WorldWideScience

Sample records for avian flu vaccine

  1. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  2. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  3. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI. PMID:24491922

  4. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu ... WhiteHouse.gov USA.gov GobiernoUSA.gov BusinessUSA.gov Flu Basics Symptoms (CDC) Prevention (CDC) Treatment (CDC) Vaccination ( ...

  5. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  6. 禽流感疫苗研究进展%Progress on avian flu vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学东; 包振民; 王志亮; 李殿明

    2011-01-01

    禽流感是一种禽类的烈性传染病,在世界范围内广泛流传,严重威胁着养禽业.尤其是高致病性禽流感的流行,病死率极高,常常使国家和人民蒙受巨大的经济损失.禽流感的传染性极强,并可跨物种进行传播,禽流感作为一种全新的病种,已成为人类健康和生命的严重威胁,而面对禽流感病毒的侵害,人类自身却毫无免疫防护,所以必须加强禽流感的预防.由于禽流感病毒广泛存在于各种禽类和野生鸟类体内,因此禽流感的控制是一项长期艰巨的任务,疫苗的开发和使用是应对这项艰巨任务最实际、最有效和最经济的手段.理想的疫苗应该是在具备良好的安全性的前提下,不仅能够调动机体的体液免疫,产生病毒中和抗体,更能够充分调动机体的细胞免疫来充分发挥病毒清除机制.%Avian flu is a deadly infectious disease of poultry,which widespreads in the world and is a serious threat to the poultry industry. With high mortality,highly pathogenic avian influenza often makes the country and people suffer great economic losses. Avian flu has cross-species transmission due to the strong contagiousness. As a new disease,avian flu has become a serious threat to human health and life.Yet the human beings have no immune protection when facing to the virus, it is necessary to strengthen prevention of avian flu. As the avian flu virus widely exists in the bodies of a variety of poultry and wild bird,the control of avian flu becomes a long-term and arduous task. The development and use of vaccine are the most practical,effective and economical measures for it. In the premise of good safety, the ideal vaccine can not only mobilize the body's humoral immunity to produce virus-neutralizing antibodies, but also fully mobilize the cellular immunity to remove virus.

  7. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  8. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  9. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Furuya, Yoichi; Bowden, Timothy R.; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that γ-ray inactivated flu virus ...

  10. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Alsharifi; Yoichi Furuya; Bowden, Timothy R.; Mario Lobigs; Aulikki Koskinen; Matthias Regner; Lee Trinidad; Boyle, David B.; Arno Müllbacher

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that gamma-ray inactivated flu v...

  11. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  12. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...

  13. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  14. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that γ-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. Methodology/Principal Finding Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified γ-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (γ-Flu) effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of γ-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. Conclusions/Significance Intranasal γ-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections. PMID:19401775

  15. Intranasal flu vaccine protective against seasonal and H5N1 avian influenza infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alsharifi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza A (flu virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that gamma-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified gamma-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (gamma-Flu effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of gamma-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intranasal gamma-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections.

  16. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  17. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  18. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  19. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  20. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  1. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  2. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the ...

  3. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2012-01-01

    In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1), pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in ...

  4. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  5. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  6. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  7. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... of age and older). How are benefits of vaccination measured? Public health researchers measure how well flu ...

  8. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Why should pregnant women get a flu shot? Flu is more ... Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) . Is it safe for pregnant women and their developing babies to get a ...

  9. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seasonal influenza; some of those illnesses result in death. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially ... flu each year. Since 2004-2005, flu-related deaths in children reported to CDC during regular flu seasons have ...

  10. Are we ready for the avian flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    It may be tempting to dismiss headlines about a potential avian flu pandemic as "the sky is falling" sensationalism, but experts continue to warn that the disease is likely to show up here in the not-too-distant future. What must hospitals do to prepare for a sudden influx of patients and other huge demands such a crisis would create? PMID:16485802

  11. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  12. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  13. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... 1. Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease ... every year, usually between October and May. Flu is caused by ...

  14. 水禽禽流感免疫防控关键技术与措施%The Key Technology and Measures on the Vaccination for Prevention and Control of Waterfowl Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建红; 刘佑明; 张济培; 司兴奎; 张福英; 罗立新; 牛森

    2012-01-01

    How to improve the vaccination effect for prevention and control of waterfowl avian flu is always the concerns of clinical veterinary workers. In this paper the waterfowl bird flu prevention and control techniques were stated for controlling vaccine quality, formulating and implementating the immune program, monitoring the immune effect and providing the health measures. It will be useful for increasing the waterfowl avian flu prevention and control level and increasing the income of the farmers.%如何提高水禽禽流感(AD免疫防控的效果,一直是临床兽医工作者所关注的问题。本文根据“水禽禽流感的免疫防控关键技术研究”所获得的主要成果,从疫苗质量控制、免疫程序制订与实施、免疫效果监测、卫生与饲养管理措施等重要方面陈述了水禽AI防控的技术要点,望对提升水禽AI的防控水平、增加水禽养殖业收益方面有所帮助。

  15. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu...

  16. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... of the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical ...

  17. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the e...

  18. Early warning: Avian flu and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian flu has spread to 51 countries, 36 this year alone, many of which are densely populated and deprived. The joint FAO/IAEA programme is working on the rapid detection of emerging diseases, including bird flu, and using nuclear and radiation techniques in the process. The problems are serious and challenging, but nuclear technologies may offer a solution. For most developing countries, TAD (transboundary animal diseases) detection is still vital. The bottleneck is their inability to rapidly detect the virus and to determine early enough whether it is H5N1 or another subtype, so that authorities can take appropriate control measures. Serious efforts are focused on the early detection of the agents. Timely recognition of such viral infections would prevent the spread of the diseases to large animal populations in huge geographic areas. Thus, the development of novel, powerful diagnostic nuclear and nuclear-related assays is a crucial issue today in veterinary research and animal health care. Molecular virology offers a range of new methods, which are able to accelerate and improve the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals and in man. The molecular detection assays, like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, provide possibilities for a very rapid diagnosis. The detection of viruses can be completed within hours or hopefully even within minutes with a sensitivity level of less than one pathogenic organism. Molecular approaches have contributed significantly to the rapid detection of well-established, as well as newly emerging, infectious agents such as Nipah and Hendra viruses or corona viruses in the SARS scenario and the detection and molecular characterisation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype that threatens the world today. The nucleic acid amplification assays, although they were at first expensive and cumbersome, have become relatively cheap and user-friendly tools in the diagnostic laboratories

  19. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  20. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This ... is the best tool for prevention of the flu, should patients with immune deficiency be given the ...

  1. Personal Stories: Why Flu Vaccination Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-08

    In this podcast, moving personal stories help inform parents about the dangers of flu to children and the benefits of vaccination.  Created: 12/8/2008 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/8/2008.

  2. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  3. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  4. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  5. Continue to Vaccinate Patients and Staff Against the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-08

    This podcast is a reminder to health care providers about the importance of annual flu vaccination—it’s not too late! Health care providers should get their flu vaccine and continue offering and encouraging flu vaccination among their staff, colleagues, and patients.  Created: 2/8/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  6. FluBlok, a recombinant hemagglutinin influenza vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Manon M.J.; Patriarca, Peter A.; Treanor, John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract  FluBlok, a recombinant trivalent hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine produced in insect cell culture using the baculovirus expression system, provides an attractive alternative to the current egg‐based trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) manufacturing process. FluBlok contains three times more HA than TIV and does not contain egg‐protein or preservatives. This review discusses the four main clinical studies that were used to support licensure of FluBlok under the ‘Accelerated Appro...

  7. Virgin Coconut Oil Meningkatkan Aktivitas Fagositosis Makrofag Ayam Pedaging Pascavaksinasi Flu Burung (VIRGIN COCONUT OIL INCREASES THE PHAGOCYTOSIS ACTIVITY OF MACROPHAGE OF BROILER CHICKEN FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Yusuf Wachidah Yuniwarti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to find an alternative avian influenza prevention in broilers by increasinganimal’s antibody titer and macrophages phagocytic  activity.  Virgin coconut oil (VCO is a food supplementthat is proven safe for human consumption therefore it is assumed to be safe for the animal’s (chickens.Factorial design  2 vaccinated: unvaccinated x 4 (dose of VCO: 0, 5, 10 and 15 mL/kg feed were applied inthis study.  A total of 40 day day old chick were allocated in the eight treatments groups.  Feed and drinkingwater were available  ad libitum.  Antibody titers of the animals were detected using ELISA, whereasphagocytic activity of the macrophages were detected from spleen.  The result showed that the highestphagocytic activity and antibody titers were seen in chickens which were given VCO at 10 mL/kg feed.  It isconcluded that the VCO could increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages.

  8. Respons Antibodi terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam yang Divaksin Tetelo dan Tetelo-Flu Burung (NEWCASTLE DISEASE/ND ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF CHICKENS VACCINATED WITH ND SINGLE AND COMBINED ND AND AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antibody response of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens vaccinatedwith single inactivated Newcastle disease (ND vaccine and combined inactive ND and avian influenza(AI vaccines and to known the efficacy of both vaccines. The vaccines used were killed ND vaccine andkilled ND-AI vaccine produced by PT. Sanbio Laboratories Bogor, West Java. SPF chickens were vaccinatedwith 3 different doses. Antibody titer of SPF chickens against ND virus were determined byhaemagglutination inhibition (HI test. As many as 130 two week old SPF chickens were used and theywere divided into 2 groups (A and B consisting of 60 chickens and 10 chickens were used as control withoutvaccine. Group A chickens were vaccinated with ND-K vaccine and group B were vaccinated with combinedkilled ND-AI vaccines. Each group was further divided into 3 subsgroups (1, 2 and 3 consisting 20 chickens.Subgroups 1, 2 and 3 were vaccinated intramuscularly respectively with intramuskular 1, 1/10 and 1/100doses of each vaccines. Antibody response of chickens against ND virus was examined before vaccinationand every three week after vaccination and was expresses as geometric mean titre (GMT HI units. Theresult showed that the titre antibody against ND increased at the second week following the vaccination.The antibody titer against ND virus of chickens vaccinated single killed ND at the second week in eachdose were 6.05 GMT HI unit, 4.05 GMT HI unit, and 0.9 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre at the third week were 7.90 GMT HI unit ,5.40 GMT HI unit and 2.20 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre against ND virus ofchickens vaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine at the second week were 6.30 GMT HI unit , 4.15 GMTHI unit , and 2.05 GMT HI unit. At the third week, the antibody titre against ND virus of chickensvaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine in each subgroup were 7.45 GMT HI unit, 5.60 GMT HI unit , and2.40 GMT HI unit . It showed that the antibody titers

  9. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  10. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Robin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306 or pen and paper (n = 56 questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity, intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications.

  11. THE AVIAN FLU IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN POULTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat represents one of the most dynamic branches of the local meat production. The poultry sector represents a good quality protein source, at an acceptable price as compared to other animal production domains. There has been an ascending evolution of the sector after the year 2000, although there appeared a series of discontinuities that affected agricultural production, mainly on a short-term basis. The Avian Flu led to 190 million euros’ worth losses at the level of Romanian national economy. Low consumption due to the impact was a short-term consequence, being rapidly amortized by the Romanian producers. The lack of some business continuity insurance measures can further affect the poultry meat sector, which does not have the necessary robustness needed in case of larger shocks. The following article proposes an analysis of the Avian Flu crisis economic effects on the Romanian meat sector, and it is part of a general framework of research regarding the Romanian food chain resilience to critical situations.

  12. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy. PMID:24844113

  13. Flu vaccination in populations with cardio/neurovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    Invited seminar (part of an expert workshop on 'Flu vaccination in Elderly Populations') presenting the evidence based on our research on the link between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular disease including acute myocardial infarction and stroke or transient ischaemic attack and the implications of the findings for clinical practice and policy.

  14. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  15. EVALUATION OF OIL BASED AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINE (H5NI PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ADJUVANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IQBAL, M. NISAR, ANWARUL-HAQ, S. NOOR AND Z. J. GILL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu vaccine from H5N1 strain of avian influenza virus was prepared with two concentrations of adjuvant (Montanide ISA 70MVG. Two vaccines (I and II were prepared containing 50 and 60% Montanide, respectively. Immune response of both the vaccines as single, as well as booster, dose was evaluated in layer birds through haemagglutination inhibition test. Single dose of both vaccines showed poor immune response, while booster dose gave better response with both the vaccines. However, the vaccine prepared with 60% Montanide provided better immune response compared with the vaccine containing 50% montanide.

  16. Delayed Anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine unrelated to known non-viral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J; Horbal, J; Tcheurekdjian, H; Sher, T H; Hostoffer, R

    2015-09-01

    On February 4, 2010 the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices voted for universal flu vaccination to expand protection against the flu throughout the United States. In addition to this administration expansion, six new influenza vaccines have been introduced into the market possibly introducing new allergenic potentials. We report two cases of delayed anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine. PMID:26357001

  17. Predicted epitopes of H5N1 bird flu virus by bioinformatics method: a clue for further vaccine development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwnanitkit

    2006-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: Bird flu or avian flu, caused by H5N1 virus, is a new emerging infectious disease. It is noted that this H5N1 virus jumped the species barrier and caused severe disease with high mortality in humans in many countries. The continued westward dissemination of H5N1 influenza A viruses in avian populations and the nearly 50% mortality of humans infected with H5N1 are a source of great international concern.1Providing sufficient antiviral drugs and development and approval of new vaccines are the keys for control of the possible emerging pandemic of this atypical influenza.1,2 Based on the advance in bioinformatics, the immunomics becomes a new alternative in vaccine development.3

  18. Red, Blue, and the Flu: Media Self-Selection and Partisan Gaps in Swine Flu Vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between political partisanship and attitudes and behavior with respect to the Swine Flu crisis of 2009 in general, and the U.S. mass vaccination program in particular. I argue that even seemingly non-partisan political issues like public health are increasingly characterized by partisan polarization in public attitudes, and that such polarization is in part attributable, at least in part, to the breakdown of the information commons that characterized the A...

  19. Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermarco Aroldi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.

  20. Nudges or mandates? The ethics of mandatory flu vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex; Phung, Connie

    2015-05-21

    According to the CDC report for the 2012-2013 influenza season, there was a modest increase in the vaccination coverage rate among healthcare workers from 67% in 2011-2012, to 72% in 2012-2013 to the current 75% coverage. This is still far from reaching the US National Healthy People 2020 goal of 90% hospitals vaccination rates. The reported increase in coverage is attributed to the growing number of healthcare facilities with vaccination requirements with average rates of 96.5%. However, a few other public health interventions stir so much controversy and debate as vaccination mandates. The opposition stems from the belief that a mandatory flu shot policy violates an individual right to refuse unwanted treatment. This article outlines the historic push to achieve higher vaccination rates among healthcare professionals and a number of ethical issues arising from attempts to implement vaccination mandates. It then turns to a review of cognitive biases relevant in the context of decisions about influenza vaccination (omission bias, ambiguity aversion, present bias etc.) The article suggests that a successful strategy for policy-makers and others hoping to increase vaccination rates is to design a "choice architecture" that influences behavior of healthcare professionals without foreclosing other options. Nudges incentivize vaccinations and help better align vaccination intentions with near-term actions. PMID:25869886

  1. Vaksin Polivalen Untuk Mencegah Penyakit Flu Burung (POLIVALEN VACCINE TO PREVENT BIRD FLU DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the use of bird flu polyvalent vaccines containing two or threeor more virus isolates representating of circulating viruses in the region. Three seed isolates of avianinfluenza H5N1 virus were used in this experiment. The isolates were Chicken/Denpasar/Unud-01/2004,Chicken/Klungkung/Unud-12/2006, and Chicken/Jembrana/Unud-17/2006. The seeds were inactivatedusing 0.01% formaldehide than mixed (AI3G alumunium hidroxide adjuvant and then injectedintramuscularly to Isa Brown layer chicken at 3 weeks of age and repeated at the age of 5 weeks. The doseof each seed virus was 27 HA units. Sera were collected at one and two weeks after the second vaccination.The result showed that the arithmetic meant titer (AMT of sera that tested with homologous isolate washigher than the test using a heterologous isolates, in the standard haemaglutination inhibition (HI assay.The mixed AI3G vaccine produced a uniform AMT against the constituent isolates, while vaccines withindividual isolate yielded a lower and more variation in AMT. Further experiments using a commercialhomologous H5N1 and heterologous H5N2 commercial vaccines has resulted AMT that 1-4 log lower thanAI3G vaccine. It is concluded that polyvalent vaccine with field seed isolates is recommended to be appliedin the poultry farm in Indonesia.

  2. El virus influenza y la gripe aviar Influenza virus and avian flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una revisión del virus influenza,su biología,sus mecanismos de variación antigénica,las pandemias que ha producido y la prevención mediante las vacunas y medicamentos antivirales.Se analizan las razones por las cuales aparece el virus H5N1 que produce la fiebre aviar en humanos,la patogénesis de este virus y las estrategias para su prevención.Se informa sobre el plan de preparación para la pandemia en los niveles nacional e internacional.This article presents a review of Influenza virus,its biology,its mechanism of antigenic variation and its prevention by vaccination and the use of antivirals.The pandemics produced by this virus through history are presented.The appearance of the avian flu virus H5N1 is analyzed and its pathogenesis and strategies of prevention are discussed.National and international information about pandemic preparedness is presented.

  3. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  4. H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161034.html H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect ... Swedish researchers report that the vaccine against the H1N1 "swine flu" strain of influenza doesn't seem ...

  5. Healthy Bodies, Toxic Medicines: College Students and the Rhetorics of Flu Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Heidi Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines flu vaccination beliefs and practices produced during a survey of undergraduate students in Spring 2012 (IRB#10-732). This research uses the methods of rhetorical analysis — or the study of persuasive features and arguments used in language — to examine statements respondents made regarding flu and flu vaccine. In these responses, students generated unique categories of arguments about the perceived dangers of flu vaccination, including the assertion that vaccines cause disease (including illnesses and conditions other than flu), that vaccines are toxic medicines, and that vaccines carry unknown, population-wide risks that are inadequately acknowledged. This study provides insight into vaccination beliefs and rationales among a population at risk of flu (college students) and suggests that further study of this population may yield important keys to addressing flu vaccine concerns as expressed by college students. Rhetorical analysis also offers a useful set of methods to understanding vaccination beliefs and practices, adding to existing methods of study and analysis of vaccination practices and beliefs in medicine and public health. PMID:25506277

  6. Assessment of vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei SUN,Jinhua LIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI has been implemented in China for a decade, however, the virus is still present in poultry. A series of recombinant vaccines, Re-1 to Re-7, have been developed and used, and Re-8 will also be used in clinical settings to prevent the prevailing flu strains. The question remains, when can China eradicate the disease? Here, we review the epidemiology of H5 HPAI along with the development, usage and problems of vaccines. Further suggestions for controlling the disease in China are provided.

  7. Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2003-09-01

    FluMist--a cold-adapted, live-attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on June 17, 2003--has been shown to be safe and effective, but its role in the general prevention of influenza is yet to be defined. Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system. PMID:14518575

  8. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  9. Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Gerardo M; Lucio Eduardo; Rodríguez-Ropón Andrea; Méndez Sara T; Vázquez Lourdes; Escorcia Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs...

  10. PHA urges parents to get 'at risk' children vaccinated against seasonal flu

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    The Public Health Agency is urging Northern Ireland parents to make sure children in 'at risk' groups get their flu vaccine early.The message has been issued to parents and carers of children as the PHA's seasonal flu vaccination programme gets underway for 2011/12.It is very important that children with any condition that puts them more at risk of the complications of flu get the vaccine.These 'at risk' conditions include:chronic lung conditions such as asthma;chest infections that have requ...

  11. ‘Tis the Season for Flu Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-12-10

    Flu season typically runs from late fall through early spring. In this podcast, Dr. Lisa Grohskopf discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against the flu.  Created: 12/10/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/10/2015.

  12. Flu.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemics Current Situation Global Activities Research Activities History Flu Symptoms & Severity The flu is different from a ... you know if you have the flu? (CDC) Flu Vaccine Finder Your browser does not support iframes. ...

  13. Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  14. A mechanical design for positioning of gm detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  15. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  16. Strategic Analysis on Responding Human Avian Flu and Flu Pandemic in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 20th century has witnessed three global influenza pandemics attacking mankind, namely the 1918 Spanish pandemic (H1N1 subgroup), the 1957 Asian pandemic (H2N2 subgroup) and the 1968 Hong Kong pandemic (H3N2 subgroup). The first pandemic swept throughout the entire world within six to nine months, which affected 400 million people, accounting for 20% of the total world population, and 40 to 50 million deaths which were more than the total deaths in World War I, resulting the worst catastrophe in the history of human infectious diseases[1]. At the moment, the world is threatened by an avian influenza pandemic and people are concerned about a potential worldwide human influenza pandemic.

  17. Diagnosing Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  18. Anticipating crisis: towards a pandemic flu vaccination strategy through alignment of public health and industrial policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Rudi; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2005-12-30

    Flu pandemics (worldwide epidemics) have occurred at irregular and unpredictable intervals, and have been associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and economic cost. In response to the emerging potential for a new pandemic to occur, national and international preparedness plans are being drawn up specifying the use of antivirals and vaccines. A number of challenges to pandemic vaccine development, large-scale production and the timing of distribution have also been highlighted. This article reviews the rationale and consequential policy for aligned public- and private sector planning in the present inter-pandemic period despite the prevalent risks and uncertainties. We propose a model for product development of pandemic flu vaccine based on public-private partnership, including push and pull incentive mechanisms for stimulating work in this therapeutic area. In addition, we argue that innovative vaccination strategies, together with special vaccine formulations which may offer cross-protection against multiple flu pandemic strains might avert the worse effects of an influenza infection.

  19. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program's outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. PMID:26170731

  20. 108 Development of universal vaccines against flu: reality and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmarov, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are the main antigens for obtaining traditional flu vaccines due to their high immunogenicity and ability to induce generation of neutralizing antibodies. High genetically instability of influenza virus provides antigenic diversity of these glycoproteins between strains. Subunit vaccines based on one of these surface antigens are characterized by narrow specificity. Modern vaccines should provide protection against several or all subtypes of influenza A viruses. In addition sporadic influenza outbreaks of newly emerged influenza A viruses may cause the next pandemic. Today there are no flu vaccines of a wide range of action, so-called “universal” vaccines. Several flu vaccines with a broad cross-protectivity are tested in different phases of clinical trials. In this report the analysis of the modern researches directed on creation of flu “universal” vaccines including data obtained by researchers of Gamaleya institute of epidemiology and microbiology is carried out. Genetic immunization technology is used for development of “universal” vaccine. Recombinant pseudoadenoviral particles coding of influenza virus conservative antigens were used as a vector for gene delivery. Polypeptide, containing hemagglutinin conservative epitopes, was used in addition to traditional influenza conservative antigens M1, M2 and NP. Animal experiments demonstrated that developed vaccines were very efficient against different influenza subtypes (80%–100% survivability).

  1. Help Stop the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use the Flu Vaccine Finder at www.flu.gov to find nearby locations offering flu ... html National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Flu U.S. Department of ...

  2. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu…

  3. Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine as a Rapid-Response Tool Against Avian Influenza Pandemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influenza viruses in nature undergo genetic mutation and reassortment. Three pandemics of avian influenza in man were recorded in the twentieth century. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses currently in circulation pose a threat for another world-wide pandemic, if they become transmissible from man to man. Manufacturing protective vaccines using current egg-based technology is often difficult due to the virulence of the virus and its adverse effects on the embryonating egg substrate. New technologies allow the creation of safe and protective pandemic influenza vaccines without the need for egg based substrates. These technologies allow new vaccines to be created in less than one month. Manufacturing is in tissue culture, not eggs. Vaccine can be administered to man non-invasively, without adjuvants, eliciting a rapid and protective immune response. Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 HPAI virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. Vaccination using this vaccine could protect the the largest host reservoir (chickens) and greatly reduce the exposure of man to avian influenza. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural AI virus infections. In addition to mass immunization of poultry, both animals and humans have been effectively immunized by intranasal administration of Ad5-vectored influenza vaccines without any appreciable side effects, even in mice and human volunteers with

  4. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal RE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rachel E Rizal,1,* Rishi P Mediratta,1,* James Xie,1 Swetha Kambhampati,1 Kelsey Hills-Evans,1 Tamara Montacute,1 Michael Zhang,1 Catherine Zaw,2 Jimmy He,2 Magali Sanchez,2 Lauren Pischel1 1Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful service-learning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program’s outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. Keywords: immunizations, vaccine delivery, vaccinations 

  5. Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. Most people with the flu get better on their own. But it can ... cause complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to ...

  6. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  7. Assessing and responding in real time to online anti-vaccine sentiment during a flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Neil; Ing, Alton; Rizo, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The perceived safety of vaccination is an important explanatory factor for vaccine uptake and, consequently, for rates of illness and death. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate Canadian attitudes around the safety of the H1N1 vaccine during the fall 2009 influenza pandemic and (2) to consider how public health communications can leverage the Internet to counteract, in real time, anti-vaccine sentiment. We surveyed a random sample of 175,257 Canadian web users from October 27 to November 19, 2009, about their perceptions of the safety of the HINI vaccine. In an independent analysis, we also assessed the popularity of online flu vaccine-related information using a tool developed for this purpose. A total of 27,382 unique online participants answered the survey (15.6% response rate). Of the respondents, 23.4% considered the vaccine safe, 41.4% thought it was unsafe and 35.2% reported ambivalence over its safety. Websites and blog posts with anti-vaccine sentiment remained popular during the course of the pandemic. Current public health communication and education strategies about the flu vaccine can be complemented by web analytics that identify, track and neutralize anti-vaccine sentiment on the Internet, thus increasing perceived vaccine safety. Counter-marketing strategies can be transparent and collaborative, engaging online "influencers" who spread misinformation.

  8. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella... established by conducting five replicate titrations on a sample of the bacterial vaccine used. Only...

  9. Prevalence of influenza and adherence to the anti-flu vaccination among elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Yukio Nakamura; Luane Marques de Mello; Anderson Soares da Silva; Altacílio Aparecido Nunes

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flu, a condition that can affect the elderly by increasing the risk of serious complications can be prevented through vaccination. Estimate the prevalence of signs and symptoms suggestive of influenza in a group of elderly either vaccinated or unvaccinated against influenza was the objective this study. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study performed in a Brazilian City. A structured questionnaire was employed to identify the presence of signs and symptoms of influenza in...

  10. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylvain Weisz

    2002-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2002. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  11. Note from the CERN Medical Service: FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2001. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  12. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2003. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  13. Note from the CERN Medical Service: FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2003. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  14. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2000. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  15. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2000. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  16. Note from the CERN Medical Service. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN Members of personnel who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 16th October and 30th November 2000. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  17. A simple stochastic model with environmental transmission explains multi-year periodicity in outbreaks of avian flu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus reveals persistent and recurrent outbreaks in North American wild waterfowl, and exhibits major outbreaks at 2-8 years intervals in duck populations. The standard susceptible-infected- recovered (SIR framework, which includes seasonal migration and reproduction, but lacks environmental transmission, is unable to reproduce the multi-periodic patterns of avian influenza epidemics. In this paper, we argue that a fully stochastic theory based on environmental transmission provides a simple, plausible explanation for the phenomenon of multi-year periodic outbreaks of avian flu. Our theory predicts complex fluctuations with a dominant period of 2 to 8 years which essentially depends on the intensity of environmental transmission. A wavelet analysis of the observed data supports this prediction. Furthermore, using master equations and van Kampen system-size expansion techniques, we provide an analytical expression for the spectrum of stochastic fluctuations, revealing how the outbreak period varies with the environmental transmission.

  18. 4价流感活疫苗FluMist(R)Quadrivalent%The quadrivalent live influenza vaccine FluMist(R) Quadrivalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗玉发; 李波

    2012-01-01

    鼻用型4价流感活疫苗FluMist(R) Quadrivalent是在3价流感活疫苗FluMist基础上加入另一种乙型流感病毒株组合而成.2012年2月29日,美国FDA批准其用于预防2~49岁人群的季节性流行性感冒.文中对其非临床毒理学研究、药效学、临床研究、药物相互作用以及禁忌症等作一综述.%FluMist(R) Quadrivalent is a live intranasal influenza vaccine consisting of trivalent vaccine FluMist and another type B influenza virus. On 29th Febuary, 2012, the vaccine was approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration to prevent seasonal influenza in the population aged 2 ~49. The nonclinical toxicology, phar-macodynamics, clinical studies, drug interactions and contraindications of FluMist(R) Quadrivalent were reviewed in this paper.

  19. Monitoring adverse events of vaccines against Mexican flu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Puijenbroek, E P; van Grootheest, A C

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009, a vaccination campaign against Influenza A (H1N1) was started in the Netherlands. The accelerated registration procedure of the vaccines used in this campaign and the use of these vaccines on a large scale indicated a need for real-time safety monitoring. This article looks at the

  20. NOTE FROM THE CERN MEDICAL SERVICE - FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Medical Service (ground-floor, bldg. 57), without a prior appointment, but THEY MUST BRING THEIR VACCINE WITH THEM. CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  1. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  2. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccination without a prior appointment. The reimbursement of the vaccination can be done directly with Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the medical service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  3. Note from the CERN Medical Service - FLU VACCINATIONs

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, Bldg. 57) with their vaccine without a prior appointment. Claims for reimbursement should be sent directly to UNIQA, accompanied by the receipt for the vaccine and the prescription you will receive from the Medical Service on the day of your injection at the Infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place before the end of November 2008 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). Influenza vaccinations are recommended for all CERN staff aged 50 or over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems or diabetics and for those recovering from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  4. Note from the CERN Medical Service - Flu vaccinations

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, Bldg. 57) with their vaccine without a prior appointment. Claims for reimbursement should be sent directly to UNIQA, accompanied by the receipt for the vaccine and the prescription you will receive from the Medical Service on the day of your injection at the Infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place before the end of November 2008 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). Influenza vaccinations are recommended for all CERN staff aged 50 or over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems or diabetics and for those recovering from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  5. Note from the CERN Medical Service FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine without a prior appointment. The reimbursement of the vaccine can be done directly with Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the medical service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  6. Note from the CERN Medical Service - FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine without a prior appointment. The reimbursement of the vaccine can be done directly with Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the medical service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  7. Note from the CERN Medical Service - FLU VACCINATIONs

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, Bldg. 57) with their vaccine without a prior appointment. Claims for reimbursement should be sent directly to UNIQA, accompanied by the receipt for the vaccine and the prescription you will receive from the Medical Service on the day of your injection at the Infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place before the end of November 2008 (preferably between 2.00 p.m. and 4.00 p.m.). Influenza vaccinations are recommended for all CERN staff aged 50 or over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems or diabetes and for those recovering from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor.

  8. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Wielink, van, P.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce influenza vaccines, as they are more robust and lack the long lead times associated with the production of large quantities of embryonated eggs. In the study that is described in this thesis, the prod...

  9. Who uses pharmacy for flu vaccinations? Population profiling through a UK pharmacy chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Thornley, Tracey

    2016-04-01

    Background There is a need to increase influenza vaccination rates in England particularly among those who are under 65 years of age and at-risk because of other conditions and treatments. Objective To understand the profile of people accessing flu vaccination services within a large pharmacy chain. Method Pharmacists requested people who had been vaccinated in 2014/15 to complete a questionnaire. Data was captured electronically on vaccine delivery levels across 1201 pharmacies. Deprivation profiles were calculated using the Carstairs index. Results 1741 patients from a total of 55 pharmacies completed the survey. Convenience and accessibility remain the key reasons for attending pharmacy. Pharmacy services are accessed by people from all postcode areas, including some from the most deprived localities. Conclusion Pharmacy flu vaccination services complement those provided by general practitioners to help improve overall coverage and vaccination rates for patients in at-risk groups. These services are highly accessed by patients from all socio demographic areas, and seem to be particularly attractive to carers, frontline healthcare workers, and those of working age. PMID:26821372

  10. Prevalence of influenza and adherence to the anti-flu vaccination among elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Yukio Nakamura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The flu, a condition that can affect the elderly by increasing the risk of serious complications can be prevented through vaccination. Estimate the prevalence of signs and symptoms suggestive of influenza in a group of elderly either vaccinated or unvaccinated against influenza was the objective this study. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study performed in a Brazilian City. A structured questionnaire was employed to identify the presence of signs and symptoms of influenza in individuals aged 60 years or over. For analysis of associations between variables the prevalence ratio (PR and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-six participants were interviewed, of whom 57.7% were female. The average age was 69.7 years. About 25% of the vaccinated and 20% of the unvaccinated in 2009, and 25% of the vaccinated and 22.5% of the unvaccinated in 2010 reported having the flu. Among the vaccinated and unvaccinated in 2009 and 2010, there was no verified association between vaccination and influenza (PR=1.24; [95% CI: 0.63-2.43] and PR=1.11; [95% CI: 0.59-2.09], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, among the elderly selected, the vaccination coverage for influenza is below the ideal, even with projection of the best indices for 2011 (~ 84%. The data on vaccination and disease protection needs further research; however, the results point to the need for measures to better clarify to this population about the disease, its complications and the benefits of vaccination, in addition to combatting the stigma related to low adherence.

  11. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2014-12-01

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period.

  12. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend ... flu vaccine . The Flu Shot is Safe for Pregnant Women The risk of premature labor and delivery ...

  13. A Content Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the Seasonal Flu Vaccine in Ontario, Canada, October 2001 to March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Lu, Stephanie K; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Smale, Bryan; MacDougall, Heather; Pearce, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal flu vaccine uptake has fallen dramatically over the past decade in Ontario, Canada, despite promotional efforts by public health officials. Media can be particularly influential in shaping the public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. We therefore sought to identify the nature of the relationship between risk messages about getting the seasonal flu vaccine in newspaper coverage and the uptake of the vaccine by Ontarians between 2001 and 2010. A content analysis was conducted to quantify risk messages in newspaper content for each year of analysis. The quantification allowed us to test the correlation between the frequency of risk messages and vaccination rates. During the time period 2001-2010, vaccination rates were positively and significantly related to the frequency of risk messages in newspaper coverage (r = .691, p Newspaper coverage plays an important role in shaping public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. Public health officials should work alongside media to ensure that the public are exposed to information necessary for making informed decisions regarding vaccination.

  14. GET POKED: Comparing an Incentive-Based Flu Campaign with Vaccinate-or-Mask Policies to Boost Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Seema; Lorv, Bailey; Henseleit, Susanne; Iroanyah, Ngozi

    2016-01-01

    The median influenza vaccination rate for Toronto acute care facilities in 2013/14 was only 44%, well below the target rate of 90%. While many Toronto hospitals adopted a vaccinate-or-mask policy, Trillium Health Partners (THP) opted to create a multimodal incentives-based flu campaign entitled GET POKED. This campaign, which required significant additional resourcing, only increased our vaccination rate by 10%. While having some modest success, we believe it is unlikely that non-policy based interventions will efficiently and sustainably raise flu vaccine rates. Vaccinate-or-mask policies, while having some inherent challenges, may be worth exploring as part of THP's larger flu-prevention strategy. PMID:27009712

  15. Impact of School Flu Vaccine Program on Student Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaspohl, Sara S.; Dixon, Betty T.; Streater, James A.; Hausauer, Elizabeth T.; Newman, Christopher P.; Vogel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Literature provides evidence that school attendance correlates with academic performance and student success. Influenza is a contributing factor to school absences. Primary prevention for influenza includes immunization. School-located influenza vaccine (SLIV) programs provide greater access for students to be immunized. A retrospective review of…

  16. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  17. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  18. Use of vaccination in avian influenza control and eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, S; Cecchinato, M; Capua, I

    2008-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) infections caused by viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes has been used in several occasions in recent years with the general objective of controlling and in some cases eradicating the disease. To contain AI infections effectively, vaccination should only be used as part of a comprehensive control strategy that also includes biosecurity, quarantine, surveillance, education, and elimination of infected and at-risk poultry. Although properly used, potent AI vaccines can prevent disease and death, increase resistance to infection, reduce virus replication and shedding, and reduce viral transmission, they cannot completely prevent AI virus replication. A wide variety of vaccines against AI has been developed and tested in experimental conditions, but only inactivated whole AI virus vaccines and recombinant H5-AI vaccines have been licensed and widely used in various countries. AI vaccination programmes should be adapted to local conditions to guarantee efficacy and sustainability. In particular, vaccination programmes should be modulated in diverse situations according to the virus strain involved, the characteristics of the poultry producing sector, the capacity of the veterinary infrastructure, and the availability of adequate resources. Based on the eco-epidemiological situation in the affected region/area/compartment and the assessment of the risk of AI introduction, different vaccination strategies could be implemented to control AI: (i) routine vaccination performed in endemic areas; (ii) emergency vaccination in the face of an epidemic; and (iii) preventative vaccination carried out whenever a high risk of virus incursion is identified.

  19. Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A. I.; V. Shanmugam; Switzer, W. M.; Tsang, S. X.; Fadly, A.; Thea, D.; Helfand, R; Bellini, W J; Folks, T M; Heneine, W

    2001-01-01

    The identification of endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) and endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines in current use has raised concern about transmission of these retroviruses to vaccine recipients. We used serologic and molecular methods to analyze specimens from 206 recipients of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine for evidence of infection with ALV and EAV. A Western blot assay for detecting antibodies to endogenous ALV was developed and ...

  20. A Multicenter Retrospective Review of Prone Position Ventilation (PPV in Treatment of Severe Human H7N9 Avian Flu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanda Xu

    Full Text Available Patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS usually have a poor clinical outcome. Prone position ventilation (PPV has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with severe ARDS. This study explored the effects of PPV on the respiratory and circulatory mechanics of H7N9-infected patients with severe ARDS.Individuals admitted to four hospitals designated for H7N9 patients in Guangdong province were treated with PPV, and their clinical data were recorded before and after receiving PPV.Six of 20 critically ill patients in the ICU received PPV. After treatment with 35 PPV sessions, the oxygenation index (OI values of the six patients when measured post-PPV and post-supine position ventilation (SPV were significantly higher than those measured pre-PPV (P < 0.05.The six patients showed no significant differences in their values for respiratory rate (RR, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, tidal volume (TV or arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the mean values for arterial pressure (MAP, cardiac index (CI, central venous pressure (CVP, heart rate (HR, lactic acid (LAC levels or the doses of norepinephrine (NE administered when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV.PPV provided improved oxygenation that was sustained after returning to a supine position, and resulted in decreased carbon dioxide retention. PPV can thus serve as an alternative lung protective ventilation strategy for use in patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe ARDS.

  1. PapMV nanoparticles improve mucosal immune responses to the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Trivalent inactivated flu vaccines (TIV) are currently the best means to prevent influenza infections. However, the protection provided by TIV is partial (about 50%) and it is needed to improve the efficacy of protection. Since the respiratory tract is the main site of influenza replications, a vaccine that triggers mucosal immunity in this region can potentially improve protection against this disease. Recently, PapMV nanoparticles used as an adjuvant in a formulation with TIV administered by the subcutaneous route have shown improving the immune response directed to the TIV and protection against an influenza challenge. Findings In the present study, we showed that intranasal instillation with a formulation containing TIV and PapMV nanoparticles significantly increase the amount of IgG, IgG2a and IgA in lungs of vaccinated mice as compared to mice that received TIV only. Instillation with the adjuvanted formulation leads to a more robust protection against an influenza infection with a strain that is lethal to mice vaccinated with the TIV. Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that PapMV nanoparticles are an effective and potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination. PMID:24885884

  2. How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Covolo, Loredana; Mascaretti, Silvia; Caruana, Anna; Orizio, Grazia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2009–10 influenza pandemic was a major public health concern. Vaccination was recommended by the health authorities, but compliance was not optimal and perception of the presumed associated risks was high among the public. The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided. Methods Website ...

  3. Planning and executing a vaccination campaign against avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, S; Cristalli, A; Busani, L

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza infection caused by H5 or H7 virus subtypes has been used on several occasions in recent years to control and in some cases eradicate the disease. In order to contain avian influenza infection effectively, immunization should be combined with a coordinated set of control and monitoring measures. The outcome of an immunization campaign depends on the territorial strategy; whereas the capacity of the veterinary services in developed countries permits enforcement of strategies aimed at eradicating avian influenza, many countries currently affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have a limited veterinary infrastructure and a limited capacity to respond to such epidemics. In these countries, resources are still insufficient to conduct adequate surveillance for identification and reaction to avian influenza outbreaks when they occur. When properly applied in this scenario, immunization can reduce mortality and production losses. In the long term, immunization might also decrease the prevalence of infection to levels at which stamping-out and surveillance can be applied. Countries should adapt their immunization programmes to local conditions in order to guarantee their efficacy and sustainability. In the initial emergency phase, human resources can be mobilized, with reliance on personal responsibility and motivation, thus compensating for potential shortcomings in organization. A more appropriate allocation of resources must be pursued in the long term, remembering that biosecurity is the main component of an exit strategy and must always be improved.

  4. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sun, Jing;

    2015-01-01

    FluKB is a knowledge-based system focusing on data and analytical tools for influenza vaccine discovery. The main goal of FluKB is to provide access to curated influenza sequence and epitope data and enhance the analysis of influenza sequence diversity and the analysis of targets of immune...... framework allowing the implementation of analytical workflows and includes standard search tools, such as keyword search and sequence similarity queries, as well as advanced tools for the analysis of sequence variability.The advanced analytical tools for vaccine discovery include visual mapping of T- and B......-cell vaccine targets and assessment of neutralizing antibody coverage. FluKB supports the discovery of vaccine targets and the analysis of viral diversity and its implications for vaccine discovery as well as potential T-cell breadth and antibody cross neutralization involving multiple strains. Flu...

  5. Kepekaan Telur Spesific Pathogen Free dan Clean Egg Terhadap Virus Flu Burung (SENSITIVITY OF SPESIFIC PATHOGEN FREE EGGS AND CLEAN EGG TO THE AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES SUBTYPE H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza which is  in Indonesia  known as Flu Burung  is caused by the avian influenza virussubtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1. Vaccination is one of the major strategies for preventing and eradicatingAIV-H5N1 in Indonesia. Several factors can affect the potential vaccine such as viral content and mediaused for the propagation of the virus. One of the media commonly used to propagate  the virus is pathogenspecific free (SPF embryonated chicken eggs. However, as the SPF eggs production is limited and expensive,the use of clean embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative need to examined. This study aimed todetermine the sensitivity of SPF and clean embryonated chicken eggs to the AIV-H5N1. The virus usedwas seed avian influenza virus (A/ Chicken/West Java (Subang/29/2007  which haa previously werepropagated  in SPF eggs and the Clean Eggs. The virus titer was determined as Embryo infective Dose 50%(EID50 using Reed and Muench method. Sensitivity of SPF eggs and Clean Egg to the VAI-H5N1 wascompared using  Chi-square statistical analysis. The titers of Avian Influenza Virus subtype H5N1 were106.83EID50/0.1ml in SPF eggs and 106.17EID50/0.1 ml in the Clean Eggs. Statistical analysis showed that,the sensitivity of SPF Eggs and Egg Clean  for the propagation of the VAI-H5N1 was not significantlydifferent.

  6. Avian Flu School: A Training Approach to Prepare for H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel; Bunn, David A.; Sandrock, Christian E.; Cardona, Carol J.

    2008-01-01

    Since the reemergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) in 2003, a panzootic that is historically unprecedented in the number of infected flocks, geographic spread, and economic consequences for agriculture has developed. The epidemic has affected a wide range of birds and mammals, including humans. The ineffective management of outbreaks, mainly due to a lack of knowledge among those involved in detection, prevention, and response, points to the need for training on H5N1 HPAI....

  7. Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Overview Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the flu and its complications every year. Seasonal Flu Seasonal flu refers to the flu outbreaks that ...

  8. Rethinking the antivaccine movement concept: A case study of public criticism of the swine flu vaccine's safety in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jeremy K

    2016-06-01

    In this article I discuss the definition of "the Antivaccine Movement" using the case of the French controversy over the safety of the 2009 pandemic flu vaccine. I show that the group of main actors who criticized the vaccine's safety is heterogeneous. This heterogeneity can be found in the type of arguments mobilized to question the vaccine's safety and in these actors' likelihood of being involved in any vaccine-related controversies. I show that only a minority of these actors rejected vaccination in general and mobilized against all vaccination campaigns. Most of these actors only occasionally mobilized against a given vaccine or vaccination campaign and they did so to promote a political or cultural agenda that went beyond the vaccine itself. Using these results, I argue that in order to better understand how vaccine-related controversies emerge and why some activists devote time and resources to spread vaccine-critical arguments, social scientists should use three distinct concepts to refer to vaccine criticism: The Antivaccine Movement, the Marginally Antivaccine Movements and the Occasionally Vaccine Critical Movements. To do so would enable social scientists and public health experts to better understand the different ways in which vaccination can become politicized and the evolution of this politicization. PMID:27173740

  9. Immunity to avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys following in ovo vaccination with an attenuated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Karen J; Sargent, Barbara A; Davelaar, F G; Jones, R C

    2003-03-28

    Fertile turkey eggs after 24 days of incubation were vaccinated in ovo with a commercial live attenuated subtype A avian pneumovirus (APV) vaccine. Hatchability was not adversely affected. When a high dose (10 times maximum commercial dose) of vaccine was tested in maternal antibody negative (MA-) eggs, mild clinical signs developed in a small proportion of the poults for 1-4 days only. Post-vaccination antibody titres at 3 weeks of age were significantly higher than those seen when the same dose was administered by eyedrop or spray at day-old. A low dose (end of shelf-life titre) of vaccine given to MA- eggs did not cause disease and vaccinated poults were 100% protected against virulent APV challenge at 3 or 5 weeks of age. Post-vaccination antibody titres reached significant levels at 3 weeks of age, whereas those from MA- poults vaccinated by spray at day-old with a similar low dose did not. In a 'worst-case' scenario, maternal antibody positive (MA+) poults vaccinated in ovo with the low dose were still 77% protected against clinical disease, despite lack of seroconversion. The recommended commercial dose of vaccine given to MA- eggs in ovo induced 100% protection against virulent APV challenge for up to 14 weeks of age, even though post-vaccination antibody titres had dropped to insignificant levels at this age. In ovo vaccination with a mixture of the recommended commercial doses of live APV and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines had no detrimental affect on the efficacy of the APV vaccine. This is the first report of the successful use of an APV vaccine being given in ovo. The results indicate that for turkeys, in ovo vaccination with a live attenuated APV vaccine is safe and effective against virulent challenge and comparable with vaccination by conventional methods.

  10. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the flu vaccine provides protection against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, as well as two seasonal flu ... Symptoms for the seasonal flu and the 2009 H1N1 flu are similar. They include fever, cough, sore ...

  11. Avian flu : multiple introductions of H5N1 in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducatez, M F; Olinger, C M; Owoade, A A; De Landtsheer, S; Ammerlaan, W; Niesters, H G M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fouchier, R A M; Muller, C P

    2006-01-01

    As the avian influenza virus H5N1 swept from Asia across Russia to Europe, Nigeria was the first country in Africa to report the emergence of this highly pathogenic virus. Here we analyse H5N1 sequences in poultry from two different farms in Lagos state and find that three H5N1 lineages were indepen

  12. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  13. Great expectations--ethics, avian flu and the value of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas G

    2013-04-01

    A recent controversy over the US National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity's recommendation to censor two publications on genetically modified H5N1 avian influenza has generated concern over the threat to scientific freedom such censorship presents. In this paper, I argue that in the case of these studies, appeals to scientific freedom are not sufficient to motivate a rejection of censorship. I then use this conclusion to draw broader concerns about the ethics of dual-use research.

  14. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich J; Sun, Jing; Olsen, Lars Rønn; Zhang, Guang Lan; Reinherz, Ellis L; Brusic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    FluKB is a knowledge-based system focusing on data and analytical tools for influenza vaccine discovery. The main goal of FluKB is to provide access to curated influenza sequence and epitope data and enhance the analysis of influenza sequence diversity and the analysis of targets of immune responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28 influenza antibodies and their structurally defined B-cell epitopes. FluKB was built using a modular framework allowing the implementation of analytical workflows and includes standard search tools, such as keyword search and sequence similarity queries, as well as advanced tools for the analysis of sequence variability. The advanced analytical tools for vaccine discovery include visual mapping of T- and B-cell vaccine targets and assessment of neutralizing antibody coverage. FluKB supports the discovery of vaccine targets and the analysis of viral diversity and its implications for vaccine discovery as well as potential T-cell breadth and antibody cross neutralization involving multiple strains. FluKB is representation of a new generation of databases that integrates data, analytical tools, and analytical workflows that enable comprehensive analysis and automatic generation of analysis reports.

  15. Flu and People with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  16. Flu and People with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  17. Flu I.Q. Widget

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  18. Caring for Someone Sick (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  19. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  20. Impact of vaccines and vaccination on global control of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, David E

    2012-12-01

    There are 30 recorded epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2012. The largest of these epizootics, affecting more birds and countries than the other 29 epizootics combined, has been the H5N1 HPAI, which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has killed or resulted in culling of over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. Most countries have used stamping-out programs in poultry to eradicate H5N1 HPAI. However, 15 affected countries have utilized vaccination as a part of the control strategy. Greater than 113 billion doses were used from 2002 to 2010. Five countries have utilized nationwide routine vaccination programs, which account for 99% of vaccine used: 1) China (90.9%), 2) Egypt (4.6%), 3) Indonesia (2.3%), 4) Vietnam (1.4%), and 5) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (emergency vaccination programs. Inactivated AI vaccines have accounted for 95.5% of vaccine used, and live recombinant virus vaccines have accounted for 4.5% of vaccine used. The latter are primarily recombinant Newcastle disease vectored vaccine with H5 influenza gene insert. China, Indonesia, Egypt, and Vietnam implemented vaccination after H5N1 HPAI became enzootic in domestic poultry. Bangladesh and eastern India have enzootic H5N1 HPAI and have not used vaccination in their control programs. Clinical disease and mortality have been prevented in chickens, human cases have been reduced, and rural livelihoods and food security have been maintained by using vaccines during HPAI outbreaks. However, field outbreaks have occurred in vaccinating countries, primarily because of inadequate coverage in the target species, but vaccine failures have occurred following antigenic drift in field viruses within China, Egypt, Indonesia, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. The primary strategy for HPAI and H5/H7 low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza control will continue to be immediate eradication using a four-component strategy: 1) education, 2

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGI TERPADU AVIAN INFLUENZA (FLU BURUNG) BERBASIS TINDAKAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT DALAM RESPON PANDEMI INFLUENZA

    OpenAIRE

    Denas Symond

    2009-01-01

    The term surveillance is used in two rather different ways. First, surveillance can mean the continuous security of the factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of disease and other conditions of ill health The second use of the term refers to a special reporting system which is set u for a particularly important health problem or disease, for example the spread of communicable diseases in an epidemic like Avian Influenza (AI) or ( H5N1 ). Such a surveillance system like AI aim ...

  2. Optimized polypeptide for a subunit vaccine against avian reovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Dana; Lublin, Avishai; Rosenbluth, Ezra; Heller, E Dan; Pitcovski, Jacob

    2016-06-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) is a disease-causing agent. The disease is prevented by vaccination with a genotype-specific vaccine while many variants of ARV exist in the field worldwide. Production of new attenuated vaccines is a long-term process and in the case of fast-mutating viruses, an impractical one. In the era of molecular biology, vaccines may be produced by using only the relevant protein for induction of neutralizing antibodies, enabling fast adjustment to the emergence of new genetic strains. Sigma C (SC) protein of ARV is a homotrimer that facilitates host-cell attachment and induce the production and secretion of neutralizing antibodies. The aim of this study was to identify the region of SC that will elicit a protective immune response. Full-length (residues 1-326) and two partial fragments of SC (residues 122-326 and 192-326) were produced in Escherichia coli. The SC fragment of residues 122-326 include the globular head, shaft and hinge domains, while eliminating intra-capsular region. This fragment induces significantly higher levels of anti-ARV antibodies than the shorter fragment or full length SC, which neutralized embryos infection by the virulent strain to a higher extent compared with the antibodies produced in response to the whole virus vaccine. Residues 122-326 fragment is assumed to be folded correctly, exposing linear as well as conformational epitopes that are identical to those of the native protein, while possibly excluding suppressor sequences. The results of this study may serve for the development of a recombinant subunit vaccine for ARV. PMID:27155492

  3. Inactivation of various influenza strains to model avian influenza (Bird Flu) with various disinfectant chemistries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2005-12-01

    Due to the grave public health implications and economic impact possible with the emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A isolate, H5N1, currently circulating in Asia we have evaluated the efficacy of various disinfectant chemistries against surrogate influenza A strains. Chemistries included in the tests were household bleach, ethanol, Virkon S{reg_sign}, and a modified version of the Sandia National Laboratories developed DF-200 (DF-200d, a diluted version of the standard DF-200 formulation). Validation efforts followed EPA guidelines for evaluating chemical disinfectants against viruses. The efficacy of the various chemistries was determined by infectivity, quantitative RNA, and qualitative protein assays. Additionally, organic challenges using combined poultry feces and litter material were included in the experiments to simulate environments in which decontamination and remediation will likely occur. In all assays, 10% bleach and Sandia DF-200d were the most efficacious treatments against two influenza A isolates (mammalian and avian) as they provided the most rapid and complete inactivation of influenza A viruses.

  4. Validation of diagnostic tests for detection of avian influenza in vaccinated chickens using Bayesian analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der J.A.; Engel, B.; Water, van de S.G.P.; Buist, W.G.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koch, G.; Boven, van M.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is an attractive tool for the prevention of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic birds. It is known, however, that under certain circumstances vaccination may fail to prevent infection, and that the detection of infection in vaccinated birds can be problematic. Here

  5. Current status, surveillance and control of avian flu in domestic and wild bird populations in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting several species of food producing birds (chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, etc.), as well as pet birds and wild birds. The AI viruses are divided in two groups based on their ability to cause disease (pathogenicity). Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus spreads rapidly, may cause serious disease and result in high mortality rates (up to 100% within 48 hours). The low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) can causes mild disease that may be undetected or no symptoms at all in some species of birds. Since 1997 millions of chicken have been reported to have died due to HPAI H5N1 in countries of South-East Asia. In 2003 AI virus H7N7 affected poultry farms in Netherlands, then penetrated to Belgium and Germany. It had been considered that among human community there were circulating A viruses of 3 subtypes of H type (H1, H2 and H3) and 2 subtypes of N type (N1 and N2). However, for the recent years it has established that AI viruses as a result of mutation have changed their biological features and acquired a capacity of overcoming an interspecies barrier and affecting humans, mostly with lethal outcome. Once domestic birds are infected, avian influenza outbreaks can be difficult to control and often cause major economic impacts for poultry farmers in affected countries, since mortality rates are high and infected fowl generally must be destroyed -- the technical term is 'culled' -- in order to prevent the spread of the disease. Anatidae (ducks, geese and swans) is a group of water birds that is ecologically dependent on wetlands for at least some aspects of their annual cycle. Anatidae species use a wide range of wetlands, from the high arctic tundra, rivers and estuaries, freshwater or saline lakes, and ponds or swamps to coastal lagoons and inter-tidal coastal areas such as mud-flats, bays and the open sea. They also utilize man-made wetlands such as rice fields and other agricultural

  6. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Simon; Kudahl, Ulrich J.; Jing Sun; Lars Rønn Olsen; Guang Lan Zhang; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Vladimir Brusic

    2015-01-01

    FluKB is a knowledge-based system focusing on data and analytical tools for influenza vaccine discovery. The main goal of FluKB is to provide access to curated influenza sequence and epitope data and enhance the analysis of influenza sequence diversity and the analysis of targets of immune responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28...

  7. Highlight the significance of genetic evolution of H5N1 avian flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jia-hai; ZHANG Ding-mei; WANG Guo-ling

    2006-01-01

    @@ Agrowing concern has focused on the recent identification of influenza A H5N1 virus in Asia.Previously thought to infect only wild birds and poultry, H5N1 has now infected humans, cats, pigs,and other mammals in an ongoing outbreak, often with fatal results. According to a report from the World Health Organization (WHO), 217 human H5N1 cases have been confirmed and 123 of them have been fatal as of May 19, 2006.1 But many questions remain unanswered, for example how the H5N1 virus could cross species barriers and acquire the ability to infect humans; when and how the H5N1 virus will transmit effectively between humans and cause an influenza pandemic; and what are the determinants of its high virulence. This article summarizes research progress on the origin of H5N1 virus, factors determining pathogenicity, the contribution of genetic evolution to H5N1 species barrier traversal, human-to-human transmission, and problems in prevention and treatment of H5N1 avian influenza virus.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGI TERPADU AVIAN INFLUENZA (FLU BURUNG BERBASIS TINDAKAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT DALAM RESPON PANDEMI INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Symond

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The term surveillance is used in two rather different ways. First, surveillance can mean the continuous security of the factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of disease and other conditions of ill health The second use of the term refers to a special reporting system which is set u for a particularly important health problem or disease, for example the spread of communicable diseases in an epidemic like Avian Influenza (AI or ( H5N1 . Such a surveillance system like AI aim to provide quickly information which can be analyzed to determine frequency and to answer like questions: who, where and when.AI epidemiological surveillance has a number of major steps: (I to identify and confirm outbreaks to ensure that effective action to control the disease is being taken (2 to investigate diseases by clinics and laboratory (3 to investigate and confirm the cases (4 Data collection and public health consolidation (5 Data analysis (6 Feedback (7 Following step is taken . District health officer (DHO and District veterinary officer (DVO can use integrated AI surveillance epidemiological to collect such information to support the management and evaluation health activities to prevent community from AI disease. It can be concluded, DHO and DVO may participate together in and use local reporting and surveillance system to combat AI in community

  9. Paradoxical risk perception and behaviours related to Avian Flu outbreak and education campaign, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorvongseng Somchay

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Laos, small backyard poultry systems predominate (90%. The first lethal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI occurred in 2007. Few studies have addressed the impact of outbreaks and education campaigns on a smallholder producer system. We evaluated awareness and behaviours related to educational campaigns and the 2007 HPAI outbreaks. Methods During a national 2-stage cross-sectional randomised survey we interviewed 1098 households using a pre-tested questionnaire in five provinces representative of the Southern to Northern strata of Laos. We used multivariate analysis (Stata, version 8; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA to analyse factors affecting recollection of HPAI educational messages, awareness of HPAI, and behaviour change. Results Of the 1098 participants, 303 (27.6% received training on HPAI. The level of awareness was similar to that in 2006. The urban population considered risk to be decreased, yet unsafe behaviours persisted or increased. This contrasted with an increase in awareness and safe behaviour practices in rural areas. Reported behaviour changes in rural areas included higher rates of cessation of poultry consumption and dead poultry burial when compared to 2006. No participants reported poultry deaths to the authorities. Overall, 70% could recall an educational message but the content and accuracy differed widely depending on training exposure. Washing hands and other hygiene advice, messages given during the HPAI educational campaign, were not recalled. Trained persons were able to recall only one message while untrained participants recalled a broader range of messages. Factors associated with an awareness of a threat of AI in Laos were: having received HPAI training, literacy level, access to TV, recent information, living in rural areas. Conclusion We report a paradoxical relationship between unsafe behaviours and risk perception in urban areas, as well as exposure to

  10. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  11. FluMum: a prospective cohort study of mother–infant pairs assessing the effectiveness of maternal influenza vaccination in prevention of influenza in early infancy

    OpenAIRE

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; McHugh, Lisa; Nolan, Terry; Richmond, Peter; Wood, Nicholas; Marshall, Helen S; Lambert, Stephen B.; Chatfield, Mark; Andrews, Ross M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Influenza vaccination in pregnancy is recommended for all women in Australia, particularly those who will be in their second or third trimester during the influenza season. However, there has been no systematic monitoring of influenza vaccine uptake among pregnant women in Australia. Evidence is emerging of benefit to the infant with respect to preventing influenza infection in the first 6 months of life. The FluMum study aims to systematically monitor influenza vaccine uptake du...

  12. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  13. Serological response to vaccination against avian influenza in zoo-birds using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads F.; Klausen, Joan; Holm, Elisabeth;

    2007-01-01

    Five hundred and forty birds in three zoos were vaccinated twice against avian influenza with a 6-week interval using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine. Serological response was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition test 4-6 weeks following the second vaccine administration. 84% of the birds serocon...... titres and seroconversion rates were seen in flamingos, ibis, rheas, Congo peafowl, black-winged stilts, amazon parrots, and kookaburras....

  14. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be used to treat influenza illness. Antiviral drugs fight influenza viruses in your body. They are different from ... chills and fatigue. Your doctor may prescribe antiviral drugs to treat your flu illness. Should Istill get aflu vaccine? Yes. Antiviral ...

  15. Analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses by antigenic cartography and correlation to protection by vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H7 hemagglutinin subtype one of the most common subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry world wide and since it has the potential to become highly pathogenic it is among the priority subtypes for vaccination. Selection of the optimal vaccine seed strains may now be aided by antigenic...

  16. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus, a powerful tool for control of the disease, may result in issues related to surveillance programs and international trade of poultry and poultry products. The use of AI vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test...

  17. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ...

  18. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths...

  19. Pelacakan Kasus Flu Burung pada Ayam dengan Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction* (DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA IN CHICKENS BY REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza (AI or Bird Flu is a fatal zoonotic disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza(HPAI virus of H5N1 sub-type. The disease is still endemic in Indonesia. This study was conducted toinvestigate AI cases in chickens in Bali. Virus isolation was performed in 9 day-old embryonated chickeneggs, and then followed by serologic testing by haemaglutination (HA and Haemaglutination Inhibition(HI assay using standard microtiter procedure. All of the samples were further tested with reversetrancriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. All work has been done in the Biomedical and MolecularBiology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, during the period2009-2011. A total of ten samples were examined A total of ten chicken samples consisting of 6 fieldsamples and 4 meat samples have been confirmed to be AIV H5N1. All field cases showed clinical signsand gross pathology that were typical to the infection of avian influenza. The result indicates that AI casesare still prevalent among chickens in Bali.

  20. BIRD FLU MASKS

    OpenAIRE

    YASAR KESKIN; OÐUZ OZYARAL

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a disease of birds caused by influenza viruses closely related to human influenza viruses. The potential for transformation of avian influenza into a form that both causes severe disease in humans and spreads easily from person to person is a great concern for world health. The main purpose of a mask is to help prevent particles (droplets) being expelled into the environment by the wearer. Masks are also resistant to fluids, and help protect the wearer from splas...

  1. Computational analysis and determination of a highly conserved surface exposed segment in H5N1 avian flu and H1N1 swine flu neuraminidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Ashesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic activity of influenza neuraminidase (NA facilitates elution of progeny virions from infected cells and prevents their self-aggregation mediated by the catalytic site located in the body region. Research on the active site of the molecule has led to development of effective inhibitors like oseltamivir, zanamivir etc, but the high rate of mutation and interspecies reassortment in viral sequences and the recent reports of oseltamivir resistant strains underlines the importance of determining additional target sites for developing future antiviral compounds. In a recent computational study of 173 H5N1 NA gene sequences we had identified a 50-base highly conserved region in 3'-terminal end of the NA gene. Results We extend the graphical and numerical analyses to a larger number of H5N1 NA sequences (514 and H1N1 swine flu sequences (425 accessed from GenBank. We use a 2D graphical representation model for the gene sequences and a Graphical Sliding Window Method (GSWM for protein sequences scanning the sequences as a block of 16 amino acids at a time. Using a protein sequence descriptor defined in our model, the protein sliding scan method allowed us to compare the different strains for block level variability, which showed significant statistical correlation to average solvent accessibility of the residue blocks; single amino acid position variability results in no correlation, indicating the impact of stretch variability in chemical environment. Close to the C-terminal end the GSWM showed less descriptor-variability with increased average solvent accessibility (ASA that is also supported by conserved predicted secondary structure of 3' terminal RNA and visual evidence from 3D crystallographic structure. Conclusion The identified terminal segment, strongly conserved in both RNA and protein sequences, is especially significant as it is surface exposed and structural chemistry reveals the probable role of this stretch in

  2. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get ...

  3. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  4. Detection of Avian Antigen-Specific T Cells Induced by Viral Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated viral vaccines are widely used in commercial poultry production, but the development of new effective inactivated/subunit vaccines is needed. Studies of avian antigen-specific T cells are primarily based on analyses ex vivo after activating the cells with recall antigen. There is ......Live attenuated viral vaccines are widely used in commercial poultry production, but the development of new effective inactivated/subunit vaccines is needed. Studies of avian antigen-specific T cells are primarily based on analyses ex vivo after activating the cells with recall antigen...... in the cells even throughout division. This leads to daughter cells containing half the fluorescence of their parents. When lymphocytes are loaded with CFSE prior to ex vivo stimulation with specific antigen, the measurement of serial halving of its fluorescence by flow cytometry identifies the cells...

  5. Aktivitas Antiviral Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah terhadap Virus Flu Burung (ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENSIAL OIL RED GINGER ON AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Untari; Sitarina Widyarini; Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2013-01-01

    The studies have reported that ginger have many activities such as antiemesis, anti-inflammatory,anti-bacterial and anti-parasites. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate antiviral effect of essentialred ginger oil againts Avian Influenza (AI) in ovo using hemagglutination test (HA). Avian Influenzaviruses were treated with 0,01%, 0,1% and 1% of essential red ginger oil, and then inoculated in chickenembryonated egg via allantoic sac. Allantoic fluid was harvested using for HA test ....

  6. Focusing on flu: Adolescents’ perspectives on school-located immunization programs for influenza vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Short, Mary B.; Middleman, Amy B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine.

  7. Efficacy of avian pneumovirus vaccines against an avian pneumovirus/Escherichia coli O2:K1 dual infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Zande, S; Nauwynck, H; Pensaert, M

    2002-03-16

    The clinical, pathological and microbiological outcome of a challenge with avian pneumovirus (APV) and Escherichia coli O2:K1 was evaluated in turkeys vaccinated with an attenuated APV vaccine and with or without maternally derived antibodies. Two groups of two-week-old poults, one with and one without maternally derived antibodies against APV, were vaccinated oculonasally with attenuated APV subtype A or B. A third group remained unvaccinated. Eleven weeks later, the turkeys were inoculated intranasally with either virulent APV subtype A, or E. coli O2:K1, or with both agents three days apart. After the dual infection, birds vaccinated with attenuated subtype A or B, and with or without maternally derived antibodies, had lower mean clinical scores than the unvaccinated birds. In the vaccinated birds, virus replication was significantly reduced and no bacteria were isolated, except from the birds vaccinated with attenuated subtype B. In the unvaccinated turkeys, large numbers of E. coli O2:K1 were isolated from the turbinates of the dually infected birds between one-and-a-half and seven days after they were inoculated.

  8. Chicken anemia virus and avian gyrovirus 2 as contaminants in poultry vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ana Paula Muterle; Dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Scheffer, Camila Mengue; Schmidt, Candice; Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; Silva, Alessandra D'Avila; Esteves, Paulo Augusto; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2) genomes in commercially available poultry vaccines. A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (dqPCR), capable of identifying genomes of both viruses in a single assay, was employed to determine the viral loads of these agents in commercially available vaccines. Thirty five vaccines from eight manufacturers (32 prepared with live and 3 with inactivated microorganisms) were examined. Genomes of CAV were detected as contaminants in 6/32 live vaccines and in 1/3 inactivated vaccines. The CAV genome loads ranged from 6.4 to 173.4 per 50 ng of vaccine DNA (equivalent to 0.07 to 0.69 genome copies per dose of vaccine). Likewise, AGV2 genomes were detected in 9/32 live vaccines, with viral loads ranging from 93 to 156,187 per 50 ng of vaccine DNA (equivalent to 0.28-9176 genome copies per dose of vaccine). These findings provide evidence for the possibility of contamination of poultry vaccines with CAV and AGV2 and they also emphasize the need of searching for these agents in vaccines in order to ensure the absence of such potential contaminants.

  9. Research Regarding some Live Attenuated Vaccines Used in Immunoprophylaxis of the Avian Infectious Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Tirziu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In our research four live attenuated vaccines against avian infectious bursitis (two inland produced and two imported were tested: Biavac, Biaromvac-Pa, Gumboro Vaccine Nobilis 228e and Live Virus Vaccine Tablets Gumboro, M.B. Strain. The research was made in production conditions on 44,400 broiler chickens maintained in industrial system and raised on bedding and in batteries. The broilers were kept in four poultry houses, each of them representing an experimental group. We mention that vaccines were administered only one time. Vaccines efficiency was assessed by immunoenzymatic test. In that purpose, for each poultry house, 20 broilers were isolated and identified by a tibial ring, their immune response being followed between 5 and 42 days of age. Analyzing the results about individual antibodies titer during the experiment, the significant differences were observed both in poultries and phases. The best results were obtained using Live Virus Vaccine Tablets Gumboro, M.B. strain.

  10. A Novel M2e Based Flu Vaccine Formulation for Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Denis; Rivest, Marie; Babin, Cindy; López-Macias, Constantino; Savard, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background The USA 2004 influenza virus outbreak H3N8 in dogs heralded the emergence of a new disease in this species. A new inactivated H3N8 vaccine was developed to control the spread of the disease but, as in humans and swine, it is anticipated that the virus will mutate shift and drift in the dog population. Therefore, there is a need for a vaccine that can trigger a broad protection to prevent the spread of the virus and the emergence of new strains. Methodology and Principal Findings The universal M2e peptide is identical in almost all the H3N8 influenza strains sequenced to date and known to infect dogs. This epitope is therefore a good choice for development of a vaccine to provide broad protection. Malva mosaic virus (MaMV) nanoparticles were chosen as a vaccine platform to improve the stability of the M2e peptide and increase its immunogenicity in animals. The addition of an adjuvant (OmpC) purified from Salmonella typhi membrane in the vaccine formulation increased the immune response directed to the M2e peptide significantly and enlarged the protection to include the heterosubtypic strain of influenza in a mouse model. An optimal vaccine formulation was also shown to be immunogenic in dogs. Conclusions and Significance The MaMV vaccine platform triggered an improved immune response directed towards the universal M2e peptide. The adjuvant OmpC increased the immune response to the M2e peptide and protection to a heterosubtypic influenza strain that harbors a different M2e peptide in a mouse model. Antibodies generated by the vaccine formulation showed cross-reactivity with M2e peptides derived from influenza strains H9N2, H5N1 and H1N1. The vaccine formulation shows a potential for commercialization of a new M2e based vaccine in dogs. PMID:24098576

  11. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Olivia B; Estevez, Carlos; Yu, Qingzhong; Suarez, David L

    2013-04-15

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere with vaccine antigen processing that reduces the subsequent immune response. Once MAb titers are depleted, the chick will respond to vaccination, but they are also susceptible to viral infection. This study examines the effect of MAb on seroconversion to different viral-vectored avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines. Chicks were given passively transferred antibodies (PTA) using AIV hyperimmunized serum, and subsequently vaccinated with a fowlpox-AIV recombinant vaccine (FPr) or a Newcastle disease virus-AIV recombinant vaccine (NDVr). Our results indicate that passively transferred antibodies led to significant reduction of seroconversion and clinical protection from virulent challenge in recombinant virus vaccinated chicks thus demonstrating maternal antibody interference to vaccination. The passive antibody transfer model system provides an important tool to evaluate maternal antibody interference to vaccination. PMID:23398721

  12. Progress and Challenges toward the Development of Vaccines against Avian Infectious Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruku Bande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is a widely distributed poultry disease that has huge economic impact on poultry industry. The continuous emergence of new IBV genotypes and lack of cross protection among different IBV genotypes have been an important challenge. Although live attenuated IB vaccines remarkably induce potent immune response, the potential risk of reversion to virulence, neutralization by the maternal antibodies, and recombination and mutation events are important concern on their usage. On the other hand, inactivated vaccines induce a weaker immune response and may require multiple dosing and/or the use of adjuvants that probably have potential safety risks and increased economic burdens. Consequently, alternative IB vaccines are widely sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have resulted in experimental IB vaccines that show promise in antibody and T-cells responses, comparable to live attenuated vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines have also been enhanced to target multiple serotypes and their efficacy has been improved using delivery vectors, nanoadjuvants, and in ovo vaccination approaches. Although most recombinant IB DNA vaccines are yet to be licensed, it is expected that these types of vaccines may hold sway as future vaccines for inducing a cross protection against multiple IBV serotypes.

  13. Post-H1N1 Flu Vaccination Narcolepsy in Switzerland: A Retrospective Survey in the 30 Sleep-Certified Swiss Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, Ulf; Mathis, Johannes; Jenni, Oskar G; Heinzer, Raphaël; Haba-Rubio, José; Baumann, Christian R; Cervena, Katerina; Bassetti, Claudio L A

    2016-01-01

    Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a sleep-wake disorder and suggested to be immune-mediated, involving genetic and environmental factors. The autoimmune process eventually leads to a loss of hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Epidemiological studies in several countries proved an increased incidence of narcolepsy after H1N1 flu vaccination and infection. This survey in 30 sleep centers in Switzerland led to the identification of 9 H1N1-vaccinated children and adults as newly diagnosed narcolepsy. Clinical features included the abrupt and severe onset of sleepiness, cataplexy and sleep fragmentation. PMID:26901055

  14. Avian Metapneumovirus Molecular Biology and Development of Genetically Engineered Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important pathogen of turkeys with a worldwide distribution. aMPV is a member of the genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae. The genome of aMPV is a non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA of 1...

  15. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  16. Aktivitas Antiviral Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah terhadap Virus Flu Burung (ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENSIAL OIL RED GINGER ON AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Untari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies have reported that ginger have many activities such as antiemesis, anti-inflammatory,anti-bacterial and anti-parasites. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate antiviral effect of essentialred ginger oil againts Avian Influenza (AI in ovo using hemagglutination test (HA. Avian Influenzaviruses were treated with 0,01%, 0,1% and 1% of essential red ginger oil, and then inoculated in chickenembryonated egg via allantoic sac. Allantoic fluid was harvested using for HA test . Result of this studyshows that application of 1% of essential red ginger oil results in the reduction of titer HA . Interestingly,essential oil shows antiviral activity revealed HA titre 20 whereas the titre HA AI which AI virus treatedwith 0,01% and 0,1% essential red ginger oil, the HA titer was 25. The conclution of this study proved thatessensial oil 1% of the red gingger is the best concentration as antiviral activity .

  17. Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1) outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawaty V; Pangesti KN; Sampurno OD

    2012-01-01

    Vivi Setiawaty, Krisna NA Pangesti, Ondri D SampurnoNational Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, IndonesiaAbstract: Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC) at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred, the NIC and US Naval M...

  18. 9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... safety as follows: Each of twenty-five 3- to 5-week-old, fowl-pox susceptible birds shall be vaccinated... established as follows: (1) Fowl pox susceptible birds all of the same age and from the same source, shall be used as test birds. Twenty or more birds shall be used as vaccinates for each method of...

  19. Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus screening in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Huang, Rui; Chen, Jianjun; Gu, Qin; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Kui; Chen, Quanjiao; Xiong, Chaochao; Liu, Yong; Li, Jiequan; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Ding, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was isolated in fatal patients in Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. We aimed to screen the virus in febrile patients in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases. Throat-swab specimens collected from consecutive patients with fever (≥38°C) and flu-like symptoms from April 15 to April 25, 2013 were subjected to detect novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with real-time PCR. The clinical outcomes in the patients and close contacts were followed up. Of total 200 patients screened, one (0.5%) was positive for avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and 199 others were negative. The infected patient experienced respiratory failure and had diffuse infiltrates in the right lower lobe in chest CT images. He received symptomatic and antibacterial treatments as well as oseltamivir. His condition was substantially improved within three days after admission; avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was not detected after 5 days' antiviral therapy. The hemagglutinin inhibition test showed that the serum titers against avian influenza A(H7N9) virus increased from <1∶20 at the early phase to 1∶80 at the convalescent phase. Follow-up of 23 close contacts showed that none of them developed fever and other symptoms within two weeks. Our findings suggest that although the infection rate of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms is rare, the screening is valuable to rapidly define the infection, which will be critical to improve the clinical outcomes. PMID:24367529

  20. Avian influenza A(H7N9 virus screening in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    Full Text Available Novel avian influenza A(H7N9 virus was isolated in fatal patients in Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. We aimed to screen the virus in febrile patients in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases. Throat-swab specimens collected from consecutive patients with fever (≥38°C and flu-like symptoms from April 15 to April 25, 2013 were subjected to detect novel avian influenza A(H7N9 virus with real-time PCR. The clinical outcomes in the patients and close contacts were followed up. Of total 200 patients screened, one (0.5% was positive for avian influenza A(H7N9 virus and 199 others were negative. The infected patient experienced respiratory failure and had diffuse infiltrates in the right lower lobe in chest CT images. He received symptomatic and antibacterial treatments as well as oseltamivir. His condition was substantially improved within three days after admission; avian influenza A(H7N9 virus was not detected after 5 days' antiviral therapy. The hemagglutinin inhibition test showed that the serum titers against avian influenza A(H7N9 virus increased from <1∶20 at the early phase to 1∶80 at the convalescent phase. Follow-up of 23 close contacts showed that none of them developed fever and other symptoms within two weeks. Our findings suggest that although the infection rate of avian influenza A(H7N9 virus in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms is rare, the screening is valuable to rapidly define the infection, which will be critical to improve the clinical outcomes.

  1. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Screening in Patients with Fever and Flu-Like Symptoms in a Tertiary Hospital in an Area with Confirmed Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Huang, Rui; Chen, Jianjun; Gu, Qin; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Kui; Chen, Quanjiao; Xiong, Chaochao; Liu, Yong; Li, Jiequan; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Ding, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was isolated in fatal patients in Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. We aimed to screen the virus in febrile patients in a tertiary hospital in an area with confirmed cases. Throat-swab specimens collected from consecutive patients with fever (≥38°C) and flu-like symptoms from April 15 to April 25, 2013 were subjected to detect novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with real-time PCR. The clinical outcomes in the patients and close contacts were followed up. Of total 200 patients screened, one (0.5%) was positive for avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and 199 others were negative. The infected patient experienced respiratory failure and had diffuse infiltrates in the right lower lobe in chest CT images. He received symptomatic and antibacterial treatments as well as oseltamivir. His condition was substantially improved within three days after admission; avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was not detected after 5 days' antiviral therapy. The hemagglutinin inhibition test showed that the serum titers against avian influenza A(H7N9) virus increased from <1∶20 at the early phase to 1∶80 at the convalescent phase. Follow-up of 23 close contacts showed that none of them developed fever and other symptoms within two weeks. Our findings suggest that although the infection rate of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in patients with fever and flu-like symptoms is rare, the screening is valuable to rapidly define the infection, which will be critical to improve the clinical outcomes. PMID:24367529

  2. Flu Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main symptoms of flu are: headache sore throat fever chills muscle aches stuffy nose dry cough Someone with the flu may have a high fever — for example, that person's temperature may be around ...

  3. Understanding Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems to ...

  4. Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle disease and avian influenza in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OE Oluwole,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and Avian Influenza (AI are among the important viral diseases of poultry with very high economic implications. ND is enzootic in most parts of the world while Highly Pathogenic AI (HPAI is an emerging zoonosis in Nigeria. This study was carried out to assess the perception and attitude of poultry farmers in the selected Local Government Areas in Ibadan towards vaccination of birds against these diseases, and to find out the types of vaccines that were available for the control of the two diseases. A total of 84 respondents out of 100 (84% completed and returned the questionnaires administered. The results indicated that all farmers vaccinated their birds against ND. The regime for ND vaccination was not the same across the local government areas. Some 32 (38.1% farmers operated vaccination schedules provided by hatchery technicians, while 43 (51.2% farmers vaccinated their birds at about 4-6 weeks interval. Nine (10.7% farmers combined hatchery and laboratory evaluation to determine schedule. Thirty nine farmers (46.4% indicated that they were aware of national policy of non-vaccination against AI. However, 14 out of 84 farmers (16.7% vaccinated their birds against HPAI. There is a need to continue the national policy of slaughter of HPAI infected poultry birds and compensation of farmers, albeit allowing strategic use of vaccine to effectively control HPAI outbreaks in south-western part of Nigeria.

  5. Antigenic Cartography of H9 Avian Influenza Virus and Its Application to Vaccine Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Davidson, Irit; Fouchier, Ron; Spackman, Erica

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is frequently used as a control method for the H9 subtype of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (AIV), which is widespread in Asia and the Middle East. One of the most important factors for selecting an effective vaccine strain is the antigenic match between the hemagglutinin protein of the vaccine and the strain circulating in the field. To demonstrate the antigenic relationships among H9 AIVs, with a focus on Israeli H9 isolates, antigenic cartography was used to develop a map of H9 AIVs. Based on their antigenic diversity, three isolates from Israel were selected for vaccination-challenge studies: 1) the current vaccine virus, A/chicken/Israel/215/2007 H9N2 (Ck/215); 2) A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 H9N2 (Ck/1163); and 3) A/ostrich/Israel/1436/2003 (Os/1436). A 50% infective dose (ID50) model was used to determine the effect of the vaccines on susceptibility to infection by using a standardized dose of vaccine. Sera collected immediately prior to challenge showed that Ck/215 was the most immunogenic, followed by Ck/1163 and Os/1436. A significant difference in ID50 was only observed with Ck/215 homologous challenge, where the ID50 was increased by 2 log 10 per bird. The ID50 for Ck/1163 was the same, regardless of vaccine, including sham vaccination. The ID50 for Os/1436 was above the maximum possible dose and therefore could not be established.

  6. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Documents (General) Workers Employed at Commercial Swine Farms Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English ...

  7. "Stomach Flu"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size en ... El virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their ...

  8. An optimized polymerase chain reaction assay to identify avian virus vaccine contamination with Chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Haitham M; Elzahed, Hanan M; Elabiare, Elham A; Badawy, Ahmed A; Yousef, Ausama A

    2011-01-01

    The use of embryonating chicken eggs in preparation of avian virus vaccines is the principle cause for contamination with Chicken anemia virus (CAV). Identification of CAV in contaminated vaccines relies on the expensive, tedious, and time-consuming practice of virus isolation in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The experience of the last 2 decades indicates that polymerase chain reaction is extending to replace most of the classic methods for detection of infectious agents. In the present report, a simple, rapid, and accurate polymerase chain reaction method for detection of CAV in poultry vaccines is described. Oligonucleotide primers homologous to highly conserved sequences of the VP1 gene were used to amplify a fragment of 676 bp. The developed assay was specific for detecting CAV from different sources, with no cross reactivity with many avian viruses. No inter- and intra-assay variations were observed. The analytical sensitivity of the test was high enough to detect 5 TCID(50) (50% tissue culture infective dose) of the virus per reaction; however, different factors related to the vaccine matrix showed considerable effects on the detection limit. In conclusion, this method may represent a suitable alternative to virus isolation for identification of CAV contamination of poultry virus vaccines.

  9. Fighting Flu PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-15

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges American Indians and Alaska Natives to get vaccinated against seasonal flu.  Created: 2/15/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 2/15/2011.

  10. Fighting Flu PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-15

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges American Indians and Alaska Natives to get vaccinated against seasonal flu.  Created: 2/15/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 2/15/2011.

  11. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a respiratory pathogen associated with the swollen head syndrome (SHS in chickens. In Brazil, live aMPV vaccines are currently used, but subtypes A and, mainly subtype B (aMPV/A and aMPV/B are still circulating. This study was conducted to characterize two Brazilian aMPV isolates (A and B subtypes of chicken origin. A challenge trial to explore the replication ability of the Brazilian subtypes A and B in chickens was performed. Subsequently, virological protection provided from an aMPV/B vaccine against the same isolates was analyzed. Upon challenge experiment, it was shown by virus isolation and real time PCR that aMPV/B could be detected longer and in higher amounts than aMPV/A. For the protection study, 18 one-day-old chicks were vaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age. Using virus isolation and real time PCR, no aMPV/A was detected in the vaccinated chickens, whereas one vaccinated chicken challenged with the aMPV/B isolate was positive. The results showed that aMPV/B vaccine provided a complete heterologous virological protection, although homologous protection was not complete in one chicken. Although only one aMPV/B positive chicken was detected after homologous vaccination, replication in vaccinated animals might allow the emergence of escape mutants.

  12. The Quest for a Universal Flu Vaccine: Headless HA 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-10-14

    Two recent publications report the design of immunogens based on the conserved stalk domain of the influenza virus hemagglutinin. These new "headless" hemagglutinin constructs recapitulate the epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies and induce broadly protective/heterosubtypic immunity in animal models, bringing us a step closer to "universal" influenza virus vaccines. PMID:26468743

  13. Flu Preparations Underscore Schools' Key Role in Vaccinations: Research Confirms Exemptions Lead to Higher Disease Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of each school year, the school-nurse coordinator for the 3,000-student Ashland, Oregon, district plans a "parent's night" around the topic of vaccinations for the safety and health of children. That is only the beginning of the school-nurse coordinator's contact with parents who are skeptical about the necessity of immunizations,…

  14. Influenza epidemiology, vaccine coverage and vaccine effectiveness in children admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2014: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Christopher C; Macartney, Kristine K; Hewagama, Saliya; Senenayake, Sanjaya; Friedman, N Deborah; Simpson, Graham; Upham, John; Kotsimbos, Tom; Kelly, Paul; Cheng, Allen C

    2016-07-28

    The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance programme operating in all states and territories in Australia. We summarise the epidemiology of children hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed influenza in 2014 and reports on the effectiveness of inactivated trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in children. In this observational study, cases were defined as children admitted with acute respiratory illness (ARI) with influenza confirmed by PCR. Controls were hospitalised children with ARI testing negative for influenza. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 1 minus the odds ratio of vaccination in influenza positive cases compared with test-negative controls using conditional logistic regression models. From April until October 2014, 402 children were admitted with PCR-confirmed influenza. Of these, 28% were aged < 1 year, 16% were Indigenous, and 39% had underlying conditions predisposing to severe influenza. Influenza A was detected in 90% of cases of influenza; influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was the most frequent subtype (109/141 of subtyped cases) followed by A(H3N2) (32/141). Only 15% of children with influenza received antiviral therapy. The adjusted VE of one or more doses of TIV for preventing hospitalised influenza was estimated at 55.5% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 11.6-77.6%). Effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was high (91.6% , 95% CI: 36.0-98.9%) yet appeared poor against H3N2. In summary, the 2014 southern hemisphere TIV was moderately effective against severe influenza in children. Significant VE was observed against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. PMID:27494798

  15. Dietary wolfberry supplementation enhances the protective effect of flu vaccine against influenza challenge in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaogang; Wang, Junpeng; Niu, Xinli; Smith, Donald; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-02-01

    Current vaccines for influenza do not fully protect the aged against influenza infection. Although wolfberry (goji berry) has been shown to improve immune response, including enhanced antibody production, after vaccination in the aged, it is not known if this effect would translate to better protection after influenza infection, nor is its underlying mechanism well understood. To address these issues, we conducted a study using a 2 × 2 design in which aged male mice (20-22 mo) were fed a control or a 5% wolfberry diet for 30 d, then immunized with an influenza vaccine or saline (control) on days 31 and 52 of the dietary intervention, and finally challenged with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus. Mice fed wolfberry had higher influenza antibody titers and improved symptoms (less postinfection weight loss) compared with the mice treated by vaccine alone. Furthermore, an in vitro mechanistic study showed that wolfberry supplementation enhanced maturation and activity of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in aged mice, as indicated by phenotypic change in expression of DC activation markers major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD) 40, CD80, and CD86, and functional change in DC production of cytokines interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as DC endocytosis. Also, adoptive transfer of wolfberry-treated bone marrow DCs (loaded with ovalbumin(323-339)-peptide) promoted antigen-specific T cell proliferation as well as interleukin-4 and interferon-γ production in CD4(+) T cells. In summary, our data indicate that dietary wolfberry enhances the efficacy of influenza vaccination, resulting in better host protection to prevent subsequent influenza infection; this effect may be partly attributed to improved DC function. PMID:24336457

  16. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of avian influenza (AI) vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test that clearly discriminates naturally infected from vaccinated only animals (DIVA) was available. Because the non-structural protein (NS1) is expressed in infected cells, and is not pac...

  17. [Incidence of avian flu worldwide and in the Russian Federation. Improvement of surveillance and control of influenza during preparation for potential pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2006-01-01

    Problem of influenza and acute respiratory virus infections (ARVI) remains one of the most urgent medical and socio-economic issues in despite of certain achievements in vaccine and chemoprophylaxis. In Russia influenza and ARVI account for up to 90% of the total annual incidence of infectious disease (up to 30 million of sick people; 45-60% of them are children). Economic damage, caused by influenza and ARVI, makes around 86% of total economic damage, caused by infectious diseases. WHO predicts that in the years coming a new antigenic influenza virus will appear, which can lead to development of large pandemia with 4-5 times increase in disease incidence and 5-10 times increase in death rate. During 2005 some changes in animal influenza epidemiology were registered. New cases of people infections are detected, the virus has spread to some new countries. Avian influenza is a high contagious virus infection that can affect all bird species. For birds influenza is enteral infection, it severely affects parenchymatous organs, especially spleen, and lungs. By now it is known that carriers of avian influenza virus H5N1 can be all known species of wild waterfowl and near-water birds. Poultry is highly susceptible to many stocks of influenza virus H5N1, death rate reaches 100%. At that hens, especially chickens, are most susceptible. From January 2004 to 24th November 2005 in the world there were detected 131 cases of influenza, caused by virus A/H5N1/, 68 of them (51%) ended in lethal outcome (Vietnam--92 cases, Thailand--21 cases, Cambodia--4, Indonesia--11, China--3). Most of the described cases of avian influenza resulted from direct contact with infected birds (handling bird internal organs is especially dangerous). In frozen meat of infected birds the virus can remain for about one year. Heating kills virus (no cases of infection caused by use for food of poultry products were detected). In order to prevent wide ranging spread of infection over Russia it is

  18. A multi-scale problem arising in a model of avian flu virus in a seabird colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, C. F.; O'Callaghan, M. J. A.; Kelly, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of epidemics of novel pathogens such as the H5N1 strain of avian influenza is of crucial importance to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. We model the effect of a new virus on a seabird colony, where no pre-existing Herd Immunity exists. The seabirds in question are so-called K-strategists, i.e. they have a relatively long life expectancy and very low reproductive output. They live in isolated colonies which typically contain tens of thousands of birds. These densely populated colonies, with so many birds competing for nesting space, would seem to provide perfect conditions for the entry and spread of an infection. Yet there are relatively few reported cases of epidemics among these seabirds. We develop a SEIR model which incorporates some of the unusual features of seabird population biology and examine the effects of introducing a pathogen into the colony.

  19. A multi-scale problem arising in a model of avian flu virus in a seabird colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the dynamics of epidemics of novel pathogens such as the H5N1 strain of avian influenza is of crucial importance to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. We model the effect of a new virus on a seabird colony, where no pre-existing Herd Immunity exists. The seabirds in question are so-called K-strategists, i.e. they have a relatively long life expectancy and very low reproductive output. They live in isolated colonies which typically contain tens of thousands of birds. These densely populated colonies, with so many birds competing for nesting space, would seem to provide perfect conditions for the entry and spread of an infection. Yet there are relatively few reported cases of epidemics among these seabirds. We develop a SEIR model which incorporates some of the unusual features of seabird population biology and examine the effects of introducing a pathogen into the colony

  20. Added Value of Avian Influenza (H5) Day-Old Chick Vaccination for Disease Control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Marisa; Choisy, Marc; Sobhy, Heba; Kilany, Walid H; Gély, Marie; Tripodi, Astrid; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Saad, Mona; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma

    2016-05-01

    The immunity profile against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the commercial poultry value chain network in Egypt was modeled with the use of different vaccination scenarios. The model estimated the vaccination coverage, the protective seroconversion level, and the duration of immunity for each node of the network and vaccination scenario. Partial budget analysis was used to compare the benefit-cost of the different vaccination scenarios. The model predicted that targeting day-old chick avian influenza (AI) vaccination in industrial and large hatcheries would increase immunity levels in the overall poultry population in Egypt and especially in small commercial poultry farms (from 60%). This strategy was shown to be more efficient than the current strategy of using inactivated vaccines. Improving HPAI control in the commercial poultry sector in Egypt would have a positive impact to improve disease control. PMID:27309063

  1. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ataxic chickens as positive evidence of viral infection. (iv) A satisfactory titration shall have at... predetermined quantity of vaccine virus. Five replicate virus titrations shall be conducted on an aliquot of the... samples of completed product shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in...

  2. The Protection Efficacity of DNA Vaccine Encoding Hemagglutinin of H5 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yong-ping; YU Kang-zhen; DENG Guo-hua; TIAN Guo-bin; QIAO Chuan-ling; CHEN Hua-lan

    2004-01-01

    The DNA vaccine pCIHA5 encoding hemagglutinin can protect SPF chicken against lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus challenge. The more characters about its protection efficacity were studied. The protective rates in 10, 40, 70, 100 and 150μg groups immunized with pCIHA5 were 12.5 (1/8), 58.3 (7/12), 72.7 (8/11), 50.0 (6/12) and 66.7% (8/12), respectively. The protective rates in 5, 20, 35 and 50μg groups were 145.5 (5/11), 58.3 (7/12), 58.3 (7/12) and 91.7% (11/12), respectively. The 70, 100 and 5μg groups have virus shedding of 1/8, 2/6 and 1/5. Though the inactived oil-emulsion vaccine has high HI antibody titers and 100% protective rate, the AGP antibody could be detected after vaccination. Results show that the pCIHA5 is fit to boost by intramuscular injection. This would be useful to the study on gene engineering vaccine of avian influenza virus.

  3. Chimeric avian paramyxovirus-based vector immunization against highly pathogenic avian influenza followed by conventional Newcastle disease vaccination eliminates lack of protection from virulent ND virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steglich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we described a chimeric, hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5 expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV-based vector vaccine (chNDVFHNPMV8H5 in which NDV envelope glycoproteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus-8 (APMV-8. This chimeric vaccine induced solid protection against lethal HPAIV H5N1 even in chickens with maternal antibodies against NDV (MDA+. However, due to the absence of the major NDV immunogens it failed to induce protection against Newcastle disease (ND. Here, we report on protection of MDA+ chickens against HPAI H5N1 and ND, by vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 either on day 1 or day seven after hatch, and subsequent immunization with live attenuated NDV seven days later. Vaccination was well tolerated and three weeks after immunization, challenge infections with highly pathogenic NDV as well as HPAIV H5N1 were carried out. All animals remained healthy without exhibiting any clinical signs, whereas non-vaccinated animals showed morbidity and mortality. Therefore, vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 can be followed by NDV vaccination to protect chickens from HPAIV as well as NDV, indicating that the antibody response against chNDVFHNPMV8H5 does not interfere with live ND vaccination.

  4. Multivalent HA DNA vaccination protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza infection in chickens and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 in avian species increase the risk of reassortment and adaptation to humans. The ability to contain its spread in chickens would reduce this threat and help maintain the capacity for egg-based vaccine production. While vaccines offer the potential to control avian disease, a major concern of current vaccines is their potency and inability to protect against evolving avian influenza viruses. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ability of DNA vaccines encoding hemagglutinin (HA proteins from different HPAI H5N1 serotypes was evaluated for its ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies and to protect against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5N1 strain challenge in mice and chickens after DNA immunization by needle and syringe or with a pressure injection device. These vaccines elicited antibodies that neutralized multiple strains of HPAI H5N1 when given in combinations containing up to 10 HAs. The response was dose-dependent, and breadth was determined by the choice of the influenza virus HA in the vaccine. Monovalent and trivalent HA vaccines were tested first in mice and conferred protection against lethal H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/2004 challenge 68 weeks after vaccination. In chickens, protection was observed against heterologous strains of HPAI H5N1 after vaccination with a trivalent H5 serotype DNA vaccine with doses as low as 5 microg DNA given twice either by intramuscular needle injection or with a needle-free device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DNA vaccines offer a generic approach to influenza virus immunization applicable to multiple animal species. In addition, the ability to substitute plasmids encoding different strains enables rapid adaptation of the vaccine to newly evolving field isolates.

  5. The effect of vaccination on the evolution and population dynamics of avian paramyxovirus-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Ling Chong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV is a pathogenic strain of avian paramyxovirus (aPMV-1 that is among the most serious of disease threats to the poultry industry worldwide. Viral diversity is high in aPMV-1; eight genotypes are recognized based on phylogenetic reconstruction of gene sequences. Modified live vaccines have been developed to decrease the economic losses caused by this virus. Vaccines derived from avirulent genotype II strains were developed in the 1950s and are in use globally, whereas Australian strains belonging to genotype I were developed as vaccines in the 1970s and are used mainly in Asia. In this study, we evaluated the consequences of attenuated live virus vaccination on the evolution of aPMV-1 genotypes. There was phylogenetic incongruence among trees based on individual genes and complete coding region of 54 full length aPMV-1 genomes, suggesting that recombinant sequences were present in the data set. Subsequently, five recombinant genomes were identified, four of which contained sequences from either genotype I or II. The population history of vaccine-related genotype II strains was distinct from other aPMV-1 genotypes; genotype II emerged in the late 19(th century and is evolving more slowly than other genotypes, which emerged in the 1960s. Despite vaccination efforts, genotype II viruses have experienced constant population growth to the present. In contrast, other contemporary genotypes showed population declines in the late 1990s. Additionally, genotype I and II viruses, which are circulating in the presence of homotypic vaccine pressure, have unique selection profiles compared to nonvaccine-related strains. Collectively, these data show that vaccination with live attenuated viruses has changed the evolution of aPMV-1 by maintaining a large effective population size of a vaccine-related genotype, allowing for coinfection and recombination of vaccine and wild type strains, and by applying unique selective pressures on

  6. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  7. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and treat seasonal and pandemic influenza, including 2009 H1N1 flu. Clinical Trials for Flu NIH has started ... trials to determine what dosages of the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine can best protect healthy and high- ...

  8. Focusing on flu: Parent perspectives on school-located immunization programs for influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleman, Amy B; Short, Mary B; Doak, Jean S

    2012-10-01

    School-located immunization programs (SLIP) will only be successful if parents consent to their children's participation. It is critical to understand parent perspectives regarding the factors that make them more or less likely to provide that consent. Organizations creating SLIPs will be able to capitalize on the aspects of SLIPs that parents appreciate, and address and correct issues that may give rise to parent concerns. This study involved five focus groups among the parents of school students in a large, urban school district. Findings highlight the broad range of concepts important to parents when considering participation in a SLIP. The safety and trust issues regarding vaccines in general that are so important to parents are also important to parents when considering participation in a SLIP. Effective communication strategies that include assurances regarding tracking of information and the competence and experience of immunizers will be helpful when addressing parents regarding SLIPs. In addition, parents were very cognizant of and positive regarding the public health benefits associated with SLIPs. Further study among larger populations of parents will further refine these ideas and aid in the development of successful influenza vaccine SLIPs that directly address and communicate with parents about the issues most important to them. PMID:23095868

  9. Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1 outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawaty V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vivi Setiawaty, Krisna NA Pangesti, Ondri D SampurnoNational Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, IndonesiaAbstract: Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1 occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of performing polymerase chain reaction testing for influenza A. Diagnostic equipment and standard procedures of biosafety and biosecurity of handling specimens have been adopted largely from World Health Organization recommendations.Keywords: influenza, laboratory, networking

  10. The use of vaccination as an option for the control of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, Ilaria; Marangon, Stefano

    2003-08-01

    Recent epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases included in list A of the Office International des Epizooties, such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza (AI), have led to the implementation of stamping-out policies resulting in the depopulation of millions of animals. The enforcement of a control strategy based on culling animals that are infected, suspected of being infected or suspected of being contaminated, which is based only on the application of sanitary restrictions on farms, may not be sufficient to avoid the spread of infection, particularly in areas that have high animal densities, thus resulting in mass depopulation. In the European Union, the directive that imposes the enforcement of a stamping-out policy (92/ 40/EC) for AI was adopted in 1992 but was drafted in the 1980s. The poultry industry has undergone substantial changes in the past 20 years, mainly resulting in shorter production cycles and in higher animal densities per territorial unit. Due to these organizational changes, infectious diseases are significantly more difficult to control because of the greater number of susceptible animals reared per given unit of time and due to the difficulties in applying adequate biosecurity measures. The slaughter and destruction of great numbers of animals is also questionable from an ethical point of view. For this reason, mass depopulation has raised serious concerns for the general public and has recently led to very high costs and economic losses for national and federal governments, stakeholders and, ultimately, for consumers. In the past, the use of vaccines in such emergencies has been limited by the impossibility of differentiating vaccinated/infected from vaccinated/non-infected animals. The major concern was that through trade or movement of apparently uninfected animals or products, the disease could spread further or might be exported to other countries. For this reason, export bans have been imposed on

  11. Inactivated vaccine with adjuvants consisting of pattern recognition receptor agonists confers protection against avian influenza viruses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinghua; Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Zhenxing; Tian, Zhen; Zha, Guofei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Qiaoxiu; Hou, Fengxiang; Kang, Sang-Moo; Hou, Jibo

    2014-08-01

    Use of adjuvant containing pathogen pattern recognition receptor agonists is one of the effective strategies to enhance the efficacy of licensed vaccines. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines containing an adjuvant (CVCVA5) which was composed of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic, resiquimod, imiquimod, muramyl dipeptide and levomisole. Avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with CVCVA5 were found to induce significantly higher titers of hemagglutiniton inhibition antibodies (P≤0.01) than those of commercial vaccines at 2-, 3- and 4-week post vaccination in both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and field application. Furthermore, virus shedding was reduced in SPF chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine after H9 subtype heterologous virus challenge. The ratios of both CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes were slowly elevated in chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine. Lymphocytes adoptive transfer study indicates that CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation might have contributed to improved protection against heterologous virus challenge. Results of this study suggest that the adjuvant CVCVA5 was capable of enhancing the potency of existing avian influenza vaccines by increasing humoral and cellular immune response.

  12. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesonero, Alexander; Suarez, David L; van Santen, Edzard; Tang, De-Chu C; Toro, Haroldo

    2011-06-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibody persistence, transfer of maternal antibodies (MtAb), and interference between MtAb and active in ovo or mucosal immunization with RCA-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized AIV H5 HA gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5(ck)). Vaccine coverage and intrapotency test repeatability were based on anti-H5 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels detected in in ovo vaccinated chickens. Even though egg inoculation of each replicate was performed by individuals with varying expertise and with different vaccine batches, the average vaccine coverage of three replicates was 85%. The intrapotency test repeatability, which considers both positive as well as negative values, varied between 0.69 and 0.71, indicating effective vaccination. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV challenge of chicken groups vaccinated with increasing vaccine doses showed 90% protection in chickens receiving > or = 10(8) ifu (infectious units)/bird. The protective dose 50% (PD50) was determined to be 10(6.5) ifu. Even vaccinated chickens that did not develop detectable antibody levels were effectively protected against HP AIV challenge. This result is consistent with previous findings ofAd-vector eliciting T lymphocyte responses. Higher vaccine doses significantly reduced viral shedding as determined by AIV RNA concentration in oropharyngeal swabs. Assessment of antibody persistence showed that antibody levels of in ovo immunized chickens continued to increase until 12 wk and started to decline after 18 wk of age. Intramuscular (IM) booster vaccination with the same vaccine at 16 wk of age significantly increased the antibody responses in breeder hens, and these responses were maintained at high

  13. Vaccination as a tool to combat introductions of notifiable avian influenza viruses in Europe, 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, I; Schmitz, A; Jestin, V; Koch, G; Marangon, S

    2009-04-01

    In late 2000, Italy was the first country of the European Union (EU) to implement an emergency vaccination programme against notifiable avian influenza. Vaccination with a conventional vaccine containing a seed strain with a different neuraminidase subtype from that of the field virus was used to complement biosecurity and restriction measures as part of an overall eradication strategy. This vaccination technique, in line with the Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals system (DIVA), was applied several times until March 2008. This strategy enabled the identification of field exposed flocks and ultimately the eradication of low pathogenic H7N1, H7N3 and H5N2 infections. Italy was also the first country to implement a bivalent H5/H7 prophylactic vaccination programme of defined poultry populations, which was discontinued in December 2006. Following the incursion of highly pathogenic H5N1 into Europe, in 2005 and 2006, two other EU Member States, namely France and the Netherlands, implemented preventive vaccination programmes in 2006 but they targeted selected poultry populations different from those targeted in Italy and were implemented for short periods of time. Data generated during six years of experience with vaccination against avian influenza in Italy indicate that it is a useful tool to limit secondary spread and possibly prevent the introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in a susceptible population. The experience of France and the Netherlands provides data on vaccination of ducks and hobby poultry respectively and monitoring programmes associated with vaccination and difficulties related to their application. The advantages and disadvantages of vaccination need to be considered in the decision-making process, including the financial aspects of vaccination.

  14. Cross-clade immunity in cats vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored avian influenza vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several felid species have been shown to be susceptible to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype. Infection of felids by H5N1 HPAI virus is often fatal, and cat-to-cat transmission has been documented. Domestic cats may then be involved in the transmis...

  15. Duration of immunity following the administration of oil-based avian influenza H5N1 vaccine in layers

    OpenAIRE

    NISAR, Maryam; Rashid, Asif; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) occurs worldwide and causes tremendous economic losses. The disease is characterised by respiratory signs, depression, and reduced food and water intake. In the present study, an oil-based vaccine created by using Montanide ISA 70 MVG, was prepared and the duration of immunity checked at different time intervals. For this purpose, the cumulative mean titre (CMT) was calculated after employing haemagglutination inhibition test in 50 pullets at day zero before vaccination a...

  16. H5N1 Avian Influenza Pre-pandemic Vaccine Strains in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Hong; DONG Li Bo; ZHANG Ye; DONG Jie; ZOU Shu Mei; GAO Rong Bao; WANG Da Yan; SHU Yue Long

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo prepare the 4 candidate vaccine strains of H5N1 avian influenza virus isolated in China. MethodsRecombinant viruses were rescued using reverse genetics. Neuraminidase (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA) segments of the A/Xinjiang/1/2006, A/Guangxi/1/2009, A/Hubei/1/2010, and A/Guangdong/1/2011 viruses were amplified by RT-PCR. Multibasic amino acid cleavage site of HA was removed and ligated into the pCIpolI vector for virus rescue. The recombinant viruses were evaluated by trypsin dependent assays. Their embryonate survival and antigenicity were compared with those of the respective wild-type viruses. ResultsThe 4 recombinant viruses showed similar antigenicity compared with wild-type viruses, chickenembryo survival and trypsin-dependent characteristics. ConclusionThe 4 recombinantviruses rescued using reverse genetics meet the criteria for classification of low pathogenic avian influenza strains, thus supporting the use of them for the development of seeds and production of pre-pandemic vaccines.

  17. Vaccine Protection of Turkeys Against H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus with a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus Expressing the Hemagglutinin Gene of Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Dorsey, Kristi; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Moraes, Mauro; Jackwood, Mark; Hilt, Debra; Gardin, Yannick

    2016-06-01

    Outbreaks of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in commercial poultry are a constant threat to animal health and food supplies. While vaccination can enhance protection and reduce the spread of disease, there is considerable evidence that the level of immunity required for protection varies by subtype and virulence of field virus. In this study, the efficacy of a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (rHVT) vector vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin gene from a clade 2.2 AI virus (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/2006) was evaluated in turkeys for protection against challenge with A/Whooper Swan/Mongolia/L244/2005 H5N1 HPAI clade 2.2. One-day-old turkeys received a single vaccination and were challenged at 4 wk postvaccination with 2 × 10(6) 50% embryo infectious dose per bird. The results demonstrate that following H5N1 HPAI challenge 96% protection was observed in rHVT-AI vaccinated turkeys. The oral and cloacal swabs taken from challenged birds demonstrated that vaccinated birds had lower incidence and titers of viral shedding compared with sham-vaccinated birds. From respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, there was a greater than 6 log10 reduction in shedding in vaccinated birds as compared with the controls. This study provides support for the use of a commercially available rHVT-AI vaccine to protect turkeys against H5N1 HPAI. PMID:27309280

  18. Maternal immunity against avian influenza H5N1 in chickens: limited protection and interference with vaccine efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.A.; Rosema, S.; Zoelen-Bos, van D.J.; Kemper-Venema, S.

    2011-01-01

    After avian influenza (AI) vaccination, hens will produce progeny chickens with maternally derived AI-specific antibodies. In the present study we examined the effect of maternal immunity in young chickens on the protection against highly pathogenic AI H5N1 virus infection and on the effectiveness o

  19. Hypertoxic flu

    OpenAIRE

    D. L. Sulima; V. E. Karev; K. V. Zhdanov

    2014-01-01

    In the presented supervision the adverse variant of a current of a seasonal flu at the young man, led to a lethal outcome in 38 hours from the moment of the beginning of disease is described. Character established pathomorphological changes testifies to the limited possibilities of rendering of specialised medical aid by the patient with the hypertoxic form of a flu in a phase of already developed disease.

  20. Take Three Actions to Fight Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-07

    This podcast explains how vaccination, everyday preventive actions, and the correct use of antiviral drugs can help you fight both seasonal flu and 2009 H1N1 flu.  Created: 10/7/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/7/2009.

  1. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A ... just found out that I'm 6 weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine ...

  2. Progress in Research on Vaccine against Avian Coccidiosis%鸡球虫病疫苗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金贵; 李运娜; 张西臣

    2011-01-01

    Avian coccidiosis, caused by obligate intracellular parasites belonging to various species of the genus Eirneria, is a protozoan disease. It is considered the disease with greatest economic impact in the poultry industry. A major way to control coccidiosis in chickens is the use of anticoccidal drugs. However, problems such as drug-resistance of coccidia and drug residues limit the use of drug to a great extent. One of the most effective strategies to prevent and treat avian coccidiosis is developing safe and effective vaccines. The vaccines against avian coccidiosis include live vaccine, DNA vaccine, subunit vaccine, recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and adjuvant vaccine. This paper reviews the research of avian coccidiosis vaccine in recent years.%鸡球虫病是一种主要由艾美耳属球虫引起的细胞内寄生原虫病,给养禽业带来巨大的经济损失.鸡球虫病一直以药物防治为主,但耐药虫株以及药物残留等问题使药物防治受到很大限制,因此,研制安全有效的疫苗成为防治鸡球虫病的主要策略之一.鸡球虫病疫苗包括活疫苗、核酸疫苗、亚单位疫苗、重组卡介苗和佐剂疫苗,本文就鸡球虫病疫苗的研究现状作一综述.

  3. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  4. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  5. Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Marek’s Disease Vaccines Derived from Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Dhanutha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect and characterize the endogenous ALVs in cell associated MD vaccine. Chicken embryo fibroblast cell associated Marek’s disease vaccine was tested for possible contamination with Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs. Initially the vaccine cell lysate was tested for presence of group specific antigen (p27 of ALVs by ELISA and found positive for GSA. Subsequently total DNA and RNA was isolated from vaccine CEFs and analyzed by PCR and RT-PCR using primers specific for ALV subgroups A-E and J. Subgroup specific PCR and RT-PCR revealed that the CEFs were positive for ALV-E and negative for all other exogenous ALV subgroups (ALV-A, B, C, D and J. Envelope gp85 gene sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the ALV sequences found in CEFs of MD vaccine were belongs to endogenous ALV-E. Further this sequence has high homology with endogenous loci ev-1, ev-3 and ev-6. Amplification of genomic DNA with endogenous virus locus specific primers revealed that the CEFs of MD vaccine possess ev-1 and ev-6 and negative for ev-3, ev-9 and ev-21. In conclusion, the data in this study clearly demonstrated that the cell associated commercial MD vaccine tested was contaminated with an endogenous subgroup E and also possess ev-loci such as ev1 and ev-6.

  6. Evaluation of a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against avian leukosis virus subgroup J in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    The intricate sequence and antigenic variability of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have led to unprecedented difficulties in the development of vaccines. Much experimental evidence demonstrates that ALV-J mutants have caused immune evasion and pose a challenge for traditional efforts to develop effective vaccines. To investigate the potential of a multi-epitope vaccination strategy to prevent chickens against ALV-J infections, a recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) containing both immunodominant B and T epitope concentrated domains selected from the major structural protein of ALV-J using bioinformatics approach was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy was studied in chickens. The results showed that rCMEPX could elicit neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses, and antibodies induced by rCMEPX could specifically recognize host cell naturally expressed ALV-J proteins, which indicated that the rCMEPX is a good immunogen. Challenge experiments showed 80% chickens that received rCMEPX were well protected against ALV-J challenge. This is the first report of a chimeric multi-epitope protein as a potential immunogen against ALV-J.

  7. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  8. The effectiveness of preventative mass vaccination regimes against the incidence of highly pathogenic avian influenza on Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; McLaws, M; Jost, C; Schoonman, L; Unger, F; Poole, J; Lapar, M L; Siregar, E S; Azhar, M; Hidayat, M M; Dunkle, S E; Mariner, J

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an operational research study involving backyard and semicommercial farms on Java Island, Indonesia, between April 2008 and September 2009 to evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive mass vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). One regimen used Legok 2003 H5N1 vaccine, while the other used both Legok 2003 H5N1 and HB1 Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. A total of 16 districts were involved in the study. The sample size was estimated using a formal power calculation technique that assumed a detectable effect of treatment as a 50% reduction in the baseline number of HPAI-compatible outbreaks. Within each district, candidate treatment blocks with village poultry populations ranging from 80 000 to 120 000 were created along subdistrict boundary lines. Subsequently, four of these blocks were randomly selected and assigned one treatment from a list that comprised control, vaccination against HPAI, vaccination against HPAI + ND. Four rounds of vaccination were administered at quarterly intervals beginning in July 2008. A vaccination campaign involved vaccinating 100 000 birds in a treatment block, followed by another 100 000 vaccinations 3 weeks later as a booster dose. Data on disease incidence and vaccination coverage were also collected at quarterly intervals using participatory epidemiological techniques. Compared with the unvaccinated (control) group, the incidence of HPAI-compatible events declined by 32% (P = 0.24) in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 73% (P = 0.00) in the HPAI- and ND-vaccinated group. The effect of treatment did not vary with time or district. Similarly, an analysis of secondary data from the participatory disease and response (PDSR) database revealed that the incidence of HPAI declined by 12% in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 24% in the HPAI + ND-vaccinated group. The results suggest that the HPAI + ND vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of HPAI-compatible events in mixed populations of

  9. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;

    2010-01-01

    The prophylactic use of vaccines against exotic viral infections in production animals is undertaken exclusively in regions where the disease concerned is endemic. In such areas, the infection pressure is very high and so, to assure optimal protection, the most efficient vaccines are used. However......, in areas considered to be free from these diseases and in which there is the possibility of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance...... for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry....

  10. Towards the conservation of endangered avian species: a recombinant West Nile Virus vaccine results in increased humoral and cellular immune responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay A Young

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans. The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 'genes' were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that

  11. Seasonal flu vaccination in Dutch at-risk populations was not affected by A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, M.A.J.B.; Mulder, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Heijnen, M.L.A.; Campbell, S.M.; Braspenning, J.C.C.

    2011-01-01

    We read with interest the recent paper by Maurer and colleagues describing the attitudes toward seasonal and H1N1 vaccination and vaccination uptake among US adults (Maurer et al., 2010). They found the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake as considerably lower than seasonal vaccine uptake, which i

  12. FluView National Flu Activity Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FluView National Flu Activity Map is a complementary widget to the state-by-state flu map widget introduced in the 2007-2008 flu season. This interactive map...

  13. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. The seasonal flu vaccination is the best way to protect both mother and baby. In this podcast Dr. Stacie Greby discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  14. FLU : teoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ollikainen, Antti

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni FLU on mykkäsarjakuva, joka on toteutettu sekä paperiversiona että digitaalisena älypuhelimelle tarkoitettuna versiona. Kirjallisessa osuudessa perehdyn tarinankerronnan perinteeseen ja käyn läpi sarjakuvan tekemisen prosessinkulkua.

  15. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gch; Wong, Ty; Cheong, Sk; Koh, Dsq

    2008-11-13

    There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919-1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  16. Vaccination with recombinant RNA replicon particles protects chickens from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Halbherr

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*ΔG(HA was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×10⁸ infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade. Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry.

  17. Low pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2) in chicken: Evaluation of an ancestral H9-MVA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatez, Mariette F; Becker, Jens; Freudenstein, Astrid; Delverdier, Maxence; Delpont, Mattias; Sutter, Gerd; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Volz, Asisa

    2016-06-30

    Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has proven its efficacy as a recombinant vector vaccine for numerous pathogens including influenza virus. The present study aimed at evaluating a recombinant MVA candidate vaccine against low pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 in the chicken model. As the high genetic and antigenic diversity of H9N2 viruses increases vaccine design complexity, one strategy to widen the range of vaccine coverage is to use an ancestor sequence. We therefore generated a recombinant MVA encoding for the gene sequence of an ancestral hemagglutinin H9 protein (a computationally derived amino acid sequence of the node of the H9N2 G1 lineage strains was obtained using the ANCESCON program). We analyzed the genetics and the growth properties of the MVA vector virus confirming suitability for use under biosafety level 1 and tested its efficacy when applied either as an intra-muscular (IM) or an oral vaccine in specific pathogen free chickens challenged with A/chicken/Tunisia/12/2010(H9N2). Two control groups were studied in parallel (unvaccinated and inoculated birds; unvaccinated and non-inoculated birds). IM vaccinated birds seroconverted as early as four days post vaccination and neutralizing antibodies were detected against A/chicken/Tunisia/12/2010(H9N2) in all the birds before challenge. The role of local mucosal immunity is unclear here as no antibodies were detected in eye drop or aerosol vaccinated birds. Clinical signs were not detected in any of the infected birds even in absence of vaccination. Virus replication was observed in both vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens, suggesting the MVA-ancestral H9 vaccine may not stop virus spread in the field. However vaccinated birds showed less histological damage, fewer influenza-positive cells and shorter virus shedding than their unvaccinated counterparts. PMID:27259828

  18. Avian influenza : a review article

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalda; EMADI H; M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu) and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1), that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO) , world organization for animal health (OIE) , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO) information and recommendations and review of th...

  19. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Bin; Chu, Xuan; Liu, Xiufan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Huailiang; Hou, Jibo; Tang, Yinghua

    2016-01-01

    Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection. PMID:27232188

  20. Determination of efficacious vaccine seed strains for use against Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses through antigenic cartography and in vivo challenge studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2006, there have been reported outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in vaccinated chickens in Africa and Asia. This study provides experimental data for selection of efficacious H5N1 vaccine seed strains against recently circulating strains of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Egypt....

  1. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  2. 4Flu - an individual based simulation tool to study the effects of quadrivalent vaccination on seasonal influenza in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, Martin; Schwehm, Markus; Hain, Johannes; Uphoff, Helmut; Salzberger, Bernd; Knuf, Markus; Schmidt-Ott, Ruprecht

    2014-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccines contain Influenza A and B antigens and are adjusted annually to match the characteristics of circulating viruses. In Germany, Influenza B viruses belonged to the B/Yamagata lineage, but since 2001, the antigenically distinct B/Victoria lineage has been co-circulating. Trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) contain antigens of the two A subtypes A(H3N2) and A(H1N1), yet of only one B lineage, resulting in frequent vaccine mismatches. Since 2012, the WHO has been recom...

  3. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  4. Generation and protective efficacy of a cold-adapted attenuated avian H9N2 influenza vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yandi; Qi, Lu; Gao, Huijie; Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Sun, Yipeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    To prevent H9N2 avian influenza virus infection in chickens, a long-term vaccination program using inactivated vaccines has been implemented in China. However, the protective efficacy of inactivated vaccines against antigenic drift variants is limited, and H9N2 influenza virus continues to circulate in vaccinated chicken flocks in China. Therefore, developing a cross-reactive vaccine to control the impact of H9N2 influenza in the poultry industry remains a high priority. In the present study, we developed a live cold-adapted H9N2 influenza vaccine candidate (SD/01/10-ca) by serial passages in embryonated eggs at successively lower temperatures. A total of 13 amino acid mutations occurred during the cold-adaptation of this H9N2 virus. The candidate was safe in chickens and induced robust hemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses and influenza virus–specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune responses in chickens immunized intranasally. Importantly, the candidate could confer protection of chickens from homologous and heterogenous H9N2 viruses. These results demonstrated that the cold-adapted attenuated H9N2 virus would be selected as a vaccine to control the infection of prevalent H9N2 influenza viruses in chickens. PMID:27457755

  5. Vaccination against H5 avian influenza virus induces long-term humoral immune responses in flamingoes (Phoenicopterus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Almagro, Vanessa; Rivas, Raquel; Sánchez, Azucena; Martínez, María Carmen; Majó, Natàlia; Busquets, Núria; Ramis, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza (AI) can represent a threat to endangered wild birds, as demonstrated with the H5N1 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) outbreaks. Vaccination against AI using inactivated H5-vaccines has been shown to induce humoral immune response in zoo bird species. In this study, the long-term efficacy of H5-vaccination was evaluated in flamingoes from Barcelona Zoo. Specific H5-antibody titres were maintained at high levels (geometric mean titres ≥32) for over 7 years after vaccination, both against the H5N9 and H5N3 vaccine strains, as well as H5N3 and H5N1 reference strains. In addition the breadth of the immune response was also studied by testing antibody production against H1-, H3-, H4-, H7-, and H10-subtypes. It was observed that most flamingoes presented specific antibodies against H1 virus subtypes, but titres to the other HA-subtypes were rarely detected. We show that AI-vaccines can induce immunity lasting seven years in flamingoes, which suggests that vaccination can provide long term protection from HPAI outbreaks in zoo birds. PMID:27151883

  6. Generation and protective efficacy of a cold-adapted attenuated avian H9N2 influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yandi; Qi, Lu; Gao, Huijie; Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Sun, Yipeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    To prevent H9N2 avian influenza virus infection in chickens, a long-term vaccination program using inactivated vaccines has been implemented in China. However, the protective efficacy of inactivated vaccines against antigenic drift variants is limited, and H9N2 influenza virus continues to circulate in vaccinated chicken flocks in China. Therefore, developing a cross-reactive vaccine to control the impact of H9N2 influenza in the poultry industry remains a high priority. In the present study, we developed a live cold-adapted H9N2 influenza vaccine candidate (SD/01/10-ca) by serial passages in embryonated eggs at successively lower temperatures. A total of 13 amino acid mutations occurred during the cold-adaptation of this H9N2 virus. The candidate was safe in chickens and induced robust hemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses and influenza virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell immune responses in chickens immunized intranasally. Importantly, the candidate could confer protection of chickens from homologous and heterogenous H9N2 viruses. These results demonstrated that the cold-adapted attenuated H9N2 virus would be selected as a vaccine to control the infection of prevalent H9N2 influenza viruses in chickens. PMID:27457755

  7. As novas facetas e a ameaça da gripe aviária no mundo globalizado New aspects and the threat of an avian flu epidemic in a globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso F. H. Granato

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A influenza ou, como é conhecida comumente, a gripe, é uma doença infecciosa aguda causada por um grupo de vírus (com mesmo nome que acomete várias espécies de animais, desde felinos até aves, passando por humanos. Há cerca de 10 anos têm sido descritos, inicialmente em Hong Kong, surtos de gripe causados por vírus aviários em populações humanas. A seguir, foram descritos surtos na Holanda e no Canadá. Portanto, indaga-se: o mundo corre o risco de um novo surto semelhante ao de 1918, porém com uma população mundial quatro a cinco vezes maior? Qual a velocidade de disseminação desse vírus, visto que as viagens internacionais já não são feitas em navios lentos, mas sim em jatos supersônicos que dão a volta ao mundo em algumas horas? Antes de tudo, o que torna esse vírus tão problemático? Para nós, profissionais de laboratório, é preocupante a questão do diagnóstico etiológico dessas infecções. Como ressaltamos, os quadros de gripe podem ser causados por vários agentes. Portanto, o diagnostico etiológico, básico para intervenções terapêuticas e para que se defina a ocorrência da epidemia, passa a ter relevância ainda maior.Influenza, or as it is best known, "flu", is an acute respiratory infection caused by a virus that affects many different animal species from felines to birds, including humans.Ten years ago, initialy in Hong Kong and after that in Holand and Canada, outbreaks of avian flu have been increasingly reported in human beings. The question is innevitable: are we in the surge of a new flu pandemic like the one we had in 1918? The perspective is even worse now that we have five times the world population and the international travels are no longer made in slow-going ships but instead in super fast jet planes. For us, laboratory professionals, the question of the laboratory diagnosis is crucial. Considering that so many different viruses are associated with respiratory infections and therapeutic

  8. Hemagglutinin amino acids related to receptor specificity could affect the protection efficacy of H5N1 and H7N9 avian influenza virus vaccines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Lau, Siu-Ying; Wu, Wai-Lan; Yuan, Jing; Gu, Songzhi; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Xu, Yanfeng; Pushko, Peter; Chen, Honglin; Qin, Chuan

    2016-05-17

    The continuous and sporadic human transmission of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses illustrates the urgent need for efficacious vaccines. However, all tested vaccines for the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses appear to be poorly immunogenic in mammals. In this study, a series of vaccines was produced using reverse genetic techniques that possess HA and NA genes from the H5N1 virus in the genetic background of the high-yield strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Meanwhile, a group of H7N9 VLP vaccines that contain HA from H7N9 and NA and M1 from A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) was also produced. The HA amino acids of both the H5N1 and H7N9 vaccines differed at residues 226 and 228, both of which are critical for receptor specificity for an avian or mammalian host. Mice received two doses (3μg of HA each) of each vaccine and were challenged with lethal doses of wild type H5N1 or H7N9 viruses. The results showed that a recombinant H5N1 vaccine in which the HA amino acid G228 (avian specificity) was converted to S228 (mammalian specificity) resulted in higher HI titers, a lower viral titer in the lungs, and 100% protection in mice. However, a H7N9 VLP vaccine that contains L226 (mammalian specificity) and G228 (avian specificity) in HA showed better immunogenicity and protection efficacy in mice than VLP containing HA with either L226+S228 or Q226+S228. This observation indicated that specific HA residues could enhance a vaccine's protection efficacy and HA glycoproteins with both avian-type and human-type receptor specificities may produce better pandemic influenza vaccines for humans. PMID:27083426

  9. "THE INCIDENCE OF INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS AND DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICACY OF FLU VACCINE IN IRANIAN PILGRIMS DURING HAJJ PILGRIMAGE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Razavy

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, millions of Moslems depart to Saudi Arabia from more than one hundred countries around the world for paying to Hajj precept. High percentages of these pilgrims suffer from an influenza-like illness (ILI. This study was designed and conducted on 32370 Iranian pilgrims (36% of total number of Iranian pilgrims to evaluate the incidence of the illness and determination of influenza vaccine’s efficacy to prevent it. A total of 3465 individuals, 10.7% of under studied population, had vaccinated themselves voluntarily against the influenza and the rest were not vaccinated. As a whole, 70% of the studied population suffered from ILI. In this study, the incidence of illness among those vaccinated was about 56% and among those not vaccinated about 72%; the difference was significant (P < 0.001, with odds ratio (OD = 0.50 and (1 - OD = 0.50; thus the efficacy of the vaccine in this study was estimated to be 50% and it was efficient in reducing the cases of ILI. We recommend administration of the influenza vaccine to Iranian pilgrims one month before departure to Saudi Arabia for Hajj pilgrimage.

  10. Adjuvant Activity of Sargassum pallidum Polysaccharides against Combined Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jie Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND, infectious bronchitis (IB and avian influenza (AI was investigated by examining the antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation following immunization in chickens. The chickens were administrated combined ND, IB and AI inactivated vaccines containing SPP at 10, 30 and 50 mg/mL, using an oil adjuvant vaccine as a control. The ND, IB and AI antibody titers and the lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 30 mg/mL SPP. In conclusion, an appropriate dose of SPP may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate that is suitable for vaccines to produce early and persistent prophylaxis.

  11. Highly conserved influenza A virus epitope sequences as candidates of H3N2 flu vaccine targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Wen; Chien, Chih-Yi; Li, Shiao-Wen; King, Chwan-Chuen; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2012-08-01

    This study focused on identifying the conserved epitopes in a single subtype A (H3N2)-as candidates for vaccine targets. We identified a total of 32 conserved epitopes in four viral proteins [22 HA, 4PB1, 3 NA, 3 NP]. Evaluation of conserved epitopes in coverage during 1968-2010 revealed that (1) 12 HA conserved epitopes were highly present in the circulating viruses; (2) the remaining 10 HA conserved epitopes appeared with lower percentage but a significantly increasing trend after 1989 [p<0.001]; and (3) the conserved epitopes in NA, NP and PB1 are also highly frequent in wild-type viruses. These conserved epitopes also covered an extremely high percentage of the 16 vaccine strains during the 42 year period. The identification of highly conserved epitopes using our approach can also be applied to develop broad-spectrum vaccines. PMID:22698979

  12. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sun, Jing;

    2015-01-01

    responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28 influenza antibodies and their structurally defined B-cell epitopes. FluKB was built using amodular...

  13. Prime-Boost Immunization Using a DNA Vaccine Delivered by Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and a Killed Vaccine Completely Protects Chickens from H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaoming; Geng, Shizhong; Fang, Qiang; You, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan

    2010-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but also for human health. However, an effective vaccine to provide a full spectrum of protection is lacking in the poultry field. In the current study, a novel prime-boost vaccination strategy against H5N1 HPAIV was developed: chickens were first orally immunized with a hemagglutinin (HA) DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and boosting with...

  14. Assessment of national strategies for control of high pathogenicity avian influenza and low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza in poultry, with emphasis on vaccines and vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-nine distinct epizootics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred since 1959. The H5N1 HPAI panzootic affecting Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe has been the largest among these, affecting poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. Historically, control strategies have focus...

  15. Learning to Trust Flu Shots: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from the 2009 Swine Flu Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jürgen; Harris, Katherine M

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies consumer learning in influenza vaccination decisions. We examine consumer learning in influenza vaccine demand within a reduced form instrumental variable framework that exploits differences in risk characteristics of different influenza viruses as a natural experiment to distinguish the effects of learning based on previous influenza vaccination experiences from unobserved heterogeneity. The emergence of a new virus strain (influenza A H1N1/09) during the 2009 'Swine flu' pandemic resulted in two different vaccines being recommended for distinct population subgroups with some people, who were not usually targeted by seasonal vaccination programs, being specifically recommended for the new Swine flu vaccine. We use these differences in vaccination targeting to construct instrumental variables for estimating the effect of past influenza vaccination experiences on the demand for pandemic vaccine. We find large causal effects of previous seasonal vaccination on pandemic vaccination. Causal effects of past influenza vaccination experiences on perceived vaccination safety are likely to be an important pathway linking past vaccination experiences with future vaccine uptake. Our results suggest a significant role of learning in vaccination decisions. Current efforts to expand seasonal vaccination may thus have potentially important long-term effects on future influenza vaccination levels and pandemic preparedness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27381724

  16. Vaccinations and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 207 Vaccinations and HIV WHAT ARE VACCINATIONS? WHAT’S DIFFERENT FOR ... your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied more than any ...

  17. Administration Time Between Seasonal Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine and Trivalent Influenza Vaccine During the “Stop Flu at School” Campaign— Hawaii, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua H.; Park, Sarah Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We determined whether the administration time differed between seasonal intranasal live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and seasonal injectable trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) during Hawaii's 2009 school-located influenza vaccination clinics. This information is useful for public health response and allows further investigation into possible differences between the two vaccines. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in 15 public schools to determine mean times to administer LAIV and TIV to students. We performed group analyses to control for various clinic characteristics and conducted a stratified, weighted analysis. Results A total of 4,701 students were enrolled in the study, and administration time was obtained for 3,869 (82%) students (1,492 [39%] LAIV and 2,377 [61%] TIV). The mean administration time for LAIV was 62 seconds and for TIV was 90 seconds, a difference of 28 seconds (p<0.01). This finding remained significant in the stratified analysis. Conclusions Although results indicated that both LAIV and TIV can be administered rapidly among school-aged populations, LAIV was faster to administer. This finding, in addition to the greater immunogenicity of LAIV compared with TIV among children, may be an important consideration for public health administrators in planning school-located mass vaccination clinics and encouraging patient acceptance of this vaccine. PMID:24791020

  18. 青岛市医务人员对流感及接种流感疫苗的态度与接种意愿研究%Study on the Attitude towards the Influenza and Flu Vaccine as well as the Vaccination Intent among Healthcare Workers in Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓宁; 刘志; 薄涛; 逄淑涛; 姜法春; 刘建春; 卜令寒; 塔娜; 刘天洋

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the attitude of the Health Care Workers ( HCWs) on seasonal flu and flu vaccine and analyze the main factors influencing the vaccination intent among health personnel, and consequently help to formulate the targeted strategy for flu vaccination. Methods:8 medical and health institutions in Qingdao were selected for cluster sampling, using the method of purpose sampling. A prospective cohort study design was applied to conduct the baseline survey before flu season and the random follow-up survey after flu season on HCWs. The chi-square test and the Logistics,Regression Analysis are adopted to respectively analyze the influencing factors of the vaccination intentions. Re-sults:A total amount of 1301 healthcare personsentered the cohort study. The result showed that the influenza vaccination rate of the HCWs only was 4. 8%. Among the HCWs, 42. 8%believed that the influenza vaccine was safe and 45. 1% assumed a passive attitude towards the influenza vaccination. The score of the attitude factor of thevaccination group was significantly higher than that of the non-vaccination group and the differ-ence has statistical significance. The stronger the preseason vaccination intention was, the higher the possibility of inoculating vaccine was. The vaccination intent was subject to attitudinal factors, such as regarding themselves as liable to flu, being worried after sick, believing the vaccine has protective effect, willing to accept the recommendation of the department for disease control, thinking it is easy to catch flu without inoculating vaccine or regretting without vaccination. The vaccination intention of HCWs was higher with these attitudinal factors. Conclusion:The vaccina-tionintent will directly affect the actual vaccination behavior. The more positive the attitude on the flu vaccine the HCWs is, the stronger the will-ingness to vaccinate is. Mandatory vaccination policy and strategy of free vaccination can effectively improve the HCWs

  19. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  20. Influenza - flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valčić Miroslav A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In epidemiology or in epizootiology, there are some infectious diseases that have potential for significant reduction of the susceptible species population. Over the past few decades, epidemiologists were concentrated on diseases that were 'modern' and made front-page news in tabloids. One should recall diseases like bovine spongiform encephalopathy, SARS and AIDS syndromes. However, we should always be aware of the most dangerous diseases such as our old friend, influenza, or simply, flu. In the past decade, we heard about 'bird' or 'swine' influenza. It is the same disease for different animal species as well as for man. Influenza owes its characteristics to specific virus biology as well as to the epidemiology-epizootiology characteristics of the susceptible species. Antigenic changes that took place thanks to reassortment mechanisms of the viral gene segments cause the onset of the new antigenic combinations of the hemaglutinin and neuraminidase molecules. As a result, new H and/or N antigenic formulas appear for the first time in totally susceptible animal and human populations. That means that in such circumstances, no person in the world is immune to the virus. In that case, such a virus can cause a pandemic with disastrous consequences since influenza is a disease with significant mortality, especially in some segments of the human (as well as animal population. Birds and swine are virus reservoirs, but these species are at the same time live test tubes in which the virus resides, changes and adapts itself not only to the original species but to other species as well. That means that there is no 'bird' or 'swine' flu. Influenza is an infection of several important animal species as well as man that have potential not only for the reduction of the population size but, in case of the human population, for influencing social and economic life. .

  1. Rational design of avian metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccines by inhibiting viral messenger RNA cap methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...

  2. SEKILAS TENTANG AVIAN INFLUENZA (AI)

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Elytha

    2011-01-01

    Fluburung atau Avian Influenza (AI) adalah penyakit zoonosis fatal dan menular serta dapat menginfeksi semua jenis burung, manusia, babi, kuda dan anjing, Virus Avian Influenza tipe A (hewan) dari keluarga Drthomyxoviridae telah menyerang manusia dan menyebabkan banyak korban meninggal dunia. Saat ini avian Influenza telah menjadi masalah kesehatan global yang sangat serius, termasuk di Indonesia. Sejak Juli 2005 Sampai 12 April 2006 telah ditemukan 479 kasus kumulatif dan dicurigai flu burun...

  3. 禽流感疫苗的研究概况%Research Profiles of Bird Flu Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐之勇; 仲崇岳; 李军民; 宝银梅

    2007-01-01

    禽流感(Avian Influenza,AI)是正粘病毒科A型流感病毒引起的一种鸟类病毒性疾病,被国际兽疫局确定为Ⅰ类烈性传染病。禽流感病毒广泛分布于世界各地,高致病力毒株可引起70%以上的死亡率:禽流感的每一次暴发,都给养禽业带来巨大的经济损失。现已成为危害全球养禽业的一大疫病。而97年的香港禽流感事件,造成18人感染,6人死亡。说明AIV更有向人类蔓延的趋势,严重威胁人类的健康,引起了人们的高度重视,迫切需求切实有效的禽流感疫苗出现。

  4. Stay Flu Free (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-04

    As fall turns to winter, the flu season will be upon us in force. The best way to avoid influenza is to get immunized. In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee discusses the importance of getting the flu vaccine.  Created: 12/4/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/4/2014.

  5. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. This podcast discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  6. SERO SURVEI DAN ANALISA PENGETAHUAN SIKAP PENJAMAH UNGGAS TERHADAP PENYAKIT FLU BURUNG DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Endah Pracoyo; Luxi Riajuni; Triyani Sukarso; Bambang Subangkit; Rudi Hendro Putranto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The bird flu in Indonesia actually is Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 type. Is known bird flu virus in Humans occur if direct contact with infected poultry or through contact with environmental enclosure, and the carcasses of infected poultry products. The absence of the data if the handlers of poultry in the cases of bird flu virus has been exposed to the research conducted sero survey of bird flu antibody titers in handlers poultry  attitudes and knowledge of poultry against bird flu in...

  7. Identifikasi Flu Burung H5N1 pada Unggas di Sekitar Kasus Flu Burung pada Manusia Tahun 2011 di Bekasi (AVIAN INFLUENZA H5N1 IDENTIFICATION IN AVIAN SPECIES SURROUNDING AVIAN INFLUENZA H5N1 HUMAN CASES IN BEKASI, WEST JAVA, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available H5N1 subtype Avian Influenza (AI virus is the causal agent  of AI disease in humans. In Indonesia,the first human AI occurred in Tangerang 2005.  Human AI in Indonesia has now spread into 12 provinces,including West Java, Jakarta, Banten, North Sumatra, East Java, Central Java, Lampung, South Sulawesi,West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Riau, and Bali. Until 2011, the total human AI cases were 182 cases  with150 deaths. This study was conducted to identify of H5N1 AI virus in birds in area surrounding a humanAI human case  in Bekasi city  in March 2011 and to investigate its role in the spread of AI to humans usingmethods of Hemaglutination Inhibition (HI , and Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction(RT-PCR. The result showed that 80% of birds in the area surrounding AI  surrounding H5N1 AI humancase in Bekasi 2011 were antibody negative  against  H5N1-AI virus. Antibody against H5N1-AI viruswith the titer less than 4 log 2 was detected in 4.4%  of birds and  with antibody titer 04 4-7 log 2 in 15%of birds. By RT-PCR, H5N1 AI virus was not detected in 47.6% of bird samples. H5 positive and N1negative  AI virus was detected in  30.2% samples.  Only 11.2% samples showed positive for H5N1 AI virus.The results suggest that H5N1-AI virus affecting birds may have a positive role in transmitting to thevirus to human in Bekasi 2011.

  8. Different Adjuvant Recombinant Avian Influenza Virus Inactivated Vaccine Test%不同佐剂的重组禽流感病毒灭活疫苗免疫效力试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海娟; 孙心; 李淑兰; 李敏; 胡瑞红; 吴强

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza virus(AIV) was the causative agent of avian influenza(AI). The highly pathogenic H5N1 subtype AIV had the potential to infect human and sometimes is lethal. Particularly such virus can cause the fowl dead to a large extent and influence the fowl industry severely. Vaccination had been an important measure against avian influenza outbreaking. Experts believe that choice of vaccine adjuvant quality is the key to the success of the new vaccine. This test will be the same batch of avian flu (H5N1 subtype, Re-6 strain) antigen respectively with domestic white oil adjuvants, France imported white oil adjuvant and the United States imported white oil adjuvants prepara-tion into three kinds of adjuvants restructuring of recombination avian influenza vaccine, inactivated H5N1 subtype, Re-6 strain, physical properties, sterile inspection, shall conform to the prescribed standards. Will the above three kinds of vaccine SPF chicken immune to 21 age respectively, 0.3mL/each, in a week, two weeks, three weeks after immunization, around, extraction of 10 in each group respectively blood, serum separation;0.3mL/each are only 18 days of age, in a week, two weeks, three weeks after immunization, extraction of 10 in each group respectively blood, serum separation, two 0.5mL/each free after 21d, two free of laying hens in two weeks, three weeks, four weeks after immunization, two months, three months from 10 in each group respectively blood, serum separation;Every time to-gether with the control group only 5 serum with the H5 virus subtype (Re-6 strain) antigen determination of HI an-tibody, test results show that the United States imports of shortening the restructuring of recombination avian in-fluenza vaccine, inactivated H5N1 subtype, Re-6 strain immune from the crowd, the HI antibody titer, highest im-mune continued after a period of time, still maintaining high titer, do safety inspection comparison test at the same time, the intramuscular vaccineonly 2.0m

  9. THE EFFECT OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON LYMPHOCYTE AND CD4 IN CHICKEN VACCINATED AGAINST Avian Influenza VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. W. Yuniwarti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find preventing alternative of avian influenza (AI disease in broiler chicken by increasing body immune. Lymphocyte T would directly react to antigen presented to the cell surface by antigen presenting cell (APC. Th-CD4 interaction functioned to maintain Th-APC bond intact during specific antigen activation. Fatty acid in virgin coconut oil (VCO was potential as immunostimulant, which therefore could increase chicken immunity through the increase of lymphocyte T and Th-CD4. This research used 40 one-day-old broiler chickens. The method applied was Completely Randomized Factorial Design in which the first factor was two levels of vaccine, namely groups of AI vaccinated and unvaccinated. The second factor was four levels of VCO namely 0, 5, 10, 15 mL/kg feed. Day Old Chick (DOC were divided into eight treatment groups and repeated five times. Feed and water were given ad libitum for four weeks. The result showed that the number of lymphocyte and Th-CD4 in chickens given 10 mL per kg feed and vaccinated with AI was higher than that in chickens given VCO without AI vaccine.

  10. Genetic characterization of an H5N1 avian influenza virus from a vaccinated duck flock in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Vuong Nghia; Ogawa, Haruko; Trinh, Dai Quang; Nguyen, Tham Hong Thi; Pham, Nga Thi; Truong, Duc Anh; Bui, Anh Ngoc; Runstadler, Jonathan; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nguyen, Khong Viet

    2014-10-01

    This study reports the genetic characterization of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 isolated from a moribund domestic duck in central Vietnam during 2012. In the moribund duck's flock, within 6 days after vaccination with a commercial H5N1 vaccine (Re-5) to 59-day-old birds, 120 out of 2,000 ducks died. Genetic analysis revealed a substantial number of mutations in the HA gene of the isolate in comparison with the vaccine strains, Re-1 and Re-5. Similar mutations were also found in selected Vietnamese H5N1 strains isolated since 2009. Mutations in the HA gene involved positions at antigenic sites associated with antibody binding and also neutralizing epitopes, with some of the mutations resulting in the modification of N-linked glycosylation of the HA. Those mutations may be related to the escape of virus from antibody binding and the infection of poultry, interpretations which may be confirmed through a reverse genetics approach. The virus also carried an amino acid substitution in the M2, which conferred a reduced susceptibility to amantadine, but no neuraminidase inhibitor resistance markers were found in the viral NA gene. Additional information including vaccination history in the farm and the surrounding area is needed to fully understand the background of this outbreak. Such understanding and expanded monitoring of the H5N1 influenza viruses circulating in Vietnam is an urgent need to provide updated information to improve effective vaccine strain selection and vaccination protocols, aiding disease control, and biosecurity to prevent H5N1 infection in both poultry and humans. PMID:24880916

  11. Negotiating equitable access to influenza vaccines: global health diplomacy and the controversies surrounding avian influenza H5N1 and pandemic influenza H1N1.

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, David P.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the PLoS Medicine series on Global Health Diplomacy, David Fidler provides a case study of the difficult negotiations to increase equitable access to vaccines for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) and pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1).

  12. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and South America. Does bat flu pose a threat to human health? Preliminary laboratory research at CDC ... a flu virus to attach to and gain entry into a human respiratory tract cell. Likewise, NA ...

  13. 禽流感基因重组活载体疫苗和表位疫苗的研究进展%Research advance in the development of avian influenza recombinant live vector vaccines and epitope vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文慧; 钱爱东

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the status of new avian influenza virus(AIV) vaccines,the research advances in recombinant live vector vaccines and epitope vaccines against avian influenza were discussed on the aspects of carrier selection and candidate genes,as well as the prospect of these two kinds of vaccines to provide references for their future research.%为了解禽流感新型疫苗的研究现状,从载体选择和候选基因等方面论述了基因重组活载体疫苗和表位疫苗的研究进展,并对这两种疫苗的发展前景进行了展望,以期为禽流感新型疫苗的研究提供参考。

  14. Phase 1 Safety and Immunogenicity Study of a Quadrivalent Seasonal Flu Vaccine Comprising Recombinant Hemagglutinin-Flagellin Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussey, Lynda; Strout, Cynthia; Davis, Matthew; Johnson, Casey; Lucksinger, Gregg; Umlauf, Scott; Song, Langzhou; Liu, Ge; Abraham, Katalin; White, C Jo

    2016-01-01

    Background.  We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of VAX2012Q, a quadrivalent influenza vaccine comprising 4 hemagglutinin subunits fused to flagellin. Methods.  In this dose-ranging, open-label study, healthy adults (18-40 years) were divided into 7 cohorts for evaluation of 5 dose levels and 3 component ratios. Dose levels were as follows: (1) 1 mcg per component of VAX128C (H1N1), VAX181 (H3N2), VAX173 (B-YAM), and VAX172 (B-VIC), respectively; (2) 2 mcg per component, respectively; (3) 2, 4, 4, and 4 mcg of each component, respectively; (4) 2, 4, 6, and 6 mcg of each component, respectively; and (5) 3 mcg per component, respectively. Tolerability and immunogenicity data were analyzed. Results.  Three hundred sixteen subjects received VAX2012Q (309 per protocol). At all dose levels, 54% to 65% of subjects reported mild injection site pain, the most common local reaction. Moderate injection site pain increased at dose levels 2 through 5 (22%-42%, compared with 20% at dose level 1). Systemic symptoms were mostly mild to moderate with moderate symptoms increasing in dose levels 3 and 4. Three dose level 3 subjects (6%) reported severe, transient chills and or fever. Mean fold rises in hemagglutination inhibition titers ranged from 2.5 to 6.9 despite high baseline titers. Mean seroprotection rates were ≥90% and mean seroconversion rates were ≥40% for all strains in all groups postvaccination. Conclusions.  VAX2012Q elicited immune responses at all dose levels with no significant safety concerns. Doses of 2 or 3 mcg per component provided a favorable balance of tolerability and immunogenicity. PMID:26925433

  15. Bird Flu Fears: Is There a Better Way to Develop Drugs?

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    Government-granted patent monopolies have limited the ability to produce and stockpile large quantities of the drugs deemed most effective in treating the Avian Flu. This report examines alternative mechanisms for financing the development of pharmaceutical products.

  16. Characterization of Immune Responses to an Inactivated Avian Influenza Virus Vaccine Adjuvanted with Nanoparticles Containing CpG ODN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Abdelaziz, Khaled Taha; Hodgins, Douglas C; Novy, Anastasia; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV), a mucosal pathogen, gains entry into host chickens through respiratory and gastrointestinal routes. Most commercial AIV vaccines for poultry consist of inactivated, whole virus with adjuvant, delivered by parenteral administration. Recent advances in vaccine development have led to the application of nanoparticle emulsion delivery systems, such as poly (d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to enhance antigen-specific immune responses. In chickens, the Toll-like receptor 21 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), have been demonstrated to be immunostimulatory. The objective of this study was to compare the adjuvant potential of CpG ODN 2007 encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 when combined with a formalin-inactivated H9N2 virus, through intramuscular and aerosol delivery routes. Chickens were vaccinated at days 7 and 21 posthatch for the intramuscular route and at days 7, 21, and 35 for the aerosol route. Antibody-mediated responses were evaluated weekly in sera and lacrimal secretions in specific pathogen-free chickens. The results indicate that nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in inactivated AIV vaccines administered by the intramuscular route generated higher antibody responses compared to the encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 formulation by the same route. Additionally, encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 in AIV vaccines administered by the aerosol route elicited higher mucosal responses compared to nonencapsulated CpG ODN 2007. Future studies may be aimed at evaluating protective immune responses induced with PLGA encapsulation of AIV and adjuvants. PMID:27077969

  17. A baculovirus dual expression system-based vaccine confers complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 avian influenza virus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype have become highly prevalent in avian species. Although these viruses generally cause only mild to moderate disease, they can infect a wide variety of species, including chickens, quail, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasant, partridge, and pigeon, even transmitted to mammalian species, including humans, accelerating the efforts to devise protective strategies against them. Results The results showed that stronger immune responses were induced in a mouse model immunized with BV-Dual-HA than in those vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding the same antigen. Moreover, complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 virus was observed in mice. Conclusion BV-Dual-HA could be utilized as a vaccine candidate against H9N2 virus infection.

  18. Learning to trust flu shots: quasi-experimental evidence on the role of learning in influenza vaccination decisions from the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, J.; Harris, K M

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies consumer learning in influenza vaccination decisions, i.e., potential causal effects of past experiences of being vaccinated on current use of influenza vaccine. Existing structural models of demand usually identify consumer learning parametrically based on functional form assumptions within dynamic forward-looking Bayesian demand models. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to explore the potential role of consumer learning in pharmaceutical demand within a reduc...

  19. THE EFFECT OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON LYMPHOCYTE AND CD4 IN CHICKEN VACCINATED AGAINST Avian Influenza VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Y.W. Yuniwarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find preventing alternative of avian influenza (AI disease in broiler chickenby increasing body immune. Lymphocyte T would directly react to antigen presented to the cell surfaceby antigen presenting cell (APC. Th-CD4 interaction functioned to maintain Th-APC bond intactduring specific antigen activation. Fatty acid in virgin coconut oil (VCO was potential asimmunostimulant, which therefore could increase chicken immunity through the increase of lymphocyteT and Th-CD4. This research used 40 one-day-old broiler chickens. The method applied was CompletelyRandomized Factorial Design in which the first factor was two levels of vaccine, namely groups of AIvaccinated and unvaccinated. The second factor was four levels of VCO namely 0, 5, 10, 15 mL/kg feed.Day Old Chick (DOC were divided into eight treatment groups and repeated five times. Feed and waterwere given ad libitum for four weeks. The result showed that the number of lymphocyte and Th-CD4 inchickens given 10 mL per kg feed and vaccinated with AI was higher than that in chickens given VCOwithout AI vaccine.

  20. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh GCH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  1. Influenza A aviária (H5N1: a gripe do frango Avian influenza A (H5N1: the bird flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo rever a literatura sobre o vírus influenza A aviária (H5N1. O levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado nos bancos de dados eletrônicos Medline, MD Consult, HighWire, Medscape e Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Literatura Latinoamericana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, e por pesquisa direta, referentes aos últimos dez anos. Foram selecionados 32 artigos originais abordando os surtos recentes de infecção por um subtipo de vírus influenza A aviária, o H5N1, em criações de aves domésticas na Ásia, que resultaram em importantes prejuízos econômicos e repercussões em saúde pública, além de casos de infecção humana de alta letalidade. A maioria dos casos está associada com a exposição direta a aves infectadas ou superfícies contaminadas com excrementos dessas aves, porém foi confirmada a transmissão entre humanos. O período de incubação foi de dois a quatro dias. As manifestações clínicas variaram de infecção assintomática e doença leve do trato respiratório superior a pneumonia grave e falência múltipla de órgãos. A radiografia de tórax pode apresentar infiltrado intersticial bilateral, colapso lobar, consolidação focal e broncograma aéreo sem derrame pleural. A presença de linfopenia indica pior prognóstico. O tratamento de suporte parece ser o único tratamento aceitável. Os fatores de risco para mau prognóstico incluem idade avançada, demora na hospitalização, envolvimento do trato respiratório inferior, baixa contagem de leucócitos totais e linfopenia à admissão. Controlar os surtos em aves domésticas e o contato entre seres humanos e tais aves deve ser a prioridade no manejo da doença em nível de saúde pública, e medidas e conhecimentos acerca da doença devem ser amplamente divulgados.The objective of this study was to review the literature related to avian influenza A (H5N1. The bibliographic research was

  2. Evaluation of a chimeric multi-epitope-based DNA vaccine against subgroup J avian leukosis virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Cui, Ning; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-07-19

    The prokaryotic expressed recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) had been evaluated with good immunogenicity and protective efficacy against subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in our previous study. In the present research, we cloned the chimeric multi-epitope gene X into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 to evaluate its potency as a DNA vaccine. The purified recombinant gp85 protein and rCMEPX were used as positive controls and a DNA prime-protein boost strategy was also studied. Six experimental groups of 7-day-old chickens (20 per group) were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2weeks interval with PBS, gp85, rCMEPX, pVAX1, pVAX-X and pVAX-X+rCMEPX respectively. The antibody titers and cellular immune responses were assayed after immunization. The efficacy of immunoprotection against the challenge of ALV-J NX0101 strain was also examined. The results showed that the DNA vaccine could elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses. Immune-challenge experiments showed good protection efficacy against ALV-J infection. Particularly, the regimen involving one priming pVAX-X and twice recombinant rCMEPX boosting, induced the highest antibody titers in all immunized groups. Our results suggest that the constructed chimeric multi-epitope DNA has potential for a candidate vaccine against ALV-J when used in proper prime-boost combinations. The data presented here may provide an alternative strategy for vaccine design in chicken ALV-J prevention.

  3. Low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) with an emphasis on vaccination programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been 30 epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2012. The largest has been the H5N1 HPAI which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has affected over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. For most countries, stamping-out prog...

  4. Mucosal immunity induced by adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine confers protection against a lethal H5N2 avian influenza virus challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of effective vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses is a global public health priority. Considering the difficulty in predicting HPAI H5N1 pandemic strains, one strategy used in their design includes the development of formulations with the capacity of eliciting broad cross-protective immunity against multiple viral antigens. To this end we constructed a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus-based avian influenza virus vaccine (rAdv-AI) expressing the codon-optimized M2eX-HA-hCD40L and the M1-M2 fusion genes from HPAI H5N1 human isolate. Although there were no significant differences in the systemic immune responses observed between the intramuscular prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IM/IM) and the intranasal prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IN/IM), IN/IM induced more potent CD8+ T cell and antibody responses at mucosal sites than the IM/IM vaccination, resulting in more effective protection against lethal H5N2 avian influenza (AI) virus challenge. These findings suggest that the strategies used to induce multi-antigen-targeted mucosal immunity, such as IN/IM delivery of rAdv-AI, may be a promising approach for developing broad protective vaccines that may be more effective against the new HPAI pandemic strains.

  5. Matrix-M Adjuvated Seasonal Virosomal Influenza Vaccine Induces Partial Protection in Mice and Ferrets against Avian H5 and H7 Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Cox

    Full Text Available There is a constant threat of zoonotic influenza viruses causing a pandemic outbreak in humans. It is virtually impossible to predict which virus strain will cause the next pandemic and it takes a considerable amount of time before a safe and effective vaccine will be available once a pandemic occurs. In addition, development of pandemic vaccines is hampered by the generally poor immunogenicity of avian influenza viruses in humans. An effective pre-pandemic vaccine is therefore required as a first line of defense. Broadening of the protective efficacy of current seasonal vaccines by adding an adjuvant may be a way to provide such first line of defense. Here we evaluate whether a seasonal trivalent virosomal vaccine (TVV adjuvated with the saponin-based adjuvant Matrix-M (MM can confer protection against avian influenza H5 and H7 virus strains in mice and ferrets. We demonstrate that mice were protected from death against challenges with H5N1 and H7N7, but that the protection was not complete as evidenced by severe clinical signs. In ferrets, protection against H7N9 was not observed. In contrast, reduced upper and lower respiratory tract viral loads and reduced lung pathology, was achieved in H5N1 challenged ferrets. Together these results suggest that, at least to some extent, Matrix-M adjuvated seasonal virosomal influenza vaccine can serve as an interim measure to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with a pandemic outbreak.

  6. Sellers to Preventive and Control Measures on Bird Flu, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the knowledge of preventive measures of avian influenza from farmers, live chicken sellers, and poultry veterinarian in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study using standardized questionnaire was conducted. Respondents included 236 poultry farmers, live chicken sellers (LCS, and veterinarian aged 12–70 years in contact with birds through husbandry. The study duration was from October 2010 to May 2011. Participants knowledge on transmission sources showed low understanding with highest being from bird-bird (57.3%. The medium most commonly utilized was electronic media (82.5% as information source. Respondents thought that vaccination of birds (80.6% would prevent infection. Farmers’ education on bird flu needs to be improved through veterinary public health and health promotion approach. Nonpharmaceutical preventive measures such as hand washing freely and avoidance of eye, nose, and mouth touching must be improved.

  7. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild Birds To Be Provided to the National Veterinary Stockpile Program... poultry, swine and equine. Particularly one vaccine, a trivalent combination of H5N1 immunogens... designed for poultry, swine and equine recipients, with the following advantages: (a) More efficient...

  8. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  9. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Everyone 6 months of age and older should ...

  10. Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel, Recombinant H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strains Isolated from Vaccinated Chickens with Clinical Symptoms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiying Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA and matrix (M genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains.

  11. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. ► Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. ► H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  12. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue, E-mail: euy-tokyo@umin.ac.jp [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People' s Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang, E-mail: liaogy@21cn.com [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  13. Contamination rate of Avian Leukosis viruses among commercial Marek's Disease vaccines in Assiut, Egypt market using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moemen A. Mohamed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avian leukosis viruses (ALVs in poultry may induce a variety of deleterious effects including tumors, increased mortalities, growth retardation and decrease in egg size and production that led to considerable economic losses. The identification of avian leukosis viruses (ALVs in imported Marek’s disease (MD vaccines has raised concern about transmission of these retroviruses to vaccine recipients esp. poultry breeding stocks, so Egypt as one of importing countries requires freedom of infection with ALVs in such vaccines. Subgroup specific RT-PCR was undertaken on isolated RNA from 13 obtained commercial MD vaccines using six pairs of primers that correspond to envelope glycoprotein gene (gp85 which determines possible contamination with the six ALV subgroups: A, B, C, D, E, and J. The results indicated that RT-PCR assay for ALV-gp85 subgroup-E was positive for eight out of thirteen (61.5% tested MD vaccines, while primers designed to detect subgroup A and J ALVs were positive for five out of thirteen (38.5% and two out of thirteen (7.7% respectively among examined vaccines. No ALVs was detected in 3/13 (23.07% of commercially examined vaccines by using any of six primer pairs. Finally, the using of RT-PCR assay provides us a new, sensitive approach for identifying ALVs as a contaminant agent that will help greatly in applying this method for equipped labs as a quality control measure for testing delivered MD vaccines before its administration in poultry breeding stocks as well eradication programs through identifying infected birds. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 8-12

  14. The effect of Aquablend Avian probiotic ® including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium on systemic antibody response against Newcastle and Influenza disease vaccine in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talazadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Finding alternatives to antibiotics for poultry production is very important because there are increasing concerns about antibiotic resistance. So, researchers have been directed to the research back to natural antimicrobial products. Some researchers stated that probiotics can stimulate the immune system and play an important role in shaping the immune system. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a commercial probiotic mixture (Aquablend Avian® supplementation to the drinking water of broiler chickens on the immune response against Newcastle and influenza diseases vaccines. Materials and Methods In this study, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were purchased and divided randomly into 3 groups (n = 60 for each group. Chickens in groups A and B received 300 mg of the probiotic in drinking water for first 3 days and first 7 days, respectively. Chickens in group C were kept as a control group and did not receive probiotic. All groups were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine (B1 strain intraocularly on 8th day, and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 subcutaneously at the back of the neck on 8th day. Two mL of blood samples were collected before vaccination as well as on days 14, 28 and 35 postimmunization. Ten chickens of each group were bled randomly and an antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 was determined by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Results The results of the present study showed that oral administration of the probiotic for 7 days significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine compared to the control group (0.75 - 1.6 log, based on log2, while the probiotic administration had no significant effect on antibody productions against avian influenza vaccine as compared to the control group. Conclusions Oral administration of Aquablend Avian® probiotic strains including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium

  15. Antibody titer has positive predictive value for vaccine protection against challenge with natural antigenic-drift variants of H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with Hong Kong in 2002, vaccines have been used as part of an integrated control strategy in 14 countries/regions to protect poultry against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). H5N1 HPAI was first reported in Indonesia in 2003 and vaccination was initiated the following year. ...

  16. 惠州市650名急诊护士流感疫苗接种情况调查和影响因素分析%Investigation and influencing factors analysis of the flu vaccination 0n the 650 emergency nurses in Huizhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨连香; 陈锁胜

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查惠州市急诊护士2013年流感疫苗接种情况并对其影响因素进行分析。方法:对惠州市各级医院急诊护士进行问卷调查,调查其流感疫苗接种情况并采用 logistic 回归分析方法分析影响急诊护士流感疫苗接种情况的相关因素。结果:共发放672份调查问卷,回收650份有效调查问卷,问卷有效回收率为96.73%,650名急诊护士流感疫苗接种率为43.69%(284/650)。不接种流感疫苗的主要原因是认为自身免疫力强,不需要(35.79%)。在单因素分析中,急诊护士流感疫苗接种率分别与文化程度、医疗机构级别、职称、是否接种过季节性流感疫苗、认为流感疫苗是否安全、认为流感疫苗是否有效相关(P ﹤0.05);在多因素分析中,急诊护士流感疫苗接种率与是否接种过季节性流感疫苗、认为流感疫苗是否安全、认为流感疫苗是否有效相关(P ﹤0.05)。结论:是否接种过季节性流感疫苗、认为流感疫苗是否安全、认为流感疫苗是否有效是急诊护士流感疫苗接种的相对独立因素,加强对流感疫苗安全性及流感疫苗知识宣传教育,有利于提高流感疫苗接种率。%Objective:To investigate the flu vaccination on 650 emergency nurses on Huizhou City and analyze the influ-encing factors. Methods:To investigate the flu vaccination of the emergency nurses on Huizhou City through questionnaire,and analysis the influencing factors related to influenza vaccination by logistic regression analysis. Results:A total of 672 question-naires were issued,and 650 valid questionnaires were recovered. The effective rate of the questionnaire was 96. 73% . The influ-enza vaccination rate of 650 emergency nurses was 43. 69%(284 / 650),and the main reason why they had not vaccinate was their immunity strong,do not need vaccination(35. 79% ). The results of univariate analysis showed that there were

  17. Swine flu in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Emerging swine flu (variant H1N1 influenza virus infection)is a new problem in medicine.The outbreaks in Mexico,USA and Canada bring attention to medical scientists that thing infection might finalize in the global pandemic situation.In this specific paper,the author hereby discusses on the situation of swine flu in Asia.

  18. Vaccine Efficacy Against a New Avian Influenza (H9N2) Field Isolate from the Middle East (Serology and Challenge Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Amareen, Shadi

    2016-05-01

    Avian influenza subtype H9N2 is endemic in many countries in the Middle East. The reported prevalence of infection was variable between countries and ranged from 28.7% in Tunisia to 71% in Jordan. Several commercial killed whole-virus vaccine products are used as monovalent or bivalent mixed with Newcastle disease virus. Recently, we have noticed that many of the vaccinated broiler flocks did not show a production advantage over nonvaccinated flocks in the field. A new avian influenza field virus (H9N2) was isolated from these vaccinated and infected broiler flocks in 2013. This virus had 89.1% similarity of its hemagglutinin (HA) gene to the classical virus used for manufacturing the classical vaccine. Inactivated autogenous vaccine was manufactured from this new field isolate to investigate its serological response and protection in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and breeder-male chickens compared to the classical vaccine. Oropharyngeal virus shedding of vaccinated breeder-male chickens was evaluated at 3, 9, 10, and 14 days postchallenge (DPC). Percentage of chickens shedding the virus at 3 DPC was 64%, 50%, and 64% in the classical vaccine group, autogenous vaccine group, and the control challenged group, respectively. At 7 DPC percentage of virus shedding was 42%, 7%, and 64% in the classical vaccine group, autogenous vaccine group, and the control challenged group, respectively. At 10 DPC only 9% of classical vaccine group was shedding the virus and there was no virus shedding in any of the groups at 14 DPC. There was statistical significance difference (P < 0.05) in shedding only at 7 DPC between the autogenous vaccine group and the other two groups. At 42 days of age (14 DPC), average body weight was 2.720, 2.745, 2.290, and 2.760 kg for the classical vaccine group, autogenous vaccine group, control challenged group, and control unchallenged group, respectively. Only the control challenged group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower average body weight. In

  19. Quality-by-Design approach to monitor the operation of a batch bioreactor in an industrial avian vaccine manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largoni, Martina; Facco, Pierantonio; Bernini, Donatella; Bezzo, Fabrizio; Barolo, Massimiliano

    2015-10-10

    Monitoring batch bioreactors is a complex task, due to the fact that several sources of variability can affect a running batch and impact on the final product quality. Additionally, the product quality itself may not be measurable on line, but requires sampling and lab analysis taking several days to be completed. In this study we show that, by using appropriate process analytical technology tools, the operation of an industrial batch bioreactor used in avian vaccine manufacturing can be effectively monitored as the batch progresses. Multivariate statistical models are built from historical databases of batches already completed, and they are used to enable the real time identification of the variability sources, to reliably predict the final product quality, and to improve process understanding, paving the way to a reduction of final product rejections, as well as to a reduction of the product cycle time. It is also shown that the product quality "builds up" mainly during the first half of a batch, suggesting on the one side that reducing the variability during this period is crucial, and on the other side that the batch length can possibly be shortened. Overall, the study demonstrates that, by using a Quality-by-Design approach centered on the appropriate use of mathematical modeling, quality can indeed be built "by design" into the final product, whereas the role of end-point product testing can progressively reduce its importance in product manufacturing.

  20. 禽流感表位疫苗的研究进展%Progress in Development of Avian Influenza Epitope Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文慧; 钱爱东

    2011-01-01

    表位疫苗是近几年发展起来的一种防控禽流感的新型疫苗。从表位的筛选方法、候选基因及免疫效果等方面综述表位疫苗的研究现状,以期为禽流感表位疫苗的研究提供参考。%Epitope vaccine is a new vaccine for prevention and control of avian influenza( overview of the current research relating to screening methods, candidate genes and reviewed. The review could provide the reference for future research of epitope vaccines.

  1. Swine Flu: Prevention to Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Padda

    2015-01-01

    Swine flu, also known as swine influenza, pig influenza, hog flu and pig flu, is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behaviour. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Mostly people who are closely associated with pigs (for example, pork processors and farmers) acquire the infection and similarly pigs ...

  2. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  3. Studies on Immunological Effect and Immunological Mechanism Avian Encephalomyelitis Oil Emulsion Inactivated Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zi-qiang; ZHAO Zhen-hua; RI Mudema

    2002-01-01

    Oil emulsion inactivated vaccine was prepared by susceptible embryos, with different strains of AEV. Four groups of normal chickens of 2 - 7 days of age were given injections for immunization, respectively. Another group was used as control. This study was expected to evaluate the immunological effect and discuss the immunological mechanism by means of five different experiments, i.e. the agar-gel precipitin test,the isolation of lymphokine, the isolation, purification and analysis of blood serum IgG, embryo-susceptibility test, and clinical and pathological examination. The results of these experiments indicated that oil emulsion inactivated vaccine is safe and effective. The chickens were normal when inoculated with AE strong virus after immunity at 4 and 37 weeks. Immunological mechanism is that the humoral immunity played an important role and celluar immunity exists, but it is not important in the process of the resistance to AEV.

  4. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak. PMID:26075542

  5. Fighting the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-08

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges Native peoples to know the facts about the flu.  Created: 3/8/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/8/2011.

  6. Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z 5 Tips: Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say? Share: It's that time of year again— ... But do they really work? What does the science say? Vaccination is the best ... natural product is useful against the flu. Zinc taken ...

  7. Protection of poultry against the 2012 Mexican H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus with inactivated H7 avian influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June of 2012, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 was reported poultry in Jalisco, Mexico. Since that time the virus has spread to the surrounding States of Guanajuato and Aguascalientes and new outbreaks continue to be reported. To date more than 25 million birds have di...

  8. Evidence for differing evolutionary dynamics of A/H5N1 viruses among countries applying or not applying avian influenza vaccination in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattoli, Giovanni; Fusaro, Alice; Monne, Isabella; Coven, Fethiye; Joannis, Tony; El-Hamid, Hatem S Abd; Hussein, Aly Ahmed; Cornelius, Claire; Amarin, Nadim Mukhles; Mancin, Marzia; Holmes, Edward C; Capua, Ilaria

    2011-11-21

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 (clade 2.2) was introduced into Egypt in early 2006. Despite the control measures taken, including mass vaccination of poultry, the virus rapidly spread among commercial and backyard flocks. Since the initial outbreaks, the virus in Egypt has evolved into a third order clade (clade 2.2.1) and diverged into antigenically and genetically distinct subclades. To better understand the dynamics of HPAI H5N1 evolution in countries that differ in vaccination policy, we undertook an in-depth analysis of those virus strains circulating in Egypt between 2006 and 2010, and compared countries where vaccination was adopted (Egypt and Indonesia) to those where it was not (Nigeria, Turkey and Thailand). This study incorporated 751 sequences (Egypt n=309, Indonesia n=149, Nigeria n=106, Turkey n=87, Thailand n=100) of the complete haemagglutinin (HA) open reading frame, the major antigenic determinant of influenza A virus. Our analysis revealed that two main Egyptian subclades (termed A and B) have co-circulated in domestic poultry since late 2007 and exhibit different profiles of positively selected codons and rates of nucleotide substitution. The mean evolutionary rate of subclade A H5N1 viruses was 4.07×10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year (HPD 95%, 3.23-4.91), whereas subclade B possessed a markedly higher substitution rate (8.87×10(-3); 95% HPD 7.0-10.72×10(-3)) and a stronger signature of positive selection. Although the direct association between H5N1 vaccination and virus evolution is difficult to establish, we found evidence for a difference in the evolutionary dynamics of H5N1 viruses among countries where vaccination was or was not adopted. In particular, both evolutionary rates and the number of positively selected sites were higher in virus populations circulating in countries applying avian influenza vaccination for H5N1, compared to viruses circulating in countries which had never used vaccination. We

  9. College students and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007446.htm College students and the flu To use the sharing features ... and a lot of social activities make a college student more likely to catch the flu. This article ...

  10. FluBreaks: Early Epidemic Detection from Google Flu Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-01-01

    Background The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an e...

  11. Recombinant trimeric HA protein immunogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses and their combined use with inactivated or adenovirus vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus continues to cause disease in poultry and humans. The hemagglutinin (HA envelope protein is the primary target for subunit vaccine development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used baculovirus-insect cell expression to obtain trimeric recombinant HA (rHA proteins from two HPAI H5N1 viruses. We investigated trimeric rHA protein immunogenicity in mice via immunizations, and found that the highest levels of neutralizing antibodies resulted from coupling with a PELC/CpG adjuvant. We also found that the combined use of trimeric rHA proteins with (a an inactivated H5N1 vaccine virus, or (b a recombinant adenovirus encoding full-length HA sequences for prime-boost immunization, further improved antibody responses against homologous and heterologous H5N1 virus strains. Data from cross-clade prime-boost immunization regimens indicate that sequential immunization with different clade HA antigens increased antibody responses in terms of total IgG level and neutralizing antibody titers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the use of trimeric rHA in prime-boost vaccine regimens represents an alternative strategy for recombinant H5N1 vaccine development.

  12. Preschool Flu Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-06

    In the U.S., many young children go to day-care centers and preschools. These environments put them at higher risk for influenza, including potential serious complications, such as hospitalization and even death. An annual flu vaccine is recommended for all children six months and older. In this podcast, Dr. Erin Kennedy discusses the importance of getting your preschooler vaccinated against influenza.  Created: 3/6/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  13. Avian influenza – Review

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-01-01

    Recent spread of avian influenza A H5N1 virus to poultry and wild birds has increased the threat of human infections with H5N1 virus worldwide In this review the epidemiology virolgy clinical and laboratory characteristics and management of avian influenza is described The virus has demonsrated considerable pandemic potential and is the most likely candidate of next pandemic threat For pandemic preparedness stockpiling antiviral agents and vaccination are the most important intervention measu...

  14. Pregnancy and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a common preservative in multidose vaccines. Despite concerns, vaccines that contain this substance have NOT been shown to cause autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. If you have ...

  15. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  16. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  17. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  18. Flu and Holiday Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast explains the ways people can stay healthy and avoid the flu when traveling this winter.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/13/2010.

  19. On Flu Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On May 18, China Central Television (CCTV) interviewed Shu Yuelong, Director of the Chinese National Influenza Center, after it obtained the first A/H1N1 flu virus sample on the Chinese mainland from an imported case on May 17. Here are excerpts from the interview.

  20. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  1. Who has a clue to preventing the flu? Unravelling supply and demand effects on the take-up of influenza vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Influenza is a serious disease, especially for older people, and incomplete vaccination take-up poses a major public health challenge. On both the side of physicians and patients, there could be promising channels for increasing immunization rates, but no attempt has yet been made to empirically unravel their respective influences. Using exclusion restrictions implied by an economic model of physician-patient interactions, our study quantifies the particular effects of supply and demand on in...

  2. SERO SURVEI DAN ANALISA PENGETAHUAN SIKAP PENJAMAH UNGGAS TERHADAP PENYAKIT FLU BURUNG DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Endah Pracoyo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bird flu in Indonesia actually is Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 type. Is known bird flu virus in Humans occur if direct contact with infected poultry or through contact with environmental enclosure, and the carcasses of infected poultry products. The absence of the data if the handlers of poultry in the cases of bird flu virus has been exposed to the research conducted sero survey of bird flu antibody titers in handlers poultry  attitudes and knowledge of poultry against bird flu incident. The research objective measure antibodies against respondents tirer AI H5N1 virus, assess knowledge and attitudes against bird flu handlers through the interview. The study design was cross sectional. Handlers of poultry population in the region is ever going Extraordinary Cases of bird flu. Samples were responders/poultry handlers venous blood taken for H5N1 antibody titer by Ellisa, H5N1 conducted interviews using a questionnaire. The study used the respondents informed consent agreement. Research time in February to November 2007 in the island of Java. The number of samples of 80 samples of respondents. The results obtained are not found of H5N1 avian influenza antibody titer in responders. The results of the interview most of the handlers to wash Their hands after doing Their job (82.1%. A total of 52.9% residential handlers is more than a mile from where the management of poultry, (69% lived outside market handlers/Abattoir of poultry.Handler to act entered correctly (53.3%% and almost all handlers (97% would bring the patient/patient ill with signs of bird flu infection to health facilities. Keywords: poultry handlers, bird flu virus, knowledge and attitudes of poultry handlers Abstrak Yang dimaksud Flu burung di Indonesia sebetulnya adalah Virus Avian Influenza dengan tipe H5N1. Selama ini diketahui penularan virus flu burung pada manusia terjadi jika kontak langsung dengan unggas yang terinfeksi atau melalui kontak dengan lingkungan kandang

  3. FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Aaron TL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible. These algorithms enable reassorted influenza, and other, viruses to be rapidly identified to allow prevention strategies and treatments to be more efficiently implemented. Results The FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms were tested with both experimental and simulated mass spectra of whole virus digests. FluShuffle considers different combinations of viral protein identities that match the mass spectral data using a Gibbs sampling algorithm employing a mixed protein Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method. FluResort utilizes those identities to calculate the weighted distance of each across two or more different phylogenetic trees constructed through viral protein sequence alignments. Each weighted mean distance value is normalized by conversion to a Z-score to establish a reassorted strain. Conclusions The new FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms can correctly identify the origins of influenza viral proteins and the number of reassortment events required to produce the strains from the high resolution mass spectral data of whole virus proteolytic digestions. This has been demonstrated in the case of constructed vaccine strains as well as common human seasonal strains of the virus. The algorithms significantly improve the capability of the proteotyping approach to identify reassorted viruses that pose the greatest pandemic risk.

  4. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chawla

    2009-01-01

    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA, Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies, nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.

  5. Development of avian influenza virus H5 DNA vaccine and MDP-1 gene of Mycobacterium bovis as genetic adjuvant

    OpenAIRE

    Jalilian, Babak; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Rasoli, Mehdi; Matsumoto, Sohkichi

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that DNA vaccines can induce protective immunity, which demonstrated the high potential of DNA vaccines as an alternative to inactivated vaccines. Vaccines are frequently formulated with adjuvants to improve their release, delivery and presentation to the host immune system. Methods The H5 gene of H5N1 virus (A/Ck/Malaysia/5858/04) was cloned separately into pcDNA3.1 + vector. The immunogenicity of the cloned H5 DNA vaccine was tested on SPF chickens using two di...

  6. Immunogenicity and tolerability of inactivated flu vaccine In high risk and healthy children Inmunogenicidad y tolerancia de la vacuna inactivada anti-influenza en niños en alto riesgo y en controles sanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Avila Aguero

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this open study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated influenza vaccine, Imovax Gripe® in 154 children between 6 and 36 months of age at high risk of influenza- related complications, and in a reference group of 64 healthy children. The study was conducted over two flu seasons, in which the vaccine contained the same A strains but different B strains. The results for the A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 strains from the two flu seasons were pooled, but those for the B strains were not. Anti-hemagglutinin (HA antibody titers were determined before, and one month after each vaccination, and safety was evaluated based on diary card reporting any adverse event observed, either included or not in the list of "solicited events". Within each group of vaccines, the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and ratio of post- to prevaccination geometric mean titers (GMTR for the A/H3N2 and the A/H1N1 strains fulfilled all requirements of the criteria of the European Union Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP. The immune responses in high-risk and in healthy children were similar, and consistent with those observed in previous studies conducted in healthy children. The vaccine was equally well tolerated by all study groups. Reactogenicity was low and similar in both high-risk and healthy children. Overall from 9.5% to 15.4% of at-risk children and 12% of healthy children reported a solicited local reaction; 23.0 to 28.8% of high-risk and 25.3% of healthy children reported a solicited systemic reaction. The study results provide support for vaccination of children at high-risk of influenza related complications.Se realizó un estudio clínico abierto para evaluar la inmunogenícidad y la seguridad de la vacuna inactivada anti-influenza, Imovax Gripe®, en 154 niños entre 6 y 36 meses de edad con alto riesgo de complicaciones ligadas a la influenza, y en un grupo de referencia de 64 niños sanos. El estudio fue

  7. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  8. Stimulating Influenza Vaccination via Prosocial Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric G.; Atkins, Katherine E.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Americans do not vaccinate nearly enough against Influenza (flu) infection, despite severe health and economic burden of influenza. Younger people are disproportionately responsible for transmission, but do not suffer severely from the flu. Thus, to achieve herd immunity, prosocial motivation needs to be a partial driver of vaccination decisions. Past research has not established the causal role of prosociality in flu vaccination, and the current research evaluates such causal relationship by experimentally eliciting prosociality through messages about flu victims. Methods In an experimental study, we described potential flu victims who would suffer from the decision of others to not vaccinate to 3952 Internet participants across eight countries. We measured sympathy, general prosociality, and vaccination intentions. The study included two identifiable victim conditions (one with an elderly victim and another with a young victim), an unidentified victim condition, and a no message condition. Results We found that any of the three messages increased flu vaccination intentions. Moreover, this effect was mediated by enhanced prosocial motives, and was stronger among people who were historical non-vaccinators. In addition, younger victim elicited greater sympathy, and describing identifiable victims increased general sympathy and prosocial motives. Conclusions These findings provide direct experimental evidence on the causal role of prosocial motives in flu vaccination, by showing that people can be prompted to vaccinate for the sake of benefiting others. PMID:27459237

  9. Stimulating Influenza Vaccination via Prosocial Motives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    Full Text Available Americans do not vaccinate nearly enough against Influenza (flu infection, despite severe health and economic burden of influenza. Younger people are disproportionately responsible for transmission, but do not suffer severely from the flu. Thus, to achieve herd immunity, prosocial motivation needs to be a partial driver of vaccination decisions. Past research has not established the causal role of prosociality in flu vaccination, and the current research evaluates such causal relationship by experimentally eliciting prosociality through messages about flu victims.In an experimental study, we described potential flu victims who would suffer from the decision of others to not vaccinate to 3952 Internet participants across eight countries. We measured sympathy, general prosociality, and vaccination intentions. The study included two identifiable victim conditions (one with an elderly victim and another with a young victim, an unidentified victim condition, and a no message condition.We found that any of the three messages increased flu vaccination intentions. Moreover, this effect was mediated by enhanced prosocial motives, and was stronger among people who were historical non-vaccinators. In addition, younger victim elicited greater sympathy, and describing identifiable victims increased general sympathy and prosocial motives.These findings provide direct experimental evidence on the causal role of prosocial motives in flu vaccination, by showing that people can be prompted to vaccinate for the sake of benefiting others.

  10. Tapak Perlekatan Reseptor Virus Flu Burung yang Diisolasi dari Berbagai Unggas Sejak tahun 2003 sampai 2008 (RECEPTOR BINDING SITE OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS H5N1 ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS POULTRIES SINCE 2003 TO 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza (AI is an infectious disease in poultry, caused by type A of avian influenza virus(AIV, in the family of Orthomyxoviridae. Almost all birds’ species are sensitive to the AI. Beside theability to infect various species of poultry. AIV type A has a wide range of host including all bird species,mammals, dan human. Today some scientists reported that the cases of AI in mammals, including humansare increasing. This condition suggests that the AI virus circulated in the field may have some mutationsin the amino acid determinants responsible receptor binding site (RBS. A research was therefore designedto investigate the molecular level of HA gen fragment responsible for receptor binding site of AIV isolatedfrom various poultry since 2003 to 2008. Molecular characterization was based on the amplification ofreceptor binding site of HA gene by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. All RTPCRof HA gene positive products were sequenced to determine the nucleotide composition at the targetedfragment. Sequences yielded were analyzed by program Mega 4.0 versions, including multiple alignment,deductive amino acid prediction, and establishment of phylogenetic tree. The results show that all AIVisolates could be determined of some conserved amino acids residues responsible for RBS which indicatethe binding preference of avian like receptor, sialic acid ? 2, 3 galactose except isolate A/Layer/Jabar/MHW-RBS-02/2008 which could be found a deletion of amino acid at position of 129 dan mutation of 151isoleucine into threonine. Phylogenetic study showed that clustering of AIV did not base on species of birdor geographic origin of AI viruses which were studied.

  11. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Language: English Español Recommend ...

  12. Vaccination with Astragalus and Ginseng Polysaccharides Improves Immune Response of Chickens against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auwalu Yusuf Abdullahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of astragalus and ginseng polysaccharides (APS, GPS on immune response and improvement of H5N1 vaccine, 360-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 8 groups of 45 chicks, comprising APS groups (1–3; GPS groups (4–6; vaccine group (7; and blank control (8 (without polysaccharide and vaccine. From day 12 after hatch groups 1–3 were given APS and groups 4–6 with GPS both at 100, 200, and 400 (mg/kg, respectively. At day 15 after hatch, groups 1–7 were vaccinated with 0.3 mL H5N1 vaccine subcutaneously; daily weight gain (DWG and serum Ig antibody (by HI-test were measured on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after vaccination. Serum antibody titers and expression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-10, I FN-γ, and TNF were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR. Results revealed that all the polysaccharide groups were numerically increased in antibody levels and the expression of cytokines was significant (P<0.05 in the APS and GPS groups compared to corresponding vaccine group and blank control. DWG was higher (P<0.05 in 400 mg/kg APS groups than control groups. Thus oral supplements of GPS and APS have shown their potential in the improvement of immune response and could be used as adjuvant in a formulation of H5N1 vaccine.

  13. Vaccination with Astragalus and Ginseng Polysaccharides Improves Immune Response of Chickens against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Kallon, Sanpha; Yu, Xingang; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of astragalus and ginseng polysaccharides (APS, GPS) on immune response and improvement of H5N1 vaccine, 360-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 8 groups of 45 chicks, comprising APS groups (1-3); GPS groups (4-6); vaccine group (7); and blank control (8) (without polysaccharide and vaccine). From day 12 after hatch groups 1-3 were given APS and groups 4-6 with GPS both at 100, 200, and 400 (mg/kg), respectively. At day 15 after hatch, groups 1-7 were vaccinated with 0.3 mL H5N1 vaccine subcutaneously; daily weight gain (DWG) and serum Ig antibody (by HI-test) were measured on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after vaccination. Serum antibody titers and expression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-10, I FN-γ, and TNF) were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR. Results revealed that all the polysaccharide groups were numerically increased in antibody levels and the expression of cytokines was significant (P < 0.05) in the APS and GPS groups compared to corresponding vaccine group and blank control. DWG was higher (P < 0.05) in 400 mg/kg APS groups than control groups. Thus oral supplements of GPS and APS have shown their potential in the improvement of immune response and could be used as adjuvant in a formulation of H5N1 vaccine. PMID:27597953

  14. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-01

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2μg or 2.3 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9 μg or 2.2 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9 μg HA and 2.2 μg HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2 μg HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9μg HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9 μg HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2 μg HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a

  15. Anticuerpos circulantes contra Influenza Aviar y Newcastle en zanates (Quiscalus mexicanus de la ciudad de Guatemala (Avian flu and Newcastle Antibodies in Great-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus in Guatemala city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar, Luis E.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenAunque el zanate (Quiscalus mexicanus está distribuido en todaGuatemala y se encuentra estrechamente ligado a poblaciones humanas,se sabe muy poco acerca de su estado sanitario y su papel comoreservorio de enfermedades aviares de importancia. Esta investigacióngenera información sobre el papel del zanate en la epizootiología de la Influenza Aviar (IA; Orthomyxoviridae y de Newcastle (ENC;Paramixoviridae, midiendo los anticuerpos circulantes en zanates norelacionados a granjas avícolas. Se colectaron 71 muestras de suero dezanates urbanos asintomáticos del la ciudad de Guatemala entre abril yjulio de 2008 y se analizaron con la prueba de Inhibición de laHemoaglutinación.SummaryDespite the Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus is distributed in all Guatemala and it is so close to human populations, few is knownabout its sanitarian status and role as reservoir of important aviandiseases. This research provides information about the role of the Greattailed Grackle in the epizootiology of Avian Influenza (AI;Orthomyxoviridae and Newcastle Disease (NCD; Paramixoviridae,measuring the antibodies of Grackles non-related to avian farms. Wecollected 71 serum samples from urban Great-tailed Grackles without any symptoms in Guatemala City from April to June of 2008, and analyzed with hemagglutination Inhibition Test.

  16. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

  17. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  18. Multimeric recombinant M2e protein-based ELISA: a significant improvement in differentiating avian influenza infected chickens from vaccinated ones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Hadifar

    Full Text Available Killed avian influenza virus (AIV vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006 was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test.

  19. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    OpenAIRE

    Koh GCH; Wong TY; Cheong SK; Koh DSQ

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unre...

  20. Delivery of an inactivated avian influenza virus vaccine adjuvanted with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) encapsulated CpG ODN induces protective immune responses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Nagy, Éva; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Hodgins, Douglas C; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-09-14

    In poultry, systemic administration of commercial vaccines consisting of inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) requires the simultaneous delivery of an adjuvant (water-in-oil emulsion). These vaccines are often limited in their ability to induce quantitatively better local (mucosal) antibody responses capable of curtailing virus shedding. Therefore, more efficacious adjuvants with the ability to provide enhanced immunogenicity and protective anti-AIV immunity in chickens are needed. While the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been recognized as a potential vaccine adjuvant in chickens, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, successfully tested as vaccine delivery systems in other species, have not been extensively explored. The present study, therefore, assessed both systemic and mucosal antibody-mediated responses following intramuscular vaccination (administered at 7 and 21days post-hatch) of chickens with PLGA encapsulated H9N2 AIV plus encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007), and nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccine formulations. Virus challenge was performed at 2weeks post-secondary vaccination using the oculo-nasal route. Our results showed that chickens vaccinated with the nonencapsulated AIV vaccine plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 developed significantly higher systemic IgY and local (mucosal) IgY antibodies as well as haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres compared to PLGA encapsulated AIV plus encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, chickens that received CpG 2007 as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation had antibodies exhibiting higher avidity indicating that the TLR21-mediated pathway may enhance antibody affinity maturation qualitatively. Collectively, our data indicate that vaccination of chickens with nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 results in qualitatively and quantitatively augmented antibody responses leading to a reduction in

  1. Preclinical and clinical development of plant-made virus-like particle vaccine against avian H5N1 influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Landry

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The recent swine H1N1 influenza outbreak demonstrated that egg-based vaccine manufacturing has an Achille's heel: its inability to provide a large number of doses quickly. Using a novel manufacturing platform based on transient expression of influenza surface glycoproteins in Nicotiana benthamiana, we have recently demonstrated that a candidate Virus-Like Particle (VLP vaccine can be generated within 3 weeks of release of sequence information. Herein we report that alum-adjuvanted plant-made VLPs containing the hemagglutinin (HA protein of H5N1 influenza (A/Indonesia/5/05 can induce cross-reactive antibodies in ferrets. Even low doses of this vaccine prevented pathology and reduced viral loads following heterotypic lethal challenge. We further report on safety and immunogenicity from a Phase I clinical study of the plant-made H5 VLP vaccine in healthy adults 18-60 years of age who received 2 doses 21 days apart of 5, 10 or 20 µg of alum-adjuvanted H5 VLP vaccine or placebo (alum. The vaccine was well tolerated at all doses. Adverse events (AE were mild-to-moderate and self-limited. Pain at the injection site was the most frequent AE, reported in 70% of vaccinated subjects versus 50% of the placebo recipients. No allergic reactions were reported and the plant-made vaccine did not significantly increase the level of naturally occurring serum antibodies to plant-specific sugar moieties. The immunogenicity of the H5 VLP vaccine was evaluated by Hemagglutination-Inhibition (HI, Single Radial Hemolysis (SRH and MicroNeutralisation (MN. Results from these three assays were highly correlated and showed similar trends across doses. There was a clear dose-response in all measures of immunogenicity and almost 96% of those in the higher dose groups (2 × 10 or 20 µg mounted detectable MN responses. Evidence of striking cross-protection in ferrets combined with a good safety profile and promising immunogenicity in humans suggest that plant

  2. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  3. Identifikasi Secara Serologi Galur Virus Flu Burung Subtipe H5N1 Clade 2.1.3 dan Clade 2.3.2 pada Ayam Petelur (SEROLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA STRAIN VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1 CLADE 2.1.3 AND CLADE 2.3.2 FROM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Kusumastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to know avian influenza (AI infection in field by using serology test in threemarketing area of AI vaccines. Haemagglutination inhibition methode was used in this test. There werefour antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (AIstrainA/Chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006, AIstrain A/Chicken/Garut/BBVW-223/2007, AI strain A/Chicken/West Java-Nagrak/30/2007, and AI strainA/Chicken/Pekalongan/BBVW-208/2007 and 2 antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (AI strainA/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and AI strain A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 was used inthis study for HI test. The result presents that 93,33% chicken farms in three marketing area of PT. SanbioLaboratories have positive antibody titre to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3. This titre may be obtained fromAI clade 2.1.3 vaccination. From 15 samples, 92,86% are positive to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2A/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and 92,31% are positive to A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 evenwithout AI clade 2.3.2 vaccination. This antibody titre may be obtained from AI clade 2.1.3 vaccine crossprotection or field infection.

  4. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S ™ in healthy Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Kubavat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. Aims : To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Settings and Design : Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Materials and Methods : Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (±2 days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Statistical Analysis Used : Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs and chi-square test and student′s t-test applied for significance testing. Results : 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072. Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179. A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (P<0.001 for both groups as compared to baseline. Nine vaccine-related adverse events were reported (3.4% incidence [1.2-5.6%], which were of low severity only. Conclusions : Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine produces excellent immunogenic response with a good tolerability profile in adult Indian population.

  5. The Effects of Avian Influenza News on Consumer Purchasing Behavior: A Case Study of Italian Consumers' Retail Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Robert H.; Kuchler, Fred; Leibtag, Ephraim S.; Zhen, Chen

    2008-01-01

    To better understand how information about potential health hazards influences food demand, this case study examines consumers’ responses to newspaper articles on avian influenza, informally referred to as bird flu. The focus here is on the response to bird flu information in Italy as news about highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) unfolded in the period October 2004 through October 2006, beginning after reports of the first outbreaks in Southeast Asia and extending beyond the p...

  6. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  7. Multiplex Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Deteksi Cepat Virus Flu Burung H5N1 (MULTIPLEX REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR RAPID DETECTION OF H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Wasito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (AIV H5N1 is highly pathogenic and fatal in poultry. The virusis still endemic with low virulence rate, although it may play a critical role in causing high morbidity andmortality rates in poultry in Indonesia. In general, diagnostic approach for AIV H5N1 is based onconventional serological and viral isolation methods that have the potential to produce consumings oftime and relatively expensive cost within the laboratory without compromising test utility. Thus, amolecular approach of multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR was developedand applied for the detection of matrix gene type A influenza viruses, AIV subtype subtype H5hemagglutinin gene with simultaneous detection of N1 nucleoprotein gene. Thirty sera specimens fromthe diseased commercial chickens that were specifically amplified positive-RT-PCR for AIV H5N1 wereselected for mRT-PCR. The mRT-PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and consistedof DNA fragments of AIV of 245 bp, 545 bp and 343 bp for M, H5 and N1 genes, respectively. Thus, themRT-PCR that can rapidly differentiate simultaneously between these genes is very important for thecontrol and even eradication of AIV transmission in poultry in Indonesia.

  8. Faktor Risiko Terkait Manajemen Kesehatan Unggas terhadap Infeksi Virus Flu Burung di Tempat Penampungan Ayam (THE RISK FACTOR OF POULTRY HEALTH MANAGEMENT TO THE INFECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY COLLECTING FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaerul Basri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the association between the implementation of poultryhealth management and the spread of avian influenza virus in Poultry Collecting Facilities (PCFs.  Thestudy was performed by maintaining 7-8 sentinel chickens in 39 PCFs in Jakarta for three months.  Thevariables evaluated for poultry health management were health certificate, health inspection, healthinspector, health inspection method, and handling of sick and dead birds. Data on the variables werecollected by interview with supervisor of PCFs.  The AIV infection were detected by rt-PCR from the cloacaland tracheal swab of the dead birds with.  The results showed that the methodes of handling of sick birdswere significantly associated with infection of AIV (RR=2,00 ; 95% CI  = 1,31-3,05.  The other variables didnot show significance association.  The risk of AIV infection was twice higher  the sick keeping side birdsalive, or by separating, or treating the birds in the same cage than by slaughtering them. Poultry healthmanagement in PCFs need to be improved in order to prevent and control the spreading of AIV in Indonesia.

  9. Efficacy of single dose of a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Newcastle disease virus and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus against lethal HPAI and NDV infection in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6:2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1 virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections.

  10. Swine Flu Threatens the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spreads from Mexico to other countries at an alarming rate How serious is the swine flu? It is so sensitive that the White House had to reassure reporters that U.S. President Barack Obama is still in good health after visiting Mexico in mid-April. Besides the United States and Canada, swine flu cases have appeared in Europe and Asia. The world now faces a "public health emergency of

  11. A comparison of the intradermal and subcutaneous routes of influenza vaccination with A/New Jersey/76 (swine flu) and A/Victoria/75: report of a study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, W; Weiss, W I; Altman, R; Diamond, M A; Black, K J; Iaci, A W; Black, H C; Goldfield, M

    1979-01-01

    A trail of influenza vaccination, with use of bivalent split virus vaccine (A/New Jersey/76 and A/Victoria/75), was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and reactions when vaccine was given by the subcutaneous and intradermal routes. Volunteers 18 to 24 years old were randomized into equal groups, one group receiving 0.1 ml of vaccine intradermally and the other receiving 0.5 ml subcutaneously. For the A/Victoria vaccine, the immunogenicity of the intradermal route seemed superior; for A/New Jersey vaccine, the routes were equivalent. Adverse reactions were minimal and equivalent for both groups. In times of vaccine shortage, the intradermal route is considered to stretch vaccine supplies. Field trials of new influenza vaccines should include evaluation of the immunogenicity of and adverse reactions caused by the same vaccine given by different routes in varied dosages. PMID:507256

  12. Indirect transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), also known bird flu, is a serious infectious disease of chickens causing high mortality in flocks and economic damage for farmers. The control strategy to control an outbreak of HPAI in the Netherlands will include culling of infected flocks and depopulation

  13. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Meng-Kin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued.

  14. H9N2亚型禽流感流行分析及疫苗毒株的筛选%Epidemiological Analysis of H9N2 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus Isolates and Screening of the H9 Vaccine Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 宫晓; 刘晓东; 梁俊超; 师东方

    2013-01-01

      本研究旨在筛选新型免疫原性好、广谱的优秀 H9亚型禽流感病毒疫苗株。通过 H9N2分子流行病学调查对分离得到的37株禽流感 H9N2亚型病毒进行 HA 基因分子遗传进化及其关键位点分析,利用交叉 HI 效价及鸡胚中和试验分析毒株间毒力及其相关性,制备疫苗用毒株进行免疫攻毒保护试验。结果显示,从37株病毒中选出12株病毒作为代表,分为3个分支,同分支之间交叉 HI 效价及中和效价最高。HI 试验及鸡胚中和试验均显示同分支毒株间的相关系数高。免疫攻毒保护试验显示同分支疫苗株安全性高。表明我国禽流感 H9N2亚型情况复杂,且疫苗保护效果与疫苗株的抗原匹配性密切相关,生产多种分支 H9疫苗株联合更有利于控制 H9型禽流感,%Objective The purpose of this study is to select a new H9N2 AIV vaccine strain with good immunogenicity. Methods 37 H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus isolates were analyzed for HA gene molecular genetic evolution and its key sites. Cross-HI titers and chicken embryo neutralization test were used to check virulence and the relevance between the different isolates,and the strains for vaccine production were tested for their immune protection.Results 12 representative strains in the 37 viruses were divided into three subbranches,cross-HI titers and neutralization titers of the same subbranch were the highest. From relevance of HI test and the chicken embryo neutralization test,the correlation coefficient in same subbranch strains were higher than in different subbranch. In the immune protection test,the strains showed safety in the same. Conclusion H9 vaccine with differnet subtype strains is more effective to preventing H9 avain flu. Preventive effect of vaccine is tightly related with antigen matched to the vaccine strain.

  15. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https:// ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the ...

  16. Studi Kasus: Konfirmasi Kasus Flu Burung di Kota Bengkulu Provinsi Bengkulu Tahun 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hendro Putranto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOutbreak Command Post reported that there was a suspected case of Avian Influenza, a woman, 24 year old from the village of Dahri, sub-district of Ratu Samban, in the Province of Bengkulu. The suspected case showed similar symptom with AI but no report of contact with dead or sick poultry. Therefore, field and laboratory investigations were needed to confirm the case through the examination of nasal and throat swabs. The nasal and throat swab as well as Endothelial Tracheal Tube (ETT fluid and serum were collected from the case two days respectively. The specimens were examined by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR to detect the genetic materials of AI and the serum examination was conducted using Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI test to determine antibodies of Avian Influenza. The results of the examination by RT-PCR showed H5N1 positive. Serum specimen was also collected from the case contacts, family members and the neighbours. The results showed that there was no antibody titer found in the specimen. The suspect was then confirmed infected by Avian Influenza.Keywords : avian influenza , RT-PCR, Bengkulu, confirmed cases.AbstrakPosko Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB melaporkan bahwa adanya kasus tersangka flu burung di Kecamatan Ratu Samban Kota Bengkulu Provinsi Bengkulu. Kasus tersangka menunjukkan gejala serupa dengan kasus flu burung namun tidak dilaporkan adanya kontak dengan unggas mati ataupun sakit. Konfirmasi Flu Burung terhadap kasus perlu dilakukan melalui investigasi lapangan dan laboratorium. Spesimen berupa swab hidung, swab tenggorok, cairan Endo Tracheal Tube (ETT dan serum diambil dari kasus selama 2 hari berturut-turut. Pada spesimen tersebut dilakukan pemeriksaan Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR untuk mengetahui adanya materi genetik Flu Burung dan pemeriksaan serum dilakukan dengan metode Hemaglutinasi Inhibisi (HI untuk mengetahui antibodi terhadap Flu Burung. Pengambilan

  17. A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S P; Cox, C; Steaffens, J

    2001-01-01

    ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to culture in identifying infected individuals. Subsequent independent studies using a variety of sample types have demonstrated sensitivity ranging from 48 to 100% and specificities ranging from 93 to 97%. In addition to detecting human strains, this assay has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of avian and non-human mammalian influenza viruses. The FLU OIA test has been used in large-scale surveillance schemes intended to provide rapid epidemiological data during normal influenza seasons and has demonstrated the potential for fulfilling a similar role for multispecies surveillance in, for example, conditions that offer challenges for conventional virus isolation methods. Conceivably, such use should facilitate the timely recognition of influenza outbreaks and prioritization of positive specimens for more conventional, laboratory characterization, leading to improved interpandemic surveillance and rapid reaction in the face of the next pandemic. PMID:11779392

  18. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Flu activity this season started ...

  19. Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161473.html Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide Scientists recommend keeping ... birds can spread bird flu worldwide and monitoring migration routes could provide early warning of outbreaks, researchers ...

  20. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  1. Focusing on flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mary B; Middleman, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine. Results: Participants were generally found to be knowledgeable about influenza and to have positive attitudes toward receiving the vaccine via SLIP. Students were more willing to participate in a SLIP if it were low cost or free, less time-consuming than going to a doctor, and if they felt they could trust vaccinators. Overall, high school and middle school students ranked the benefits of SLIP similarly to each other. Methods: Focus groups using nominal group method were conducted with middle and high school students in a large, urban school district. Responses were recorded by each school, and then, responses were ranked across all participating schools for each question. Conclusions: A wide range of issues are important to middle and high school students when considering participation in SLIPs including convenience, public health benefits, trust in the program, program safety, and sanitary issues. Further research will be needed regarding the generalizability of these findings to larger populations of students. PMID:24018398

  2. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Turkey Herpes Virus (rHVT-H5) and Inactivated H5N1 Vaccines in Commercial Mulard Ducks against the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Clade 2.2.1 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Walid H.; Safwat, Marwa; Mohammed, Samy M.; Salim, Abdullah; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo; Fasanmi, Olubunmi G.; Shalaby, Azhar G.; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hassan, Mohammed K.; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma M.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, ducks kept for commercial purposes constitute the second highest poultry population, at 150 million ducks/year. Hence, ducks play an important role in the introduction and transmission of avian influenza (AI) in the Egyptian poultry population. Attempts to control outbreaks include the use of vaccines, which have varying levels of efficacy and failure. To date, the effects of vaccine efficacy has rarely been determined in ducks. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey Herpes Virus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV strain (A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006) (rHVT-H5) and a bivalent inactivated H5N1 vaccine prepared from clade 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 H5N1 seeds in Mulard ducks. A 0.3ml/dose subcutaneous injection of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered to one-day-old ducklings (D1) and another 0.5ml/dose subcutaneous injection of the inactivated MEFLUVAC was administered at 7 days (D7). Four separate challenge experiments were conducted at Days 21, 28, 35 and 42, in which all the vaccinated ducks were challenged with 106EID50/duck of H5N1 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1) (clade 2.2.1) via intranasal inoculation. Maternal-derived antibody regression and post-vaccination antibody immune responses were monitored weekly. Ducks vaccinated at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days with the rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC vaccines were protected against mortality (80%, 80%, 90% and 90%) and (50%, 70%, 80% and 90%) respectively, against challenges with the H5N1 HPAI virus. The amount of viral shedding and shedding rates were lower in the rHVT-H5 vaccine groups than in the MEFLUVAC groups only in the first two challenge experiments. However, the non-vaccinated groups shed significantly more of the virus than the vaccinated groups. Both rHVT-H5 and MEFLUVAC provide early protection, and rHVT-H5 vaccine in particular provides protection against HPAI challenge. PMID:27304069

  3. Schiffert Health Center issues campus flu update

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Cases of seasonal flu virus infection on campus have diminished, and so far the flu season has been less active than health authorities expected. Schiffert Health Center reports a much lower number of students seeking treatment for seasonal flu infections compared to the fall semester.

  4. Enhancement of Th1-biased protective immunity against avian influenza H9N2 virus via oral co-administration of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interferon-α and interleukin-18 along with an inactivated vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Md

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of currently circulating re-assorted low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI H9N2 is a major concern for both animal and human health. Thus, an improved LPAI H9N2 vaccination strategy is needed to induce complete immunity in chickens against LPAI H9N2 virus strains. Cytokines play a crucial role in mounting both the type and extent of an immune response generated following infection with a pathogen or after vaccination. To improve the efficacy of inactivated LPAI H9N2 vaccine, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used for oral co-administration of chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α and chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18 as natural immunomodulators. Results Oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18, prior to vaccination with inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine, modulated the immune response of chickens against the vaccine antigen through enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to chickens that received single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing either chIFN-α or chIL-18. To further test the protective efficacy of this improved vaccination regimen, immunized chickens were intra-tracheally challenged with a high dose of LPAI H9N2 virus. Combined administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18 showed markedly enhanced protection compared to single administration of the construct, as determined by mortality, clinical severity, and feed and water intake. This enhancement of protective immunity was further confirmed by reduced rectal shedding and replication of AIV H9N2 in different tissues of challenged chickens. Conclusions Our results indicate the value of combined administration of chIFN-α and chIL-18 using a Salmonella vaccine strain to generate an effective immunization strategy in chickens against LPAI H9N2.

  5. Research priorities in modeling the transmission risks of H7N9 bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Shi, Benyun; Xia, Shang; Yang, Guo-Jing; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of H7N9 bird flu in eastern China in early 2013 has caused much attention from researchers as well as public health workers. The issue on modeling the transmission risks is very interesting topic. In this article, this issue is debated and discussed in order to promote further researches on prediction and prevention of avian influenza viruses supported by better interdisciplinary datasets from the surveillance and response system.

  6. Clinical presentation of the new emerging infectious disease,H6N1 bird flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy; Joob; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    To the editor,The newest emerging influenza which has just been reported in November 2013 from Taiwan province is the H6N1 bird flu.This infeetion is the emerging zoonotic influenza which crosses species from avian to human beings[1.2].The first indexed case in Taiwan presented with acute respiratory illness,which is concordant with the clinical feature of acute influenza infection[1,2].

  7. Research priorities in modeling the transmission risks of H7N9 bird flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of H7N9 bird flu in eastern China in early 2013 has caused much attention from researchers as well as public health workers. The issue on modeling the transmission risks is very interesting topic. In this article, this issue is debated and discussed in order to promote further researches on prediction and prevention of avian influenza viruses supported by better interdisciplinary datasets from the surveillance and response system. PMID:23927386

  8. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens.

  9. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. PMID:27321744

  10. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza.

  11. Influenza 2010-2011: ACIP Vaccination Recommendations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-22

    In this podcast targeted to clinicians, Dr. Joe Bresee discusses who should be vaccinated against seasonal flu during the 2010-2011 season. He explains who is at risk for severe illness from the flu and discusses the benefits of vaccination.  Created: 9/22/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  12. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  13. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu vaccine provides protection against three viruses: A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and B. While there are many ... viruses commonly circulate among people today: influenza A (H1N1) viruses, influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and influenza B ...

  14. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal--MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MedImmune Vaccines (formerly Aviron) has developed a cold-adapted live influenza virus vaccine [FluMist] that can be administered by nasal spray. FluMist is the first live virus influenza vaccine and also the first nasally administered vaccine to be marketed in the US. The vaccine will be formulated to contain live attenuated (att) influenza virus reassortants of the strains recommended by the US Public Health Service for each 'flu season. The vaccine is termed cold-adapted (ca) because the virus has been adapted to replicate efficiently at 25 degrees C in the nasal passages, which are below normal body temperature. The strains used in the seasonal vaccine will also be made temperature sensitive (ts) so that their replication is restricted at 37 degrees C (Type B strains) and 39 degrees C (Type A strains). The combined effect of the antigenic properties and the att, ca and ts phenotypes of the influenza strains contained in the vaccine enables the viruses to replicate in the nasopharynx to produce protective immunity. The original formulation of FluMist requires freezer storage throughout distribution. Because many international markets do not have distribution channels well suited to the sale of frozen vaccines, Wyeth and MedImmune are collaborating to develop a second generation, refrigerator-stable, liquid trivalent cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV-T), which is in phase III trials. Initially, the frozen formulation will only be available in the US. For the 2003-2004 season, FluMist will contain A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) (A/Moscow/10/99-like) and B/Hong Kong/330/2001. Aviron was acquired by MedImmune on 15 January 2002. Aviron is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of MedImmune and is called MedImmune Vaccines. Aviron acquired FluMist in March 1995 through a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the US NIAID, and a licensing agreement with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. In June 2000, the CRADA was

  15. A novel H6N1 virus-like particle vaccine induces long-lasting cross-clade antibody immunity against human and avian H6N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Rong; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Cheng, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Min-Shiuh; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Yang, Yu-Chih; Wu, Chia-Ying; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Hsiao, Pei-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Avian influenza A(H6N1) virus is one of the most common viruses isolated from migrating birds and domestic poultry in many countries. The first and only known case of human infection by H6N1 virus in the world was reported in Taiwan in 2013. This led to concern that H6N1 virus may cause a threat to public health. In this study, we engineered a recombinant H6N1 virus-like particle (VLP) and investigated its vaccine effectiveness compared to the traditional egg-based whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The H6N1-VLPs exhibited similar morphology and functional characteristics to influenza viruses. Prime-boost intramuscular immunization in mice with unadjuvanted H6N1-VLPs were highly immunogenic and induced long-lasting antibody immunity. The functional activity of the VLP-elicited IgG antibodies was proved by in vitro seroprotective hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization titers against the homologous human H6N1 virus, as well as in vivo viral challenge analyses which showed H6N1-VLP immunization significantly reduced viral load in the lung, and protected against human H6N1 virus infection. Of particular note, the H6N1-VLPs but not the H6N1-WIVs were able to confer cross-reactive humoral immunity; antibodies induced by H6N1-VLP vaccine robustly inhibited the hemagglutination activities and in vitro replication of distantly-related heterologous avian H6N1 viruses. Furthermore, the H6N1-VLPs were found to elicit significantly greater anti-HA2 antibody responses in immunized mice than H6N1-WIVs. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time a novel H6N1-VLP vaccine that effectively provides broadly protective immunity against both human and avian H6N1 viruses. These results, which uncover the underlying mechanisms for induction of wide-range immunity against influenza viruses, may be useful for future influenza vaccine development.

  16. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the child has not urinated for the last 8 hours. Alternative Names Babies and the flu; Your infant and the ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  17. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v ('swine flu') pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Y. K.; Michie, S.; Potts, H. W.; Rubin, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n=1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of w...

  18. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v ('swine flu') pandemic:Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Han, You Kyung Julia; Michie, Susan; Potts, Henry W.W.; Rubin, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods: We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n=1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of w...

  19. Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta

    2006-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and associated human infections have led to a heightened level of awareness and preparation for a possible influenza pandemic. Vaccination is the best option by which spread of a pandemic virus could be prevented and severity of disease reduced. Production of live attenuated and inactivated vaccine seed viruses against avian influenza viruses, which have the potential to cause pandemics, and their testing in preclinical studies and...

  20. Protective efficacy of a prime-boost protocol using H5-DNA plasmid as prime and inactivated H5N2 vaccine as the booster against the Egyptian avian influenza challenge virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H A; Ahmed, B M; Aly, S M; El-Deeb, A H; El-Sanousi, A A; Rohaim, M A; Arafa, A A; Gadalla, M R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a recombinant DNA plasmid was constructed, encoding for HA1 of a selected Egyptian H5N1 virus (isolated during the 2012 outbreaks). In the immunization and challenge experiments, SPF chickens received 1 or 2 doses of H5-DNA plasmid prime, and boosted with the inactivated H5N2 vaccine. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers, protection levels, and the magnitude of virus shedding were compared to that of the chickens that received either DNA plasmid or inactivated H5N2 vaccine alone. H5N1 virus A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 (H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade 2.2.1/C was used for the challenge. Chickens immunized with 1 or 2 doses of H5-DNA vaccine failed to overcome the challenge with 0% and 10% protection, respectively. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed virus shedding of 2.2 x 104 PCR copies/ml 3 days post challenge (dpc) in the only surviving bird from the group that received 2 doses of plasmid. However, chickens immunized with 1 or 2 doses of H5-DNA plasmid as prime and inactivated H5N2 vaccine as booster, showed 80% protection after challenge, with a viral shedding of 1.2 x 104 PCR copies/ml (1 dose) and 1.6 x 104 PCR copies/ml (2 doses) 3 dpc. The surviving birds in both groups did not shed the virus at 5 and 7 dpc. In H5N2-vaccinated chickens, protection levels were 70% with relatively high virus shedding (1.8 x 104 PCR copies/ml) 3 dpc. HI titers were protective to the surviving chickens. This study reports the efficacy of H5-DNA plasmid to augment reduction in viral shedding and to provide better protection when applied in a prime-boost program with the inactivated AI vaccine. PMID:27640441

  1. Application of Directigen FLU-A for the detection of influenza A virus in human and nonhuman specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Poirier, K A; Katz, J M; Webster, R G; Kawaoka, Y

    1992-01-01

    Directigen FLU-A, a new enzyme immunoassay membrane test, rapidly detects influenza A virus antigen in specimens from patients. Nasopharyngeal washes and pharyngeal gargles were used to determine the effectiveness of the assay as applied to different types of routinely collected clinical samples. All specimens had been previously shown to contain influenza A virus by virus isolation in tissue culture. Directigen FLU-A was 90% sensitive (95% confidence interval, 56 to 99.7%) with nasopharyngeal washes but only 39% sensitive (95% confidence interval, 17 to 64%) with pharyngeal gargles (P = 0.018) when used with samples containing similar amounts of infectious virus (50% tissue culture infective dose, 1.0 to 4.5). The intensity of the positive reaction with Directigen FLU-A did not correlate with the amount of virus in the specimens. Directigen FLU-A was found to detect cell-associated antigen more readily than free virus; only 20 infected cells were required to identify cell-associated influenza A virus antigen, whereas the limit of detection for free virus was 1.63 x 10(3) infectious virus particles. These findings suggest that Directigen FLU-A detects the cell-associated antigen present in clinical specimens rather than free virus. In addition, Directigen FLU-A detected avian and swine influenza A viruses in both cloacal swabs (75% sensitivity) and swine lung homogenates (86% sensitivity), indicating its potential usefulness in the surveillance of nonhuman influenza A viruses. PMID:1583103

  2. Avian Flu Concerns%关注禽流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾佳(译)

    2005-01-01

    据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization,WHO)最新报道,今年在越南北部出现的H5N1型禽流感病例提示该病毒正以某种方式发生变异,使之更易于感染人类,更有可能在人群中传播

  3. Fighting Avian Flu%应对禽流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾佳

    2006-01-01

    今年1月,各捐款国会聚中国,敦促各方筹集近20亿美元,建立一个全球性基金,用于防治H5N1型禽流感,减少人群大规模爆发的可能性。据大会主办方世界银行(world Bank)估算,发展中国家和中等收入国家至少需要动用12亿至14亿美元,以便采取必要措施,消除禽流感造成的威胁。

  4. Conformation and Linkage Studies of Specific Oligosaccharides Related to H1N1, H5N1, and Human Flu for Developing the Second Tamiflu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eunsun

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between viral HA (hemagglutinin) and oligosaccharide of the host plays an important role in the infection and transmission of avian and human flu viruses. Until now, this interaction has been classified by sialyl(α2-3) or sialyl(α2-6) linkage specificity of oligosaccharide moieties for avian or human virus, respectively. In the case of H5N1 and newly mutated flu viruses, classification based on the linkage type does not correlate with human infection and human-to-human transmission of these viruses. It is newly suggested that flu infection and transmission to humans require high affinity binding to the extended conformation with long length sialyl(α2-6)galactose containing oligosaccharides. On the other hand, the avian flu virus requires folded conformation with sialyl(α2-3) or short length sialyl(α2-6) containing trisaccharides. This suggests a potential future direction for the development of new species-specific antiviral drugs to prevent and treat pandemic flu. PMID:24753813

  5. Protection of avian influenza (AI vaccines for poultry against infection of field isolates A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 under laboratory condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study level of protection of avian influenza (AI commercial vaccines available in Indonesia (subtipe H5N1, H5N2 and H5N9 against infection of HPAI field isolates of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. There were 7 commercial vaccines used in this study, the each vaccines were injected in to 3 weeks old of layer chichickenen intramuscularly. At 3 weeks after vaccination, ten chichickenens from each group were challenged separately with the A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 isolates intranasaly with dose 106 ELD50 per 0,1 ml per chicken. Ten unvaccinated chicken were included in the challenge test as control. The study demonstrate that the AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 protected chicken (100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and 90-100% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding were not seen by 2 days post challenge. The AI vaccines with subtipe H5N2 protected chicken at 20-30% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 70-100% against virus of A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected at 8 days post challenge. The AI vaccines AI with subtipe H5N9 did not protect chicken (0% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 and protected chicken at 50% against virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008. Viral shedding still detected by 8 days post challenge. This study concluded that AI vaccines with subtipe H5N1 are better than other AI subtipe vaccines in preventing HPAI virus A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 dan A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Mae/2008 infections under laboratory condition.

  6. The 2014 French health campaign reminds us that “flu must be taken seriously”

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The fact is that 5-10% of the global adult population and 20-30% of children worldwide catch the flu every year. The illness can lead to hospitalisation and death, mainly in people who are considered high-risk (infants, the elderly, and those with chronic illnesses). According to the WHO, every year, flu epidemics are responsible for approximately three to five million cases of serious illness and for 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. Safe and effective vaccines are available and have been used for more than 60 years. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccinat...

  7. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159719.html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness ... 2016 TUESDAY, July 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A flu shot during pregnancy protects newborns against the flu ...

  8. Swine flu: a Birmingham experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, James; Mcewen, Ruth; Mistry, Sanjay; Green, Chris; Osman, Husam; Bailey, Mark; Ellis, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    By the beginning of July 2009 the West Midlands had seen more cases of novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) than any other region in the U.K. Over a three-week period almost 850 people presented to Heartlands Hospital with flu-like symptoms. Of those admitted 52 adults were subsequently confirmed as having H1N1 infection. Most were younger than 30 and not from traditional influenza risk groups. The main risk factor for severe disease was asthma, and to a lesser extent pregnancy and obesity. Seven patients were admitted to intensive care and five developed an acute lung injury requiring prolonged admission. Two patients required extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and one died. Despite increased workload normal clinical services were unaffected. The hospital was not closed to admissions nor was it paralysed by staff absence. With a predicted second wave expected at the end of 2009, efforts to maintain effective community assessment remain crucial.

  9. SECONDARY INFECTIONS IN SWINE FLU

    OpenAIRE

    Duthade Mangala; Damle Ajit; Bhakare Jayshree; Bajaj.Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Swine influenza is respiratory disease of pigs ca used by type A influenza virus that causes regular outbr eak in pigs. Human to human transmission occurs. Some people develop severe respiratory symptoms and need ventilator. Patients can get secondary bacterial infections in the form of pneumonia if vi ral infections persist. Death of swine flu occurs d ue to secondary bacterial infections leading to bacter ial pneumonia...

  10. Cooperation bibliogram of bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmann, Johannes; Grohmann, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    The published literature on Bird Flu, now a pandemic animal disease with a possible potential of evolving into a devastating human disease, was analysed primarily with respect of national and international cooperations and networks of authors and countries. The output of research-relevant papers is now around 150 per year and was less than 100 papers per year before 2003. The field is highly cooperative; nearly 90% of the articles have two or more authors. National extramural cooperation is ...

  11. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  12. SWINE FLU - A DESCRIPTIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nain Parminder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV or S-OIV (swine-origin influenza virus is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. In H1N1, the ‘H’ refers to the hemagglutinin protein, and the ‘N’ refers to the neuraminidase protein. While at present the virus is causing a mild disease, the next wave may be more severe. Influenza is a simple virus, with just eight genes, but it makes poor copies of itself, leading to constant mutation. Influenza viruses are by nature unstable and unpredictable and have the unique capability of changing their antigenic characteristics by mutation. Occasionally, novel strains also emerge, often through re-assortment or exchange of genetic material among influenza viruses from different animal, human or bird sources. Such genetic restructuring occurs regularly in nature and, at times, provides the virus with the capability of causing widespread disease in immunologically naïve populations.

  13. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds of ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  14. The biotherapics Influenzinum and Oscilococcinum in the treatment of influenza virus flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The influenza virus flu is a widespread illness which is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. About 20% of children and 5% of adults are infected with this virus every year. The disease is highly contagious and its transmission occurs by saliva particles of the infected person, expelled by breathing, talking and coughing [1]. Flu pandemics are generally caused by the appearance of a new subtype of the virus in humans, which occurs as a result of the existing flu in animal species transmitted to humans [2]. Despite the fact there are antiviral drugs, the virus develops mutations, creating resistance to these drugs in few days. Thus, the development of new therapies, including homeopathy, that can prevent and/or treat this disease becomes increasingly necessary. In this scenario, biotherapics appear as drugs that are made from biological products, such as secretions, tissues, organs whose compounding follows the homeopathic pharmacopeia. Objective: This study is a literature review on the treatment of flu with biotherapics used in clinical medicine, namely Influenzinum and Oscilococcinum. Method: Studies on the prescription of biotherapics for the prevention and cure of the flu as well as literature about the history and evolution of Homeopathy were reviewed in the present work. Influenzinum is a biotherapic made from the influenza vaccine from Pasteur Laboratory, while Oscillococcinum is obtained from the lysate of the liver and heart of the goose Anas barbaries. Results: Preliminary results showed that both medicines are widely used in clinical medicine. Influenzinum 9CH is prescribed for flu prevention and treatment, while Oscilococcinum is more used to reduce the severe symptoms in patients who already have the flu. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is possible to say that Influenzinum has a very important role in the prevention and cure of the influenza and Oscilococcinnum is useful in the relief of the

  15. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  16. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098

  17. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B Gilkey

    Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  18. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  19. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  20. 不同日龄免疫新流灭活疫苗免疫效果评价%Study on The Inactivated Combined Vaccine against Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza for Laying Hens of Different Ages Effect Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛秋实; 胡瑞鸿; 郭兆成; 李淑伟

    2016-01-01

    In this study, laying hens respectively in 1 day, 7 day old immunization with the same dose of Newcastle disease and avian influenza inactivated vaccine, immunization 0 d\\7 d\\14 d\\21 d measured New-castle and avian influenza antibody titers, and calculate the average of the antibody and found 1-day-old chickens immunized antibody titers less than 7 day old chickens immunized, immune antibodies higher than 0.3 mL 0.1 mL immune antibodies.%本实验采用田间蛋鸡,分别在1日龄、7日龄以相同剂量免疫接种新城疫、禽流感二联灭活疫苗,在免疫0d、7d、14d、21d测定新城疫和禽流感抗体滴度,并计算抗体平均值,发现1日龄免疫的鸡群抗体滴度低于7日龄免疫的鸡群,免疫0.3 mL抗体高于免疫0.1 mL的抗体。

  1. FLU IN CHILDREN AFTER A PANDEMIC IN ST. PETERSBURG GENERAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dondurey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flu monitoring was carried out in children’s general hospital in St. Petersburg within three epidemic seasons (2010–2011, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. 1916 patients under the age of 18 years were examined with the complex of virologic tests . The natural decreasing of flu incidence and predominant diagnosing in etiologic structure one of the virus serotypes [in the first A(H1N1pdm09, in the second — A(H3N2] have been observed during the first two years after a pandemic. In the third season restoration of the main characteristics of epidemic flu situation were detected: polietiology with annual change of serotypes proportions, late start (winter and spring, majority of younger children among hospitalaized patients and a mild course of disease. The most probable candidates [viruses of a subtype A(H3N2] are revealed as a causal factor of significant increasing of disease incidence with the severe forms in the near future. Laboratory data were confirmed by increase in frequency of the complicated by pneumonia ARI at hospitalized patients during the periods of their maximum registration. All isolates received during the study were corresponded to the referens-strains included in vaccines. Thus, timely and appropriate vaccination during the studied period had to become an effective protection against a flu.

  2. Avian influenza: an osteopathic component to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hruby, Raymond J; Hoffman, Keasha N

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza is an infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The infection is highly contagious among birds, and only a few known cases of human avian influenza have been documented. However, healthcare experts around the world are concerned that mutation or genetic exchange with more commonly transmitted human influenza viruses could result in a pandemic of avian influenza. Their concern remains in spite of the fact that the first United States vaccine against the H5N1 virus was recently approv...

  3. Peningkatan Titer Antibodi Terhadap Avian Influenza Dalam Serum Ayam Petelur yang Divaksin Dengan Vaksin Komersial

    OpenAIRE

    Ummu Balqis; Muhammad Hambal; Mulyadi Mulyadi; Samadi Samadi; Darmawi Darmawi

    2011-01-01

    Increasing of antibody titre against avian influenza in serum of vaccinated laying hens with commercial vaccine ABSTRACT. The advantages of vaccination are that it reduces the risk of infection, and concurrently reduces morbidity, mortality and shedding of virus. The goal of the present study was to evaluate efficacy of Avian Influenza commercial vaccine based on humoral immunity responses of laying hens. Totally, 20 breakel silver layer hens were used in this research. The laying hens we...

  4. Potential Economic Impacts of Avian Influenza in LAC

    OpenAIRE

    César Falconi

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discuses bird flu in two different related scenarios: as a disease that could affect the Poultry Sector and as a disease that could cause a Human Pandemic. The paper includes an analysis on what's at stake, risks and probabilities, costs, impacts and ways of prevention, as well as a series of conclusions. This presentation was created for the Seminar "The Mass Media and the Threat of Avian Influenza in Latin America" held in August of 2006.

  5. Avian Influenza surveillance: on the usability of FTA cards to solve biosafety and transport issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, R.H.; Hooft, van W.F.; Waldenstrom, J.; Latorre-Margalef, N.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans1. These AIVs are diverse in their natural hosts, harboring almost all possible viral subtypes2. Human pandemics of flu originally stem from AIVs3. Many fatal human cases during the H5N1 outbreaks in recent years were reported. Late

  6. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  7. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Zu Wu; Li-Min Huang

    2005-01-01

    Influenza is an old disease but remains vital nowadays. Three types of influenza viruses,namely A, B, C, have been identified; among them influenza A virus has pandemic potential.The first outbreak of human illness due to avian influenza virus (H5N1) occurred in1997 in Hong Kong with a mortality of 30%. The most recent outbreak of the avian influenzaepidemic has been going on in Asian countries since 2003. As of March 2005, 44 incidentalhuman infections and 32 deaths have been documented. Hum...

  8. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Chawla; Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Deepali Madaan; Neha Dubey; Rajesh Arora; Rajeev Goel; Shefali Singh; Vinod Kaushik; Pankaj Kumar Singh; Vivek Chabbra; Janak Raj Bhardwaj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (pha...

  9. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  10. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishtha Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition.

  11. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  12. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  13. Social networks and vaccination decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Neel; Möbius, Markus M.; Rosenblat, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    We combine information on social networks with medical records and survey data in order to examine how friends affect one’s decision to get vaccinated against the flu. The random assignment of undergraduates to residential halls at a large private university allows us to estimate how peer effects influence health beliefs and vaccination choices. Our results indicate that social exposure to medical information raises people’s perceptions of the benefits of immunization. The average student’s b...

  14. BIRD FLU AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar KESKIN; Oguz OZYARAL

    2006-01-01

    Despite significant medical progress, recent events have shown that infectious diseases have not lost importance. Indeed, the threat of worldwide epidemics has increased. Due to their high infectious ness and rapid person-to-person transmissibility, the emergence of new influenza viruses with pandemic potential poses an especially alarming situation in this regard. During the last decade highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus, including the H5N1 subtype, crossed the species barrie...

  15. Comparison between dot-immunoblotting assay and clinical sign determination method for quantifying avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine by titration in embryonated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-tack; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Youn, Ha-Na; Heo, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive and specific method for measuring the vaccine titer of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is important to commercial manufacturers for improving vaccine quality. Typically, IBV is titrated in embryonated chicken eggs, and the infectivity of the virus dilutions is determined by assessing clinical signs in the embryos as evidence of viral propagation. In this study, we used a dot-immunoblotting assay (DIA) to measure the titers of IBV vaccines that originated from different pathogenic strains or attenuation methods in embryonated eggs, and we compared this assay to the currently used method, clinical sign evaluation. To compare the two methods, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR, which had the lowest limit of detection for propagated IBV. As a clinical sign of infection, dwarfism of the embryo was quantified using the embryo: egg (EE) index. The DIA showed 9.41% higher sensitivity and 15.5% higher specificity than the clinical sign determination method. The DIA was particularly useful for measuring the titer of IBV vaccine that did not cause apparent stunting but propagated in embryonated chicken eggs such as a heat-adapted vaccine strain. The results of this study indicate that the DIA is a rapid, sensitive, reliable method for determining IBV vaccine titer in embryonated eggs at a relatively low cost.

  16. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir People with Heart Disease* and Those Who Have Had a Stroke Are ...

  17. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ordinary Flu English Tsis Yog Kab Mob Hnoos Dog Dig - Hmoob (Hmong) PDF Public Health - Seattle and ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  18. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Life Video Also in this series: Playing Cat-and-Mouse with the Flu Everyday Evolution What ... Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube RSS Feeds Page Footer NIGMS Home Site Map Contact Us ...

  19. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source of the pandemic influenza ... in pigs in a small region of central Mexico, a new study reports. Researchers used genetic analysis ...

  20. Feeling the Pulse of The Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Traditional Chinese Medicine approach to dealing with A/H1 N1 flu In 2003, an herb called indigowoad root very quickly became popular and sold out of most Chinese drug stores. With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

  1. Military and Military Medical Support in Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI/H5N1) Pandemic Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian influenza (Bird flu) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting mainly chickens, turkeys, ducks, other birds and mammals. Reservoirs for HPAI /H5N1 virus are shore birds and waterfowl (asymptomatic, excrete virus in feces for a long periods of time), live bird markets and commercial swine facilities. Virus tends to cycle between pigs and birds. HPAI (H5N1) virus is on every 'top ten' list available for potential agricultural bio-weapon agents. The threat of a HPAI/H5N1 pandemic is a definitively global phenomenon and the response must be global. A number of National plans led to various measures of preventing and dealing with epidemics/pandemics. Lessons learned form the pandemic history indicated essential role of military and military medical support to civil authorities in a crisis situation. Based on International Military Medical Avian Influenza Pandemic workshop (Vienna 2006), an expected scenario would involve 30-50% outpatients, 20-30% hospital admission, 2-3% deaths, 10-20% complicated cases. Activities of civil hospital may be reduced by 50%. Benefits of military support could be in: Transportation of patients (primarily by air); Mass vaccination and provision of all other preventive measures (masks, Tamiflu); Restriction of movements; Infection control of health care facilities; Field hospitals for triage and quarantine, military barracks to treat milder cases and military hospitals for severe cases; Deal with corpses; Stockpiling (vaccines, antiviral, antibiotics, protective equipment, supplies); Training; Laboratories; Ensure public safety, etc. With the aim of minimizing the risk of a pandemic spread by means of rapid and uncomplicated cooperation, an early warning system has to be established to improve surveillance, improve international contacts (WHO, ECDC, CDC), establish Platform for sharing information, close contacts of national and international military and civilian surveillance networks and databases, cooperation between military

  2. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    OpenAIRE

    Nishtha Singh; Sheetu Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Virendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric ...

  3. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  4. H9N2亚型禽流感病毒RT-LAMP方法建立及临床应用%Establishment of H9N2 subtypes avian flu virus RT-LAMP methods and its ap- plication in large-scale broiler farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许传田; 鲁梅; 胡北侠; 杨少华; 颜世敢; 张琳; 张秀美

    2012-01-01

    本研究建立一种能在基层鸡场使用的快速诊断H9禽流感试验方法(RT-LAMP),对于快速确诊H9禽流感感染,及时采取措施,降低H9禽流感给鸡场带来的经济损失起到了积极作用。试验结果具有重要兽医临床指导意义。%In recent years, chicken mass breeding has developed rapidly, with chicken farming scale and the rising number of chickens epidemics is also more and more serious; epidemics become the biggest obstacle of the develop- ment of large-scale farms. H9N2 subtypes bird flu becomes epidemic in one of the most important disease, and caused breeding the financial meltdown. In view of the above reasons, this article establishes a test method (RT - LAMP), which can be used in basic-level chicken fast diagnosis H9 bird flu.

  5. What every Hepatologist should Know about Swine Flu?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

    2009-11-01

    hepatocytes with minimal infection of the Kuppfer cells (5. The liver parenchyma infection in mouse model is abortive or non-permissive characterized by the absence of viral replication in the liver and brain and absence of complete viral particles on electron microscopy, despite the presence of viral antigens within the hepatocytes and minimal inflammation in biopsied specimens (6.At least, in animal models the liver damage could be seen even in the absence of virus isolation from the liver. Circulating cytokines and chemokines may contribute to liver damage. Derangement of lipid metabolism secondary to depressed mitochondrial enzyme activities and mitochondrial structural damage is probably a critical step in hepatic damage in flu infection (7. Polakos et al. have recently reported the so called collateral damage of liver with influenza virus. They found that in the absence of viral antigen in the liver, hepatocytes could be damaged by viral specific CD8+ T cells generated outside of liver for example in the lungs. In their series of 15 volunteers infected with H1N1 influenza virus, four patients developed liver enzyme elevation up to three times the upper limit of normal. Interestingly, this enzyme raise occurred when the fever was stopped indicating that the process is not related to direct viral replication (8.Till 1980's, the most common hepatic manifestation of flu in children was considered to be Reye's syndrome (9. Realizing the association of this dreadful complication of influenza-like illness (ILI and aspirin ingestion, lead to a sharp decline in the incidence of this syndrome (10. The importance of this association in the current pandemic, however, could not be overemphasized. Pediatric patients on chronic aspirin treatment such as those with rheumatologic diseases are at increased risk of this syndrome during the pandemic (11. These patients probably need to be prioritized for flu vaccination and should discontinue their aspirin intake upon development of ILI

  6. A single immunization with HA DNA vaccine by electroporation induces early protection against H5N1 avian influenza virus challenge in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jianjun

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing vaccines for the prevention of human infection by H5N1 influenza viruses is an urgent task. DNA vaccines are a novel alternative to conventional vaccines and should contribute to the prophylaxis of emerging H5N1 virus. In this study, we assessed whether a single immunization with plasmid DNA expressing H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA could provide early protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model. Methods Mice were immunized once with HA DNA at 3, 5, 7 days before a lethal challenge. The survival rate, virus titer in the lungs and change of body weight were assayed to evaluate the protective abilities of the vaccine. To test the humoral immune response induced by HA DNA, serum samples were collected through the eye canthus of mice on various days after immunization and examined for specific antibodies by ELISA and an HI assay. Splenocytes were isolated after the immunization to determine the antigen-specific T-cell response by the ELISPOT assay. Results Challenge experiments revealed that a single immunization of H5N1 virus HA DNA is effective in early protection against lethal homologous virus. Immunological analysis showed that an antigen-specific antibody and T-cell response could be elicited in mice shortly after the immunization. The protective abilities were correlated with the amount of injected DNA and the length of time after vaccination. Conclusion A single immunization of 100 μg H5 HA DNA vaccine combined with electroporation was able to provide early protection in mice against homologous virus infection.

  7. [Vaccination by the pharmacist: practical guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, J

    2012-11-01

    It appears to be entirely appropriate for pharmacists to administer vaccinations if restricted to a limited number of vaccines and a well-defined set of recipients. Recommended types of vaccines would be inert vaccines with no contraindications, including flu vaccines, booster shots for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio, and HPV vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. Recipients targeted for these types of vaccinations would only be adults and adolescents. In addition, pharmacist-administered vaccinations would not be recommended for pregnant women, people with immunodeficiencies, chronic diseases, or cystic fibrosis, people under treatment (anticoagulants) or with known allergies, and haemophiliacs. They would not be recommended either when needed in the context of employment and for traveling abroad. Training is essential to manage the successful implementation of a pharmacist-administered vaccination program (maintaining cold storage, monitoring, space allocation, vaccination administration process, preventive measures, quick recognition and management of anaphylactic chock…). PMID:23177558

  8. Reverse genetics based rgH5N2 vaccine provides protection against high dose challenge of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, S; Khandia, R; Sood, R; Bhat, S; Siddiqui, A; Jahagirdhar, G; Mishra, S; Mishra, A; Pateriya, A K; Kulkarni, D D

    2016-08-01

    An inactivated vaccine was developed using the rgH5N2 virus (6 + 2 reassortant) generated by plasmid based reverse genetics system (RGS) with WSN/33/H1N1 as backbone virus. Following mutation of the basic amino acid cleavage site RRRKKR*GLF to IETR*GLF, the H5-HA (haemagglutinin) gene of the selected donor H5N1 virus (A/chicken/West Bengal/80995/2008) of antigenic clade 2.2 was used along with the N2-NA gene from H9N2 field isolate (A/chicken/Uttar Pradesh/2543/2004) for generation of the rgH5N2 virus. A single dose (0.5 ml/bird) of the inactivated rgH5N2 vaccine protected 100% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 28(th) dpv (early challenge) and 90% of the vaccinated chickens (n = 10) on 200(th) dpv (late challenge) against high dose challenge with HPAI virus (10(9) EID50/bird). Challenge virus shedding via oropharynx and cloaca of the vaccinated chickens was detectable by realtime RT-PCR during 1-5 dpc and 1-9 days dpc in the early and the late challenge, respectively. The protective level of antibodies (mean HI titre > 128) was maintained without booster vaccination for 200 days. The present study provides the experimental evidence about the extent of protection provided by a reverse genetics based vaccine for clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses against challenge with high dose of field virus at two different time points (28 dpv and 200 dpv). The challenge study is uniquely different from the previous similar experiments on account of 1000 times higher dose of challenge and protection at 200 dpv. The protection and virus shedding data of the study may be useful for countries planning to use H5 vaccine in poultry especially against the clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses. PMID:27296706

  9. Predicting Vaccination Intention and Benefit and Risk Perceptions: The Incorporation of Affect, Trust, and Television Influence in a Dual-Mode Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nien-Tsu Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Major health behavior change models tend to consider health decisions as primarily resulting from a systematic appraisal of relevant beliefs, such as the perceived benefits and risks of a pharmacological intervention. Drawing on research from the disciplines of risk management, communication, and psychology, this study proposed the inclusion of a heuristic route in established theory and tested the direction of influence between heuristic and systematic process variables. Affect and social trust were included as key heuristics in the proposed dual-mode framework of health decision making. Furthermore, exposure to health-related coverage on television was considered potentially influential over both heuristic and systematic process variables. To test this framework, data were collected from a national probability sample of 584 adults in the United States in 2012 regarding their decision to vaccinate against a hypothetical avian flu. The results provided some support for the bidirectional influence between heuristic and systematic processing. Affect toward flu vaccination and trust in the Food and Drug Administration were found to be powerful predictors of vaccination intention, enhancing intention both directly and indirectly via certain systematic process variables. The direction of influence between perceived susceptibility and severity, on the one hand, and affect, on the other, is less clear, suggesting the need for further research. Contrary to the opinion of media critics, exposure to televised health coverage was negatively associated with the perceived risks of vaccination. Results from this study carry theoretical and practical implications, and applying this model to the acceptance of different health interventions constitutes an area for future inquiries. PMID:25808562

  10. Similarity of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 isolates of low virulence for chickens obtained from contaminated poultry vaccines and from poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, K. J.; Ahrens, Peter;

    2000-01-01

    been found to be contaminated with APMV-1 viruses of low virulence for chickens were examined. The vaccines were produced by the same company and the affected batches had been used in Denmark in 1996/97. Furthermore, APMV-1 isolates of low virulence were obtained from three commercial broiler breeder...

  11. Assessment of the safety and efficacy of low pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2) virus in inactivated oil emulsion vaccine in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Mo, Jong Seo; Kim, Jong-Nyeo; Mo, In-pil

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, several outbreaks of low pathogenic AI (H9N2) viral infections leading to decreased egg production and increased mortality have been reported on commercial farms since 1996, resulting in severe economic losses. To control the H9N2 LPAI endemic, the Korea Veterinary Authority has permitted the use of the inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine since 2007. In this study, we developed a killed vaccine using a low pathogenic H9N2 AI virus (A/chicken/Korea/ADL0401) and conducted safety and efficacy tests in commercial layer farms while focusing on analysis of factors that cause losses to farms, including egg production rate, egg abnormality, and feed efficiency. The egg production rate of the control group declined dramatically 5 days after the challenge. There were no changes in feed consumption of all three groups before the challenge, but rates of the control declined afterward. Clinical signs in the vaccinated groups were similar, and a slight decline in feed consumption was observed after challenge; however, this returned to normal more rapidly than the control group and commercial layers. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the safety and efficacy of the vaccine are adequate to provide protection against the AI field infection (H9N2) epidemic in Korea. PMID:27051337

  12. Birds of a feather? Food and agricultural risk governance of avian influenza in different EU Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    From 2005 onwards, highly pathogenic avian influenza (bird flu) spread towards and eventually within Europe via different border-crossing flows, including those of wild birds and agricultural trade. Fear existed that via such movements, the virus would disseminate into and across territorially-based

  13. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Language: ... that can be used to treat flu illness. What are antiviral drugs? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines ( ...

  14. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best ... sneezing, and a sore throat. Is it a cold, flu, or allergies? It can be hard to ...

  15. Kebijakan Pemerintah Dalam Rangka Pemulihan Ekonomi Dan Keterkaitannya Dengan Merebaknya Flu Burung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muryani Muryani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of the outbreak of bird flu on economic sectors in the sectoral and macro aspect is analized using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE models. Base on SNSE 2008 dataand some disagregation data sectors, two simulations are conducted. The result of the simulation studies indicate that there is the decrease in the production of poultry meat sector (traditional and medium-large and egg sectors impact on the micro and macro aspects of the economy. This research is the second step of my research deal with Avian flu and the economy.The first step was the negative impact of avian flu on economy which was already published on Asian Social Economic Journal by last year. The result of this research are : On the micro level in domestic market there are decresed production and increased prices in the poultry sector, eggs, other farms, restaurants and services. While in the foreign market there are decresed exports as well as imports. Similarly, there is a decline in consumption by the entire group of household due to a decline in the acceptance by all groups of households and firms. Government revenue also declined due to a decrease in taxes from households and firms.At the macro level there are a decline in GDP and a decline in the investment. The last  simulation illustrate  the increase of production and the impact of government policy on the micro aspects and the overall economy.  On the micro level in domestic market there are increased production and falling prices in the sector of poultry, eggs, other farms, restaurants and services. While in foreign market there are  increased exports and  decreased imports in almost all sectors. Similarly, there are an increase in consumption by the entire group of households due to an increse in the acceptance by all groups of households and firms. Government revenue also increased due to an increse in taxes from household and firms.

  16. Performance Characteristics of Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowitch, Elena B; Miller, Melissa B

    2015-08-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay was compared to laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) (n = 207) and the Xpert Flu assay (n = 147) using archived nasopharyngeal swabs. The percentages of positive agreements with LDTs were 97.8% for influenza A, 97.2% for influenza B, and 89.3% for RSV. The sensitivity of influenza detection was improved with the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay compared to the Xpert Flu assay. PMID:26019209

  17. Performance Characteristics of Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowitch, Elena B; Miller, Melissa B

    2015-08-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay was compared to laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) (n = 207) and the Xpert Flu assay (n = 147) using archived nasopharyngeal swabs. The percentages of positive agreements with LDTs were 97.8% for influenza A, 97.2% for influenza B, and 89.3% for RSV. The sensitivity of influenza detection was improved with the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay compared to the Xpert Flu assay.

  18. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  19. Cloning of M and NP Gene of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus and Immune Efficacy of their DNA Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-bo FAN; Jun-wei LI; Zhi-lin LI; Wei ZHENG; Po Tien; De-yin GUO

    2007-01-01

    The M and NP genes of H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/chicken/Hubei/489/2004) were amplified by RT-PCR from viral RNA,and cloned into pMD 18-T vector respectively.The expression plasmid containing the M gene (pHM6-m) or the NP gene (pHM6-np) was then constructed by inserting the M or NP gene into the pHM6 eukaryote expression vector; the constructed plasmid was then sequenced.32 BALB/c mice (6-week-old) were divided into four groups at random.Three groups of BALB/c mice were inoculated one time the intramuscular route with either 30 μg of plasmid pHM6-m,30 μg of plasmid pHM6-np or the mixture of plasmid pHM6-m (15 μg ) and pHM6-np(15 μg) respectively.A additional group of mice were injected with 100 μ1 PBS as controls.Two weeks later,all mice were challenged with homologous H5N1 avian influenza virus,and observed in the following 12 days.The survival rates of mice in the pHM6-m group,the pHM6-np group and mixed plasmids group were 62.5% ,25.0% and 50.0%,respectively.Results showed that effective protection could be provided by either pHM6-m or pHM6-np,but pHM6-m provided a better protective effect than pHM6-np.

  20. Avian Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%). Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%). AI cases...

  1. Sirkulasi Virus Flu Burung Subtipe H5 pada Unggas di Jawa Barat, Banten, dan Jawa Timur Sepanjang Tahun 2008-2009 (CIRCULATION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA OF H5 SUBTYPE ON BIRDS IN WEST JAVA, BANTEN AND EAST JAVA DURING 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of avian influenza (AI in Indonesia initially occurred at the end of 2003 which caused100% death of the affected chickens. It was caused by avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5. Recent datashowed that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1 virus is still endemic among bird populationin Indonesia. A study was therefore conducted to find out the distribution of AIV-H5N1 in several regionsin Indonesia. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to detect the presenceof AI-H5 virus and hemagglutination inhibition (HI test was used to detect the presence of anti-AIV-H5antibody. Results showed that anti-AIV-H5 antibody was detected in 36 % and was not detected in 64% oftested birds in West Java, Banten and East Java. The AIV-H5 antibody titer varied from low to high titer.The AIV-H5 was detected in samples from Cianjur (30%, Blitar (1.9&, Serang (12.5% and pandeglang(17.5%. It was evident that AIV-H5 is still endemic in Indonesia.

  2. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > For Parents > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A A Text ... that's been going around? Or just a common cold ? Although the flu (or influenza ) usually causes symptoms ...

  3. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatignol, Anne; Dubuisson, Jean; Wainberg, Mark A; Cohen, Éric A; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting. PMID:17270043

  4. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Éric A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting.

  5. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  6. Genetic drift evolution under vaccination pressure among H5N1 Egyptian isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi Manal A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 is a major avian pathogen that intensively affects the poultry industry in Egypt even in spite of the adoption of vaccination strategy. Antigenic drift is among the strategies the influenza virus uses to escape the immune system that might develop due to the pressure of extensive vaccination. H5N1 mutates in an intensified manner and is considered a potential candidate for the possible next pandemic with all the catastrophic consequences such an eventuality will entail. Methods H5N1 was isolated from the pooled organ samples of four different affected flocks in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE. A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed to the haemagglutingin and neuraminidase. Sequencing of the full length haemagglutingin was performed. Sequence analyses of the isolated strains were performed and compared to all available H5N1 from Egyptian human and avian strains in the flu database. Changes in the different amino acid that may be related to virus virulence, receptor affinity and epitope configuration were assigned and matched with all available Egyptian strains in the flu database. Results One out of the four strains was found to be related to the B2 Egyptian lineage, 2 were related to A1 lineage and the 4th was related to A2 lineage. Comparing data obtained from the current study by other available Egyptian H5N1 sequences remarkably demonstrates that amino acid changes in the immune escape variants are remarkably restricted to a limited number of locations on the HA molecule during antigenic drift. Molecular diversity in the HA gene, in relevance to different epitopes, were not found to follow a regular trend, suggesting abrupt cumulative sequence mutations. However a number of amino acids were found to be subjected to high mutation pressure. Conclusion The current data provides a comprehensive view of HA gene evolution among H5N1 subtype viruses in

  7. [Differentiation of influenza (Flu) type A, type B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiyama, Risa; Miyazawa, Takashi; Shibano, Nobuko; Inano, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Because it is not easy to differentiate Influenza virus (Flu) from RS virus (RSV) just by clinical symptoms, to accurately diagnose those viruses in conjunction with patient's clinical symptoms, rapid diagnostic kits has been used separately for each of those viruses. In our new study, we have developed a new rapid diagnostic kit, QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV. The kit can detect Flu A, Flu B, and RSV antigens with a single sample collection and an assay. Total of 2,873 cases (including nasopharyngeal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons were evaluated with QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV and a commercially available kit. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Flu type A, type B, and RSV were above 95% when compared to commercially available kits (QuickNavi™-Flu and QuickNavi™-RSV) and considered to be equivalent to the commercially available kits. In 2011/2012 season, RSV infections increased prior to Flu season and continued during the peak of the Flu season. The kit can contribute to accurate diagnosis of Flu and RSV infections since co-infection cases have also been reported during the 2011/2012 season. QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV is useful for differential diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases since it can detect Flu type A, type B, and RSV virus antigens with a single sample collection. PMID:24694242

  8. Gamma-irradiated influenza A virus provides adjuvant activity to a co-administered poorly immunogenic SFV vaccine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle eBabb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many currently available inactivated vaccines require 'adjuvants' to maximise the protective immune responses generated against the antigens of interest. Recent studies in mice with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU have shown its superior efficacy compared to other forms of inactivated FLU vaccines and its ability to induce both potent type-I interferon (IFN-I responses and the IFN-I associated partial lymphocyte activation. Commonly, IFN-I responses induced by adjuvants, combined in vaccine preparations, have been shown to effectively enhance the immunogenicity of the antigens of interest. Therefore, we investigated the potential adjuvant activity of γ-FLU and the possible effect on antibody responses against co-administrated antigens, using gamma-irradiated Semliki Forest Virus (γ-SFV as the experimental vaccine in mice. Our data show that co-vaccination with γ-FLU and γ-SFV resulted in enhanced SFV-specific antibody responses in terms of increased titres by 6 fold and greater neutralisation efficacy, when compared to vaccination with γ-SFV alone. This study provides promising evidence related to the possible use of γ-FLU as an adjuvant to poorly immunogenic vaccines without compromising the vaccine efficacy of γ-FLU.

  9. Avian influenza A (H9N2: computational molecular analysis and phylogenetic characterization of viral surface proteins isolated between 1997 and 2009 from the human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H9N2 avian influenza A viruses have become panzootic in Eurasia over the last decade and have caused several human infections in Asia since 1998. To study their evolution and zoonotic potential, we conducted an in silico analysis of H9N2 viruses that have infected humans between 1997 and 2009 and identified potential novel reassortments. Results A total of 22 hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were retrieved from the NCBI flu database. It was identified that mature peptide sequences of HA genes isolated from humans in 2009 had glutamine at position 226 (H3 of the receptor binding site, indicating a preference to bind to the human α (2-6 sialic acid receptors, which is different from previously isolated viruses and studies where the presence of leucine at the same position contributes to preference for human receptors and presence of glutamine towards avian receptors. Similarly, strains isolated in 2009 possessed new motif R-S-N-R in spite of typical R-S-S-R at the cleavage site of HA, which isn't reported before for H9N2 cases in humans. Other changes involved loss, addition, and variations in potential glycosylation sites as well as in predicted epitopes. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that HA and NA gene segments of H9N2 including those from current and proposed vaccine strains belong to two different Eurasian phylogenetic lineages confirming possible genetic reassortments. Conclusions These findings support the continuous evolution of avian H9N2 viruses towards human as host and are in favor of effective surveillance and better characterization studies to address this issue.

  10. Determinants of adult vaccination at inner-city health centers: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund Mahlon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination rates among adults 65 years and older or less than 65 years with high risk medical conditions are still below Healthy People 2010 recommended levels of 90%. This study was designed to: 1 assess self-reported pneumococcal vaccination rates following health center level interventions to increase adult vaccination rates; and 2 determine factors associated with vaccination. Methods Tailored interventions to increase immunizations were implemented at two inner-city health centers. We surveyed 375 patients 50 years of age and older. Multivariate logistic regression examines the predictors of 1 self-reported pneumococcal vaccination and 2 combined self-reported influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. Both of these models were stratified by age group (50–64 years and 65 years and older. Results Pneumococcal vaccination rates were 45% by self-report, 55% by medical record review, 69% for patients 65 years old and older, 32% for patients 50–64 years; they did not differ by race. Receipt of the previous season's influenza vaccine was significantly related to pneumococcal vaccination among both younger and older patients. Receiving both the pneumococcal vaccine and the most recent influenza vaccine compared with receiving neither, among younger patients was related to unemployment, more frequent physician visits, and belief that those who do not receive the flu shot are more susceptible to the flu. For older patients, receipt of both vaccines was related to nonsmoking status, believing that friends/family think the patient should be vaccinated, seeing posters advertising flu shot clinics, and belief that those who do not receive the flu shot are more susceptible to the flu. Conclusion Our findings suggest that improving overall pneumococcal vaccination rates among eligible adults, has the potential to eliminate racial disparities. Interventions delivering vaccination messages specific to older

  11. BAHAN AKTIF DALAM KOMBINASI OBAT FLU DAN BATUK-PILEK, DAN PEMILIHAN OBAT FLU YANG RASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Gitawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakFlu, salesma atau batuk pilek adalah infeksi saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA akibat virus, merupakan self-limiting disease dan hanya memerlukan pengobatan simtomatik. Obat-obat yang digunakan adalah obat bebas, umumnya dalam bentuk kombinasi tetap, dengan komposisi zat aktif bervariasi. Tulisan ini bertujuan mengkaji bahan aktif dalam preparat flu kombinasi tetap dan pemilihan obat flu yang rasional. Kajian dilakukan secara cross-sectional dengan sumber data berasal dari 56 referensi berupa buku, panduan, jurnal/artikel on-line maupun publikasi tercetak, menggunakan kata kunci ”common cold, cough, over-the-counter drugs, non-prescription, self-medication, analgetics, sympathomimetics, antihistamines, decongestant, antibiotics, immunomodulators, food supplement, flu, dan batuk-pilek”.Diperoleh sejumlah 191 preparat kombinasi tetap berbentuk tablet dan sirup yang diindikasikan untuk mengurangi gejala flu (common-cold, dengan komposisi zat aktif utama antihistamin dan dekongestan. Komponen tambahan lainnya adalah analgesik, antitusif, ekspektoran, stimulan. Kekuatan (strength dosis tiap komponen masih sesuai dengan dosis yang direkomendasi, namun tercatat masih ada preparat dengan dosis dekongestan (fenilpropanolamin yang lebih tinggi dari yang direkomendasi. Tidak ada preparat tunggal yang mampu mengatasi semua gejala flu sekaligus, sehingga preparat flu kombinasi menjadi pilihan utama. Dalam menggunakan preparat flu kombinasi perlu memilihproduk yang tepat dan rasional sesuai dengan gejala spesifik, karena kemungkinan tidak semua zat aktif dalam komposisi produk obat flu diperlukan oleh penderita.Kata kunci: flu, batuk-pilek, komposisi obat flu, simtomatik.AbstractFlu or common-cold is an acute upper respiratory tract infection mainly caused by virus, and a self-limiting disease which is requires only symptomatic treatments to alleviate the symptoms. Common-cold medication is usually an OTC drug and a fixed-dose combination of various

  12. “It’s easier in pharmacy”: why some patients prefer to pay for flu jabs rather than use the National Health Service

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Claire; Thornley, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to increase flu vaccination rates in England particularly among those under 65 years of age and at risk because of other conditions and treatments. Patients in at risk groups are eligible for free vaccination on the National Health Service (NHS) in England, but despite this, some choose to pay privately. This paper explores how prevalent this is and why people choose to do it. There is moderate to good evidence from several countries that community pharmacies can sa...

  13. Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick: An Evaluation of the 2013-2014 Flu Season

    OpenAIRE

    Lazer, David M.; Kennedy, Ryan; King, Gary; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In response to its poor performance during the 2012-2013 flu season, Google Flu Trends (GFT) engineers announced a redesign of the GFT algorithm. Two changes were made: (1) dampening anomalous media spikes and (2) using ElasticNet, rather than regression, for estimation. This paper identifies several problems that persist in the new algorithm. First, the transparency problems identified in our earlier Science paper appear to have, if anything, become worse. Second, there are reasons to doubt ...

  14. Swine flu: lessons we need to learn from our global experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Collignon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are important lessons to be learnt from the recent ‘Swine Flu’ pandemic. Before we call it a pandemic, we need to have appropriate trigger points that involve not only the spread of the virus but also its level of virulence. This was not done for H1N1 (swine flu. We need to ensure that we improve the techniques used in trying to decrease the spread of infection—both in the community and within our hospitals. This means improved infection control and hygiene, and the use of masks, alcohol hand rubs and so on. We also need to have a different approach to vaccines. Effective vaccines were produced only after the epidemic had passed and therefore had relatively little impact in preventing many infections. Mass population strategies involving vaccines and antivirals also misused large amounts of scarce medical resources.

  15. Ten years of fighting bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This year marks a decade since the first human outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza in Hong Kong. Since then, US $1.9 billion has been pledged to fight avian influenza and a global effort is under way to prevent and be prepared for a pandemic.

  16. L-carnosine modulates respiratory burst and reactive oxygen species production in neutrophil biochemistry and function: may oral dosage form of non-hydrolized dipeptide L-carnosine complement anti-infective anti-influenza flu treatment, prevention and self-care as an alternative to the conventional vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2014-05-01

    compounds, and suggest important interactions between neutrophills and carnosine related compounds in the host response to viruses and bacteria. Carnosine and anserine were also found to reduce apoptosis of human neutrophils. In this way these histidine-containing compounds can modulate the Influenza virus release from neutrophills and reduce virus dissemination through the body of the organism. This review points the ability of therapeutic control of Influenza viral infections associated with modulation by oral nonhydrolized forms of carnosine and related histidine-containg compounds of PMN apoptosis which may be involved at least in part in the pathophysiology of the disease in animals and humans. The data presented in this article, overall, may have implications for global influenza surveillance and planning for pandemic influenza therapeutic prevention with oral forms of non-hydrolized natural L-carnosine as a suitable alternative to the conventional vaccination for various flu ailments. PMID:23441838

  17. Flu-related Hospitalizations by Industry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Sara Luckhaupt, a CDC medical officer, discusses which industries are most impacted by the flu.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2012.

  18. Is China Ready for Bird Flu?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Besides a clear plan to deal with bird flu, a leading epidemic expert warns the biggest challenge is raising public awareness Premier Wen Jiabao said in his government work report, presented March 5 at the annual session of the National People's Congress, China's top legislature, that the country is attaching great attention to the prevention and control of

  19. Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  20. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  1. Flu BM2 structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Flu viruses package essential functions into a small integral membrane protein known as M2. Such small membrane proteins represent major challenges for structural biology. A new study presented in this issue details the structure and functions of the influenza B M2 protein through the use of functional domain–specific solution NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Deck Yourself with Flu Protection Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-22

    This song (sung to the tune of Deck the Halls) describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the flu. Sing along!  Created: 12/22/2009 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 12/22/2009.

  3. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea F.; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results in increased Emergency Department crowding which can be mitigated through early detection linked to an appropriate response. Although current surveillance systems, such as Google Flu Trends, yield near real-time influenza surveillance, few demonstrate ability to forecast impending influenza cases. Methods Forecasting models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004 – 2011) divided into training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear, and autoregressive methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Models were developed and evaluated through statistical measures of global deviance and log-likelihood ratio tests. An additional measure of forecast confidence, defined as the percentage of forecast values, during an influenza peak, that are within 7 influenza cases of the actual data, was examined to demonstrate practical utility of the model. Results A generalized autoregressive Poisson (GARMA) forecast model integrating previous influenza cases with Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information providing significant forecast improvements (p = 0.00002). The final model, a GARMA intercept

  4. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Freyer Dugas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. METHODS: Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011 divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM, and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. RESULTS: A GARMA(3,0 forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. CONCLUSIONS: Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This

  5. [A brief update on avian influenza and the protection of workers in view of the implementation of the new EU directive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Sbardella, Daniele; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus A(H5N1), since its first appearance in Hong Kong in 1997 killing six people, has continuously recorder by 2003 both new cases and deaths between these. Although the media and social attention received in the years between 2006 and 2008, mainly in Italy is not currently present, the same is not true for the avian flu that still exists in some countries. At the regulatory level, at the beginning of 2006 the Ministry of Health indicated the measures to be taken in the national preparedness and response to a pandemic flu, and the national Legislative Decree 25 January 2010, n. 9 makes implementing the EU Directive 2005/94/CE on Community measures to combat avian flu. Moreover, an article published in June 2010 show a new route of transmission of avian viruses by birds. The topic on avian flu, especially aimed at the protection of workers potentially exposed, has been long the subject of studies, and in particular for operators belonging to the Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco (C.N.VV.F.). In particular, in the context of the measures taken to address any outbreak of avian flu, were carried out one manual addressed to operators by C.N.VV.F. and to so-called managers/operators of the emergency public service workers represented by the operators of the C.N.VVF. and of Police, Civil Protection, and Voluntary Organisations of rescue enclosed in Civil Protection Service. It is necessary to reiterate the importance of continued and growing of the preparation and information for workers, brought to the operators themselves useful about the adoption of preventive and protective measures by the workers belonging to groups at risk of potential exposure to avian influenza viruses.

  6. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  7. Adjuvanticity of recombinant protein ASP-1 on M2e-based vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza vaccine%重组蛋白ASP-1对高致病性禽流感M2e疫苗分子的佐剂活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞建萍; 周育森; 赵光宇; 肖文珺; 郭彦; 孙世惠; 寇志华; 于虹; 温晶; 何后军

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the adjuvanticity of recombinant protein ASP-1 on M2e-based vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza, the recombinant protein TrxA-M2e3 serving as M2e-based vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza was expressed in prokaryotic system, and the vector protein trxA of pET32a(+) was fused to M2e3. The truncated segment ASP-1 of Onchocerca volvulus activation associated protein was expressed in E. coli as adjuvant protein. And the mice were vaccinated with purified TrxA-M2e3 and ASP-1 proteins combinedly or separately. M2e-specific IgG antibody in mouse sera were measured. Then vaccinated mice were challenged with lethal dose of different clades of H5N1 viruses to detect the cross-protection. Results displayed that the purified recombinant proteins, TrxA-M2e3 and ASP-1 were generated. Comparing with the group vaccinated with TrxA-M2e3 alone, the titers of M2e-specific antibody in mouse sera were significantly enhanced in the presence of adjuvant protein ASP-1. After lethal challenges of different clades of H5N1 viruses, the viral replications in lungs of mice vaccinated with TrxA-M2e3 plus ASP-1 were significantly inhibited, and all mice in this group survived, while all mice in other groups died. It's suggested that M2e is the ideal antigen target for developing the novel avian influenza vaccine to confront the viral variations. And the recombinant protein ASP-1 is a promising novel adjuvant which playing a key role on M2e-inducing cross-protections.%目的 探讨重组蛋白ASP-1对高致病性禽流感M2e疫苗分子的免疫佐剂作用.方法 在大肠杆菌原核表达系统中获得融合了pET32(+)表达载体蛋白trxA和M2e三联体的重组蛋白TrxA-M2e3作为高致病性禽流感M2e疫苗分子;在大肠杆菌中截短表达盘尾丝虫活化相关蛋白ASP,获得截短片段ASP-1作为佐剂蛋白.将纯化后的重组蛋白TrxA-M2e3和ASP-1混合或者单独使用,免疫BALB/c小鼠后检测血清中M2e抗体水

  8. Health Care Segregation and Race Disparities in Infectious Disease: The Case of Nursing Homes and Seasonal Influenza Vaccinations*

    OpenAIRE

    Strully, Kate W.

    2011-01-01

    Examining nursing home segregation and race disparities in influenza vaccinations, this article demonstrates that segregation may increase both susceptibility and exposure to seasonal flu for black Americans. Evidence based on the 2004 U.S. National Nursing Home Survey shows that individuals in nursing homes with a high percentage of black residents have less personal immunity to flu since they are less likely to have been vaccinated against the disease; they may also be more likely to be exp...

  9. Flu vaccine may arrive too late / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Eesti arstid süüdistavad riiki liigses passiivsuses seagripivaktsiini hankimisel. Tartu ülikooli kliinikumi infektsiooniteenistuse juht doktor Matti Maimets arvab, et seagripi epideemia jõuab Eestisse jaanuaris

  10. Antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9 subtype isolated from desi and zoo birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Saleem

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza is a viral infection which affects mainly the respiratory system of birds. The H9N2 considered as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI virus and continuously circulating in poultry flocks causing enormous economic losses to poultry industry of Pakistan. As these viruses have RNA genome and their RNA polymerase enzyme lacks proof reading activity which resulted in spontaneous mutation in surface glycoproteins (HA and NA and reassortment of their genomic segments results in escape from host immune response produced by the vaccine. Efforts made for the isolation and identification of avian influenza virus from live desi and zoo birds of Lahore and performed antigenic characterization. The local vaccines although gives a little bit less titer when we raise the antisera against these vaccines but their antisera have more interaction with the local H9 subtype antigen so it gives better protective immune response. Infected chicken antisera are more reactive as compare to rabbit antisera. This shows that our isolates have highest similarity with the currently circulating viruses. These results guided us to devise a new control strategy against avian influenza viral infections. The antigenic characterization of these avian influenza isolates helped us to see the antigenic differences between the isolates of this study and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses used in vaccines. Therefore, this study clearly suggests that a new local H9 subtype avian influenza virus should be used as vaccinal candidate every year for the effective control of influenza viral infections of poultry.

  11. [A simulation exercise in a flu clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Juliette; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Lecapitaine, Anne-Lise; Lecompte, Françoise; Szwebel-Chikli, Céline

    2011-01-01

    A simulation exercise aimed at assessing the management and provision of ambulatory care in the context of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic was conducted in a specifically dedicated consultation center (Centre de Consultation Dédié (CCD) à la grippe) based on official French guidelines. The exercise was carried out in a school in Paris equipped to simulate a "flu clinic". 3 practitioners provided treatment lasting 2 hours to nursing students acting as patients. The exercise highlighted a number of major organizational issues. Staff were found to be unable to manage the center and to perform patient transfers; face masks were not routinely and consistently worn by doctors and patients; and communication between professionals within the clinic was limited. The exercise showed that much remains to be done to ensure that "flu clinics" are effective and functional. The results suggest that the exercise will need to be repeated on a larger scale and over a longer period. PMID:22365047

  12. The influence of partial public reimbursement on vaccination uptake in the older population: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    McHugh, Sheena M.; Browne, John P; O’Neill, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Background Flu vaccination is recommended annually for high risk groups. However, in Ireland, free access to vaccination is not universal for those in high risk groups; the vaccine and consultation are only free for those with a medical card, a means tested scheme. Few private health insurance policies cover the cost of attendance for vaccination in general practice. The aim was to examine the influence of this reimbursement policy on vaccination coverage among older adults. Methods Cross-sec...

  13. The Evolution of Norovirus, the "Gastric Flu"

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa C Lindesmith; Eric F Donaldson; LoBue, Anna D.; Jennifer L Cannon; Zheng, Du-Ping; Vinje, Jan; Baric, Ralph S.

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu), the symptoms of which include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. There is no treatment for infection with these highly contagious viruses. While most people recover within a few days, the very young and old may experience severe disease. Like influenza, large outbreaks (epidemics) of norovirus infection occur periodically (often in closed communities such as cruise ships), and most people have ...

  14. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Freyer Dugas; Mehdi Jalalpour; Yulia Gel; Scott Levin; Fred Torcaso; Takeru Igusa; Rothman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results i...

  15. Model SIR untuk Penyebaran Penyakit Flu Burung

    OpenAIRE

    Mansyur, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Model SIR untuk penyebaran penyakit flu burung merupakan model matematika yang menjelaskan interaksi antara kelompok populasi burung susceptible (S_b) dan infected (I_b) dengan kelompok populasi manusia susceptible (S_h), infected (I_h), dan recovered (R_h). Titik keseimbangan model meliputi titik keseimbangan bebas penyakit (E) dan titik keseimbangan endemik (E^+). Dari analisis kestabilan diperoleh bahwa kestabilan titik keseimbangan bergantung pada bilangan reproduksi dasar (R_0). Titik k...

  16. Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos

    OpenAIRE

    Thi, Tuan Hue; Wang, Li; Ye, Ning; Jian ZHANG; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Cheng, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Vision-based surveillance and monitoring is a potential alternative for early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks in urban areas complementing molecular diagnostics and hospital and doctor visit-based alert systems. Visible actions representing typical flu-like symptoms include sneeze and cough that are associated with changing patterns of hand to head distances, among others. The technical difficulties lie in the high complexity and large variation of those actions as well ...

  17. Influenza virosomes: a flu jab for malaria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanagh, D R; Remarque, E.J.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Hermsen, C.C.; Luty, A.J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The major attractions of vaccines based on viral carriers (vectors) include their immunogenicity without adjuvant and the relative simplicity of their associated production processes in comparison with recombinant protein-based approaches. Two influenza virosomal vaccines - for influenza and hepatit

  18. Multi-spectral fluorescent reporter influenza viruses (Color-flu) as powerful tools for in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Satoshi; Katsura, Hiroaki; Zhao, Dongming; Ozawa, Makoto; Ando, Tomomi; Shoemaker, Jason E; Ishikawa, Izumi; Yamada, Shinya; Neumann, Gabriele; Watanabe, Shinji; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease; highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses cause severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. Although numerous studies have addressed the pathogenicity of influenza viruses, influenza pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we generate influenza viruses expressing fluorescent proteins of different colours ('Color-flu' viruses) to facilitate the study of viral infection in in vivo models. On adaptation to mice, stable expression of the fluorescent proteins in infected animals allows their detection by different types of microscopy and by flow cytometry. We use this system to analyse the progression of viral spread in mouse lungs, for live imaging of virus-infected cells, and for differential gene expression studies in virus antigen-positive and virus antigen-negative live cells in the lungs of Color-flu-infected mice. Collectively, Color-flu viruses are powerful tools to analyse virus infections at the cellular level in vivo to better understand influenza pathogenesis. PMID:25807527

  19. Avian mycoplasmosis update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Nascimento

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmas occur in a variety of bird species. The most important mycoplasmas for chickens and turkeys are Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG, M. synoviae (MS, and M. meleagridis. Besides, M. iowe (MI is an emerging pathogen in turkeys, but of little concern for chickens. Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell wall and belong to the class Mollicutes. Although they have been considered extracellular agents, scientists admit nowadays that some of them are obligatory intracellular microorganisms, whereas all other mycoplasmas are considered facultative intracellular organisms. Their pathogenic mechanism for disease include adherence to host target cells, mediation of apoptosis, innocent bystander damage to host cell due to intimate membrane contact, molecular (antigen mimicry that may lead to tolerance, and mitotic effect for B and/or T lymphocytes, which could lead to suppressed T-cell function and/or production of cytotoxic T cell, besides mycoplasma by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. Moreover, mycoplasma ability to stimulate macrophages, monocytes, T-helper cells and NK cells, results in the production of substances, such as tumor necrosing factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1, 2, 6 and interferon (a, b, g. The major clinical signs seen in avian mycoplasmosis are coughing, sneezing, snicks, respiratory rales, ocular and nasal discharge, decreased feed intake and egg production, increased mortality, poor hatchability, and, primarily in turkeys, swelling of the infraorbital sinus(es. Nevertheless, chronic and unapparent infections are most common and more threatening. Mycoplasmas are transmitted horizontally, from bird to bird, and vertically, from dam to offspring through the eggs. Losses attributed to mycoplasmosis, mainly MG and MS infections, result from decreased egg production and egg quality, poor hatchability (high rate of embryonic mortality and culling of day-old birds, poor feed efficiency, increase in

  20. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens.

  1. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  2. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  3. Diagnosis Molekuler Virus Flu Burung-A Subtipe H5 Berdasarkan Amplifikasi Gen M dan H5 dengan Metode Onestep Simplex RT-PCR (MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE A AND SUBTYPE H5 BY AMPLIFICATION OF ITS M AND H5 GENES USING ONE STEP SIMPLEX R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses which belong to the Family of Orthomyxoviridae are a group of viruses withsegmented ssRNA genome. The viruses can be subgroupped into many subtypes on the basis of theirsurface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins. Among the HA subtypes, H5and H7 have been found to be the most pathogenic. Conventional diagnosis of the viruses is usuallyperformed by isolation of the viruses in embryonated eggs, and hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutinationinhibition test. Although those methods are sensitive and accurate, they are time consuming and requirelaboratory facilities with high biosafety level. Commercial methods such as emzyme-linked immonosorbentassay (ELISA and immunoflurescense assay also provide a rapid result but less sensitive and specificthan conventional methods. Molecular diagnosis by amplification of M and H5 genes using one strepsimplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain eraction (RT-PCR provices a rapid and accurate diagnosisfor the viruses. A study was therefore conducted to evaluate the accurate and rapidity of such the moleculartests for diagnosis of avian influenza A virus, subtype H5. As many as 10 sample of the virus isolateswhich were available at the Animal Desease investigation Center in Wates, Yogyakarta, were uses in thisstudy. The virus isolates were firstly propagated in specific antigen negative (SAN chicken embryos andtested by HA/HI test. The viruses were then subjected for the RT-PCR test with varying annealingtemperatures of 500C and 520C. The result showed that all 10 isolates were type A influenza virus and 8out of 10 were influenza A subtype H5 influenza virus. RT-PCR used in this study appears to be moresensitive, rapid and accurate as compared to those by serological and isolation of the virus in embryonatedeggs.

  4. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a

  5. 2012-2014年新疆兵团禽流感职业暴露人群血清学监测%Investigation of surveillance on occupational population of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, 2012-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉霞; 杨晓燕; 李红叶; 郭景霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to investigate the status of the high risk population of avian influenza in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps,explore occupational population exposure avian influenza risk factors for the prevention of avian influenza to provide a scientific basis.Methods Using the horse red blood cell hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests to detect H5 hemagglutinin antibody for occupational population.Results From 2012 to 2014,563 serum specimens were collected from the occupational populations,the antibody positive rates for H5 subtypes were 0.36%.71 person had received influenza vaccine in recent years,vaccination rate was 12.61%.Avian influenza vaccine inoculation was 76.91% among the occupational populations contacted with poultry.6.22% serum samples with titer(20≤ HI < 160) came mainly from the slaughter and processing of poultry workers and farmers.There was no significant difference in terms of gender (x2 =2.405,P > 0.05);and also no statistical difference (x2 =0.284,P >0.05)for the populations contacted with bird flu but given vaccination.Conclusion The H5 subtypes avian influenza virus caused asymptomatic infection was proved to be existed within the population exposed to the poultry in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps,suggesting that the poultry occupational population was under the risk of avian influenza virus infection.Strengthen the monitoring,to carry out avian influenza health prevention knowledge propaganda and take appropriate behavioral intervention,for the early warning and prevention of avian influenza has a very important significance.%目的 了解兵团禽流感职业暴露人群H5亚型感染状况,探索禽流感职业暴露人群风险因素.方法 采用马红细胞血凝抑制试验(HI)检测职业暴露人群H5亚型血凝素抗体.结果 2012-2014年共采集职业暴露人群血清563份,H5亚型抗体阳性率为0.36%.近一年内接种过流感疫苗共有71人,接种率为12.61%.所接

  6. Investigation of surveillance on occupational population of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, 2012-2014%2012-2014年新疆兵团禽流感职业暴露人群血清学监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉霞; 杨晓燕; 李红叶; 郭景霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to investigate the status of the high risk population of avian influenza in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps,explore occupational population exposure avian influenza risk factors for the prevention of avian influenza to provide a scientific basis.Methods Using the horse red blood cell hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests to detect H5 hemagglutinin antibody for occupational population.Results From 2012 to 2014,563 serum specimens were collected from the occupational populations,the antibody positive rates for H5 subtypes were 0.36%.71 person had received influenza vaccine in recent years,vaccination rate was 12.61%.Avian influenza vaccine inoculation was 76.91% among the occupational populations contacted with poultry.6.22% serum samples with titer(20≤ HI < 160) came mainly from the slaughter and processing of poultry workers and farmers.There was no significant difference in terms of gender (x2 =2.405,P > 0.05);and also no statistical difference (x2 =0.284,P >0.05)for the populations contacted with bird flu but given vaccination.Conclusion The H5 subtypes avian influenza virus caused asymptomatic infection was proved to be existed within the population exposed to the poultry in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps,suggesting that the poultry occupational population was under the risk of avian influenza virus infection.Strengthen the monitoring,to carry out avian influenza health prevention knowledge propaganda and take appropriate behavioral intervention,for the early warning and prevention of avian influenza has a very important significance.%目的 了解兵团禽流感职业暴露人群H5亚型感染状况,探索禽流感职业暴露人群风险因素.方法 采用马红细胞血凝抑制试验(HI)检测职业暴露人群H5亚型血凝素抗体.结果 2012-2014年共采集职业暴露人群血清563份,H5亚型抗体阳性率为0.36%.近一年内接种过流感疫苗共有71人,接种率为12.61%.所接

  7. 禽流感H5、H9亚型灭活油乳剂疫苗的免疫效果评价%Evaluation of Immune Effects of Avian Influenza (H5, H9) Inactived Oil-emulsion Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋禾; 徐君

    2011-01-01

    The serum samples were collected from Vaccinated Chicken Flock of Chengdu, animal husbandry, chicken egg farm, immune for H5, H9 subtype of avian influenza vaccination antibody testing. The results showed that ,I-IS, H9 subtypes HI titer 〉/ 4 log 2 number of samples were 2 455, 2 738, respectively, immune passing rates were 83.4%, 93.1%, to maintain the peak antibody after immunization than 7 log 2 hours up to 63 d or more in 2 943 serum samples. It more than qualified immunity standard layer field, it can be a large area for compulsory vaccination and prevention and control of avian influenza.%对采自成都市牧星蛋鸡场免疫鸡群的2943份血清样品进行了H5、H9亚型禽流感抗体免疫接种试验。结果表明,在2943份血清样品中,tt5、H9亚型HI效价≥410g2的样品数量分别为2455、2738份,免疫合格率分别为83-4%、93.1%,免疫后抗体高峰维持7log2以上的时间达63d以上。超过蛋鸡场免疫合格标准,可大面积用于禽流感强制免疫和防控。

  8. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  9. Optimal Allocation of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Depends on Age, Risk and Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylius, S.D.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Lugner, A.K.; Wallinga, J.

    2008-01-01

    The limited production capacity for vaccines raises the question what the best strategy is for allocating the vaccine to mitigate an influenza pandemic. We developed an age-structured model for spread of an influenza pandemic and validated it against observations from the Asian flu pandemic. Two str

  10. Determinants of adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers from an Italian region: results from a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Durando, P.; Alicino, Cristiano; Dini, G; Barberis, I.; Bagnasco, A M; Iudici, R; Zanini, M; Martini, M.; Toletone, A; PAGANINO, C.; Massa, E; Orsi, Andrea; Sasso, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Notwithstanding decades of efforts to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination among European healthcare workers (HCWs), the immunisation rates are still unsatisfactory. In order to understand the reasons for the low adherence to flu vaccination, a study was carried out among HCWs of two healthcare organisations in Liguria, a region in northwest Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study based on anonymous self-administered web questionnaires was carried out between ...

  11. Online monitoring of flu in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroey, Dirk; Semaille, Pascal; Vansintejan, Johan; Vandevoorde, Jan; Van De Vijver, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Devroey et al. (2011) Online monitoring of flu in Belgium. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 351–356. Background  The diagnosis and treatment of patients with the A(H1N1) pandemic flu caused some serious burden for general practitioners (GPs) in the summer and autumn of 2009. Objective  The aim of this study was to track the incidence of influenza and influenza‐like illness (ILI) in Belgium and to describe the characteristics of the affected patients. Methods  In July 2009, the Belgian online influenza surveillance system (BOISS) was set up to monitor the spread of influenza and ILI. Registrations were made by 93 GPs from all 10 Belgian provinces who participated at least 1 week during the first 12 months of the registration. Only patients who met the WHO criteria for flu were recorded. Results  In total, 1254 patients (53% men) with influenza or ILI were included. Mainly younger persons were affected: 43% was under the age of 20 years. A risk factor for influenza‐related complications was determined in 19% of cases, mainly patients with chronic respiratory problems. A treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir was prescribed in 13%, and 3% of the patients was admitted to a hospital. The time of the peak incidence (44th week) and the magnitude (623 cases per week per 100 000 inhabitants) corresponded with the figures of the existing paper‐based registration network. The small sample size and possible reporting biases may have influenced the findings of the study. Conclusions  The BOISS provides a good alternative to conduct surveillance activities for influenza and ILI in Belgium. It provides complementary information regarding ILI compared to the existing data capturing. PMID:21668686

  12. Titer on chip: new analytical tool for influenza vaccine potency determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Kuck

    Full Text Available Titer on Chip (Flu-ToC is a new technique for quantification of influenza hemagglutinin (HA concentration. In order to evaluate the potential of this new technique, a comparison of Flu-ToC to more conventional methods was conducted using recombinant HA produced in a baculovirus expression system as a test case. Samples from current vaccine strains were collected from four different steps in the manufacturing process. A total of 19 samples were analysed by Flu-ToC (blinded, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the purity adjusted bicinchoninic acid assay (paBCA. The results indicated reasonable linear correlation between Flu-ToC and SRID, ELISA, and paBCA, with regression slopes of log-log plots being 0.91, 1.03, and 0.91, respectively. The average ratio for HA content measured by Flu-ToC relative to SRID, ELISA, and paBCA was 83%, 147%, and 81%, respectively; indicating nearly equivalent potency determination for Flu-ToC relative to SRID and paBCA. These results, combined with demonstrated multiplexed analysis of all components within a quadrivalent formulation and robust response to HA strains over a wide time period, support the conclusion that Flu-ToC can be used as a reliable and time-saving alternative potency assay for influenza vaccines.

  13. Replacement of primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) by the DF-1 cell line for detection of avian leucosis viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der R.; Zoelen-Bos, van D.J.; Oei, H.L.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    International regulations prescribe that the absence of avian leucosis viruses (ALV) in avian live virus vaccines has to be demonstrated. Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special SPF chicken lines are normally used for detection of ALV. The suitability of the DF-1 cell line for ALV-dete

  14. [Current events in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  15. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gascuel Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions.

  16. Pandemic influenza: overview of vaccines and antiviral drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Manon M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a high priority item for all public health authorities. An influenza pandemic is believed to be imminent, and scientists agree that it will be a matter of when, where, and what will be the causative agent. Recently, most attention has been directed to human cases of avian influenza caused by a H5N1 avian influenza virus. An effective vaccine will be needed to substantially reduce the impact of an influenza pandemic. Current influenza vaccine manufacturing technol...

  17. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  18. Avian immunology: basics, diseases, vaccines, etc

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (U.S.) rearing backyard poultry is becoming more popular as people desire to produce their own eggs, and sometimes meat, for their families. The Animal and Plant Inspection Service determined that 0.7, 1.2, 1.7 and 0.2 percent of urban households in Denver, Los Angeles, Miami a...

  19. T 细胞表位多肽疫苗对禽流感病毒的免疫保护评价%Immune Protection Evaluation of T Cell Epitope Peptide Vaccine for Avian Influenza Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凤珠; 许传田; 鲁梅; 谭刘刚; 孔正杰; 黄庆华; 黄艳艳; 杨少华; 张秀美; 崔言顺

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of T cell epitope peptide NP67 -74 -KLH of NP protein on immune effect of 4M2e - MAP,the BALB /c mice were immunized by NP67 -74 -KLH and 4M2e - MAP after adding the complete freund’s adjuvant and incomplete freund’s adjuvant to evaluate the immune effect.The weight change curve of mice after challenge showed that the weight change trend of mice immunized combinedly by NP67 -74 -KLH and 4M2e -MAP was more smooth than that immunized by 4M2e -MAP,and the weight of mice in combined immunization group regained quickly.The results of fluorescent quantitation and lung tissue pathological slices showed that the compound polypeptide of NP67 -74 -KLH with 4M2e -MAP could inhibit the virus replication in the lungs,reduce the pathological damage to lungs and get the effective protection dur-ing the course of resisting virus.This provided a good reference for the combined use of peptide vaccine a-gainst avian influenza research.%为了探究 NP 蛋白 T 细胞表位多肽 NP67-74-KLH 对流感通用疫苗4M2e -MAP 免疫效果的影响,本研究将多肽 NP67-74-KLH 和4M2e -MAP 添加完全弗氏佐剂和不完全弗氏佐剂后免疫 BALB/c 小鼠,通过攻毒保护试验来评价免疫效果。攻毒以后小鼠体重变化曲线说明,联合免疫多肽疫苗 NP67-74-KLH 和4M2e -MAP 的试验组小鼠体重变化趋势比单一免疫4M2e -MAP 合成肽疫苗更加趋于平稳,并且联合免疫试验组小鼠体重恢复较快。荧光定量和肺部组织病理切片结果均表明,复合多肽(NP67-74-KLH 和4M2e -MAP)能在一定程度上干扰流感病毒在脏器肺中的复制并能够降低病毒对肺部的损伤程度,在抵抗病毒过程中可以产生有效保护。该研究为多肽疫苗联合应用以抵抗流感研发提供了较好思路。

  20. Pulmonary sequelae in a patient recovered from swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pandemic of swine flu (H1N1 influenza spread to involve the whole world rapidly. Many patients manifested a mild clinical illness but some developed pneumonia and respiratory failure. High mortality was observed in patients with severe disease. Among survivors, studies are limited. Ground-glass opacities on a high-resolution computerized tomography scan and reduced diffusion capacity were noted after 3 months in a study. But long-term complications in patients with swine flu pneumonia have not been studied well. We are presenting an unusual case of swine flu pneumonia who developed interstitial lung disease after recovery.