jochen; Fleck, Thilo

    2018-01-01

    It was this study's objective to evaluate the echocardiographic characteristics and flow patterns in abdominal arteries of Fontan patients before the onset of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) or plastic bronchitis (PB). In this retrospective cohort investigation, we examined 170 Fontan patients from 32 different centers who had undergone echocardiographic and Doppler ultrasound examinations between June 2006 and May 2013. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by 105 patients a median of 5.3 (1.5-8.5) years later to evaluate whether one of the complications had occurred since the examinations. A total of 91 patients never developed PLE or PB ("non-PLE/PB"); they were compared to 14 affected patients. Eight of the 14 patients had already been diagnosed with "present PLE/PB" when examined. Six "future PLE/PB" patients developed those complications later on and were identified on follow-up. The "future PLE/PB" patients presented significantly slower diastolic flow velocities in the celiac artery (0.1 (0.1-0.5) m/s vs 0.3 (0.1-1.0) m/s (P = .04) and in the superior mesenteric artery (0.0 (0.0-0.2) m/s vs 0.2 (0.0-0.6) m/s, P = .02) than the "non-PLE/PB" group. Median resistance indices in the celiac artery were significantly higher (0.9 (0.8-0.9) m/s vs 0.8 (0.6-0.9) m/s, (P = .01)) even before the onset of PLE or PB. An elevated flow resistance in the celiac artery may prevail in Fontan patients before the clinical manifestation of PLE or PB. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The impact of persistent bacterial bronchitis on the pulmonary microbiome of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Cuthbertson

    Full Text Available Persistent bacterial bronchitis (PBB is a leading cause of chronic wet cough in young children. This study aimed to characterise the respiratory bacterial microbiota of healthy children and to assess the impact of the changes associated with the development of PBB. Blind, protected brushings were obtained from 20 healthy controls and 24 children with PBB, with an additional directed sample obtained from PBB patients. DNA was extracted, quantified using a 16S rRNA gene quantitative PCR assay prior to microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.No significant difference in bacterial diversity or community composition (R2 = 0.01, P = 0.36 was observed between paired blind and non-blind brushes, showing that blind brushings are a valid means of accessing the airway microbiota. This has important implications for collecting lower respiratory samples from healthy children. A significant decrease in bacterial diversity (P < 0.001 and change in community composition (R2 = 0.08, P = 0.004 was observed among controls, in comparison with patients. Bacterial communities within patients with PBB were dominated by Proteobacteria, and indicator species analysis showed that Haemophilus and Neisseria were significantly associated with the patient group. In 15 (52.9% cases the dominant organism by sequencing was not identified by standard routine clinical culture.The bacteria present in the lungs of patients with PBB were less diverse in terms of richness and evenness. The results validate the clinical diagnosis, and suggest that more attention to bacterial communities in children with chronic cough may lead to more rapid recognition of this condition with earlier treatment and reduction in disease burden.

  12. Multiple inflammasomes may regulate the interleukin-1-driven inflammation in protracted bacterial bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice C-H. Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB in young children is characterised by prolonged wet cough, prominent airway interleukin (IL-1β expression and infection, often with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi. The mechanisms responsible for IL-1-driven inflammation in PBB are poorly understood. We hypothesised that the inflammation in PBB involves the NLRP3 and/or AIM2 inflammasome/IL-1β axis. Lung macrophages obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with PBB and age-matched healthy controls were cultured in control medium or exposed to live NTHi. In healthy adult PBMCs, CD14+ monocytes contributed to 95% of total IL-1β-producing cells upon NTHi stimulation. Stimulation of PBB PBMCs with NTHi significantly increased IL-1β expression (p<0.001, but decreased NLRC4 expression (p<0.01. NTHi induced IL-1β secretion in PBMCs from both healthy controls and patients with recurrent PBB. This was inhibited by Z-YVAD-FMK (a caspase-1 selective inhibitor and by MCC950 (a NLRP3 selective inhibitor. In PBB BAL macrophages inflammasome complexes were visualised as fluorescence specks of NLRP3 or AIM2 colocalised with cleaved caspase-1 and cleaved IL-1β. NTHi stimulation induced formation of specks of cleaved IL-1β, NLRP3 and AIM2 in PBMCs, blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. We conclude that both the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes probably drive the IL-1β-dominated inflammation in PBB.

  13. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  14. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  15. Effects of montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod on acute phase protein and immune function in children with acute bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod on acute phase protein (APP and indexes of immunologic function in pediatric acute bronchitis treatment. Methods: A total of 180 cases children with acute bronchitis acted as research objects were randomly divided into control group (n=65 and observation group (n=63. On the basis of conventional therapy, control group was treated by plus pidotimod. On this base, observation group was treated with montelukast sodium. The changes of acute phase proteins (CRP, HP, a1-AAG and CER and immune function (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ levels before and after treatment were observed after 2 months. Results: Before treatment, CRP, HP, a1-AAG, CER, CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ levels of two groups had no statistically significant difference; CRP, HP, a1-AAG, CER, and CD8+ levels of control and observation groups decreased significantly after treatment, the decreases of observation group were more obvious than that of control group, and the levels after treatment were significantly lower than that of control groups. The levels of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ in two groups after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment. For observation group, the levels of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ increased more significantly after treatment, which were significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusion: Using Montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod can effectively reduce the children's acute phase protein levels, improve immune function, which has clinical value for the treatment of children with acute bronchitis.

  16. Interplay between environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty: case studies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the natural environment and agricultural systems induced by economic and industrial development, including population dynamics (growth, urbanization, migration), are major causes resulting in the persistence, emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in developing countries. In the face of rapid demographic, economic and social transformations, the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) is undergoing unprecedented environmental and agricultural change. We review emerging and re-emerging diseases such as schistosomiasis, dengue, avian influenza, angiostrongyliasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis that have occurred in P.R. China due to environmental and agricultural change. This commentary highlights the research priorities and the response strategies, namely mitigation and adaptation, undertaken to eliminate the resurgence of those infectious diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prion remains infectious after passage through digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt C VerCauteren

    Full Text Available Avian scavengers, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos, have potential to translocate infectious agents (prions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE diseases including chronic wasting disease, scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We inoculated mice with fecal extracts obtained from 20 American crows that were force-fed material infected with RML-strain scrapie prions. These mice all evinced severe neurological dysfunction 196-231 d postinoculation (x =198; 95% CI: 210-216 and tested positive for prion disease. Our results suggest a large proportion of crows that consume prion-positive tissue are capable of passing infectious prions in their feces (ˆp=1.0; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0. Therefore, this common, migratory North American scavenger could play a role in the geographic spread of TSE diseases.

  18. How infectious is SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. How infectious is SARS virus. Influenza: 1 patient infects ten people. SARS: 1 patient infects 2-4 people. Incubation period 10 days. Are there `silent´ cases ? Is quarantine enough ? How will it behave if and when it returns ?

  19. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  20. Subpathotypes of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Exist as Defined by their Syndromes and Virulence Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Victor Gonçalves; de Pace, Fernanda; Carlos, Camila; Mistretta Pires, Mathias; Amabile de Campos, Tatiana; Nakazato, Gerson; Guedes Stheling, Eliana; Logue, Catherine M; Nolan, Lisa K; Dias da Silveira, Wanderley

    2011-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause different types of systemic extraintestinal infections in poultry, collectively termed colibacillosis, which can cause significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To date, there have been no descriptions of genes or characteristics that allow for the classification of avian strains pathotypes responsible for causing specific diseases in their hosts. In this study we aimed to characterize avian E. coli strains representing 4 groups, including one of commensal strains (AFEC - Avian Fecal Escherichia coli) and 3 groups of APEC strains, where each group is responsible for causing a different disease syndrome in their respective hosts (septicemia, omphalitis and swollen head syndrome). We chose to examine several biological characteristics of these strains including: adhesion to eukaryotic cells, pathogenicity levels according to the lethal dose (50%) assay, phylogenetic group and virulence gene profiles. The comparison of strains based on these genotypic and phenotypic traits, using multivariate statisticals tools and complex networks, allowed us to infer information about the population structure of the studied groups. Our results indicate that APEC strains do not constitute a unique homogeneous group, but rather a structured set of subgroups, where each one is associated with a specific infectious syndrome which can possibly be used to define pathotypes or subpathotypes within APEC strains. These results offer new possibilities with which to study the genes responsible for various pathogenetic processes within APEC strains, and for vaccine development. It may be important to consider these subgroups when developing a vaccine in an effort for obtain cross protection, which has not yet been successfully accomplished when working with APEC strains.

  1. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  2. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David L

    2012-12-01

    Vaccination for both low pathogenicity avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used by countries that have become endemic for avian influenza virus, but stamping-out policies are still common for countries with recently introduced disease. Stamping-out policies of euthanatizing infected and at-risk flocks has been an effective control tool, but it comes at a high social and economic cost. Efforts to identify alternative ways to respond to outbreaks without widespread stamping out has become a goal for organizations like the World Organisation for Animal Health. A major issue with vaccination for avian influenza is trade considerations because countries that vaccinate are often considered to be endemic for the disease and they typically lose their export markets. Primarily as a tool to promote trade, the concept of DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) has been considered for avian influenza, but the goal for trade is to differentiate vaccinated and not-infected from vaccinated and infected animals because trading partners are unwilling to accept infected birds. Several different strategies have been investigated for a DIVA strategy, but each has advantages and disadvantages. A review of current knowledge on the research and implementation of the DIVA strategy will be discussed with possible ways to implement this strategy in the field. The increased desire for a workable DIVA strategy may lead to one of these ideas moving from the experimental to the practical.

  3. Avian Flu Epidemic 2003: Public health consequences. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman A; Mulder YM; Leeuw JRJ de; Meijer A; Du Ry van Beest Holle M; Kamst RA; Velden PG van der; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Koopmans MPG; Ruijten MWMM; Instituut voor Psychotrauma; CIE; MGO; LIS

    2004-01-01

    Executive summary Avian flu epidemic 2003: public health consequences.Risk factors, health, well-being, health care needs and preventive measures during the H7N7 avian flu outbreak control in the Netherlands.An estimated thousand people, possibly more have been infected with avian flu during the

  4. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  5. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  6. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  7. [Efficacy and safety of acute bronchitis treatment in adults--a comparison of Bronchosol® syrup and synthetic preparations with ambroxol. Results of observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, Andrzej M; Schönknecht, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), including acute bronchitis, are the frequent health problems and the most common reason for acute cough in adults. Even though the infections are caused mainly by viruses, and their course is usually not complicated, febrifuges, i.a. mucokinetics, or antitussives are used in the treatment of URTI in order to improve the quality of life and safety of patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bronchosol® herbal syrup in comparison to ambroxol preparations in the treatment of acute bronchitis in adult patients. The Bronchosol®/2013 study was a non-interventional, prospective, open-label, observational study. Data from adult patients treated with Bronchosol® syrup for acute bronchitis were collected and compared with data from patients treated for the same condition with ambroxol preparations. The severity of bronchitis symptoms was evaluated with the BSS (Bronchitis Severity Score) scale, and patients'quality of life wasassessed with the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scale. Between visits patients conducted self-observations and filled out observation diaries. Moreover, the data on adverse events were collected. In 87.68% of patients the infections were cured. Most of patients considered the studied drugs to be the agent decreasing the duration of infection and its intensity. The percentage of patients who declared that they had a less intense cough than during earlier infections was higher in the group of patients treated with Bronchosol® syrup in comparison to ambroxol treated patients (60.22% vs. 45.03%). 91.94% of patients treated with Bronchosol® considered this syrup to be very safe; in the ambroxol group such a declaration was made by 76.61% of patients. Bronchosol® syrup is an efficient, well-tolerated, and safe drug. Its efficacy in the treatment of acute bronchitis symptoms in adult patients is similar to the efficacy of ambroxol preparations.

  8. A simple and rapid approach to develop recombinant avian herpesvirus vectored vaccines using CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Na; Zhang, Yaoyao; Pedrera, Miriam; Chang, Pengxiang; Baigent, Susan; Moffat, Katy; Shen, Zhiqiang; Nair, Venugopal; Yao, Yongxiu

    2018-01-29

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as live vaccine against Marek's disease (MD) worldwide for more than 40 years either alone or in combination with other serotypes. HVT is also widely used as a vector platform for generation of recombinant vaccines against a number of avian diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) using conventional recombination methods or recombineering tools on cloned viral genomes. In the present study, we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing as a rapid and efficient method of generating HVT recombinants expressing VP2 protein of IBDV. This approach offers an efficient method to introduce other viral antigens into the HVT genome for rapid development of recombinant vaccines. Copyright © 2018 The Pirbright Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival analysis of infected mice reveals pathogenic variations in the genome of avian H1N1 viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Zeynep A.; Fan, Yiping; Huether, Robert; Obenauer, John; Webby, Richard J.; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G.; Wu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Most influenza pandemics have been caused by H1N1 viruses of purely or partially avian origin. Here, using Cox proportional hazard model, we attempt to identify the genetic variations in the whole genome of wild-type North American avian H1N1 influenza A viruses that are associated with their virulence in mice by residue variations, host origins of virus (Anseriformes-ducks or Charadriiformes-shorebirds), and host-residue interactions. In addition, through structural modeling, we predicted that several polymorphic sites associated with pathogenicity were located in structurally important sites, especially in the polymerase complex and NS genes. Our study introduces a new approach to identify pathogenic variations in wild-type viruses circulating in the natural reservoirs and ultimately to understand their infectious risks to humans as part of risk assessment efforts towards the emergence of future pandemic strains. PMID:25503687

  10. [The rehabilitation under alpine conditions of the participants in the cleanup of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station who are ill with chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimkulov, N N; Abdulina, A A; Davletalieva, N E; Bakirova, A N; Karamuratov, A; Mirrakhimov, M M

    1996-01-01

    24 patients exposed to low-dose radiation after the Chernobyl accident were examined before and after 24-day treatment of chronic bronchitis in the high-altitude rehabilitation center (3200 m above the sea level) in Tien Shan. Sanogenic alpine climate improved the patients' general condition, physical performance and lung ventilation, corrected compromised immunity. After high-altitude adaptation tracheobronchial inflammation alleviated, cytologic composition and surface activity of bronchoalveolar fluid returned to normal. Therefore, high-altitude treatment of Chernobyl accident victims with chronic bronchitis is effective and can be recommended for such patients.

  11. Recovery of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C from cDNA: cross-recognition of avian and human metapneumovirus support proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Buchholz, Ursula J; Samal, Siba K

    2006-06-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an acute respiratory disease in turkeys and is associated with "swollen head syndrome" in chickens, contributing to significant economic losses for the U.S. poultry industry. With a long-term goal of developing a better vaccine for controlling AMPV in the United States, we established a reverse genetics system to produce infectious AMPV of subgroup C entirely from cDNA. A cDNA clone encoding the entire 14,150-nucleotide genome of AMPV subgroup C strain Colorado (AMPV/CO) was generated by assembling five cDNA fragments between the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the autocatalytic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme of a transcription plasmid, pBR 322. Transfection of this plasmid, along with the expression plasmids encoding the N, P, M2-1, and L proteins of AMPV/CO, into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase resulted in the recovery of infectious AMPV/CO. Characterization of the recombinant AMPV/CO showed that its growth properties in tissue culture were similar to those of the parental virus. The potential of AMPV/CO to serve as a viral vector was also assessed by generating another recombinant virus, rAMPV/CO-GFP, that expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a foreign protein. Interestingly, GFP-expressing AMPV and GFP-expressing human metapneumovirus (HMPV) could be recovered using the support plasmids of either virus, denoting that the genome promoters are conserved between the two metapneumoviruses and can be cross-recognized by the polymerase complex proteins of either virus. These results indicate a close functional relationship between AMPV/CO and HMPV.

  12. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R.; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J.; O’Kennedy, Richard J.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  13. Molecular imaging: Moving towards infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hongxiu; Ingraham, Christopher R.; Yang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging has been advanced into the field of infectious diseases, which provides not only new insights for basic science, but also new strategies for the effective management of infectious diseases in clinical practice.

  14. African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Polymorphism of the genes of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytocins and acute bronchitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Pikuza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain role in the development of respiratory diseases is played by cytokines that possess both pro-and anti-inflammatory activity, and the balance of these factors influences the course of the disease. As shown by studies in recent years, the negative influence of environmental factors, as a rule, implemented against the background of the individual genetic predisposition in virtually any known to date pathology. Objective research: to identify molecular genetic risk factors for the development of acute bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia in children on the basis of the analysis of polymorphisms of pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukins. A complex clinicallaboratory and instrumental examination of 110 children aged 6 to 15 years with acute bronchitis (the main group was carried out. The control group included 163 conditionally healthy children of the same age. Significant differences were revealed by the polymorphism of the TNFA gene, which has pro-inflammatory properties. At the same time, analysis of the frequency allocation of alleles and genotypes of polymorphism (-174C/G of IL6 and + 3953C/T gene IL1B did not reveal significant differences with the control. The results of the study can be used in the development of prognostic markers of acute pathology in children and optimization of treatment tactics and preventive measures with an individual approach for each patient.

  16. Origin and evolution of avian microchromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, D W

    2002-01-01

    The origin of avian microchromosomes has long been the subject of much speculation and debate. Microchromosomes are a universal characteristic of all avian species and many reptilian karyotypes. The typical avian karyotype contains about 40 pairs of chromosomes and usually 30 pairs of small to tiny microchromosomes. This characteristic karyotype probably evolved 100-250 million years ago. Once the microchromosomes were thought to be a non-essential component of the avian genome. Recent work has shown that even though these chromosomes represent only 25% of the genome; they encode 50% of the genes. Contrary to popular belief, microchromosomes are present in a wide range of vertebrate classes, spanning 400-450 million years of evolutionary history. In this paper, comparative gene mapping between the genomes of chicken, human, mouse and zebrafish, has been used to investigate the origin and evolution of avian microchromosomes during this period. This analysis reveals evidence for four ancient syntenies conserved in fish, birds and mammals for over 400 million years. More than half, if not all, microchromosomes may represent ancestral syntenies and at least ten avian microchromosomes are the product of chromosome fission. Birds have one of the smallest genomes of any terrestrial vertebrate. This is likely to be the product of an evolutionary process that minimizes the DNA content (mostly through the number of repeats) and maximizes the recombination rate of microchromosomes. Through this process the properties (GC content, DNA and repeat content, gene density and recombination rate) of microchromosomes and macrochromosomes have diverged to create distinct chromosome types. An ancestral genome for birds likely had a small genome, low in repeats and a karyotype with microchromosomes. A "Fission-Fusion Model" of microchromosome evolution based on chromosome rearrangement and minimization of repeat content is discussed. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. [Persistant fevers of infectious origin in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Marie; Wagner, Noémie

    2018-02-14

    Prolonged fevers in children are a regular challenge for the paediatrician or any physician caring for these children (emergency physicians, pediatric infectious diseases specialists). The causes are multiple, classified into three major families : infectious, inflammatory and oncological. Infectious causes are the most common and account for more than 50 % of cases. The objective of this review is to guide physicians in charge of these patients throughout their management by focusing on the quest of infectious causes.

  18. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmage SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shyamali C Dharmage,1 Jennifer L Perret,1,2, John A Burgess,1 Caroline J Lodge,1 David P Johns,3 Paul S Thomas,4 Graham G Giles,1,5 John L Hopper,1,6 Michael J Abramson,7,8 E Haydn Walters,3,9, Melanie C Matheson1 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep (IBAS, Melbourne, VIC, 3“Breathe Well” Center of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Ageing, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 4Inflammation and Infection Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 5Cancer Epidemiology Center, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Department of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Allergy, Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 8School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 9School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Background and objective: Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age.Methods: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583. Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729, from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389 underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate

  19. Ribosomal RNA gene functioning in avian oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, Elena; Galkina, Svetlana; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Dyomin, Alexandr; Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gaginskaya, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Despite long-term exploration into ribosomal RNA gene functioning during the oogenesis of various organisms, many intriguing problems remain unsolved. In this review, we describe nucleolus organizer region (NOR) activity in avian oocytes. Whereas oocytes from an adult avian ovary never reveal the formation of the nucleolus in the germinal vesicle (GV), an ovary from juvenile birds possesses both nucleolus-containing and non-nucleolus-containing oocytes. The evolutionary diversity of oocyte NOR functioning and the potential non-rRNA-related functions of the nucleolus in oocytes are also discussed.

  20. Increased avian diversity is associated with lower incidence of human West Nile infection: observation of the dilution effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Swaddle

    Full Text Available Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity--the 'dilution effect'. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the 'dilution effect' are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely been examined for other infectious diseases on a broad geographic scale. Here, we explored whether the dilution effect can be observed in the relationship between the incidence of human West Nile virus (WNV infection and bird (host diversity in the eastern US. We constructed a novel geospatial contrasts analysis that compares the small differences in avian diversity of neighboring US counties (where one county reported human cases of WNV and the other reported no cases with associated between-county differences in human disease. We also controlled for confounding factors of climate, regional variation in mosquito vector type, urbanization, and human socioeconomic factors that are all likely to affect human disease incidence. We found there is lower incidence of human WNV in eastern US counties that have greater avian (viral host diversity. This pattern exists when examining diversity-disease relationships both before WNV reached the US (in 1998 and once the epidemic was underway (in 2002. The robust disease-diversity relationships confirm that the dilution effect can be observed in another emerging infectious disease and illustrate an important ecosystem service provided by biodiversity, further supporting the growing view that protecting biodiversity should be considered in public

  1. HOMOSEXUAL TRANSMISSION OF INFECTIOUS SYPHILIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. Colin

    1963-01-01

    Homosexuality is more prevalent in our society than many suspect. The incidence of infectious syphilis is increasing and the homosexual is playing an increasing role in its epidemiology. Fifteen per cent to 70 per cent of homosexuals practice analism. The diagnosis of venereal disease should always be kept in mind when dealing with anorectal problems. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:13957193

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Richard H

    2017-05-01

    It has been recognized for centuries that pregnant women have unique susceptibilities to many infectious diseases that predispose them to untoward outcomes compared with the general adult population. It is thought a combination of adaptive alterations in immunity to allow for the fetal allograft combined with changes in anatomy and physiology accompanying pregnancy underlie these susceptibilities. Emerging infectious diseases are defined as those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threaten to increase in the near future. The past decade alone has witnessed many such outbreaks, each with its own unique implications for pregnant women and their unborn fetuses as well as lessons for the health care community regarding response and mitigation. Examples of such outbreaks include, but are not limited to, severe acute respiratory syndrome, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, Ebola virus, and, most recently, the Zika virus. Although each emerging pathogen has unique features requiring specific considerations, there are many underlying principles that are shared in the recognition, communication, and mitigation of such infectious outbreaks. Some of these key principles include disease-specific delineation of transmission dynamics, understanding of pathogen-specific effects on both mothers and fetuses, and advance planning and contemporaneous management that prioritize communication among public health experts, clinicians, and patients. The productive and effective working collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has been a key partnership in the successful communication and management of such outbreaks for women's health care providers and patients alike. Going forward, the knowledge gained over the past decade will undoubtedly continue to inform future responses and will serve to optimize the education and care given

  3. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  4. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro; Adachi, Yukihiko

    2002-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  5. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko [Saint Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro [National Mie Chuo Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Adachi, Yukihiko [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42{+-}19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  6. Effects of drought on avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Brian D. Wardlow; Volker C. Radeloff

    2010-01-01

    Droughts are expected to become more frequent under global climate change. Avifauna depend on precipitation for hydration, cover, and food. While there are indications that avian communities respond negatively to drought, little is known about the response of birds with differing functional and behavioural traits, what time periods and indicators of drought are most...

  7. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  8. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  9. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  10. Viral vectors for avian influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to 2003, vaccines against avian influenza (AI) had limited, individual country or regional use in poultry. In late 2003, H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AI spread from China to multiple Southeast Asian countries, and to Europe during 2005 and Africa during 2006, challenging governments and all p...

  11. the Avian Park Service Learning Centre story

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health (UCRH) opened in 2001, followed 10 years later by the establishment of the Ukwanda Rural Clinical School in one of the rural health districts of the Western Cape. This paper relates the journey of the Faculty with the underserviced community of Avian Park through the provision of ...

  12. Presumptive diagnosis of Avian encephalomyelitis in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A report of Avian encephalomyelitis outbreak in two flocks of adult Japanese quail is presented. High mortalities, tremor, ataxia and lateral recumbency were the prominent clinical signs observed. Absence of gross pathology and microscopic lesions of gliosis, neuronal degeneration, meningitis, congested blood vessel with ...

  13. The genetics and evolution of avian migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulido, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the characteristics of avian migration is its variability within and among species. Variation in migratory behavior, and in physiological and morphological adaptations to migration, is to a large extent due to genetic differences. Comparative studies suggest that migratory behavior has

  14. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Sanz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar

  15. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  16. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  17. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  18. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  19. Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol–theophylline–guaiphenesin mixture in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Yakoot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot1, Amel Salem2, Abdel-Mohsen Omar31Green Clinics and Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Al-Mabarah Hospital, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin® (Pharco Pharmaceuticals, Alexandria, Egypt is a mixture of ambroxol (15 mg; theophylline (50 mg; and guaiphenesin (30 mg, per 5 mL syrup.Objective: To test the clinical efficacy of Farcosolvin in the treatment of AECB in a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study design.Patients and methods: One hundred patients with AECB were randomized to either Farcosolvin or guaiphenesin treatment groups, in addition to the standard medical treatment for their cases. Baseline clinical symptomatolgy of breathlessness, cough, and sputum severity scoring were compared before and after 3 and 7 days of treatment in both groups and the differences compared between groups. Changes in perceived improvement were also compared between groups using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement or Change Scale (CGIC.Results: There were statistically significant improvements in breathlessness and cough scores in both groups (pretreatment versus posttreatment at day 3 and at day 7; P < 0.05. There were highly statistically significant differences between groups in improvement in ­breathlessness and cough scores, after 3 and 7 days treatment, in favor of the Farcosolvin ­treatment group (P < 0.001. Out of 50 patients, 48 (96% in the Farcosolvin-treated group rated their ­improvement on the CGIC scale as “much” and “very much” improved, while only 41 patients (82% reported such a degree of improvement in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05.Conclusion: We

  20. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Noopur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount, Gram′s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

  1. A method to preserve low parasitaemia Plasmodium-infected avian blood for host and vector infectivity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenny S; Giannitti, Federico; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Tell, Lisa A; Snipes, Joy; Wright, Stan; Cornel, Anthony J

    2016-03-11

    Avian malaria vector competence studies are needed to understand more succinctly complex avian parasite-vector-relations. The lack of vector competence trials may be attributed to the difficulty of obtaining gametocytes for the majority of Plasmodium species and lineages. To conduct avian malaria infectivity assays for those Plasmodium spp. and lineages that are refractory to in vitro cultivation, it is necessary to obtain and preserve for short periods sufficient viable merozoites to infect naïve donor birds to be used as gametocyte donors to infect mosquitoes. Currently, there is only one described method for long-term storage of Plasmodium spp.-infected wild avian blood and it is reliable at a parasitaemia of at least 1%. However, most naturally infected wild-caught birds have a parasitaemia of much less that 1%. To address this problem, a method for short-term storage of infected wild avian blood with low parasitaemia (even ≤ 0.0005%) has been explored and validated. To obtain viable infective merozoites, blood was collected from wild birds using a syringe containing the anticoagulant and the red blood cell preservative citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution (CPDA). Each blood sample was stored at 4 °C for up to 48 h providing sufficient time to determine the species and parasitaemia of Plasmodium spp. in the blood by morphological examination before injecting into donor canaries. Plasmodium spp.--infected blood was inoculated intravenously into canaries and once infection was established, Culex stigmatosoma, Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were then allowed to feed on the infected canaries to validate the efficacy of this method for mosquito vector competence assays. Storage of Plasmodium spp.--infected donor blood at 4 °C yielded viable parasites for 48 h. All five experimentally-infected canaries developed clinical signs and were infectious. Pathologic examination of three canaries that later died revealed splenic lesions typical of

  2. Update in Infectious Diseases 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, F J; Peñuelas, M; Lejárraga, C; Emilov, T; Rico, C; Díaz, I; Lázaro, C; Viñuela-Prieto, J M; Matesanz, M

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in complex models of continuous infection is a current issue. The update 2017 course addresses about microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects useful for a current approach to infectious disease. During the last year, nosocomial pneumonia approach guides, recommendations for management of yeast and filamentous fungal infections, review papers on the empirical approach to peritonitis and extensive guidelines on stewardship have been published. HIV infection is being treated before and more intensively. The implementation of molecular biology, spectrometry and inmunology to traditional techniques of staining and culture achieve a better and faster microbiological diagnosis. Finally, the infection is increasingly integrated, assessing non-antibiotic aspects in the treatment.

  3. [Current therapeutics in infectious dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaux, A S; Chosidow, O

    NEW AGENTS: Among new treatments used for infectious dermatology diseases, new agents for genital herpes, valaciclovir and famciclovir, have greatly simplified therapeutic schemes. Cidofovir has also been shown to be effective against aciclovir-resistant cutaneous and mucosal herpetic lesions and for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. NEW ADMINISTRATION ROUTES: For genital papillomavirus infections, trials using systemic or intralesional administered interferon have not provided conclusive evidence but imiquimode appears to be quite promising. Itaconazole and fluconazole are effective for onchomycoses. NEW POSSIBILITIES: Ivermectine is effective against scabies, but must be reserved for particularly severe forms. Finally, the emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains resistant to fluoroquinolones is disquieting.

  4. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  5. FEATURES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE AND METABOLIC CHANGES IN LYMPHOCYTES FROM PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN YOUNGER CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT OBSTRUCTIVE BRONCHITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kurtasova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the parameters of T-cells, humoral immunity and activity of NAD(P- dependent dehydrogenases in lymphocytes from peripheral blood at young children with recurrent obstructive bronchitis (ROB. Patients and Methods: Fifty-four children at the age of 1-3 years with ROB were observed. The control group consisted of 35 healthy children at similar age. The numbers of СD3+, СD4+, СD8+, СD19+ cells in peripheral blood were determined by flow cytofluorimetric technique. IgA, IgM, and IgG concentrations in blood serum were evaluated by G. Mancini et al. (1965; circulating immune complexes (CIC, by V. Haskova et al. (1978; total IgE test was performed with “Total IgE – IFA Best” system (Russia. Relative activity of NAD (P-dependent dehydrogenase in peripheral blood lymphocytes was studied according to A. Savchenko et al.(1989. The results of this study have revealed changed phenotypic spectrum of peripheral blood lymphocyte populations; a statistically significant reduction in IgA concentration, and a tendency for increased IgE levels in blood serum in the children with ROB. An increase of ribose-5-phosphate- and NADPdependent metabolic processes; reduced lactate dehydrogenase anaerobic reactions; a switch from lipid catabolism products to glycolysis; a shunt role of malate/aspartate in cell energy supply, and for glutathione reductase activity; elevated levels of substrate flow along Krebs cycle in peripheral blood lymphocytes were registered as well. It may be concluded that the change of phenotype and enzymatic activity of blood lymphocytes, selective IgA deficiency in blood serum could be shown in the younger children with recurrent obstructive bronchitis.

  6. Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol-theophylline-guaiphenesin mixture) in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Salem, Amel; Omar, Abdel-Mohsen

    2010-08-09

    Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin (Pharco Pharmaceuticals, Alexandria, Egypt) is a mixture of ambroxol (15 mg); theophylline (50 mg); and guaiphenesin (30 mg), per 5 mL syrup. To test the clinical efficacy of Farcosolvin in the treatment of AECB in a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study design. One hundred patients with AECB were randomized to either Farcosolvin or guaiphenesin treatment groups, in addition to the standard medical treatment for their cases. Baseline clinical symptomatolgy of breathlessness, cough, and sputum severity scoring were compared before and after 3 and 7 days of treatment in both groups and the differences compared between groups. Changes in perceived improvement were also compared between groups using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement or Change Scale (CGIC). There were statistically significant improvements in breathlessness and cough scores in both groups (pretreatment versus posttreatment at day 3 and at day 7; P < 0.05). There were highly statistically significant differences between groups in improvement in breathlessness and cough scores, after 3 and 7 days treatment, in favor of the Farcosolvin treatment group (P < 0.001). Out of 50 patients, 48 (96%) in the Farcosolvin-treated group rated their improvement on the CGIC scale as "much" and "very much" improved, while only 41 patients (82%) reported such a degree of improvement in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). We concluded from our study that Farcosolvin syrup might be safe and effective in improving symptoms in cases of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

  7. Autoimmunity, infectious immunity, and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Eiji; Kobayashi, Kazuko; Matsunami, Yukana; Shen, Lianhua; Quan, Nanhu; Makarova, Marina; Suchkov, Sergey V; Ayada, Kiyoshi; Oguma, Keiji; Lopez, Luis R

    2009-11-01

    Vascular inflammation is common in certain systemic autoimmune diseases and contributes to the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and oxLDL/beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) complex formation. These complexes have been implicated as proatherogenic autoantigens that participate in the development of atherosclerotic disease. We have demonstrated that the in vitro macrophage uptake of oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes increases in the presence of IgG anti-beta2GPI antibodies and that IgG immune complexes containing oxLDL/beta2GPI upregulate the expression of both scavenger and Fcgamma receptors to activate beta2GPI specific T cells. Some persistent infections may cause immune responses that promote atherogenesis. Cellular immunity (Th1) against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) derived heat shock protein 60 (Hp-HSP60) cross-reacts with endogenous HSP60 to cause cardiovascular disease likely by molecular mimicry. Infectious cellular response may be proatherogenic,while the humoral response (antibody production) maybe protective. We review the recent progress in our understanding of autoimmunity and infectious immunity that promote atherosclerosis.

  8. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  9. Climate change and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Antoine; de Castaneda, Rafael Ruiz; Bolon, Isabelle

    Global changes are major determinants for infectious diseases, although attributable, part of climate change remains debatable. Vector-borne diseases are prone to be impacted by global warming, although other factors may play a substantial role, evidenced by the dramatic decrease in malaria in the last decades in places where climate change has deep and significant effects. There is now evidence that in some areas of the world, e.g. Horn of Africa, warm El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO), which are observed in the South Pacific Ocean, are associated with higher risk of emergence of Rift Valley fever, cholera and malaria and during cold La Niña events, dengue fever, chikungunya and yellow fever. This has been observed for these and other diseases in other parts of the world. For example, seasonal influenza outbreaks have been more intense (i.e. higher number) and more severe (i.e. higher mortality) when concomitant with La Niña events. Since climate scientists have recently observed that climate change is tied to more frequent and more intense ENSO events, we may foresee increases in frequency and severity in emerging infectious diseases in the world.

  10. [Infectious diseases - a specialty of internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fätkenheuer, G; Jung, N; Kern, W V; Fölsch, U R; Salzberger, B

    2018-04-01

    Infectious diseases have recently gained wide public interest. Emerging infections and rising rates of antibiotic resistance are determining this trend. Both challenges will need to be addressed in international and local collaborations between different specialties in medicine and basic science. Infectious diseases as a clinical specialty in this scenario is directly responsible for the care of patients with infectious diseases. Its involvement in the care of patients with complicated infections has proved to be highly effective. Antibiotic stewardship programmes are effective measures in slowing the development of antibiotic resistance and have been widely implemented. But antibiotic stewardship specialists should not be confused with or taken as an alternative to infectious disease experts. Infectious diseases requires appropriate and specific training. It mainly uses the instrumentarium of internal medicine. With the current challenges in modern medicine, infectious diseases in Germany should thus be upgraded from a subspecialty to a clinical specialty, ideally within Internal Medicine.

  11. Pharmacological treatment for infectious corneal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darlene

    2013-04-01

    Cornea ulceration and infectious keratitis are leading causes of corneal morbidity and blindness. Infectious causes are among the most frequent and most severe. Management strategies for bacterial corneal ulcers have changed significantly over the last decades, however with a more limited progress in the treatment and management of nonbacterial, infectious ulcers. This paper provides an overview of the current principles, strategies and treatment choices for infectious corneal ulcers in adults. Topical application with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial remains the preferred method for the pharmacological management of infectious corneal ulcers. Increasing reports of clinical failures and in vitro resistance to antibiotics to treat the most common infectious (bacterial) corneal ulcers are increasing concerns. New approaches for improvement in the pharmacological management of corneal ulcers should focus on strategies for a more rational and evidence-based use of current antimicrobials and development of products to modulate the host immune response and to neutralize microbial toxins and other immune modulators.

  12. [Management of infectious diarrhea in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferahta, Nabila; Héquet, Delphine; Bizzozzero, Tosca; Major, Kristof; Petignat, Christiane

    2018-04-11

    Infectious diarrheas are of great concern in nursing homes and can engender outbreaks. Their importance in terms of morbidity, mortality and health economics justify the implementation of prevention and control measures. Although past studies emphasize the importance of infectious diarrheas occurring during hospitalization, data on nursing homes epidemiology remain scarce. This article is founded on recent data of the literature, on recommendations for the management of infectious diarrheas and for prevention and control of outbreaks in nursing homes.

  13. Real time bayesian estimation of the epidemic potential of emerging infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís M A Bettencourt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fast changes in human demographics worldwide, coupled with increased mobility, and modified land uses make the threat of emerging infectious diseases increasingly important. Currently there is worldwide alert for H5N1 avian influenza becoming as transmissible in humans as seasonal influenza, and potentially causing a pandemic of unprecedented proportions. Here we show how epidemiological surveillance data for emerging infectious diseases can be interpreted in real time to assess changes in transmissibility with quantified uncertainty, and to perform running time predictions of new cases and guide logistics allocations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We develop an extension of standard epidemiological models, appropriate for emerging infectious diseases, that describes the probabilistic progression of case numbers due to the concurrent effects of (incipient human transmission and multiple introductions from a reservoir. The model is cast in terms of surveillance observables and immediately suggests a simple graphical estimation procedure for the effective reproductive number R (mean number of cases generated by an infectious individual of standard epidemics. For emerging infectious diseases, which typically show large relative case number fluctuations over time, we develop a bayesian scheme for real time estimation of the probability distribution of the effective reproduction number and show how to use such inferences to formulate significance tests on future epidemiological observations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Violations of these significance tests define statistical anomalies that may signal changes in the epidemiology of emerging diseases and should trigger further field investigation. We apply the methodology to case data from World Health Organization reports to place bounds on the current transmissibility of H5N1 influenza in humans and establish a statistical basis for monitoring its evolution in real time.

  14. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...

  15. Physiology and pathogenicity of cpdB deleted mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huifang; Chen, Liping; Si, Wei; Wang, Chunlai; Zhu, Fangna; Li, Guangxing; Liu, Siguo

    2017-04-01

    Avian colibacillosis is one of the most common infectious diseases caused partially or entirely by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in birds. In addition to spontaneous infection, APEC can also cause secondary infections that result in greater severity of illness and greater losses to the poultry industry. In order to assess the role of 2', 3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase (cpdB) in APEC on disease physiology and pathogenicity, an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli-34 (APEC-34) cpdB mutant was obtained using the Red system. The cpdB mutant grew at a slower rate than the natural strain APEC-34. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the bacteria of the cpdB mutant were significantly longer than the bacteria observed in the natural strain (P<0.01), and that the width of the cpdB mutant was significantly smaller than its natural counterpart (P<0.01). In order to evaluate the role of cpdB in APEC in the colonization of internal organs (lung, liver and spleen) in poultry, seven-day-old SPF chicks were infected with 10 9 CFU/chick of the cpdB mutant or the natural strain. No colonizations of cpdB mutants were observed in the internal organs 10days following the infection, though numerous natural strains were observed at 20days following infection. Additionally, the relative expression of division protein ftsZ, outer membrane protein A ompA, ferric uptake regulator fur and tryptophanase tnaA genes in the mutant strain were all significantly lower than in the natural strain (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results suggested that cpdB is involved in the long-term colonization of APEC in the internal organs of the test subjects. The deletion of the cpdB gene also significantly affected the APEC growth and morphology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Genotyping and detection of common avian and human origin-influenza viruses using a portable chemiluminescence imaging microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Qiqi; Wang, Dou; Chen, Suhong; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Shengqi

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses are divided into three types, A, B, and C. Human influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics, but influenza C causes only a mild respiratory illness. Influenza A virus can infect various host species. In 2013, human-infectious avian influenza A (H7N9) was first reported in China. By the second week of 2014, there were 210 laboratory-confirmed human cases in the country, and the mortality rate eventually reached 22 %. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of influenza viruses is important for clinical management and epidemiology. In this assay, a cost-effective chemiluminescence (CL) detection oligonucleotide microarray was developed to genotype and detect avian influenza A (H7N9), avian influenza A (H5N1), 2009 influenza A (H1N1), seasonal influenza A (H1N1), and seasonal influenza A (H3N2). Influenza A viruses and influenza B viruses were also generally detected using this microarray. The results of detection of 40 cultivated influenza virus strains showed that the microarray was able to distinguish the subtypes of these influenza viruses very well. The microarray possessed similar or 10 fold higher limit of detection than the real-time RT-PCR method. Sixty-six clinical swab samples were detected using this microarray and verified with real time RT-PCR to evaluate the efficiency of this microarray for clinical testing. A reliable CL detection oligonucleotide microarray had been developed to genotype and detected these influenza viruses.

  17. Application of TMA (Tissue micro-array) in the observation of apoptotic cascade in postradiation damage in avian medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, E.; Skarda, J.; Skardova, I.

    2006-01-01

    The study of apoptotic cascade by the use of relatively new technique in avian medicine: TMA may help in early detection and prevention of acquired immunodeficiency caused by the influence of a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic environmental factors, which may result in severe economical losses in conditions of intensive poultry farming. There has not been any report of applying this method in veterinary medicine. Tissue micro-array (TMA) technology allows rapid visualization of molecular targets in thousands of tissue specimens at a time, either at the DNA, RNA or protein level. The technique facilitates rapid translation of molecular discoveries to clinical applications. This technology has a number of advantages compared with conventional techniques: speed and high throughput, standardization and experimental uniformity, ease of use, all histochemical and molecular detection techniques can be used, decreased assay volume, preservation of original block, and conservation of valuable tissue etc. The aim of the present work were the study of immunosuppression and apoptotic cascade and possibilities of application of tissue micro-array in chicken in experimental condition and diagnostics in avian medicine in general. The selection of samples from avian primary immune organs: thymus and Bursa Fabric was done after gamma irradiation and infectious bursal virus infection (IBDV). (authors)

  18. Avian brains: Insights from development, behaviors and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tadashi; Izawa, Ei-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  19. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. Avian Circadian Organization: A Chorus of Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Vincent M

    2013-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to maintain stable phase relationships and then influence downstream rhythms through entrainment of peripheral oscillators in the brain controlling behavior and peripheral tissues. Birds represent an excellent model for the role played by biological clocks in human neurobiology; unlike most rodent models, they are diurnal, they exhibit cognitively complex social interactions, and their circadian clocks are more sensitive to the hormone melatonin than are those of nocturnal rodents. PMID:24157655

  1. Estimation of transmission parameters of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Bouma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research efforts, little is yet known about key epidemiological parameters of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in their avian hosts. Here we show how these parameters can be estimated using a limited number of birds in experimental transmission studies. Our quantitative estimates, based on Bayesian methods of inference, reveal that (i the period of latency of H5N1 influenza virus in unvaccinated chickens is short (mean: 0.24 days; 95% credible interval: 0.099-0.48 days; (ii the infectious period of H5N1 virus in unvaccinated chickens is approximately 2 days (mean: 2.1 days; 95%CI: 1.8-2.3 days; (iii the reproduction number of H5N1 virus in unvaccinated chickens need not be high (mean: 1.6; 95%CI: 0.90-2.5, although the virus is expected to spread rapidly because it has a short generation interval in unvaccinated chickens (mean: 1.3 days; 95%CI: 1.0-1.5 days; and (iv vaccination with genetically and antigenically distant H5N2 vaccines can effectively halt transmission. Simulations based on the estimated parameters indicate that herd immunity may be obtained if at least 80% of chickens in a flock are vaccinated. We discuss the implications for the control of H5N1 avian influenza virus in areas where it is endemic.

  2. An optimized polymerase chain reaction assay to identify avian virus vaccine contamination with Chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Haitham M; Elzahed, Hanan M; Elabiare, Elham A; Badawy, Ahmed A; Yousef, Ausama A

    2011-01-01

    The use of embryonating chicken eggs in preparation of avian virus vaccines is the principle cause for contamination with Chicken anemia virus (CAV). Identification of CAV in contaminated vaccines relies on the expensive, tedious, and time-consuming practice of virus isolation in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The experience of the last 2 decades indicates that polymerase chain reaction is extending to replace most of the classic methods for detection of infectious agents. In the present report, a simple, rapid, and accurate polymerase chain reaction method for detection of CAV in poultry vaccines is described. Oligonucleotide primers homologous to highly conserved sequences of the VP1 gene were used to amplify a fragment of 676 bp. The developed assay was specific for detecting CAV from different sources, with no cross reactivity with many avian viruses. No inter- and intra-assay variations were observed. The analytical sensitivity of the test was high enough to detect 5 TCID(50) (50% tissue culture infective dose) of the virus per reaction; however, different factors related to the vaccine matrix showed considerable effects on the detection limit. In conclusion, this method may represent a suitable alternative to virus isolation for identification of CAV contamination of poultry virus vaccines.

  3. Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T P; Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Meulemans, G

    2000-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) (Gumboro disease) has been described throughout the world, and the socio-economic significance of the disease is considerable world-wide. Various forms of the disease have been described, but typing remains unclear, since antigenic and pathotypic criteria are used indiscriminately, and the true incidence of different types is difficult to determine. Moreover, the infection, when not fatal, leads to a degree of immunosuppression which is often difficult to measure. Finally, the control measures used are subject to variations, and seldom follow a specific or standardised plan. In the context of expanding international trade, the authors provide an overview of existing knowledge on the subject to enhance available information on the epidemiology of IBD, the identification of reliable viral markers for diagnosis, and the implementation of specific control measures to ensure a global and co-ordinated approach to the disease.

  4. Avian Radar - Is It Worth the Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    DC: The Federal Aviation Administration, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service , Wildlife...Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services. York, D. L., Engeman, R. M., Cummings, J. L., Rossi, C. L., & Sinnett, D. R... Health Inspection Service , Wildlife Services. DOT/FAA/AR-09/61. (2010). Deployments of Avian Radars at Civil Airports. Springfield: National

  5. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  6. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan D S Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue' has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  7. Avian influenza in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng; Sandrock, Christian E; Davis, Cristina E

    2009-07-01

    The disease syndromes caused by avian influenza viruses are highly variable depending on the host species infected, its susceptibility and response to infection and the virulence of the infecting viral strain. Although avian influenza viruses have a broad host range in general, it is rare for an individual strain or subtype to infect more than one species. The H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) lineages of viruses that descended from A/goose/Guandong/96 (H5N1 HPAIV) are unusual in the diversity of species they have infected worldwide. Although the species affected by H5N1 HPAI in the field and those that have been experimentally studied are diverse, their associated disease syndromes are remarkably similar across species. In some species, multi-organ failure and death are rapid and no signs of the disease are observed. Most prominently in this category are chickens and other avian species of the order Galliformes. In other species, neurologic signs develop resulting in the death of the host. This is what has been reported in domestic cats (Carnivora), geese (Anseriformes), ratites (Struthioniformes), pigeons inoculated with high doses (Columbiformes) and ducks infected with H5N1 HPAIV isolated since 2002 (Anseriformes). In some other species, the disease is more prolonged and although multi-organ failure and death are the eventual outcomes, the signs of disease are more extensive. Predominantly, these species include humans (Primates) and the laboratory models of human disease, the ferret (Carnivora), mouse (Rodentia) and cynamologous macaques (Primates). Finally, some species are more resistant to infection with H5N1 HPAIV and show few or no signs of disease. These species include pigeons in some studies (Columbiformes), ducks inoculated with pre-2002 isolates (Anseriformes), and pigs (Artiodactyla).

  8. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ewan D S; Salisbury, Steven W; Horner, John R; Varricchio, David J

    2009-09-30

    Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue') has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  9. The Avian Transcriptome Response to Malaria Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used hig...

  10. Integration and Validation of Avian Radars (IVAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    shape, density, gender ) is problematic; • Not suited to high-clutter environments (e.g., in forests, near buildings); • Health & safety issues...Fuca and the Saratoga Passage and within the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains, NAS Whidbey Island offers high quality year round training...was to demonstrate that the digital avian radars being evaluated by the IVAR project can automatically discriminate the echoes of moving targets

  11. Applications of thermal imaging in avian science

    OpenAIRE

    McCafferty, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal imaging, or infrared thermography, has been used in avian science since the 1960s. More than 30 species of birds, ranging in size from passerines to ratites, have been studied using this technology. The main strength of this technique is that it is a non-invasive and non-contact method of measuring surface temperature. Its limitations and measurement errors are well understood and suitable protocols have been developed for a variety of experimental settings. Thermal imaging has been u...

  12. The return of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US.

  13. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time PCR in naturally and experimentally infected chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens.

  14. Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR. PMID:23362419

  15. Tracing the evolution of avian wing digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Mackem, Susan

    2013-06-17

    It is widely accepted that birds are a subgroup of dinosaurs, but there is an apparent conflict: modern birds have been thought to possess only the middle three fingers (digits II-III-IV) of an idealized five-digit tetrapod hand based on embryological data, but their Mesozoic tetanuran dinosaur ancestors are considered to have the first three digits (I-II-III) based on fossil evidence. How could such an evolutionary quirk arise? Various hypotheses have been proposed to resolve this paradox. Adding to the confusion, some recent developmental studies support a I-II-III designation for avian wing digits whereas some recent paleontological data are consistent with a II-III-IV identification of the Mesozoic tetanuran digits. A comprehensive analysis of both paleontological and developmental data suggests that the evolution of the avian wing digits may have been driven by homeotic transformations of digit identity, which are more likely to have occurred in a partial and piecemeal manner. Additionally, recent genetic studies in mouse models showing plausible mechanisms for central digit loss invite consideration of new alternative possibilities (I-II-IV or I-III-IV) for the homologies of avian wing digits. While much progress has been made, some advances point to the complexity of the problem and a final resolution to this ongoing debate demands additional work from both paleontological and developmental perspectives, which will surely yield new insights on mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Global phylogeographic limits of Hawaii's avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadell, J.S.; Ishtiaq, F.; Covas, R.; Melo, M.; Warren, B.H.; Atkinson, C.T.; Bensch, S.; Graves, G.R.; Jhala, Y.V.; Peirce, M.A.; Rahmani, A.R.; Fonseca, D.M.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) to Hawaii has provided a model system for studying the influence of exotic disease on naive host populations. Little is known, however, about the origin or the genetic variation of Hawaii's malaria and traditional classification methods have confounded attempts to place the parasite within a global ecological and evolutionary context. Using fragments of the parasite mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the nuclear gene dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase obtained from a global survey of greater than 13 000 avian samples, we show that Hawaii's avian malaria, which can cause high mortality and is a major limiting factor for many species of native passerines, represents just one of the numerous lineages composing the morphological parasite species. The single parasite lineage detected in Hawaii exhibits a broad host distribution worldwide and is dominant on several other remote oceanic islands, including Bermuda and Moorea, French Polynesia. The rarity of this lineage in the continental New World and the restriction of closely related lineages to the Old World suggest limitations to the transmission of reproductively isolated parasite groups within the morphological species. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  17. Experimental infection of mice with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Khattar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The nine serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds worldwide. APMV-1, also called Newcastle disease virus, was shown to be attenuated in non-avian species and is being developed as a potential vector for human vaccines. In the present study, we extended this evaluation to the other eight serotypes by evaluating infection in BALB/c mice. Mice were inoculated intranasally with a prototype strain of each of the nine serotypes and monitored for clinical disease, gross pathology, histopathology, virus replication and viral antigen distribution, and seroconversion. On the basis of multiple criteria, each of the APMV serotypes except serotype 5 was found to replicate in mice. Five of the serotypes produced clinical disease and significant weight loss in the following order of severity: 1, 2>6, 9>7. However, disease was short-lived. The other serotypes produced no evident clinical disease. Replication of all of the APMVs except APMV-5 in the nasal turbinates and lungs was confirmed by the recovery of infectious virus and by substantial expression of viral antigen in the epithelial lining detected by immunohistochemistry. Trace levels of infectious APMV-4 and -9 were detected in the brain of some animals; otherwise, no virus was detected in the brain, small intestine, kidney, or spleen. Histologically, infection with the APMVs resulted in lung lesions consistent with broncho-interstitial pneumonia of varying severity that were completely resolved at 14 days post infection. All of the mice infected with the APMVs except APMV-5 produced serotype-specific HI serum antibodies, confirming a lack of replication of APMV-5. Taken together, these results demonstrate that all APMV serotypes except APMV-5 are capable of replicating in mice with minimal disease and pathology.

  18. Prevalence and diversity patterns of avian blood parasites in degraded African rainforest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasar, Anthony; Loiseau, Claire; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Iezhova, Tatjana; Smith, Thomas B; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2009-10-01

    Land use changes including deforestation, road construction and agricultural encroachments have been linked to the increased prevalence of several infectious diseases. In order to better understand how deforestation affects the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases in wildlife, nine paired sites were sampled (disturbed vs. undisturbed habitats) in Southern Cameroon. We studied the diversity, prevalence and distribution of avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and other related haemosporidians (species of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) from these sites in two widespread species of African rainforest birds, the yellow-whiskered greenbul (Andropadus latirostris, Pycnonotidae) and the olive sunbird (Cyanomitra olivacea, Nectariniidae). Twenty-six mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages were identified: 20 Plasmodium lineages and 6 Haemoproteus lineages. These lineages showed no geographic specificity, nor significant differences in lineage diversity between habitat types. However, we found that the prevalence of Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus infections were significantly higher in undisturbed than in deforested habitats (Leucocytozoon spp. 50.3% vs. 35.8%, Haemoproteus spp. 16.3% vs. 10.8%). We also found higher prevalence for all haemosporidian parasites in C. olivacea than in A. latirostris species (70.2% vs. 58.2%). Interestingly, we found one morphospecies of Plasmodium in C. olivacea, as represented by a clade of related lineages, showed increased prevalence at disturbed sites, while another showed a decrease, testifying to different patterns of transmission, even among closely related lineages of avian malaria, in relation to deforestation. Our work demonstrates that anthropogenic habitat change can affect host-parasite systems and result in opposing trends in prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in wild bird populations.

  19. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  20. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as a...

  1. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG, which involved the patient’s arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  2. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  3. Infectious diseases | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Many infectious diseases are rooted in environmental conditions and mediated by social and individual determinants. ... Responding to the challenge, the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supports ecohealth research and networks to make a difference in addressing intractable infectious ...

  4. African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Infectious Diseases (AJID) is a new journal that publishes papers which make an original contribution to the understanding of infectious diseases. Any paper relating to impact, care, prevention and social planning will be considered for publication. Reports of research related to any ...

  5. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  6. Tickborne infectious diseases: diagnosis and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunha, Burke A

    2000-01-01

    ... to particular flora and fauna. The purpose of Tickborne Infectious Diseases: Diagnosis and Management is to condense in a single book different approaches and paradigms of tickborne infectious diseases. Three chapters are devoted to background information, including the natural history of ticks, the diagnostic procedures of tickborne diseases, and the new tick-transm...

  7. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  8. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  9. What we are watching—five top global infectious disease threats, 2012: a perspective from CDC’s Global Disease Detection Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Kira A.; Ijaz, Kashef; Dowell, Scott F.; Chow, Catherine C.; Chitale, Rohit A.; Bresee, Joseph S.; Mintz, Eric; Pallansch, Mark A.; Wassilak, Steven; McCray, Eugene; Arthur, Ray R.

    2013-01-01

    Disease outbreaks of international public health importance continue to occur regularly; detecting and tracking significant new public health threats in countries that cannot or might not report such events to the global health community is a challenge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Global Disease Detection (GDD) Operations Center, established in early 2007, monitors infectious and non-infectious public health events to identify new or unexplained global public health threats and better position CDC to respond, if public health assistance is requested or required. At any one time, the GDD Operations Center actively monitors approximately 30–40 such public health threats; here we provide our perspective on five of the top global infectious disease threats that we were watching in 2012: (1) avian influenza A (H5N1), (2) cholera, (3) wild poliovirus, (4) enterovirus-71, and (5) extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:23827387

  10. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Ji Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis

  11. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  12. [Medication rules of famous veteran traditional Chinese medicine doctor in treatment of chronic bronchitis based on implicit structure model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ping; Cai, Yong-Min; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    To explore the medication rules of famous veteran traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) doctors in treatment of chronic bronchitis, a structured medical record database for famous veteran TCM doctors in modern clinical books was established. First, Lantern 3.1.2(Kongmin light) implicit structure analysis software was used to build an implicit structure model and make an implicit interpretation. Then, SAS 9.1 was adopted to mine herb-herb, herb-symptom and herb-syndrome association rules. Through the mining, 1 274 commonly used herbs for chronic bronchitis were found, including liquorice, bitter almond, pinellia, dried tangerine or orange peel, poria cocos. The medicine types included antiasthmatic medicine, qi-tonifying medicine, and heat-phlegm removing medicine. The medicine tastes included sweet, pungent and bitter. The meridian distributions included lung, spleen and stomach channels. The famous commonly used prescriptions included Xiaoqinglong decoction, Maxing Shigan decoction and Erchen decoction. The 147-herb implicit structure model for the first diagnosis was built to get 44 hidden variables, 88 hidden classes, 7 comprehensive clustering models, 9 dual herb associations, 50 triple herb associations and 89 quadruple associations. Totally 297 medical records for the second diagnosis were compared to obtain 24 herb-symptom associations, which reduced ephedra, bitter almond, pinellia and added poria cocos, atractylodes, dangshen, 20 dual herb associations and 8 triple herb associations. A model for the top 83 symptoms and top 96 herbs in the first diagnosis was built to get 50 hidden variables and 101 hidden classes. The commonly used herbs of famous veteran TCM doctors included bitter almond, pinellia, dried tangerine or orange peel, poria cocos, which feature mild property and sweet favor and enter lung, spleen, kidney meridians; the commonly herbal pairs included atractylodes and poria cocos, asarum, fructus schisandrae and pinellia, as well as poria cocos

  13. Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol–theophylline–guaiphenesin mixture) in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Yakoot; Amel Salem; Abdel-Mohsen Omar

    2010-01-01

    Mostafa Yakoot1, Amel Salem2, Abdel-Mohsen Omar31Green Clinics and Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Al-Mabarah Hospital, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin® (Pharco Pharmaceuti...

  14. Up-regulation of serum periostin and squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels in infants with acute bronchitis due to respiratory syncytial virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Nakamura

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periostin and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Acute bronchitis due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection during infancy exhibits an asthma-like pathogenesis, suggesting that it may be associated with the subsequent development of asthma. However, the mechanism by which RSV infection leads to development of asthma has not yet been fully elucidated. Methods: Infants younger than 36 months were enrolled and classified into three groups. Group I included patients hospitalized with RSV-induced bronchitis. These patients were further stratified into two sub-groups according to whether the criteria for the modified Asthma Predictive Index (mAPI had been met: Group I consisted of mAPI (+ and mAPI (− patients; Group II included patients with food allergy as a positive control group; and Group III included children with no allergy as a negative control group. Serum periostin and SCCA levels were measured in the groups. This study was registered as a clinical trial (UMIN000012339. Results: We enrolled 14 subjects in Group I mAPI (+, 22 in Group I mAPI (−, 18 in Group II, and 18 in Group III. In Group I, the serum periostin and SCCA levels were significantly higher during the acute phase compared with the recovery phase. However, no significant differences were found between Group I mAPI (+ and mAPI (−. Conclusions: The serum periostin and SCCA levels increased during acute RSV bronchitis. Both periostin and SCCA may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute bronchitis due to RSV. Keywords: Infants, Periostin, Respiratory syncytial virus, Squamous cell carcinoma antigen, T-helper 2 cell cytokines

  15. 2 original article non-attenuation of highly pathogenic avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Ularamu, H. G1., Ponman, S1 and Nwagbo, I2., 1 FAO Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle. Disease (West and Central ... Avian influenza H5N1 represents one of the most researched viruses in laboratories world-wide in recent times with regards ..... Cayouette B. Kinetics of ultra- violet light inactivation of.

  16. High prevalence of avian malaria infection to avifauna at Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was undertaken during January and February 2004, to determine the epidemiological risk of avian malaria infection to seabirds at the proposed marine animal rehabilitation complex, to be sited at Cape Receife. Despite low numbers of mosquitoes trapped, the incidence of avian malaria infections was ...

  17. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  18. Avian fossils from the Early Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian remains from the Early Miocene (~17 Ma) Moghra Formation of Egypt include new records of 'waterbirds' (storks, herons, pelicans and allies) and a ratite. Only a single avian fossil has been previously reported from Wadi Moghra and, thus, additional knowledge of the avifauna complements previously documented ...

  19. Avian influenza, Newcastle and Gumboro disease antibodies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on avian influenza and Newcastle disease focus on waterfowls, considered natural reservoirs of these viruses. This study surveyed avian influenza (AI), Gumboro and Newcastle disease antibodies and antigens in birds in live wild bird markets (LWBMs), live poultry markets (LPMs) and free flying in Kaduna State ...

  20. Avian nestling predation by endangered Mount Graham red squirrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2007-01-01

    Studies using artificial nests or remote cameras have documented avian predation by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although several direct observations of avian predation events are known in the northern range of the red squirrel distribution, no accounts have been reported in the southern portion. We observed predation upon a hermit thrush...

  1. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  3. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  4. Avian research in the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice Van Horne

    2005-01-01

    Avian research in the Federal Government is in a crisis. Yes, there is a strong interest in avian research, as evidenced by the size and level of interest in this conference. But political parties increasingly see wildlife research as expendable. At the same time, the reaction to environment-friendly legislation of the 1970s and 1980s has been strong from both sides....

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  6. Socioeconomic Impacts of Avian Influenza on Small and Backyard ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    and compensation schemes are more difficult to enforce than in large commercial poultry farms. Moreover, small and backyard farmers have fewer reserves to cope with the financial impact of avian influenza and, possibly, greater motivation to circumvent government control measures. The Asian Partnership for Avian ...

  7. Ontogeny of avian thermoregulation from a neural point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarendse, P.J.J.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2007-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation differs among (avian) species, but in all species both neural and endocrinological processes are involved. In this review the neural processes in ontogeny of thermoregulation during the prenatal and early postnatal phase are discussed. Only in a few avian species

  8. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Isolate. 113.70 Section 113.70 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or modified...

  9. Detection of avian nephritis virus and chicken astrovirus in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian nephritis virus (ANV) and chicken astrovirus (CAstV) are widely distributed in poultry flocks worldwide, causing growth retardation. However, these avian astroviruses have not been previously diagnosed in poultry species in Nigeria. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRTPCR) and reverse ...

  10. Nanostructures for the development of vaccines against avian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... Photo: IDRC / Sven Torfinn. The impact of avian influenza. The livelihoods of smallholder farmers, who most frequently own poultry have been severely impacted by recent outbreaks of avian influenza (AI). The severity of the disease can range from mild to extremely severe cases with up to a 100% mortality ...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF PHYTO- AND ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY OF ACUTE BRONCHITIS IN CHILDREN: RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Namazova-Baranova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses cause most cases of acute bronchitis, antibacterial drugs are still widely used to treat children with such diseases; this results in development of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, one of the key objectives of clinical medicine is now an effort to reduce unreasonable use of antibacterial agents. A multicenter double blind randomized clinical trial (E-BRO-PCT involved 182 2-6-years-old children and was aimed at assessing effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy (the syrup characterized by a fixed combination of thyme herb and ivy leaf extracts of acute bronchitis. Patients were divided into groups according to the type of therapy: phyto-, antibacterial or multimodal therapy. The level of procalcitonin (PCT – a bacterial inflammation marker – was measured retrospectively in the blood samples of all the children obtained at inclusion to the study. Therapy effectiveness was assessed by means of overall assessment of response to treatment on day 7. The share of children with low PCT and positive response to phytotherapy was comparable to the share of children subjected to antibiotic therapy. This is also true for all the patients included in the study regardless of the PCT level. Phyto- and antibacterial therapy featured a comparable safety profile; however, according to the researchers, the former one came out slightly better. Results of this study convincingly demonstrate that phytotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated type of treatment of acute bronchitis in children. 

  12. Production of vaccines for treatment of infectious diseases by transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina LEDL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first pathogen antigen was expressed in transgenic plants with the aim of producing edible vaccine in early 1990s, transgenic plants have become a well-established expression system for production of alternative vaccines against various human and animal infectious diseases. The main focus of plant expression systems in the last five years has been on improving expression of well-studied antigens such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV, bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV, footh and mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, rabies G protein, rotavirus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV, Norwalk virus capsid protein (NVCP, avian influenza virus H5N1, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LT-B, cholera toxin B (CT-B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, artherosclerosis, ebola and anthrax. Significant increases in expression have been obtained using improved expression vectors, different plant species and transformation methods.

  13. Avian mycobacteriosis in companion birds: 20-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarolla, Giovanni; Liandris, Emmanouil; Pisoni, Giuliano; Sassera, Davide; Grilli, Guido; Gallazzi, Daniele; Sironi, Giuseppe; Moroni, Paolo; Piccinini, Renata; Rampin, Tiziana

    2009-02-02

    The causative agents of avian mycobacteriosis in pet birds are rarely identified. The aim of this study is to add information about the etiology of avian mycobacteriosis. The identification of mycobacterium species in 27 cases of avian mycobacteriosis in pet birds was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of a rRNA hypervariable region. Avian mycobacteriosis appeared to be an infrequent diagnosis. Interestingly, a few cases of avian mycobacteriosis were recorded in very young birds. The most commonly affected species were the canary (Serinus canarius), the Eurasian goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) and the red siskin (Spinus cucullatus). All but one bird were infected with Mycobacterium genavense. Mycobacterium avium was identified only in one case.

  14. New USDA licensed avian influenza vaccine (rHVT-AI) for protection against H5 avian influenza and usage discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, a new avian influenza vaccine was licensed by USDA for use in the United States for protection of commercial poultry. The vaccine is a recombinant herpes virus of turkeys expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5 subtype avian influenza virus belonging to the 2.2 clade of the H5N1 highly ...

  15. [Epidemiological perspectives on SARS and avian influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    SARS is a respiratory infection caused by Coronavirus (Nidoviruses, RNA) from which 3 groups are known. Group 1 affects dogs, cats, pigs, and the human agent is 229 E. Group 2 affects bovines or rodents, and the human agent is OC43. And group 3 corresponds to the avian pathology.... The epidemics emerged on February 2003 in Guangdong, South China, due to consumption of exotic animals (Civeta, etc.), and it spread through interperson contagion to other regions in Asia, America and Europe. Incubation period is about 2-7 days. Transmission Of the virus is person-to person, but also by excretions and residual water. Basic reproductive rate is 2 to 4, and it is considered that 2.7 persons are infected from the initial case. In June 2003, SARS affected over 8,000 people and 774 were killed. Mortality approaches to 10%, and it is higher among older people rising up to 50% in those aged over 65 years. It is important to quickly establish action protocols regarding clinical, epidemiological and prevention aspects. Avian influenza is an infection caused by type A Influenza Orthomixovirus, in which migration birds and wild ducks are the main reservoir. Avian viruses correspond to H5, H7, H9. In 1997 it was observed that type AH5N1 jumped interspecies barrier and affected 18 humans, and 6 of them died. At the end of 2003 and in 2004 this type of poultry flu was described in Asia. FAO has emphasized that sacrifice of chicken in affected farms is the most effective measure to fight against the disease. It has also been established suppression of imports from these countries. There is no evidence on interperson contagion from chicken contagion, nor on food-borne contagion to humans.

  16. The avian transcriptome response to malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-05-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 postinfection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). We found considerable differences in the transcriptomes of infected and uninfected individuals, with a large number of genes differentially expressed during both peak and decreasing parasitemia stages. These genes were overrepresented among functions involved in the immune system, stress response, cell death regulation, metabolism, and telomerase activity. Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse) revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. By using RNA-sequencing we gained a more complete view of the host response, and were able to pinpoint not only well-documented host genes but also unannotated genes with clear significance during infection, such as microRNAs. This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe that it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. The threshold of a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrong; Zhang, Xinhong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect in human population and saturation effect within avian population is investigated. This model describes the transmission of avian influenza among avian population and human population in random environments. For stochastic avian-only system, persistence in the mean and extinction of the infected avian population are studied. For the avian-human influenza epidemic system, sufficient conditions for the existence of an ergodic stationary distribution are obtained. Furthermore, a threshold of this stochastic model which determines the outcome of the disease is obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  18. Infectious spondylitis and its differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Infectious spondylitis can be diagnosed early and reliably by MRI, given that the most important diagnostic criteria are present. These criteria are bone marrow edema adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates, disk space of high signal intensity and enhancement of bone adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates and of the disk space. If not all of these criteria are present, diagnostic accuracy decreases. Erosive osteochondritis, spondylarthritis, osteoporotic fractures of two contiguous vertebral end plates, active Schmorl's nodes as well as neuropathic spine may mimic an infectious spondylitis. This paper presents typical and atypical morphologic patterns of infectious spondylitis as well as the differentiation criteria from the above mentioned diseases. (orig.)

  19. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    2001-01-01

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  20. Current genomic editing approaches in avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sub; Kang, Kyung Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    The chicken was domesticated from Red Jungle Fowl over 8000years ago and became one of the major food sources worldwide. At present, the poultry industry is one of the largest industrial animal stocks in the world, and its economic scale is expanding significantly with increasing consumption. Additionally, since Aristotle used chicken eggs as a model to provide remarkable insights into how life begins, chickens have been used as invaluable and powerful experimental materials for studying embryo development, immune systems, biomedical processes, and hormonal regulation. Combined with advancements in efficient transgenic technology, avian models have become even more important than would have been expected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  2. Avian influenza overview September–November 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian; Kuiken, Thijs; Mulatti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    the outbreaks, no transmission to humans has been identified in the EU. The report includes an update of the list of wild bird target species for passive surveillance activities that is based on reported AI-infected wild birds since 2006. The purpose of this list is to provide information on which bird species...... the continuing threat of this avian influenza virus to human health and possible introduction via migratory wild birds into Europe. Close monitoring is required of the situation in Africa with regards to HPAI of the subtypes A(H5N1) and A(H5N8), given the rapidity of the evolution and the uncertainty...

  3. Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teti, A.; Rizzoli, R.; Zambonin Zallone, A. (Univ. of Bari (Italy))

    1991-02-14

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with ({sup 125}I)--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated.

  4. Tissue interactions of avian viral attachment proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can infect a wide range of hosts; varying from bacteria and plants to animals and humans. While many viral infections may pass unnoticed, some are of major importance due to their implications on health and welfare of plants, animals and/or humans. In particular, viruses that can infect avian hosts have been studied intensively due the occurrence of the pandemics of highly pathogenic influenza A virus infection or “bird flu’’. Viral infections in domesticated birds can result in huge ...

  5. Influenza viruses production: Evaluation of a novel avian cell line DuckCelt®-T17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiot, Emma; Proust, Anaïs; Traversier, Aurélien; Durous, Laurent; Dappozze, Frédéric; Gras, Marianne; Guillard, Chantal; Balloul, Jean-Marc; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel

    2017-05-29

    The influenza vaccine manufacturing industry is looking for production cell lines that are easily scalable, highly permissive to multiple viruses, and more effective in term of viral productivity. One critical characteristic of such cell lines is their ability to grow in suspension, in serum free conditions and at high cell densities. Influenza virus causing severe epidemics both in human and animals is an important threat to world healthcare. The repetitive apparition of influenza pandemic outbreaks in the last 20years explains that manufacturing sector is still looking for more effective production processes to replace/supplement embryonated egg-based process. Cell-based production strategy, with a focus on avian cell lines, is one of the promising solutions. Three avian cell lines, namely duck EB66®cells (Valneva), duck AGE.CR® cells (Probiogen) and quail QOR/2E11 cells (Baxter), are now competing with traditional mammalian cell platforms (Vero and MDCK cells) used for influenza vaccine productions and are currently at advance stage of commercial development for the manufacture of influenza vaccines. The DuckCelt®-T17 cell line presented in this work is a novel avian cell line developed by Transgene. This cell line was generated from primary embryo duck cells with the constitutive expression of the duck telomerase reverse transcriptase (dTERT). The DuckCelt®-T17 cells were able to grow in batch suspension cultures and serum-free conditions up to 6.5×10 6 cell/ml and were easily scaled from 10ml up to 3l bioreactor. In the present study, DuckCelt®-T17 cell line was tested for its abilities to produce various human, avian and porcine influenza strains. Most of the viral strains were produced at significant infectious titers (>5.8 log TCID50/ml) with optimization of the infection conditions. Human strains H1N1 and H3N2, as well as all the avian strains tested (H5N2, H7N1, H3N8, H11N9, H12N5) were the most efficiently produced with highest titre reached of 9

  6. [Equine infectious anemia--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed.

  7. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  8. A Holistic View of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himgauri K. Kulkarni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance; Lisa A. Beltz; (2011. Jossey-Bass, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. San Francisco, CA. 700 pages.

  9. BACKYARD TURKEYS AS DISEASES RESERVORY FOR WILD BIRDS AND POULTRY IN THREE ECOSYSTEMS OF THE MEXICAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify the kind of avian diseases could be transmits the backyard turkeys to the Oaxaca's Coast wild life and poultry, a clinical sanitary evaluation was performed in backyard turkeys who grassing on places that could be contact with wild life, in three different ecosystems: cloud forest, medium jungle deciduous and palm trees. The evaluation was performed on six male turkeys with a year and a half old, six female with six months of age, and six poults with less of eight months of age. The laboratory tests included: necropsy for clinical diagnosis of diseases and for a hystopathological examination of tissues; Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests to diagnose Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza. Serum Plate Agglutination Test to identify antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Salmonella pullorum, ELISA to identify Infectious Bronchitis and Infectious Bursal Disease. In addition, laboratory analyses were done to find internal and external parasites. The frequency of diseases was estimated with descriptive statistics and the correlation between Ecosystem X Turkeys Age was calculated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Was identify Avian Pox, antibodies from Newcastle Disease, Avian Influenza, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Bursal Disease; Fowl Typhoid, Colibacillocis, Staphylococcosis, Infectious Sinusitis, Infectious Synovitis. The internal parasites identified were Ascaridia gallinae, Eimeria dispersa, Eimeria meleagridis, Heterakis gallinae and Tetramenes sp; and the external parasite Dermanyssus gallinae. All the diseases and parasitic diseases are dangerous for the poultry and the wild life. A relationship exist between ecosystem and diseases at different ages in backyard turkeys.

  10. Infectious Urethritis in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, Edwin M.

    1975-01-01

    Acute and recurrent infectious urethritis in men and women is commonly seen by physicians. Since specific therapy varies widely with the type of urethritis present, the proper diagnosis must be clearly established if curative drug therapy is to be selected. It is valuable, therefore, to review the diagnosis and therapy of the various forms of infectious urethritis that are recognized today in both men and women. PMID:1199099

  11. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, CC; Vannberg, FO; Chapman, SJ; Guo, H; Wong, SH; Walley, AJ; Vukcevic, D; Rautanen, A; Mills, TC; Chang, K-C; Kam, K-M; Crampin, AC; Ngwira, B; Leung, C-C; Tam, C-M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. METHODS Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya,...

  12. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie Ulrikka

    2017-01-01

    Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark......Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark...

  13. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F

    2008-01-22

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of 'avian' characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  14. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  15. Developmental studies of avian brain organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Avian brain organization or brain Bauplan is identical with that of vertebrates in general. This essay visits avian studies that contained advances or discussions about brain organization, trying to explain critically what they contributed. In order to start from a specific background, the new prevailing paradigm as regards brain organization, the prosomeric model, is presented first. Next a brief historic survey is made of how ideas on this topic evolved from the start of modern neuromorphology at the end of the 19th century. Longitudinal zonal organization with or without transverse segmentation (neuromeres) was the first overall concept applied to the brain. The idea of neuromeric structure later decayed in favour of a columnar model. This emphasized functional correlations rather than causal developmental content, assimilating forebrain functions to hindbrain ones. Though it became prevalent in the post-world-war period of neuroscience, in the last decades of the 20th century advances in molecular biology allowed developmental genes to be mapped, and it became evident that gene expression patterns support the old neuromeric model rather than the columnar one. This was also corroborated by modern experimental approaches (fate-mapping and analysis of patterning).

  16. Seasonal change in the avian hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Functional window of the avian compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Kondabagil, Kiran; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2017-05-01

    The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation. While these lend support to the radical-pair model, we find that in its simplest form-or even with minor augmentations-it cannot quantitatively explain the observed width of the functional window. This suggests deeper generalization of the model, possibly in terms of more nuclei or more subtle environmental interaction than has been considered hitherto. Finally, we examine a possible biological purpose for the functional window; even assuming evolutionary benefit from radical-pair magnetoreception, it seems likely that the functional window could be just a corollary thereof, imparting no additional advantage.

  19. Milestones in avian coccidiosis research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D

    2014-03-01

    This article describes some of the milestones in research concerned with protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria that infect birds and cause the disease coccidiosis. The time period covered is from 1891, when oocysts were first found in the ceca of diseased chickens, to the present. Progress in our understanding has lagged behind that of other protozoan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium despite the enormous importance of Eimeria to animal livestock production. Nevertheless, applied research by universities, government agencies, and private industry has resulted in the successful development of methods of control, research that continues today. The topics covered and the references provided are selective and include life cycles and biology, pathology, ultrastructure, biochemistry, immunity, genetics, host cell invasion, species identification, taxonomy, chemotherapy, vaccination, and literature concerned with avian coccidiosis. This review is primarily concerned with the avian species of Eimeria that infect poultry, but some important advances, principally in immunology, have been made using species that infect rodents and rabbits. These are included where appropriate.

  20. Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Dotters-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases codes. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic data, preexisting medical conditions, and acute medical and infectious complications for women with multiple versus singleton gestations. Results. Among women with multiple gestation, 38.4 per 1,000 women had an infectious complication compared to 12.8 per 1,000 women with singletons. The most significant infectious morbidity associated with multiple gestation was intestinal infections, pyelonephritis, influenza, and pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables, infectious complications at delivery persisted for women with multiples, though the association was dependent on mode of delivery. Conclusions. Women with multiple gestations are at increased risk for infectious morbidity identified at the time of delivery. This association was diminished among women who had a cesarean suggesting that operative delivery is not responsible for this association.

  1. Implications of within-farm transmission for network dynamics: Consequences for the spread of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickbakhsh, Sema; Matthews, Louise; Dent, Jennifer E.; Innocent, Giles T.; Arnold, Mark E.; Reid, Stuart W.J.; Kao, Rowland R.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of considering coupled interactions across multiple population scales has not previously been studied for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the British commercial poultry industry. By simulating the within-flock transmission of HPAI using a deterministic S-E-I-R model, and by incorporating an additional environmental class representing infectious faeces, we tracked the build-up of infectious faeces within a poultry house over time. A measure of the transmission risk (TR) was computed for each farm by linking the amount of infectious faeces present each day of an outbreak with data describing the daily on-farm visit schedules for a major British catching company. Larger flocks tended to have greater levels of these catching-team visits. However, where density-dependent contact was assumed, faster outbreak detection (according to an assumed mortality threshold) led to a decreased opportunity for catching-team visits to coincide with an outbreak. For this reason, maximum TR-levels were found for mid-range flock sizes (~25,000–35,000 birds). When assessing all factors simultaneously using multivariable linear regression on the simulated outputs, those related to the pattern of catching-team visits had the largest effect on TR, with the most important movement-related factor depending on the mode of transmission. Using social network analysis on a further database to inform a measure of between-farm connectivity, we identified a large fraction of farms (28%) that had both a high TR and a high potential impact at the between farm level. Our results have counter-intuitive implications for between-farm spread that could not be predicted based on flock size alone, and together with further knowledge of the relative importance of transmission risk and impact, could have implications for improved targeting of control measures. PMID:23746799

  2. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Hénaux

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates, considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1-2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50-60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  3. Cell-mediated immune responses in the head-associated lymphoid tissues induced to a live attenuated avian coronavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Rucha S; Gulley, Stephen L; van Ginkel, Frederik W

    2013-12-01

    Humoral immunity is important for controlling viral diseases of poultry, but recent studies have indicated that cytotoxic T cells also play an important role in the immune response to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). To better understand the cell mediated immune responses to IBV in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments chickens were ocularly vaccinated with IBV. This induced a lymphocyte expansion in head-associated lymphoid tissues (HALT) and to a lesser extent in the spleen, followed by a rapid decline, probably due to homing of lymphocytes out of these organs and contraction of the lymphocyte population. This interpretation was supported by observations that changes in mononuclear cells were mirrored by that in CD3(+)CD44(+) T cell abundance, which presumably represent T effector cells. Increased interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression was observed in the mucosal immune compartment, i.e., HALT, after primary vaccination, but shifted to the systemic immune compartment after boosting. In contrast, the expression of cytotoxicity-associated genes, i.e., granzyme A (GZMA) and perforin mRNA, remained associated with the HALT after boosting. Thus, an Ark-type IBV ocular vaccine induces a central memory IFN-γ response in the spleen while the cytotoxic effector memory response, as measured by GZMA and perforin mRNA expression, remains associated with CALT after boosting. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R G; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  5. Data base on avian mortality on man-made structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computerized data base concerning avian mortality on man-made structures is available for searching at the Ecological Sciences Information Center of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This data base, which contains entries from the available literature, provides information on avian mortality from either collision into or electrocution on man-made structures. Primary emphasis has been placed on avian collision with obstacles such as television and radio towers, airport ceilometers, transmission lines, and cooling towers. Other structures included in the studies are fences, glass walls and windows, lighthouses, telegraph and telephone wires, buildings, monuments, smokestacks, and water towers.

  6. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size...... this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits....

  7. Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy and plastic bronchitis: characterizing current-era risk factors, course, and progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Kurt R.; Stringer, Kathleen A.; Donohue, Janet E.; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Characterize the medical history, disease progression, and treatment of current-era patients with the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis (PB). Study Design A novel survey that queried demographics, medical details, and treatment information was piloted and placed online via a Facebook portal allowing social media to power the study. Participation regardless of PLE or PB diagnosis was allowed. Case control analyses compared patients with PLE and PB to uncomplicated control Fontan patients. Results The survey was completed by 671 subjects including 76 with PLE, 46 with PB, and 7 with both. Median PLE diagnosis was 2.5 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for PLE occurred in 71% with 41% hospitalized ≥ 3 times. Therapy varied significantly. PLE patients more commonly had hypoplastic left ventricle (62% vs 44% control; OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.5), chylothorax (66% vs 41%; OR 3.0, CI 1.6–5.3), and cardiothoracic surgery in addition to staged palliation (17% vs 5%; OR 4.3, CI 1.6, 11.2). Median PB diagnosis was 2 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for PB occurred in 91% with 61% hospitalized ≥3 times. Therapy was very diverse. PB patients more commonly had chylothorax at any surgery (72% vs 51%; OR 2.5, CI 1.2–5.1) and seasonal allergies (52% vs 36%; OR 2.0, CI 1.0–3.9). Conclusions Patient-specific factors are associated with diagnoses of PLE or PB. Treatment strategies are diverse without clear patterns. These results provide a foundation upon which to design future therapeutic studies and identify a clear need for forming consensus approaches to treatment. PMID:25661406

  8. Mild asthma and chronic bronchitis seem to influence functional exercise capacity: a multi-case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Girardi, Paolo; Ferrari, Marcello; Olivieri, Mario; Accordini, Simone; Bombieri, Cristina; Bortolami, Oscar; Braggion, Marco; Cappa, Veronica; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Locatelli, Francesca; Nicolis, Morena; Perbellini, Luigi; Sembeni, Silvia; Verlato, Giuseppe; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; de Marco, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In the Genes Environment Interaction in Respiratory Diseases population-based multi-case control study, we investigated whether asthma, chronic bronchitis (CB) and rhinitis were associated with a reduced 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and whether the 6MWD determinants were similar for subjects with/without respiratory diseases. Cases of asthma (n = 360), CB (n = 120), rhinitis (n = 203) and controls (no respiratory diseases: n = 302) were recruited. The variation in the 6MWD across the groups was analyzed by ANCOVA, adjusting for gender, age, height, weight and comorbidity. The 6MWD determinants were studied by linear regression, and heterogeneity across the cases and controls was investigated. The 6MWD differed across cases and controls (p = 0.01). It was shorter for cases of asthma (-17.1, 95% CI -28.3 to -5.8 m) and CB (-20.7, 95% CI: -36.6 to -4.8 m) than for controls (604 ± 68 m on average), but not for cases of rhinitis. The negative association between age and the 6MWD was significant for cases of CB, but not for the other groups (p = 0.001). Even at the level of severity found in the general population, asthma and CB could influence the 6MWD, which seems to reflect the functional exercise level for daily physical activities. The negative association between ageing and the 6MWD was particularly strong in subjects with CB. Our report adds to the mounting evidence that CB is not a trivial condition, especially in the ageing adult population, and it supports the importance of monitoring functional capacity and of physical reconditioning in mild asthma. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. A novel recombinant retrovirus in the genomes of modern birds combines features of avian and mammalian retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzy, Jamie E; Gifford, Robert J; Johnson, Welkin E; Coffin, John M

    2014-03-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent ancestral sequences of modern retroviruses or their extinct relatives. The majority of ERVs cluster alongside exogenous retroviruses into two main groups based on phylogenetic analyses of the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. Class I includes gammaretroviruses, and class II includes lentiviruses and alpha-, beta-, and deltaretroviruses. However, analyses of the transmembrane subunit (TM) of the envelope glycoprotein (env) gene result in a different topology for some retroviruses, suggesting recombination events in which heterologous env sequences have been acquired. We previously demonstrated that the TM sequences of five of the six genera of orthoretroviruses can be divided into three types, each of which infects a distinct set of vertebrate classes. Moreover, these classes do not always overlap the host range of the associated RT classes. Thus, recombination resulting in acquisition of a heterologous env gene could in theory facilitate cross-species transmissions across vertebrate classes, for example, from mammals to reptiles. Here we characterized a family of class II avian ERVs, "TgERV-F," that acquired a mammalian gammaretroviral env sequence. Although TgERV-F clusters near a sister clade to alpharetroviruses, its genome also has some features of betaretroviruses. We offer evidence that this unusual recombinant has circulated among several avian orders and may still have infectious members. In addition to documenting the infection of a nongalliform avian species by a mammalian retrovirus, TgERV-F also underscores the importance of env sequences in reconstructing phylogenies and supports a possible role for env swapping in allowing cross-species transmissions across wide taxonomic distances. Retroviruses can sometimes acquire an envelope gene (env) from a distantly related retrovirus. Since env is a key determinant of host range, such an event affects the host range of the recombinant virus and can lead to the creation

  10. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  11. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  12. Certainties and Uncertainties Facing Emerging Respiratory Infectious Diseases: Lessons from SARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Chun Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Every emerging infectious disease is a challenge to the whole of mankind. There are uncertainties regarding whether there will be a pandemic, if it will be caused by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, when or where it will occur, how imminent or how severe it will be. No one can accurately predict if and when a given virus will become a pandemic virus. Pandemic prevention strategies must be based on preparing for the unexpected and being capable of reacting accordingly. There is growing evidence that infection control measures were helpful in containment of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS as well as avian influenza. Compliance of standard infection control measures, intensive promotion of hand and respiratory hygiene, vigilance and triage of patients with febrile illness, and specific infection control measures are key components to contain a highly contagious disease in hospital and to protect healthcare workers, patients and visitors. The importance of standard precautions for any patient and cleaning and disinfection for the healthcare environment cannot be overemphasized. SARS illustrated dramatically the potential of air travel and globalization for the dissemination of an emerging infectious disease. To prevent the potential serious consequences of pandemic influenza, timely implementation of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions locally within the outbreak area is the key to minimizing global spread. Herein, we relate our perspective on useful lessons derived from a review of the SARS epidemic that may be useful to physicians, especially when looking ahead to the next epidemic.

  13. Bronquite plástica em criança com talassemia alfa Plastic bronchitis in a child with thalassemia alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago N. Veras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A bronquite plástica é uma doença infreqüente na criança, sendo caracterizada por moldes ou cilindros mucofibrinosos na árvore traqueobrônquica. Faz parte do diagnóstico diferencial de crianças com insuficiência respiratória de início agudo, e o tratamento precoce é importante para a resolução do quadro. O objetivo deste relato é descrever um caso de bronquite plástica tratado com sucesso por endoscopia, em paciente portador de talassemia alfa. DESCRIÇÃO: Criança do sexo masculino, 3 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos significativos, apresentou quadro de insuficiência respiratória aguda, com achados radiológicos de atelectasia pulmonar sugestivos de aspiração de corpo estranho. Não havia sintomas respiratórios ou antecedentes de alergia ou infecções respiratórias de repetição. A realização de broncoscopia flexível, complementada por endoscopia rígida e exame anatomopatológico, evidenciou a presença de bronquite plástica. Após a realização da endoscopia, a criança evoluiu satisfatoriamente, com curva térmica afebril e extubação em 72 horas. Foram utilizadas medicações sintomáticas, sem necessidade de antimicrobianos. Dez dias após a alta, a radiografia de tórax encontrava-se normal. A talassemia alfa foi diagnosticada através da eletroforese de hemoglobina. COMENTÁRIOS: A importância clínica da bronquite plástica reside no fato de apresentar um quadro semelhante ao de outras doenças mais prevalentes, como a aspiração de corpo estranho e a asma brônquica. A suspeita do quadro recomenda a realização de endoscopia para diagnóstico e tratamento. É reconhecida a ocorrência de bronquite plástica em crianças com fibrose cística, pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca e anemia falciforme. No presente artigo, foi observada uma associação com talassemia alfa.OBJECTIVE: Plastic bronchitis is an unusual condition in children, associated with formation of mucofibrinous

  14. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee

  15. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  17. Impact of vitamin D on infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Malcolm D; Alvarez, Jessica A; Seidel, Natan; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have linked vitamin D status and infectious disease. This association is supported by the presence of the vitamin D receptor and CYP27B1 in immune cells. This review aims to consolidate data from clinical trials that used vitamin D for the treatment or prevention of infectious disease. The authors searched the term "(vitamin D OR ergocalciferol OR cholecalciferol OR vitamin D2 OR vitamin D3 OR calcitriol) AND (infection OR tuberculosis OR sepsis OR pneumonia)" with limits preset to manuscripts published in English and with human subjects. They identified controlled trials that measured infectious outcomes (eg, incidence and severity of disease, time to disease resolution or recurrence, measures of clinical improvement, mortality). Studies that used analog, topical or micronutrient formulations of vitamin D, assessed only vitamin D status or lacked a comparison group were excluded. The references from eligible manuscripts and from 2 recent reviews were scanned for additional manuscripts. One thousand two hundred eighty-four manuscripts were identified with our search terms, with 60 papers still eligible after review of the title and abstract. Full review of these papers, their references and 2 related reviews yielded 38 manuscripts. Although some prospective studies show positive results regarding vitamin D on infectious disease, several robust studies are negative. Factors such as high variability between studies, the difference in individual responsiveness to vitamin D and study designs that do not primarily investigate infectious outcomes may mask the effects of vitamin D on infections.

  18. Evaluation of Blood Alcohol Concentrations after Oral Administration of a Fixed Combination of Thyme Herb and Primrose Root Fluid Extract to Children with Acute Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, S; Stier, H; Weykam, S

    2016-02-01

    The application of alcohol-containing medicinal products to children has been a subject of discussion for many years. A safety threshold of 0.125‰ blood alcohol concentration following the administration of a single dose has been recommended by the European Medicines Agency.The aim of this clinical study was to prove the safety of administering a fixed combination of thyme herb and primrose root fluid extract (Bronchicum(®) Elixir) containing 4.9% ethanol. The herbal drug was administered for a period of 7-9 days to 16 children (ages 1-12 years) suffering from acute bronchitis for ≤ 48 h. After 3-5 days, a blood sample was taken 45 min (children ≥ 5 years: also 0 and 90 min) after application of the drug. The efficacy was assessed using the Bronchitis Severity Score. Global efficacy and tolerability were rated by the investigator and patients. All measured blood ethanol concentrations were below the threshold (mean value after 45 min: 0.0029 ± 0.0057‰ and after 90 min: 0.0051 ± 0.0078‰). The Bronchitis Severity Score decreased from 6.6 ± 1.0 to 0.9 ± 1.6 points. Global efficacy was assessed as "very good" and "good" in 60% (investigator) and 80% (patients) of cases. Global tolerability was rated as "very good" and "good" in more than 90% of cases. In conclusion, oral administration of the drug containing 4.9% ethanol to children (age 1-12 years) demonstrated a favourable risk/benefit ratio of the drug. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Artist conception of the Avian Development Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  20. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.