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Sample records for avian encephalomyelitis virus

  1. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  2. The picornavirus avian encephalomyelitis virus possesses a hepatitis C virus-like internal ribosome entry site element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshesh, M.; Groppelli, E.; Willcocks, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    and it is also resistant to an inhibitor of eIF4A. These properties are reminiscent of the recently discovered class of IRES elements within certain other picornaviruses, such as porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1). Like the PTV-1 IRES, the AEV IRES shows significant similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES......Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) is a picornavirus that causes disease in poultry worldwide, and flocks must be vaccinated for protection. AEV is currently classified within the hepatovirus genus, since its proteins are most closely related to those of hepatitis A virus (HAV). We now provide...

  3. Serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus and Pasteurella multocida infections in free-range indigenous chickens in Southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunde, Paula; Timbe, Palmira; Lucas, Ana Felicidade; Tchamo, Cesaltina; Chilundo, Abel; Dos Anjos, Filomena; Costa, Rosa; Bila, Custodio Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    A total of 398 serum samples from free-range indigenous chickens originating from four villages in Southern Mozambique were tested for the presence of avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. AEV and PM antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed. The proportion of positive samples was very high: 59.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 51.7-67.7%) for AEV and 71.5% (95% CI 67.7-77.3%) for PM. Our findings revealed that these pathogens are widespread among free-range indigenous chickens in the studied villages and may represent a threat in the transmission of AEV and PM to wild, broiler or layer chickens in the region. Further research is warranted on epidemiology of circulating strains and impact of infection on the poultry industry.

  4. Analysis of viral protein-2 encoding gene of avian encephalomyelitis virus from field specimens in Central Java region, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Avian encephalomyelitis (AE is a viral disease which can infect various types of poultry, especially chicken. In Indonesia, the incidence of AE infection in chicken has been reported since 2009, the AE incidence tends to increase from year to year. The objective of this study was to analyze viral protein 2 (VP-2 encoding gene of AE virus (AEV from various species of birds in field specimen by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR amplification using specific nucleotides primer for confirmation of AE diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 AEV samples are isolated from various species of poultry which are serologically diagnosed infected by AEV from some areas in central Java, Indonesia. Research stage consists of virus samples collection from field specimens, extraction of AEV RNA, amplification of VP-2 protein encoding gene by RT-PCR, separation of RT-PCR product by agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and data analysis. Results: Amplification products of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV by RT-PCR methods of various types of poultry from field specimens showed a positive results on sample code 499/4/12 which generated DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp. Sensitivity test of RT-PCR amplification showed that the minimum concentration of RNA template is 127.75 ng/μl. The multiple alignments of DNA sequencing product indicated that positive sample with code 499/4/12 has 92% nucleotide homology compared with AEV with accession number AV1775/07 and 85% nucleotide homology with accession number ZCHP2/0912695 from Genbank database. Analysis of VP-2 gene sequence showed that it found 46 nucleotides difference between isolate 499/4/12 compared with accession number AV1775/07 and 93 nucleotides different with accession number ZCHP2/0912695. Conclusions: Analyses of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV with RT-PCR method from 13 samples from field specimen generated the DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp from one sample with

  5. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such...

  7. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis and encephalomyelitis: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shian, W.J.; Chi, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the clinical and brain MR characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Clinical and 30 MR findings of 29 patients with EBV encephalitis or encephalomyelitis were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included 24 with encephalitis, 3 with encephalomyelitis, and 2 with brain-stem encephalitis. Altered consciousness, seizures, visual hallucination, and acute psychotic reaction were the common presentations. Eight patients had positive MR findings. These included T2 prolongation over gray and white matter, periventricular leukomalacia, and brain atrophy. Transient T2 prolongation over gray and white matter was found in one patient. Our results indicate that EBV encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have a wide range of both clinical and MR findings. The MR lesions may disappear in a short period, so the timing for the MR scan may be critical. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis and encephalomyelitis: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shian, W.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Tao-Yuan Veterans Hospital, No. 100, Sec 3, Cheng-Kung Rd, City of Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China); Chi, C.S. [Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the clinical and brain MR characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Clinical and 30 MR findings of 29 patients with EBV encephalitis or encephalomyelitis were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included 24 with encephalitis, 3 with encephalomyelitis, and 2 with brain-stem encephalitis. Altered consciousness, seizures, visual hallucination, and acute psychotic reaction were the common presentations. Eight patients had positive MR findings. These included T2 prolongation over gray and white matter, periventricular leukomalacia, and brain atrophy. Transient T2 prolongation over gray and white matter was found in one patient. Our results indicate that EBV encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have a wide range of both clinical and MR findings. The MR lesions may disappear in a short period, so the timing for the MR scan may be critical. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  10. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people has ranged from mild to severe. Avian Influenza Transmission Avian Influenza Transmission Infographic [555 KB, 2 pages] Spanish [ ... important for public health. Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans The reported signs ...

  11. Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Shogo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Akabane virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae. It is transmitted by hematophagous arthropod vectors such as Culicoides biting midges and is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of the world. The virus is well known as a teratogenic pathogen which causes abortions, stillbirths, premature births and congenital abnormalities with arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle, sheep and goats. On the other hand, it is reported that the virus rarely induces encephalomyelitis in cattle by postnatal infection. A first large-scale epidemic of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle occurred in the southern part of Japan from summer to autumn in 2006. The aim of this study is to define the epidemiological, pathological and virological properties of the disease. Results Nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was observed in cattle that showed neurological symptoms such as astasia, ataxia, opisthotonus and hypersensitivity in beef and dairy farms by histopathological analysis. Akabane viral antigen and genome were consistently detected from the central nervous system of these animals, and the virus was isolated not only from them but also from the blood samples of clinically healthy calves in the epidemic area. The isolates were classified into genogroup I a containing the Iriki strain, which caused encephalitis of calves almost twenty years ago in Japan. Most of the affected cattle possessed the neutralizing antibody against Akabane virus. Seroconversion of the cohabitated and sentinel cattle in the epidemic area was also confirmed during an outbreak of the disease. Conclusion The ecological and epidemiological data we have obtained so far demonstrated that the Akabane virus is not endemic in Japan. No evidence of Akabane virus circulation was observed in 2005 through nation-wide serological surveillance, suggesting that a new strain belonging to genogroup I a invaded southern Japan

  12. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

  13. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... samples of completed product shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in paragraph... more chickens shall be used as vaccinates for each method of administration recommended on the label... predetermined quantity of vaccine virus. Five replicate virus titrations shall be conducted on an aliquot of the...

  14. THE TRANSMISSION OF EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS BY AEDES AEGYPTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M H; Tenbroeck, C

    1935-10-31

    In confirming Kelser's work on the transmission of equine encephalomyelitis of the western type by Aëdes aegypti it has been learned that the mosquitoes must be fed virus of high titer if positive results are to be secured. A period of from 4 to 5 days after feeding either on infected guinea pigs or on brain containing virus must elapse before the disease is transmitted by biting, but after this time transmission regularly results for a period of about 2 months. By inoculation, virus can be demonstrated in the bodies of infected mosquitoes for the duration of life. Although virus multiplies in the mosquitoes and is generally distributed in their bodies, repeated attempts to demonstrate it in the eggs from females known to be infected as well as in larvae, pupae, and adults from such eggs have been uniformly negative. Larvae have not taken up virus added to the water in which they were living. Male mosquitoes have been infected with virus by feeding but they have not transmitted the virus to normal females, nor have males transmitted the virus from infected to normal females. When virus of the eastern instead of the western type is used transmission experiments with Aëdes aegypti are negative. Apparently this virus is incapable of penetrating the intestinal mucosa of the mosquito. If, however, it is inoculated into the body cavity by needle puncture it persists and transmission experiments are positive.

  15. Effects of ultraviolet laser radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikogosyan, D.N.; Kapituletz, S.P.; Smirnov, Y.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of usual low-intensity continuous (λ = 254 nm,I = 10 W/m 2 ) UV radiation and high-intensity laser nanosecond (λ = 266 nm, τ p = 10 ns, I = 10 9 W/m 2 ) or picosecond (λ = 266 nm, τ p = 23 ps, I = 10 12 W/m 2 ) UV radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (a member of the Togaviridae family) were compared. The quantum yields of infectivity inactivation, pyrimidine dimer formation and RNA-protein crosslinking were determined. (author)

  16. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  17. Factors Influencing Virulence and Plaque Properties of Attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Henry J.; Seliokas, Zenonas V.; Andersen, Arthur A.

    1969-01-01

    A minority of stable large-plaque virus increased proportionally in stored unstable attenuated (9t) Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus populations. L-cell-grown progeny (9t2) of stored 9t showed large amounts of large-plaque virus and increased virulence. Small-plaque virus inhibited large-plaque virus but not the reverse. Serial passage of small-plaque virus from 9t2 yielded a strain (20t) that was more attenuated than 9t. PMID:5823235

  18. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis...

  19. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  20. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  1. Relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, H.; Kusuhara, T.; Honda, Y.; Hino, H.; Kojima, K.; Abe, T.; Watanabe, M.

    1992-01-01

    A 25-year-old women had a fever, left cervical lymphadenopathy, neurological symptoms and signs, CSF pleocytosis and persistent high serum antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); she had a recurrence 1 year later. She was thought to have relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic EBV infection. MRI revealed abnormalities, mainly in the right basal ganglia and left midbrain. At the time of the recurrence, further abnormalities appeared in the opposite basal ganglia and right cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  2. Relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, H.; Kusuhara, T.; Honda, Y.; Hino, H. (1. Dept. (Neurology) of Internal Medicine, Kurume Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Kojima, K.; Abe, T. (Dept. of Radiology, Kurume Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Watanabe, M. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Koyanagi Hospital, Saga (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    A 25-year-old women had a fever, left cervical lymphadenopathy, neurological symptoms and signs, CSF pleocytosis and persistent high serum antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); she had a recurrence 1 year later. She was thought to have relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic EBV infection. MRI revealed abnormalities, mainly in the right basal ganglia and left midbrain. At the time of the recurrence, further abnormalities appeared in the opposite basal ganglia and right cerebral white matter. (orig.).

  3. The public health impact of avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J M; Veguilla, V; Belser, J A; Maines, T R; Van Hoeven, N; Pappas, C; Hancock, K; Tumpey, T M

    2009-04-01

    Influenza viruses with novel hemagglutinin and 1 or more accompanying genes derived from avian influenza viruses sporadically emerge in humans and have the potential to result in a pandemic if the virus causes disease and spreads efficiently in a population that lacks immunity to the novel hemagglutinin. Since 1997, multiple avian influenza virus subtypes have been transmitted directly from domestic poultry to humans and have caused a spectrum of human disease, from asymptomatic to severe and fatal. To assess the pandemic risk that avian influenza viruses pose, we have used multiple strategies to better understand the capacity of avian viruses to infect, cause disease, and transmit among mammals, including humans. Seroepidemiologic studies that evaluate the frequency and risk of human infection with avian influenza viruses in populations with exposure to domestic or wild birds can provide a better understanding of the pandemic potential of avian influenza subtypes. Investigations conducted in Hong Kong following the first H5N1 outbreak in humans in 1997 determined that exposure to poultry in live bird markets was a key risk factor for human disease. Among poultry workers, butchering and exposure to sick poultry were risk factors for antibody to H5 virus, which provided evidence for infection. A second risk assessment tool, the ferret, can be used to evaluate the level of virulence and potential for host-to-host transmission of avian influenza viruses in this naturally susceptible host. Avian viruses isolated from humans exhibit a level of virulence and transmissibility in ferrets that generally reflects that seen in humans. The ferret model thus provides a means to monitor emerging avian influenza viruses for pandemic risk, as well as to evaluate laboratory-generated reassortants and mutants to better understand the molecular basis of influenza virus transmissibility. Taken together, such studies provide valuable information with which we can assess the public

  4. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... can happen when enough virus gets into a person’s eyes, nose or mouth, or is inhaled. This ...

  5. Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial breeders and layers, southwest Nigeria. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Background: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the ...

  6. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, M. van; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry van Beest Holle, M.; Meijer, Adam; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore,

  7. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van R.M.; Koopmans, M.; Du Ry Beest Holle, van M.; Meijer, A.; Klinkenberg, D.; Donnelly, C.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore,

  8. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  9. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  10. Effects of time after infection, mosquito genotype, and infectious viral dose on the dynamics of Culex tarsalis vector competence for western equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Farida; Chiles, Robert E; Fang, Ying; Green, Emily N; Reisen, William K

    2006-06-01

    The vector competence of Culex tarsalis Coquillett for the BFS 1703 strain of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) changed significantly as a function of time after infection, mosquito genotype, and infectious virus dose. After ingesting a high virus dose (5 log10 plaque-forming units [PFU]/0.1 ml), female of the susceptible high virus producer (HVP) strain rapidly amplified the virus, developed a disseminated infection, and efficiently transmitted WEEV by 4 days postinfection (dpi). The quantity of virus expectorated peaked at 4 dpi (mean 3.4 log10 PFU), and the percentage of females transmitting per os peaked at 7 dpi (80%); both measures of transmission subsequently decreased to low levels throughout the remainder of infected life. HVP females imbibing a low virus dose (3 log10 PFU/0.1 ml) were infected less frequently and took longer to amplify virus to levels recorded for the high virus dose group and did not transmit virus efficiently, thereby indicating midgut infection and escape barriers were dose and time dependent. These data emphasized the importance of elevated avian viremias in Cx. tarsalis vector competence. Females from the WEEV-resistant (WR) strain and two wild-type strains from Kern and Riverside counties were significantly less susceptible to infection at both high and low doses than was the HVP strain. Overall, females with a high virus titer more frequently had a disseminated infection, but there did not seem to be a distinct threshold demarcating this relationship. In marked contrast, all infected females transmitting virus had body titers >4.3 log10 PFU, and most had titers >4.8 log10 PFU. These data indicated that not all females with a disseminated infection transmitted virus because of the presence of one or more salivary gland barriers.

  11. Receptors for Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus: characterization by using rabbit antiviral antiserum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, N.; Cuesta, A.

    1988-01-01

    An immunological assay was developed to characterize the binding of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus to BHK-21 cell receptors. After absorption of the virus and formaldehyde fixation, rabbit antibodies and Staphylococcus aureus protein A labeled with 125 I formed a specific complex on the surfaces of the cells. The optimal multiplicity of infection in this system was 10 PFU per cell. The virus was internalized at 33 and 37 0 C, but internalization did not take place at 25 or 4 0 C. The binding was proportional to the number of cells and was significant within 30 s. Cell surface receptors were still active after fixation, and only intact viruses were bound, as demonstrated by the lack of binding of the purified, isolated virion proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3

  12. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R G; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  13. Feeding different levels of vitamin E and selenium has no effect on serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY production by layers vaccinated against Escherichia coli and avian encephalomyelitis virus Alimentação com diferentes níveis de vitamina E e selênio não influencia a produção de imunoglobulina Y (IgY no soro de poedeiras leves vacinadas contra Escherichia coli e encefalomielite aviária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Kindlein

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vitamin E and selenium (Se supplementation on the immunity of hens vaccinated against a mixture of six swine-pathogenic Escherichia coli (EC and avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV were studied. Antibody production (AbP was evaluated in ninety 49 to 57-week-old H&N Nick Chick hens fed diets containing 14IU Vitamin E kg-1 (basal diet, 27, 59, 111, or 111IU vitamin E kg-1 + 0.56ppm Se supplementation. At 51 wks of age, half of the hens were vaccinated against EC, and all birds were vaccinated against AEV. At 53-weeks of age, the birds received a second dose of EC vaccine. Blood samples were collected weekly and serum was analyzed by ELISA for anti-EC IgY and was expressed as optical density (OD. Vaccinated hens had higher serum OD than the non-vaccinated hens (P£0.05. Vaccinated hens fed 27 and 59IU of vitamin E/kg had a higher (POs efeitos da suplementação de vitamina E e Selênio (Se na imunidade de galinhas vacinadas contra uma mistura de 6 sorotipos patogênicos de Escherichia coli (EC e o vírus da encefalomielite aviária (VEA foram estudados. A produção de anticorpos foi avaliada em galinhas H&N Nick Chick durante a 49a e 57a semanas de vida. As aves foram alimentadas com dietas contendo 14UI de Vitamina E kg-1 (dieta basal, 27, 59, 111 e 111UI de Vitamina E kg-1 + 0,56ppm Se suplementar. Às 51 semanas de idade, metade das galinhas foi vacinada contra EC, e todas as aves foram vacinadas contra VEA. Às 53 semanas, as aves receberam a segunda vacina contra EC. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas semanalmente e o soro foi analisado por ELISA para anti-EC IgY e expresso como densidade óptica (DO. Galinhas vacinadas tiveram maior DO do que as não-vacinadas (P<0,05. Aves vacinadas que receberam 27 e 59 UI de vitamina E/kg tiveram maior DO do soro (P<0,05 do que as alimentadas com 111 UI + Se. Os antígenos utilizados mostraram não ser modelos satisfatórios para estudar a influência de micronutrientes na resposta imune de

  14. Two Cases of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Following Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Yasui, Naoko; Kowa, Hisatomo; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present two cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV). Case 1 experienced diplopia and developed an unstable gait 14 days after a second vaccination of Cervarix. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an isolated small, demyelinating lesion in the pontine tegmentum. Case 2 experienced a fever and limb dysesthesia 16 days after a second vaccination of Gardasil. Brain MRI revealed hyperintense lesion in the pons with slight edema on a T2-weighted image. Both cases resolved completely. It is important to accumulate further data on confirmed cases of ADEM temporally associated with HPV vaccination. PMID:27803416

  15. Pathobiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálmai, Nimród; Erdélyi, Károly; Bálint, Adám; Márton, Lázár; Dán, Adám; Deim, Zoltán; Ursu, Krisztina; Löndt, Brandon Z; Brown, Ian H; Glávits, Róbert

    2007-06-01

    The results of pathological, virological and polymerase chain reaction examinations carried out on 35 mute swans (Cygnus olor) that succumbed to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection during an outbreak in Southern Hungary are reported. The most frequently observed macroscopic lesions included: haemorrhages under the epicardium, in the proventricular and duodenal mucosa and pancreas; focal necrosis in the pancreas; myocardial degeneration; acute mucous enteritis; congestion of the spleen and lung, and the accumulation of sero-mucinous exudate in the body cavity. Histopathological lesions comprised: lymphocytic meningo-encephalomyelitis accompanied by gliosis and occasional perivascular haemorrhages; multi-focal myocardial necrosis with lympho-histiocytic infiltration; pancreatitis with focal necrosis; acute desquamative mucous enteritis; lung congestion and oedema; oedema of the tracheal mucosa and, in young birds, the atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius as a result of lymphocyte depletion and apoptosis. The observed lesions and the moderate to good body conditions were compatible with findings in acute highly pathogenic avian influenza infections of other bird species reported in the literature. Skin lesions and lesions typical for infections caused by strains of lower pathogenicity (low pathogenic avian influenza virus) such as emaciation or fibrinous changes in the reproductive and respiratory organs, sinuses and airsacs were not observed. The H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus was isolated in embryonated fowl eggs from all cases and it was identified by classical and molecular virological methods.

  16. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  17. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiping; Li, Jinsong; Zhang, Yandong; Li, Lin; Ma, Limin; Li, Dan; Gao, Feng; Xia, Zhiping

    2012-08-06

    Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  18. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... August 7, 2017 Increase in Human Infections with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus During the Fifth Epidemic — China, October 2016–February 2017 Antigenic and genetic characteristics of zoonotic influenza viruses and candidate vaccine viruses developed for ...

  19. Detection of avian nephritis virus and chicken astrovirus in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Avian nephritis virus (ANV) and chicken astrovirus (CAstV) are widely distributed in poultry flocks ... sheep, cats, dogs, deer, mice, turkeys, guinea fowl and ..... complex: turkey astrovirus, turkey coronavirus, and turkey reovirus.

  20. Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüschow Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their falconry birds as well as prey birds. Findings During 2 hunting seasons (2006/2007 and 2007/2008 falconers took tracheal and cloacal swabs from 1080 prey birds that were captured by their falconry birds (n = 54 in Germany. AIV-RNA of subtypes H6, H9, or H13 was detected in swabs of 4.1% of gulls (n = 74 and 3.8% of ducks (n = 53 using RT-PCR. The remaining 953 sampled prey birds and all falconry birds were negative. Blood samples of the falconry birds tested negative for AIV specific antibodies. Serum samples from all 43 falconers reacted positive in influenza A virus-specific ELISA, but remained negative using microneutralisation test against subtypes H5 and H7 and haemagglutination inhibition test against subtypes H6, H9 and H13. Conclusion Although we were able to detect AIV-RNA in samples from prey birds, the corresponding falconry birds and falconers did not become infected. Currently falconers do not seem to carry a high risk for getting infected with AIV through handling their falconry birds and their prey.

  1. Interleukin-10 Modulation of Virus Clearance and Disease in Mice with Alphaviral Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nina M; Griffin, Diane E

    2018-03-15

    Alphaviruses are an important cause of mosquito-borne outbreaks of arthritis, rash, and encephalomyelitis. Previous studies in mice with a virulent strain (neuroadapted SINV [NSV]) of the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) identified a role for Th17 cells and regulation by interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the pathogenesis of fatal encephalomyelitis (K. A. Kulcsar, V. K. Baxter, I. P. Greene, and D. E. Griffin, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:16053-16058, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418966111). To determine the role of virus virulence in generation of immune responses, we analyzed the modulatory effects of IL-10 on disease severity, virus clearance, and the CD4 + T cell response to infection with a recombinant strain of SINV of intermediate virulence (TE12). The absence of IL-10 during TE12 infection led to longer morbidity, more weight loss, higher mortality, and slower viral clearance than in wild-type mice. More severe disease and impaired virus clearance in IL-10 -/- mice were associated with more Th1 cells, fewer Th2 cells, innate lymphoid type 2 cells, regulatory cells, and B cells, and delayed production of antiviral antibody in the central nervous system (CNS) without an effect on Th17 cells. Therefore, IL-10 deficiency led to more severe disease in TE12-infected mice by increasing Th1 cells and by hampering development of the local B cell responses necessary for rapid production of antiviral antibody and virus clearance from the CNS. In addition, the shift from Th17 to Th1 responses with decreased virus virulence indicates that the effects of IL-10 deficiency on immunopathologic responses in the CNS during alphavirus infection are influenced by virus strain. IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses cause mosquito-borne outbreaks of encephalomyelitis, but determinants of outcome are incompletely understood. We analyzed the effects of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 on disease severity and virus clearance after infection with an alphavirus strain of intermediate virulence

  2. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  3. Studies on the serological relationships between avian pox, sheep pox, goat pox and vaccinia viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, P. K.; Nilakantan, P. R.

    1970-01-01

    By using neutralization, complement fixation and immunogel-diffusion tests, it has been demonstrated that cross-reactions occur between various avian pox viruses and between sheep pox and goat pox viruses. No such reactions were demonstrated between avian pox viruses and vaccinia virus or between avian pox and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. Furthermore, no serological relationship was demonstrable between vaccinia virus and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. PMID:4989854

  4. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  5. Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7 virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus still has gaps, complicating epidemic control. A model was developed to back-calculate the day HPAI virus was introduced into a flock, based on within-flock mortality data of the Dutch HPAI H7N7 epidemic (2003). The

  6. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt is threatening poultry and ... Key words: Avian influenza virus, H5N1, fluorescent antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ..... poultry and is potentially zoonotic.

  7. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human p...

  8. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Culiseta melanura activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 1985-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagac, B B; Turell, M J; Olsen, G H

    1992-09-01

    Mosquito population densities, virus isolations and seroconversion in sentinel quail were used to monitor eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, from 1985 through 1990. A dramatic increase in the number of Culiseta melanura collected in 1989, as compared with the 3 previous years, was associated with virus isolations from this species (5/75 pools; n = 542 mosquitoes) and with seroconversion in sentinel quail (4/22 birds positive). This was the first detection of EEE virus activity in this area since a 1984 EEE outbreak killed 7 whooping cranes.

  9. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  10. Molecular diagnostics of Avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2006-01-01

    direct sequencing of the PCR product. The possibility of typization using molecular methods is based on the big difference at the amino acid and nucleotide levels between different HA subtypes (from 20- 74%, while the differences between strains of the same HA subtype are relatively small (0- 9%. The basic advantage in the detection and typization of influenza viruses using the RTPCR method is that it saves time. Namely, it can be performed directly from the samples taken in the field, and the result can be obtained within the same day, contrary to conventional methods that take 7 to 10 days. The obtained PCR product can also be sequenced immediately, which can provide an answer to the possible virulent potential of the isolate and its further spreading. The establishment of changes in the HA gene sequence can provide us with the information about the direction of the development of the genetic drift. The paper will describe in detail the possibilities for the implementation of molecular methods in diagnostics and typization, in fact, in the molecular epizootiology of avian influenza.

  11. Universal Detection and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus by Use of Resequencing Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of Nipah virus , severe acute respiratory syndrome virus , and avian influenza virus reiterate the impor- tance of zoonotic microbes as...Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Universal Detection and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus by Use of Resequencing Microarrays...been, and continue to emerge as, threats to human health. The recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in bird populations and the

  12. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2010-12-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. Recognizing that wildlife disease surveillance is logistically and financially constrained, we discuss pragmatic alternatives for achieving probability-based sampling schemes that capture this host-pathogen system. We recommend hypothesis-driven surveillance through standardized, local surveys that are, in turn, strategically compiled over broad geographic areas. Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases.

  13. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  14. Perspectives on avian and bovine leukemia virus immunological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, T.; Souza, J.M.M. de; Nogueira, Z.M.; Ogata, H.

    1984-01-01

    The avian and bovine RNA virus are studied. The mechanism of replication, the genome, the ultrastructural composition, the immunogens reactivity, the class of determinants and affinity are presented. Purification techniques of viral proteins and immunoassay proceeding are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno D.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the

  16. First characterization of avian influenza viruses from Greenland 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Ravn Merkel, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild birds, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), were found dead at the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examinations in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2...

  17. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoye, B.J.; Munster, V.J.; Nishiura, H.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2010-01-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian infl uenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations

  18. Detection of Evolutionarily Distinct Avian Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M. Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. PMID:24803521

  19. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Boer, de Fred

    2017-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over

  1. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, S. (Shenglai); D. Kleijn (David); Müskens, G.J.D.M. (Gerard J. D. M.); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); Glazov, P.M. (Petr M.); Si, Y. (Yali); Prins, H.H.T. (Herbert H. T.); De Boer, W.F. (Willem Frederik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus

  2. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peiris, J. S. Malik; de Jong, Menno D.; Guan, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza virus has its origins in avian influenza viruses. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is already panzootic in poultry, with attendant economic consequences. It continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes.

  3. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1): a Threat to Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris, J. S. Malik; de Jong, Menno D.; Guan, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza virus has its origins in avian influenza viruses. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is already panzootic in poultry, with attendant economic consequences. It continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes. Therefore, H5N1 virus has rightly received attention as a potential pandemic threat. However, it is noted that the pandemics of 1957 and 1968 did not arise from highly pathogenic influenza viruses, ...

  5. Avian Influenza virus glycoproteins restrict virus replication and spread through human airway epithelium at temperatures of the proximal airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Scull

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE, we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C, avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal airways (32 degrees C. These data support the hypothesis that avian influenza viruses, ordinarily adapted to the temperature of the avian enteric tract (40 degrees C, rarely infect humans, in part due to differences in host airway regional temperatures. Previously, a critical residue at position 627 in the avian influenza virus polymerase subunit, PB2, was identified as conferring temperature-dependency in mammalian cells. Here, we use reverse genetics to show that avianization of residue 627 attenuates a human virus, but does not account for the different infection between 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. To determine the mechanism of temperature restriction of avian influenza viruses in HAE at 32 degrees C, we generated recombinant human influenza viruses in either the A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2 or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 genetic background that contained avian or avian-like glycoproteins. Two of these viruses, A/Victoria/3/75 with L226Q and S228G mutations in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99 and A/PR/8/34 containing the H7 and N1 from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99, exhibited temperature restriction approaching that of wholly avian influenza viruses. These data suggest that influenza viruses bearing avian or avian-like surface glycoproteins have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection at the temperature of the human proximal airways. This temperature restriction may limit zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses and

  6. Ultraviolet inactivation of avian sarcoma virus: biological and biochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, M.; Ihara, S.; Toyoshima, K.; Kozai, Y.; Sugino, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of inactivation by ultraviolet light of the focus-forming capacity of avian sarcoma virus was almost the same as that of the virus-producing capacity, measured as plaque formation. In addition, no significant difference was observed in inactivation of the transforming capacity assayed on C/BE chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), which carry endogenous avian tumor virus DNA, and on duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF), which are known to be devoid of this DNA. All foci induced by nonirradiated virus produced infectious sarcoma virus, but some of the foci induced by uv-irradiated virus did not produce infectious virus of either transforming or transformation-defective type. The proportion of nonproducer foci was 3.4 times more in DEF than in gs - chf - CEF. RNAs extracted from uv-irradiated virions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment were found to be composed of 60--70 S and 4 S RNAs by analysis in a sucrose gradient containing 0.5 percent SDS. The large RNA, however, became hydrophobic after irradiation and was sedimented with SDS by addition of one drop of saturated potassium chloride solution. This RNA was not dissociated into 30--40S components by heating at 100 0 for 45 sec, unlike 60--70 S RNA from uv-irradiated virions. After SDS--Pronase treatment, the 60--70 S RNA from uv-irradiated virions no longer had these altered characteristics. Reverse transcriptase activity with the endogenous template decreased in parallel with increase in the uv dose. The reduction rate was similar to that assayed with exogenous template or in the presence of actinomycin D. These data strongly suggest that RNA damage is not the only cause of virus inactivation by uv light

  7. Modelling the innate immune response against avian influenza virus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.J.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Jansen, C.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Spekreijse, D.; Vervelde, L.; Backer, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koets, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load,

  8. Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus - China

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease outbreak news Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China ... Region (SAR) notified WHO of a laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and ...

  9. Modelling the Innate Immune Response against Avian Influenza Virus in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T J; Fischer, E A J; Jansen, C A; Rebel, J M J; Spekreijse, D; Vervelde, L; Backer, J A; de Jong, M.C.M.; Koets, A P

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load, interferon-α, -β

  10. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity.

  11. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and generation of novel reassortants,United States, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Hun Lee,; Justin Bahl,; Mia Kim Torchetti,; Mary Lea Killian,; Ip, Hon S.; David E Swayne,

    2016-01-01

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

  12. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  13. Contemporary Avian Influenza A Virus Subtype H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 Hemagglutinin Genes Encode a Mammalian Virulence Factor Similar to the 1918 Pandemic Virus H1 Hemagglutinin

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Li; Pujanauski, Lindsey M.; Davis, A. Sally; Schwartzman, Louis M.; Chertow, Daniel S.; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Slemons, Richard D.; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kash, John C.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zoonotic avian influenza virus infections may lead to epidemics or pandemics. The 1918 pandemic influenza virus has an avian influenza virus-like genome, and its H1 hemagglutinin was identified as a key mammalian virulence factor. A chimeric 1918 virus expressing a contemporary avian H1 hemagglutinin, however, displayed murine pathogenicity indistinguishable from that of the 1918 virus. Here, isogenic chimeric avian influenza viruses were constructed on an avian influenza virus backb...

  14. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Daesub; Kang, Bokyu; Lee, Chulseung; Jung, Kwonil; Ha, Gunwoo; Kang, Dongseok; Park, Seongjun; Park, Bongkyun; Oh, Jinsik

    2008-01-01

    In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) is...

  15. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hadipour,MM

    2010-01-01

    Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known ab...

  16. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Oviedo MV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marco V Neira Oviedo1,2, William S Romoser1, Calvin BL James1, Farida Mahmood3, William K Reisen31Tropical Disease Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; 2Oxitec Inc, Oxford, England; 3Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USABackground: Vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. For arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. For transmission to occur, the virus must overcome several "barriers", including barriers to midgut infection and/or escape and salivary infection and/or escape. By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV, we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion.Methods: Using immuno-stained paraffin sections, WEEV antigens were tracked in four Cx. tarsalis strains: two recently colonized California field strains – Coachella Valley, Riverside County (COAV and Kern National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR; and two laboratory strains selected for WEEV susceptibility (high viremia producer, HVP, and WEEV resistance (WR.Results and conclusions: Tissues susceptible to WEEV infection included midgut epithelium, neural ganglia, trachea, chorionated eggs, and salivary glands. Neuroendocrine cells in the retrocerebral complex were occasionally infected, indicating the potential for behavioral effects. The HVP and COAV strains vigorously supported viral growth

  17. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataby, Khadija; Fellahi, Siham; Loutfi, Chafiqa; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and extremely difficult to control because it has extensive genetic diversity, a short generation time, and a high mutation rate. IBV is a Gammacoronavirus, single-stranded, and positive-sense RNA virus. Avian infectious bronchitis is well studied in European countries with identification of a large number of IBV variants, whereas in African countries epidemiological and scientific data are poor and not updated. However, previous studies reported that an IBV variant continues to appear regularly in Africa, as currently described in Morocco. No cross-protection between IBV strains was reported, some being unique to a particular country, others having a more general distribution. This review aims to provide a general overview on IB disease distribution in African countries and an update on the available studies of IBV variants in each country.

  18. Replication of avian influenza viruses in equine tracheal epithelium but not in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Thomas M.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.; Reedy, Stephanie E.; Tiwari, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a hypothesis that horses are susceptible to avian influenza viruses by in vitro testing, using explanted equine tracheal epithelial cultures, and in vivo testing by aerosol inoculation of ponies. Results showed that several subtypes of avian influenza viruses detectably replicated in vitro. Three viruses with high in vitro replication competence were administered to ponies. None of the three demonstrably replicated or caused disease signs in ponies. While these results do not exh...

  19. Differential lung NK cell responses in avian influenza virus infected chickens correlate with pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, C.A.; de Geus, E.D.; van Haarlem, D.A.; van de Haar, P.M.; Löndt, B.Z; Graham, S.P.; Göbel, T.W.; van Eden, W.; Brookes, S.M.; Vervelde, L.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of chickens with low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus results in mild clinical signs while infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses causes death of the birds within 36–48 hours. Since natural killer (NK) cells have been shown to play an important role in influenza-specific immunity, we hypothesise that NK cells are involved in this difference in pathogenicity. To investigate this, the role of chicken NK-cells in LPAI virus infection was studied. Next...

  20. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; M?skens, Gerard J. D. M.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis), Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) and Greater white-fronted goose...

  1. A combination in-ovo vaccine for avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, John; Burmakina, Svetlana V; Thomas, Colleen; Spackman, Erica; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Swayne, David E; Palese, Peter

    2008-01-24

    The protection of poultry from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be achieved through vaccination, as part of a broader disease control strategy. We have previously generated a recombinant influenza virus expressing, (i) an H5 hemagglutinin protein, modified by the removal of the polybasic cleavage peptide and (ii) the ectodomain of the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein in the place of the ectodomain of influenza neuraminidase (Park MS, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(21):8203-8). Here we show this virus is attenuated in primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell culture, and demonstrate protection of C57BL/6 mice from lethal challenge with an H5 HA-containing influenza virus through immunisation with the recombinant virus. In addition, in-ovo vaccination of 18-day-old embryonated chicken eggs provided 90% and 80% protection against highly stringent lethal challenge by NDV and H5N1 virus, respectively. We propose that this virus has potential as a safe in-ovo live, attenuated, bivalent avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus vaccine.

  2. Transmission and reassortment of avian influenza viruses at the Asian-North American interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Pearce, John M; Ely, Craig R; Guy, Lisa M Sheffield; Irons, David B; Derksen, Dirk V; Ip, Hon S

    2010-10-25

    Twenty avian influenza viruses were isolated from seven wild migratory bird species sampled at St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. We tested predictions based on previous phylogenetic analyses of avian influenza viruses that support spatially dependent trans-hemispheric gene flow and frequent interspecies transmission at a location situated at the Asian-North American interface. Through the application of phylogenetic and genotypic approaches, our data support functional dilution by distance of trans-hemispheric reassortants and interspecific virus transmission. Our study confirms infection of divergent avian taxa with nearly identical avian influenza strains in the wild. Findings also suggest that H16N3 viruses may contain gene segments with unique phylogenetic positions and that further investigation of how host specificity may impact transmission of H13 and H16 viruses is warranted. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Avian influenza A virus subtype H5N2 in a red-lored Amazon parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Crossley, Beate M; Osofsky, Anna; Webby, Richard J; Lee, Chang-Won; Suarez, David L; Hietala, Sharon K

    2006-01-15

    A 3-month-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis autumnalis) was evaluated for severe lethargy. Avian influenza virus hemagglutinin subtype H5N2 with low pathogenicity was characterized by virus isolation, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay, chicken intravenous pathogenicity index, and reference sera. The virus was also determined to be closely related to a virus lineage that had been reported only in Mexico and Central America. The chick was admitted to the hospital and placed in quarantine. Supportive care treatment was administered. Although detection of H5 avian influenza virus in birds in the United States typically results in euthanasia of infected birds, an alternative strategy with strict quarantine measures and repeated diagnostic testing was used. The chick recovered from the initial clinical signs after 4 days and was released from quarantine 9 weeks after initial evaluation after 2 consecutive negative virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay results. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of H5N2 avian influenza A virus isolated from a psittacine bird and represents the first introduction of this virus into the United States, most likely by illegal importation of psittacine birds. Avian influenza A virus should be considered as a differential diagnosis for clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease in psittacine birds, especially in birds with an unknown history of origin. Although infection with avian influenza virus subtype H5 is reportable, destruction of birds is not always required.

  4. Nonconserved tryptophan 38 of the cell surface receptor for subgroup J avian leukosis virus discriminates sensitive from resistant avian species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Dana; Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Šenigl, Filip; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Geryk, Josef; Hejnar, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 15 (2013), s. 8399-8407 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1651 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : avian leukosis virus * ALV-J * NHE1 * host resistance * receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.648, year: 2013

  5. Distinct Pathogenesis of Hong Kong-Origin H5N1 Viruses in Mice Compared to That of Other Highly Pathogenic H5 Avian Influenza Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Dybing, Jody K.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Perdue, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, an outbreak of virulent H5N1 avian influenza virus occurred in poultry in Hong Kong (HK) and was linked to a direct transmission to humans. The factors associated with transmission of avian influenza virus to mammals are not fully understood, and the potential risk of other highly virulent avian influenza A viruses infecting and causing disease in mammals is not known. In this study, two avian and one human HK-origin H5N1 virus along with four additional highly pathogenic H5 avian in...

  6. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  7. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  8. Replication and adaptive mutations of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in tracheal organ cultures of different avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Petersen

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV between different avian species may require genome mutations that allow efficient virus replication in a new species and could increase virulence. To study the role of domestic poultry in the evolution of AIV we compared replication of low pathogenic (LP AIV of subtypes H9N2, H7N7 and H6N8 in tracheal organ cultures (TOC and primary embryo fibroblast cultures of chicken, turkey, Pekin duck and homing pigeon. Virus strain-dependent and avian species-related differences between LPAIV were observed in growth kinetics and induction of ciliostasis in TOC. In particular, our data demonstrate high susceptibility to LPAIV of turkey TOC contrasted with low susceptibility of homing pigeon TOC. Serial virus passages in the cells of heterologous host species resulted in adaptive mutations in the AIV genome, especially in the receptor-binding site and protease cleavage site of the hemagglutinin. Our data highlight differences in susceptibility of different birds to AIV viruses and emphasizes potential role of poultry in the emergence of new virus variants.

  9. [Clinical aspects of human infection by the avian influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubau, P

    2009-01-01

    The species barrier is not perfect for Influenza A and numerous transmissions of the virus from pigs or poultry to humans have been described these years. Appearing in 1997 and becoming epidemic in 2003, influenza A/H5N1 provoked many deadly enzootics in poultry batteries (highly pathogenic avian influenza of HPAI). Starting in Asia, many countries throughout Africa and Europe were affected. Sporadic human cases were described in direct contact with diseased chicken or other poultry. Half of the cases are lethal, but human to human transmission occurs with difficulty. From January 2003 to August 11th 2009, 438 cases were declared worldwide with 262 deaths. Many countries declared cases, but recently most cases occurred in Egypt. Measures in hospital were taken which were copied from the measures for SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), but these were probably excessive in this case, considering the low rate of secondary cases with A/H5N1. In many human infections, signs of severe respiratory distress develop and multi organ failure. It was feared that this deadly virus could become easily transmitted between humans, leading to a new pandemic. This was not the case up to now. The strong pathogenicity of the virus is still not completely explained, but the deep location of infection in the lungs and the deregulation of cytokine production by the target cells, particularly macrophages, may be part of the explanation.

  10. Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1), Detected through Routine Surveillance, in Child, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sultana, Rebecca; Islam, M. Saiful; Rahman, Mustafizur; Fry, Alicia M.; Shu, Bo; Lindstrom, Stephen; Nahar, Kamrun; Goswami, Doli; Haider, M. Sabbir; Nahar, Sharifun; Butler, Ebonee; Hancock, Kathy; Donis, Ruben O.; Davis, Charles T.; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Luby, Stephen P.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Rahman, Mahmudur

    2009-01-01

    We identified avian influenza virus A (H5N1) infection in a child in Bangladesh in 2008 by routine influenza surveillance. The virus was of the same clade and phylogenetic subgroup as that circulating among poultry during the period. This case illustrates the value of routine surveillance for detection of novel influenza virus. PMID:19751601

  11. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2015-05-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  12. Development of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Viruses Expressing the Glycoprotein (G) of Avian Metapneumovirus as Bivalent Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, B or C, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses were slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintaine...

  13. Hydrogel based QCM aptasensor for detection of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) aptasensor based on ssDNA crosslinked polymeric hydrogel for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1. A selected aptamer with high affinity and specificity against AIV H5N1 surface protein was used, and hybridization between the aptamer and ssDNA formed the crosslinker in the polymer hydrogel. The aptamer hydrogel was immobilized on the gold surface of QCM sensor using a self-assembled monolayer method. The hydrogel remained in the state of shrink if no H5N1 virus was present in the sample because of the crosslinking between the aptamer and ssDNA in the polymer network. When it exposed to target virus, the binding reaction between the aptamer and H5N1 virus caused the dissolution of the linkage between the aptamer and ssDNA, resulting in the abrupt swelling of the hydrogel. The swollen hydrogel was monitored by the QCM sensor in terms of decreased frequency. Three polymeric hydrogels with different ratio (100:1 hydrogel I, 10:1 hydrogel II, 1:1 hydrogel III) of acrylamide and the aptamer monomer were synthesized, respectively, and then were used as the QCM sensor coating material. The results showed that the developed hydrogel QCM aptasensor was capable of detecting target H5N1 virus, and among the three developed aptamer hydrogels, hydrogel III coated QCM aptasensor achieved the highest sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.0128 HAU (HA unit). The total detection time from sampling to detection was only 30 min. In comparison with the anti-H5 antibody coated QCM immunosensor, the hydrogel QCM aptasensor lowered the detection limit and reduced the detection time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt ... Effective diagnosis and control management are needed to control the disease. ... Reconstituted clinical samples consisting of H5 AIVs mixed with ...

  15. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Brazil: a highly complex virus meets a highly susceptible host population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PE Brandão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is a highly aggressive disease for poultry in terms of symptoms and economic losses, and the control of this disease is difficult if flocks are not protected against type-specific challenges by the Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. This article summarizes data presented by the author at the Workshop on Infectious Bronchitis 2009 on IB and IBV, including future developments on the field.

  16. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus among Wild Birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Jambal, Losolmaa; Karesh, William B.; Fine, Amanda; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Dulam, Purevtseren; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Bolortuya, Purevsuren; Cardona, Carol J.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005–2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 2.3.2.1); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 2.3.2.1 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study. PMID:22984464

  17. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Marco V Neira; Romoser, William S; James, Calvin Bl; Mahmood, Farida; Reisen, William K

    2011-04-18

    BACKGROUND: Vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. For arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. For transmission to occur, the virus must overcome several "barriers", including barriers to midgut infection and/or escape and salivary infection and/or escape. By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion. METHODS: Using immunostained paraffin sections, WEEV antigens were tracked in four Cx. tarsalis strains: two recently colonized California field strains - Coachella Valley, Riverside County (COAV) and Kern National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR); and two laboratory strains selected for WEEV susceptibility (high viremia producer, HVP), and WEEV resistance (WR). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Tissues susceptible to WEEV infection included midgut epithelium, neural ganglia, trachea, chorionated eggs, and salivary glands. Neuroendocrine cells in the retrocerebral complex were occasionally infected, indicating the potential for behavioral effects. The HVP and COAV strains vigorously supported viral growth, whereas the WR and KNWR strains were less competent. Consistent with earlier studies, WEEV resistance appeared to be related to a dose-dependent midgut infection barrier, and a midgut escape barrier. The midgut escape barrier was not dependent upon the ingested viral dose. Consistent with midgut infection modulation, disseminated infections were less common in the WR and KNWR

  18. The influence of macrophage growth factors on Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) infection and activation of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Karin M; Watson, Neva B; Minchenberg, Scott B; Massa, Paul T

    2018-02-01

    Macrophages are common targets for infection and innate immune activation by many pathogenic viruses including the neurotropic Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV). As both infection and innate activation of macrophages are key determinants of viral pathogenesis especially in the central nervous system (CNS), an analysis of macrophage growth factors on these events was performed. C3H mouse bone-marrow cells were differentiated in culture using either recombinant macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), inoculated with TMEV (BeAn) and analyzed at various times thereafter. Cytokine RNA and protein analysis, virus titers, and flow cytometry were performed to characterize virological parameters under these culture conditions. GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages showed higher levels of TMEV viral RNA and proinflammatory molecules compared to infected M-CSF-differentiated cells. Thus, GM-CSF increases both TMEV infection and TMEV-induced activation of macrophages compared to that seen with M-CSF. Moreover, while infectious viral particles decreased from a peak at 12h to undetectable levels at 48h post infection, TMEV viral RNA remained higher in GM-CSF- compared to M-CSF-differentiated macrophages in concert with increased proinflammatory gene expression. Analysis of a possible basis for these differences determined that glycolytic rates contributed to heightened virus replication and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in GM-CSF compared to M-CSF-differentiated macrophages. In conclusion, we provide evidence implicating a role for GM-CSF in promoting virus replication and proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, indicating that GM-CSF may be a key factor for TMEV infection and the induction of chronic TMEV-induced immunopathogenesis in the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sparse evidence for equine or avian influenza virus infections among Mongolian adults with animal exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Mongolia has experienced recurrent epizootics of equine influenza virus (EIV) among its 2?1 million horses and multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus via migrating birds. No human EIV or HPAI infections have been reported. In 2009, 439 adults in Mongolia were enrolled in a population?based study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of infection with nine avian, three human, and one equine inf...

  20. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population.

  1. Selective Bottlenecks Shape Evolutionary Pathways Taken during Mammalian Adaptation of a 1918-like Avian Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, Louise H; Zhong, Gongxun; Nelson, Chase W; Dinis, Jorge M; Mutschler, James; Hughes, Austin L; Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Friedrich, Thomas C

    2016-02-10

    Avian influenza virus reassortants resembling the 1918 human pandemic virus can become transmissible among mammals by acquiring mutations in hemagglutinin (HA) and polymerase. Using the ferret model, we trace the evolutionary pathway by which an avian-like virus evolves the capacity for mammalian replication and airborne transmission. During initial infection, within-host HA diversity increased drastically. Then, airborne transmission fixed two polymerase mutations that do not confer a detectable replication advantage. In later transmissions, selection fixed advantageous HA1 variants. Transmission initially involved a "loose" bottleneck, which became strongly selective after additional HA mutations emerged. The stringency and evolutionary forces governing between-host bottlenecks may therefore change throughout host adaptation. Mutations occurred in multiple combinations in transmitted viruses, suggesting that mammalian transmissibility can evolve through multiple genetic pathways despite phenotypic constraints. Our data provide a glimpse into avian influenza virus adaptation in mammals, with broad implications for surveillance on potentially zoonotic viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influenza A viruses of avian origin circulating in pigs and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Kinga; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic agents, capable of crossing the species barriers. Nowadays, they still constitute a great challenge worldwide. The natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses are wild aquatic birds, despite the fact they have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species, including humans. Even when influenza A viruses are able to get into another than waterfowl population, they are often unable to efficiently adapt and transmit between individuals. Only in rare cases, these viruses are capable of establishing a new lineage. To succeed a complete adaptation and further transmission between species, influenza A virus must overcome a species barrier, including adaptation to the receptors of a new host, which would allow the virus-cell binding, virus replication and, then, animal-to-animal transmission. For many years, pigs were thought to be intermediate host for adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans, because of their susceptibility to infection with both, avian and human influenza viruses, which supported hypothesis of pigs as a 'mixing vessel'. In this review, the molecular factors necessary for interspecies transmission are described, with special emphasis on adaptation of avian influenza viruses to the pig population. In addition, this review gives the information about swine influenza viruses circulating around the world with special emphasis on Polish strains.

  3. Evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Patrick J; Putnam, Shannon D; Krueger, Whitney S; Chum, Channimol; Wierzba, Thomas F; Heil, Gary L; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R; Friary, John A; Capuano, Ana W; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Peiris, Malik; Shao, Hongxia; Perez, Daniel R; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-04-01

    Southeast Asia remains a critical region for the emergence of novel and/or zoonotic influenza, underscoring the importance of extensive sampling in rural areas where early transmission is most likely to occur. In 2008, 800 adult participants from eight sites were enrolled in a prospective population-based study of avian influenza (AI) virus transmission where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus had been reported in humans and poultry from 2006 to 2008. From their enrollment sera and questionnaires, we report risk factor findings for serologic evidence of previous infection with 18 AI virus strains. Serologic assays revealed no evidence of previous infection with 13 different low-pathogenic AI viruses or with HPAI avian-like A/Cambodia/R0404050/2007(H5N1). However, 21 participants had elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), validated with a monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA assay specific for avian H9. Although cross-reaction from antibodies against human influenza viruses cannot be completely excluded, the study data suggest that a number of participants were previously infected with the avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2) virus, likely due to as yet unidentified environmental exposures. Prospective data from this cohort will help us better understand the serology of zoonotic influenza infection in a rural cohort in SE Asia. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. All rights reserved.

  4. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  5. Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infection in minor gallinaceous species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility to avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can vary greatly among bird species. Chickens and turkeys are major avian species that, like ducks, have been extensively studied for avian influenza. To a lesser extent, minor avian species such as quail, partridges, and pheasants have also been investigated for avian influenza. Usually, such game fowl species are highly susceptible to highly pathogenic AIVs and may consistently spread both highly pathogenic AIVs and low-pathogenic AIVs. These findings, together with the fact that game birds are considered bridge species in the poultry-wildlife interface, highlight their interest from the transmission and biosecurity points of view. Here, the general pathobiological features of low-pathogenic AIV and highly pathogenic AIV infections in this group of avian species have been covered.

  6. Apoptosis of infiltrating T cells in the central nervous system of mice infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszak, Emilia L.; Hoffman, Brad E.; Chang, J. Robert; Zaczynska, Ewa; Gaughan, John; Katsetos, Christos D.; Platsoucas, Chris D.; Harvey, Nile

    2003-01-01

    Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), DA strain, induces in susceptible strain of mice a biphasic disease consisting of early acute disease followed by late chronic demyelinating disease. Both phases of the disease are associated with inflammatory infiltrates of the central nervous system (CNS). Late chronic demyelinating disease induced by TMEV serves as an excellent model to study human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. During early acute disease, the virus is partially cleared from the CNS by CD3 + T cells. These T cells express Fas, FasL, negligible levels of Bcl-2 proteins and undergo activation-induced cell death as determined by TUNEL assay leading to resolution of the inflammatory response. In contrast, during late chronic demyelinating disease, and despite dense perivascular and leptomeningeal infiltrates, only very few cells undergo apoptosis. Mononuclear cells infiltrating the CNS express Bcl-2. It appears that the lack of apoptosis of T cells during late chronic demyelinating disease leads to the accumulation of these cells in the CNS. These cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of the demyelinating disease

  7. Prevalence of Antibodies to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Backyard Chickens around Maharlou Lake in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour*, Gholamhossein Habibi and Amir Vosoughi

    2011-01-01

    Backyard chickens play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 500 backyard chickens from villages around Maharlou lake in Iran, using the ...

  8. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Shen, Wei [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Ming, E-mail: mliao@scau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Avian Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Bartlam, Mark, E-mail: mliao@scau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2007-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV M{sup pro} was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6{sub 1}22. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function.

  9. Evidence of infection with avian, human, and swine influenza viruses in pigs in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Shehata, Mahmoud M; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2018-02-01

    The majority of the Egyptian swine population was culled in the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, but small-scale growing remains. We sampled pigs from piggeries and an abattoir in Cairo. We found virological evidence of infection with avian H9N2 and H5N1 viruses as well as human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Serological evidence suggested previous exposure to avian H5N1 and H9N2, human pandemic H1N1, and swine avian-like and human-like viruses. This raises concern about potential reassortment of influenza viruses in pigs and highlights the need for better control and prevention of influenza virus infection in pigs.

  10. Avian and human influenza A virus receptors in trachea and lung of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongratsakul, Sukanya; Suzuki, Yasuo; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Sakpuaram, Thavajchai; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Moonjit, Pattra; Yodsheewan, Rungrueang; Songserm, Thaweesak

    2010-12-01

    Influenza A viruses are capable of crossing the specific barrier between human beings and animals resulting in interspecies transmission. The important factor of potential infectivity of influenza A viruses is the suitability of the receptor binding site of the host and viruses. The affinities of avian and human influenza virus to bind with the receptors and the distributions of receptors in animals are different. This study aims to investigate the anatomical distribution of avian and human influenza virus receptors using the double staining lectin histochemistry method. Double staining of lectin histochemistry was performed to identify both SA alpha2,3 Gal and SA alpha2,6 Gal receptors in trachea and lung tissue of dogs, cats, tigers, ferret, pigs, ducks and chickens. We have demonstrated that avian and human influenza virus receptors were abundantly present in trachea, bronchus and bronchiole, but in alveoli of dogs, cats and tigers showed SA alpha2,6 Gal only. Furthermore, endothelial cells in lung tissues showed presence of SA alpha2,3 Gal. The positive sites of both receptors in respiratory tract, especially in the trachea, suggest that all mammalian species studied can be infected with avian influenza virus. These findings suggested that dogs and cats in close contact with humans should be of greater concern as an intermediate host for avian influenza A in which there is the potential for viral adaptation and reassortment.

  11. Serological Evidence of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A H7virus in Egyptian Poultry Growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; Kayed, Ahmed S; Elabd, Mona A; Zaki, Shaimaa A; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S; Mousa, Adel A; Farag, Mohamed M; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses circulate widely in birds, with occasional human infections. Poultry-exposed individuals are considered to be at high risk of infection with avian influenza viruses due to frequent exposure to poultry. Some avian H7 viruses have occasionally been found to infect humans. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against influenza A/H7N7 virus among poultry-exposed and unexposed individuals in Egypt were assessed during a three-years prospective cohort study. The seroprevalence of antibodies (titer, ≥80) among exposed individuals was 0%, 1.9%, and 2.1% annually while the seroprevalence among the control group remained 0% as measured by virus microneutralization assay. We then confirmed our results using western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Although human infection with H7 in Egypt has not been reported yet, our results suggested that Egyptian poultry growers are exposed to avian H7 viruses. These findings highlight the need for surveillance in the people exposed to poultry to monitor the risk of zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses.

  12. Serological Evidence of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A H7virus in Egyptian Poultry Growers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar R Gomaa

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses circulate widely in birds, with occasional human infections. Poultry-exposed individuals are considered to be at high risk of infection with avian influenza viruses due to frequent exposure to poultry. Some avian H7 viruses have occasionally been found to infect humans. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against influenza A/H7N7 virus among poultry-exposed and unexposed individuals in Egypt were assessed during a three-years prospective cohort study. The seroprevalence of antibodies (titer, ≥80 among exposed individuals was 0%, 1.9%, and 2.1% annually while the seroprevalence among the control group remained 0% as measured by virus microneutralization assay. We then confirmed our results using western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Although human infection with H7 in Egypt has not been reported yet, our results suggested that Egyptian poultry growers are exposed to avian H7 viruses. These findings highlight the need for surveillance in the people exposed to poultry to monitor the risk of zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses.

  13. Genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian and swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the potential for cross-species transmission of influenza viruses by comparing the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with different host origins in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses of H1 AIVs circulating in Korea provided evidence of genetic similarity between viruses that infect domestic ducks and those that infect wild birds, although there was no relationship between avian and swine viruses. However, there were some relationships between swine and human viral genes. The replication and pathogenicity of the H1 viruses was assessed in chickens, domestic ducks and mice. Viral shedding in chickens was relatively high. Virus was recovered from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 5-10 days post-inoculation. The titres of domestic duck viruses in chickens were much higher than those of wild-bird viruses. Both domestic duck and wild-bird viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. None of the swine viruses replicated in chickens or domestic ducks; however, six viruses showed relatively high titres in mice, regardless of host origin, and induced clinical signs such as ruffled fur, squatting and weight loss. Thus, although the phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed no evidence of interspecies transmission between birds and swine, the results suggest that Korean H1 viruses have the potential to cause disease in mammals. Therefore, we should intensify continuous monitoring of avian H1 viruses in mammals and seek to prevent interspecies transmission. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  15. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yipeng; Bi, Yuhai; Pu, Juan; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Jingjing; Gao, Huijie; Liu, Linqing; Xu, Qi; Tan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Mengda; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Jinhua

    2010-11-23

    The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  16. Orchitis in roosters with reduced fertility associated with avian infectious bronchitis virus and avian metapneumovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, L Y B; Brandão, P E; Chacón, J L; Assayag, M S; Maiorka, P C; Raffi, P; Saidenberg, A B S; Jones, R C; Ferreira, A J P

    2007-12-01

    The pathogenesis of infection involving both infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes reproductive damage in hens after viral replication in the epithelium of the oviduct, resulting in loss of cilia and degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial and glandular cells. Although IBV has been indicated as a possible cause of the formation of calcium stones in the epididymus of roosters, a definitive association has not been confirmed. This report describes the detection of IBV and aMPV in the testes of roosters from a Brazilian poultry broiler breeder's flock with epididymal stones and low fertility. Samples of testis, trachea, and lungs from breeder males aged 57 wk were positive for IBV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and virus isolation and testis samples were also positive for aMPV by RT-PCR. The inoculation of testis samples into embryonated chicken eggs via the allantoic cavity resulted in curled, hemorrhagic, and stunted embryos typical of IBV infection. The allantoic fluid was positive by RT-PCR aimed to amplify the region coding for the S1 subunit of the IBV S gene, but it was not positive for aMPV. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment revealed a close relationship with European IBV genotype D274, previously unreported in Brazil. These results indicate that IBV and perhaps aMPV are likely to have played a role in the pathogenesis of the testicular disease described and should be regarded as factors that can influence male fertility disease in chickens.

  17. Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Townsend, Hugh G G; Kohler, Andrea K; Hussey, Steve; Breathnach, Cormac; Barnett, Craig; Holland, Robert; Lunn, D P

    2006-05-15

    Horses are commonly vaccinated to protect against pathogens which are responsible for diseases which are endemic within the general horse population, such as equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and against a variety of diseases which are less common but which lead to greater morbidity and mortality, such as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) and tetanus. This study consisted of two trials which investigated the antigenicity of commercially available vaccines licensed in the USA to protect against EIV, EHV-1 respiratory disease, EHV-1 abortion, EEE and tetanus in horses. Trial I was conducted to compare serological responses to vaccines produced by three manufacturers against EIV, EHV-1 (respiratory disease), EEE, and tetanus given as multivalent preparations or as multiple vaccine courses. Trial II compared vaccines from two manufacturers licensed to protect against EHV-1 abortion, and measured EHV-1-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA production in addition to serological evidence of antigenicity. In Trial I significant differences were found between the antigenicity of different commercial vaccines that should be considered in product selection. It was difficult to identify vaccines that generate significant immune responses to respiratory viruses. The most dramatic differences in vaccine performance occurred in the case of the tetanus antigen. In Trial II both vaccines generated significant antibody responses and showed evidence of EHV-1-specific IFN-gamma mRNA responses. Overall there were wide variations in vaccine response, and the vaccines with the best responses were not produced by a single manufacturer. Differences in vaccine performance may have resulted from differences in antigen load and adjuvant formulation.

  18. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  19. Evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Blair

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Southeast Asia remains a critical region for the emergence of novel and/or zoonotic influenza, underscoring the importance of extensive sampling in rural areas where early transmission is most likely to occur. Methods: In 2008, 800 adult participants from eight sites were enrolled in a prospective population-based study of avian influenza (AI virus transmission where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus had been reported in humans and poultry from 2006 to 2008. From their enrollment sera and questionnaires, we report risk factor findings for serologic evidence of previous infection with 18 AI virus strains. Results: Serologic assays revealed no evidence of previous infection with 13 different low-pathogenic AI viruses or with HPAI avian-like A/Cambodia/R0404050/2007(H5N1. However, 21 participants had elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2, validated with a monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA assay specific for avian H9. Conclusions: Although cross-reaction from antibodies against human influenza viruses cannot be completely excluded, the study data suggest that a number of participants were previously infected with the avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2 virus, likely due to as yet unidentified environmental exposures. Prospective data from this cohort will help us better understand the serology of zoonotic influenza infection in a rural cohort in SE Asia. Keywords: Influenza A virus, Avian, Zoonoses, Occupational exposure, Communicable diseases, Emerging, Cohort studies

  20. Sparse evidence for equine or avian influenza virus infections among Mongolian adults with animal exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, Mongolia has experienced recurrent epizootics of equine influenza virus (EIV) among its 2·1 million horses and multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus via migrating birds. No human EIV or HPAI infections have been reported. In 2009, 439 adults in Mongolia were enrolled in a population-based study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of infection with nine avian, three human, and one equine influenza virus strains. Seroreactivity was sparse among participants suggesting little human risk of zoonotic influenza infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Continuing evolution of H9N2 avian influenza virus in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) has caused great economic losses in Korean poultry industry since the first outbreak in 1996. Although the hemagglutinin gene of early H9N2 viruses were closely related to Chinese Y439-like lineage virus, it evolved into a unique Korean lineage after ...

  2. Infectivity, transmission and pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses for domestic and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual avian influenza (AI) virus strains vary in their ability to infect, transmit and cause disease and death in different bird species. Low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) viruses are maintained in wild birds, and must be adapted to pass to domestic poultry, where they replicate in respiratory and in...

  3. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  4. The Influence of Ecological Factors on the Transmission and Stability of Avian Influenza Virus in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecology is a science studying the correlation among organisms and some environmental factors. Ecological factors play an important role to transmit Avian Influenza (AI virus and influence its stability in the environment. Avian Influenza virus is classified as type A virus and belong to Orthomyxoviridae family. The virus can infect various vertebrates, mainly birds and mammals, including human. Avian Influenza virus transmission can occur through bird migration. The bird migration patterns usually occur in the large continent covers a long distance area within a certain periode hence transmit the virus from infected birds to other birds and spread to the environment. The biotic (normal flora microbes and abiotic (physical and chemical factors play important role in transmitting the virus to susceptible avian species and influence its stability in the environment. Disinfectant can inactivate the AI virus in the environment but its effectivity is influenced by the concentration, contact time, pH, temperature and organic matter.

  5. Expression patterns of endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 and its response to infection with exogenous avian tumour viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuming; Zhu, Wenqi; Chen, Shihao; Liu, Yangyang; Sun, Zhen; Geng, Tuoyu; Song, Chengyi; Gao, Bo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Qin, Aijian; Cui, Hengmi

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements that are present in a wide range of vertebrates and have been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. However, the characteristic expression patterns of ERVs, particularly in virus-induced tumours, is not fully clear. DNA methylation was analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and gene expression was analysed by RT-qPCR. In this study, we first found that the endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 was highly expressed in some chicken tissues (including the heart, bursa, thymus, and spleen) at 2 days of age, but its expression was markedly decreased at 35 days of age. In contrast, the CpG methylation level of ALVE1 was significantly lower in heart and bursa at 2 days than at 35 days of age. Moreover, we found that the expression of ALVE1 was significantly inhibited in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEFs) and MSB1 cells infected with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALVJ) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) at the early stages of infection. In contrast, the expression of the ALVE1 env gene was significantly induced in CEFs and MSB1 cells infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV). However, the methylation and expression levels of the ALVE1 long terminal repeat (LTR) did not show obvious alterations in response to viral infection. The present study revealed the expression patterns of ALVE1 in a variety of chicken organs and tissues and in chicken cells in response to avian tumour virus infection. These findings may be of significance for understanding the role and function of ERVs that are present in the host genome.

  6. Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S; Baroch, John A; Nolting, Jacqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L; Pharr, G Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts, including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammal species. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here, we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about four units, and each unit corresponds to a 2 log 2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable.

  7. An emerging avian influenza A virus H5N7 is a genetic reassortant of highly pathogenic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    We full genome characterised the newly discovered avian influenza virus H5N7 subtype combination isolated from a stock of Danish game ducks to investigate the composition of the genome and possible features of high pathogenicity. It was found that the haemagglutinin and the acidic polymerase gene...... low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Effect of receptor binding domain mutations on receptor binding and transmissibility of avian influenza H5N1 viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maines, Taronna R; Chen, Li-Mei; Van Hoeven, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Although H5N1 influenza viruses have been responsible for hundreds of human infections, these avian influenza viruses have not fully adapted to the human host. The lack of sustained transmission in humans may be due, in part, to their avian-like receptor preference. Here, we have introduced recep...

  9. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  10. The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, W D; Toth, D J A; Gundlapalli, A V

    2015-12-01

    In March 2013 the first cases of human avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported to the World Health Organization. Since that time, over 650 cases have been reported. Infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly within certain demographic groups. This rapid increase in cases over a brief time period is alarming and has raised concerns about the pandemic potential of the H7N9 virus. Three major factors influence the pandemic potential of an influenza virus: (1) its ability to cause human disease, (2) the immunity of the population to the virus, and (3) the transmission potential of the virus. This paper reviews what is currently known about each of these factors with respect to avian influenza A(H7N9). Currently, sustained human-to-human transmission of H7N9 has not been reported; however, population immunity to the virus is considered very low, and the virus has significant ability to cause human disease. Several statistical and geographical modelling studies have estimated and predicted the spread of the H7N9 virus in humans and avian species, and some have identified potential risk factors associated with disease transmission. Additionally, assessment tools have been developed to evaluate the pandemic potential of H7N9 and other influenza viruses. These tools could also hypothetically be used to monitor changes in the pandemic potential of a particular virus over time.

  11. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglai Yin

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis, Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons, from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.

  12. Engineering development of avian influenza virus detection system in a patient's body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Santoso; Romadhon; Sukandar; Istofa

    2010-01-01

    The avian influenza virus detection equipment in a patient's body has been made. Currently, detection of avian influenza virus carried out by expensive laboratory equipment's, so only certain hospitals can perform this detection. This developing equipment is expected to be cheaper than existing equipment and the diagnosis can be known immediately. The sensing device is made using the principle of nuclear radiation detection. Radiation comes from a drunk labelled tamiflu (oseltamivir) which is drunk to the patient. Tamiflu is a drug to catch, H5N1 viruses in a patient's body. A labelled tamiflu is tamiflu which is labelled by I-131 radioisotopes. The presence of virus in the body is proportional to the amount of radiation captured by the detector. The equipment is composed of a Geiger-Mueller (GM) pancake detector type, a signal processor, a counter, and a data processor (computer). The GM detector converts the radiation that comes into electrical signals. Electrical signal is then converted into TTL level pulses by the signal processor. Pulse counting results are processed by data processor. The total count is proportional to the amount of virus captured by labelled tamiflu. The measurement threshold can be set by medical officer through software. At a certain threshold can be inferred identified patients infected with avian influenza virus. If the measurement below the threshold means that the patient is still within safe limits. This equipment is expected to create avian influenza virus detection system that cheaply and quickly so that more and more hospitals are using to detect the avian influenza virus. (author)

  13. Engineering of avian influenza virus detection system in a patient's body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Santoso; Romadhon; Sukandar, Istofa

    2010-01-01

    The avian influenza virus detection equipment in a patient's body has been made. Currently, detection of avian influenza virus carried out by expensive laboratory equipment's, so only certain hospitals can perform this detection. This developing equipment is expected to be cheaper than existing equipment and the diagnosis can be known immediately. The sensing device is made using the principle of nuclear radiation detection. Radiation comes from a drunk labelled tamiflu (oseltamivir) which is drunk to the patient. Tamiflu is a drug to catch H5N1 viruses in a patient's body. A labelled tamiflu is tamiflu which is labelled by 1-131 radioisotopes. The presence of virus in the body is proportional to the amount of radiation captured by the detector. The equipment is composed of a Geiger-Mueller (GM) pancake detector type, a signal processor, a counter, and a data processor (computer). The GM detector converts the radiation that comes into electrical signals. Electrical signal is then converted into TTL level pulses by the signal processor. Pulse counting results are processed by data processor. The total count is proportional to the amount of virus captured by labelled tamiflu. The measurement threshold can be set by medical officer through software. At a certain threshold can be inferred identified patients infected with avian influenza virus. If the measurement below the threshold means that the patient is still within safe limits. This equipment is expected to create avian influenza virus detection system that cheaply and quickly so that more and more hospitals are using to detect the avian influenza virus. (author)

  14. Accumulation of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Petra; Failing, Klaus; Papp, Tibor; Nazir, Jawad; Böhm, Reinhard; Marschang, Rachel E

    2010-12-01

    In order to investigate the potential role of mussels as a vector of influenza A viruses, we exposed zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to natural lake water containing a low pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Mussels were kept in water containing virus for 48 hr, then transferred into fresh water for another 14 days. Virus detection in mussels and water samples was performed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRRT-PCR) and egg culture methods. Virus uptake was detected in all of the mussel groups that were exposed to virus. Even after 14 days in fresh water, virus could still be detected in shellfish material by both qRRT-PCR and egg culture methods. The present study demonstrates that zebra mussels are capable of accumulating influenza A viruses from the surrounding water and that these viruses remain in the mussels over an extended period of time.

  15. Avian and human influenza virus compatible sialic acid receptors in little brown bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chothe, Shubhada K; Bhushan, Gitanjali; Nissly, Ruth H; Yeh, Yin-Ting; Brown, Justin; Turner, Gregory; Fisher, Jenny; Sewall, Brent J; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Terrones, Mauricio; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Kuchipudi, Suresh V

    2017-04-06

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to threaten animal and human health globally. Bats are asymptomatic reservoirs for many zoonotic viruses. Recent reports of two novel IAVs in fruit bats and serological evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 infection in frugivorous bats raise questions about the role of bats in IAV epidemiology. IAVs bind to sialic acid (SA) receptors on host cells, and it is widely believed that hosts expressing both SA α2,3-Gal and SA α2,6-Gal receptors could facilitate genetic reassortment of avian and human IAVs. We found abundant co-expression of both avian (SA α2,3-Gal) and human (SA α2,6-Gal) type SA receptors in little brown bats (LBBs) that were compatible with avian and human IAV binding. This first ever study of IAV receptors in a bat species suggest that LBBs, a widely-distributed bat species in North America, could potentially be co-infected with avian and human IAVs, facilitating the emergence of zoonotic strains.

  16. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in the Netherlands, December 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, Nancy; Koch, Guus; Heutink, Rene; Harders, Frank; Vries, D P Edwin; Ho, Cynthia; Bossers, Alex; Elbers, Armin

    2018-04-17

    A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus affecting wild birds and commercial poultry was detected in the Netherlands in December 2017. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus is a reassortant of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses and not related to the Asian H5N6 viruses that caused human infections.

  17. The onset of virus shedding and clinical signs in chickens infected with high-pathogenicity and low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickler, Anna R; Trampel, Darrell W; Roth, James A

    2008-12-01

    Some avian influenza viruses may be transmissible to mammals by ingestion. Cats and dogs have been infected by H5N1 avian influenza viruses when they ate raw poultry, and two human H5N1 infections were linked to the ingestion of uncooked duck blood. The possibility of zoonotic influenza from exposure to raw poultry products raises concerns about flocks with unrecognized infections. The present review examines the onset of virus shedding and the development of clinical signs for a variety of avian influenza viruses in chickens. In experimentally infected birds, some high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) and low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses can occur in faeces and respiratory secretions as early as 1 to 2 days after inoculation. Some HPAI viruses have also been found in meat 1 day after inoculation and in eggs after 3 days. There is no evidence that LPAI viruses can be found in meat, and the risk of their occurrence in eggs is poorly understood. Studies in experimentally infected birds suggest that clinical signs usually develop within a few days of virus shedding; however, some models and outbreak descriptions suggest that clinical signs may not become evident for a week or more in some H5 or H7 HPAI-infected flocks. During this time, avian influenza viruses might be found in poultry products. LPAI viruses can be shed in asymptomatically infected or minimally affected flocks, but these viruses are unlikely to cause significant human disease.

  18. Landscape attributes driving avian influenza virus circulation in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Guerrini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has been studied throughout Southeast Asia, little is known on the spatial risk factors for avian influenza in Africa. In the present paper, we combined serological data from poultry and remotely sensed environmental factors in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar to explore for any association between avian influenza and landscape variables. Serological data from cross-sectional surveys carried out on poultry in 2008 and 2009 were examined together with a Landsat 7 satellite image analysed using supervised classification. The dominant landscape features in a 1-km buffer around farmhouses and distance to the closest water body were extracted. A total of 1,038 individual bird blood samples emanating from 241 flocks were analysed, and the association between avian influenza seroprevalence and these landcape variables was quantified using logistic regression models. No evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 avian influenza subtypes was found, suggesting that only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI circulated. Three predominant land cover classes were identified around the poultry farms: grassland savannah, rice paddy fields and wetlands. A significant negative relationship was found between LPAI seroprevalence and distance to the closest body of water. We also found that LPAI seroprevalence was higher in farms characterised by predominant wetlands or rice landscapes than in those surrounded by dry savannah. Results from this study suggest that if highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus were introduced in Madagascar, the environmental conditions that prevail in Lake Alaotra region may allow the virus to spread and persist.

  19. Characterization of murine hepatitis virus (JHM) RNA from rats with experimental encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D P; Percy, D H; Morris, V L

    1984-09-01

    When Wistar Furth rats are inoculated intracerebrally with the murine hepatitis virus JHM they often develop a demyelinating disease with resulting hind leg paralysis. Using an RNA transfer procedure and hybridization kinetic analysis, the virus-specific RNA in these rats was characterized. The pattern of JHM-specific RNA varied with individual infections of Wistar Furth rats. However, two species of JHM-specific RNA, the nucleocapsid and a 2.1-2.4 X 10(6)-Da RNA species were generally present. A general decrease in JHM-specific RNA in brains and spinal cord samples taken later than 20 days postinoculation was observed; however, JHM-specific RNA persisted in the spinal cord longer than in the brain of these rats.

  20. Inactivation of low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus following pasteurization in liquid egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty seven million cases of shell eggs produced per year in the U.S. are processed as liquid egg product. The U.S. also exports a large amount of egg products. Although the U.S. is normally free of avian influenza, concern about contamination of egg product with these viruses has in the past result...

  1. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  2. Subclinical avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in human, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Horby, Peter; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le Nguyen, Hang Khanh; Hoang, Phuong Mai Vu; Nguyen, Khanh Cong; de Jong, Menno D.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Farrar, Jeremy; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern

  3. A reverse genetics system for avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus based on targeted RNA recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, Steven J; Berends, Alinda J; Krämer-Kühl, Annika; Spekreijse, Dieuwertje; Chénard, Gilles; Philipp, Hans-Christian; Mundt, Egbert; Rottier, Peter J M; Verheije, M Hélène

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a respiratory pathogen of chickens that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Major advances in the study of the molecular biology of IBV have resulted from the development of reverse genetics systems for

  4. Respiratory immune responses in the chicken; Towards development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Several important poultry pathogens, including avian influenza virus (AIV), enter the host through the mucosae of the respiratory tract (RT) and subsequently disseminate towards other organs in the body. Therefore, animal health significantly depends on the control of infection in the lung tissue by

  5. Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation and titration in embryonated chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus is usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chickens eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, ...

  6. H5N1 avian influenza virus: human cases reported in southern China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crofts, J.; Paget, J.; Karcher, F.

    2003-01-01

    Two cases of confirmed influenza due to the avian influenza A H5N1 virus were reported last week in Hong Kong (1). The cases occurred in a Hong Kong family who had recently visited Fujian province in southern China. The daughter, aged 8 years, died following a respiratory illness. The cause of her

  7. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) isolated from whooper swans, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Mase, Masaji; Yoneda, Kumiko; Kimura, Atsumu; Obara, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Seikou; Saito, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo

    2008-09-01

    On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree.

  8. Risk for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus on poultry farms, The Netherlands, 2007–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, Ruth; Gonzales Rojas, Jose; Wit, de Sjaak; Stahl, Julia; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Elbers, Armin R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007–2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors:

  9. Prevalence of Avian Origin H5 and H7 Influenza Virus Antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of ongoing influenza surveillance efforts in livestock and companion animals in Nigeria, a study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of avian H5 and H7 influenza virus antibodies in exotic and Nigerian village dogs in Ibadan and Sagamu, two cities in Oyo and Ogun states respectively. One hundred and ...

  10. H9N2 avian influenza virus antibody titers in human population in fars province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hadipour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the avian influenza A virus subtypes, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses have the potential to cause an influenza pandemic because they are widely prevalent in avian species in Asia and have demonstrated the ability to infect humans. This study was carried out to determined the seroprevalence of H9N2 avian influenza virus in different human populations in Fars province, which is situated in the south of Iran. Antibodies against H9N2 avian influenza virus were measured using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test in sera from 300 individuals in five different population in Fars province, including poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, veterinarians, patients with clinical signs of respiratory disease, and clinically normal individuals, who were not or rarely in contact with poultry. Mean antibody titers of 7.3, 6.8, 6.1, 4.5, and 2.9 and seroprevalences of 87%, 76.2%, 72.5%, 35.6%, and 23% were determined in those groups, respectively. Higher prevalences were detected in poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, and veterinarians, possibly due to their close and frequent contact with poultry.

  11. Silent spread of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 virus amongst vaccinated commercial layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poetri, O.N.; Boven, M.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.; Koch, G.; Wibawan, I.W.; Stegeman, A.; Broek, van den J.; Bouma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a single vaccination of commercial layer type chickens with an inactivated vaccine containing highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain H5N1 A/chicken/Legok/2003, carried out on the farm, was sufficient to protect against infection with the

  12. Avian leukosis virus type J (ALV-J) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, V.; Kulíková, L.; Halouzka, R.; Geryk, Josef; Svoboda, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2000), s. 143-145 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0866 Keywords : avian leukosis virus-J * myelocytomatosis * breeding chickens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2000

  13. Mekabu fucoidan: Structural complexity and defensive effects against avian influenza A viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, A.; Bleha, R.; Synytsya, Al.; Pohl, Radek; Hayashi, K.; Yoshinaga, K.; Nakano, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 111, Oct 13 (2014), s. 633-644 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Mekabu fucoidan * sporophyll Undaria pinnatifida * spectroscopic methods * avian influenza A virus * immunostimulating effect Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.074, year: 2014

  14. Detergent inhibited, heat labile nucleoside triphosphatase in cores of avian myeloblastosis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Endogenous DNA synthesis was studied in isolated core particles of avian myeloblastosis virus. It was found that cores contained an enzymatic activity which rapidly converted the added nucleoside triphosphates to diphosphates (but not further) at 0 degrees C, thus inhibiting DNA synthesis...

  15. Detection of American lineage low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Uria lomvia in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak

    of Denmark. Five birds were randomly selected for diagnostic investigation and samples were taken from the cadavers (pooled oropharyngeal swabs, cloacal swabs, lung/trachea/heart tissues and liver/spleen/kidney tissues, and separate preparation of stomach from a single bird). Avian influenza virus (AIV...

  16. Pathogen dynamics in a partial migrant : Interactions between mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.G.B. van

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens may pose a serious threat for humans, requiring a better understanding of the ecology and transmission of these pathogens in their natural (wildlife) hosts. The zoonotic pathogen studied in this thesis is low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). This pathogen circulates

  17. Transcription factor regulation and cytokine expression following in vitro infection of primary chicken cell culture with low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) induced proinflammatory cytokine expression is believed to contribute to the disease pathogenesis following infection. However, there is limited information on the avian immune response to infection with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). To gain a better under...

  18. Suspension culture process for H9N2 avian influenza virus (strain Re-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglin; Guo, Suying; Li, Zhenguang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Shao, Zexiang; Song, Guicai

    2017-10-01

    H9N2 avian influenza virus has caused huge economic loss for the Chinese poultry industry since it was first identified. Vaccination is frequently used as a control method for the disease. Meanwhile suspension culture has become an important tool for the development of influenza vaccines. To optimize the suspension culture conditions for the avian influenza H9N2 virus (Re-2 strain) in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, we studied the culture conditions for cell growth and proliferation parameters for H9N2 virus replication. MDCK cells were successfully cultured in suspension, from a small scale to industrial levels of production, with passage time and initial cell density being optimized. The influence of pH on the culture process in the reactor has been discussed and the process parameters for industrial production were explored via amplification of the 650L reactor. Subsequently, we cultivated cells at high cell density and harvested high amounts of virus, reaching 10log2 (1:1024). Furthermore an animal experiment was conducted to detect antibody. Compared to the chicken embryo virus vaccine, virus cultured from MDCK suspension cells can produce a higher amount of antibodies. The suspension culture process is simple and cost efficient, thus providing a solid foundation for the realization of large-scale avian influenza vaccine production.

  19. Fowl plague virus replication in mammalian cell-avian erythrocyte heterokaryons: studies concerning the actinomycin D and ultra-violet lig sensitive phase in influenza virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.C.; Dimmock, N.J.

    1974-01-01

    The replication of fowl plague virus in BHK and L cells specifically blocked prior to infection with inhibitors of influenza virus replication (actinomycin D and ultraviolet light irradiation) has been studied by the introduction of a metabolically dormant avian erythrocyte nucleus. This permits the synthesis of just the influenza virus nucleoprotein in actinomycin D (but not ultraviolet light) blocked cells. The NP antigen is first detected in the avian erythrocyte nucleus and subsequently in the heterokaryon cytoplasm

  20. A Review of the Antiviral Susceptibility of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses over the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ding Yuan; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2014-01-01

    Antivirals play an important role in the prevention and treatment of influenza infections, particularly in high-risk or severely ill patients. Two classes of influenza antivirals have been available in many countries over the last decade (2004–2013), the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). During this period, widespread adamantane resistance has developed in circulating influenza viruses rendering these drugs useless, resulting in the reliance on the most widely available NAI, oseltamivir. However, the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1) viruses in 2008 demonstrated that NAI-resistant viruses could also emerge and spread globally in a similar manner to that seen for adamantane-resistant viruses. Previously, it was believed that NAI-resistant viruses had compromised replication and/or transmission. Fortunately, in 2013, the majority of circulating human influenza viruses remain sensitive to all of the NAIs, but significant work by our laboratory and others is now underway to understand what enables NAI-resistant viruses to retain the capacity to replicate and transmit. In this review, we describe how the susceptibility of circulating human and avian influenza viruses has changed over the last ten years and describe some research studies that aim to understand how NAI-resistant human and avian influenza viruses may emerge in the future. PMID:24800107

  1. Pathogenicity and Transmission of H5 and H7 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Shepherd, Eric; DeJesus, Eric; Smith, Diane; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R.; Suarez, David L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Swayne, David E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wild aquatic birds have been associated with the intercontinental spread of H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/GD) lineage during 2005, 2010, and 2014, but dispersion by wild waterfowl has not been implicated with spread of other HPAI viruses. To better understand why Gs/GD H5 HPAI viruses infect and transmit more efficiently in waterfowl than other HPAI viruses, groups of mallard ducks were challenged with one of 14 different H5 and H7 HPAI viruses, including a Gs/GD lineage H5N1 (clade 2.2) virus from Mongolia, part of the 2005 dispersion, and the H5N8 and H5N2 index HPAI viruses (clade 2.3.4.4) from the United States, part of the 2014 dispersion. All virus-inoculated ducks and contact exposed ducks became infected and shed moderate to high titers of the viruses, with the exception that mallards were resistant to Ck/Pennsylvania/83 and Ck/Queretaro/95 H5N2 HPAI virus infection. Clinical signs were only observed in ducks challenged with the H5N1 2005 virus, which all died, and with the H5N8 and H5N2 2014 viruses, which had decreased weight gain and fever. These three viruses were also shed in higher titers by the ducks, which could facilitate virus transmission and spread. This study highlights the possible role of wild waterfowl in the spread of HPAI viruses. IMPORTANCE The spread of H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the Gs/GD lineage by migratory waterfowl is a serious concern for animal and public health. H5 and H7 HPAI viruses are considered to be adapted to gallinaceous species (chickens, turkeys, quail, etc.) and less likely to infect and transmit in wild ducks. In order to understand why this is different with certain Gs/GD lineage H5 HPAI viruses, we compared the pathogenicity and transmission of several H5 and H7 HPAI viruses from previous poultry outbreaks to Gs/GD lineage H5 viruses, including H5N1 (clade 2.2), H5N8 and H5N2 (clade 2.3.4.4) viruses, in

  2. Impact of Mutations in the Hemagglutinin of H10N7 Viruses Isolated from Seals on Virus Replication in Avian and Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Anne; Scheibner, David; Salaheldin, Ahmed H; Veits, Jutta; Gischke, Marcel; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M

    2018-02-14

    Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA) of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro. Using reverse genetics, an avian H10N4 virus was cloned, and nine recombinant viruses carrying one of eight unique mutations or the complete HA from the seal virus were rescued. Receptor binding affinity, replication in avian and mammalian cell cultures, cell-to-cell spread, and HA cleavability of these recombinant viruses were studied. Results show that wild-type recombinant H10N4 virus has high affinity to avian-type sialic acid receptors and no affinity to mammalian-type receptors. The H10N7 virus exhibits dual receptor binding affinity. Interestingly, Q220L (H10 numbering) in the rim of the receptor binding pocket increased the affinity of the H10N4 virus to mammal-type receptors and completely abolished the affinity to avian-type receptors. No remarkable differences in cell-to-cell spread or HA cleavability were observed. All viruses, including the wild-type H10N7 virus, replicated at higher levels in chicken cells than in human cells. These results indicate that H10N7 acquired adaptive mutations (e.g., Q220L) to enhance replication in mammals and retained replication efficiency in the original avian host.

  3. Impact of Mutations in the Hemagglutinin of H10N7 Viruses Isolated from Seals on Virus Replication in Avian and Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dittrich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro. Using reverse genetics, an avian H10N4 virus was cloned, and nine recombinant viruses carrying one of eight unique mutations or the complete HA from the seal virus were rescued. Receptor binding affinity, replication in avian and mammalian cell cultures, cell-to-cell spread, and HA cleavability of these recombinant viruses were studied. Results show that wild-type recombinant H10N4 virus has high affinity to avian-type sialic acid receptors and no affinity to mammalian-type receptors. The H10N7 virus exhibits dual receptor binding affinity. Interestingly, Q220L (H10 numbering in the rim of the receptor binding pocket increased the affinity of the H10N4 virus to mammal-type receptors and completely abolished the affinity to avian-type receptors. No remarkable differences in cell-to-cell spread or HA cleavability were observed. All viruses, including the wild-type H10N7 virus, replicated at higher levels in chicken cells than in human cells. These results indicate that H10N7 acquired adaptive mutations (e.g., Q220L to enhance replication in mammals and retained replication efficiency in the original avian host.

  4. Potential for Low-Pathogenic Avian H7 Influenza A Viruses To Replicate and Cause Disease in a Mammalian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Mark; Koçer, Zeynep A.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Friedman, Kimberly; Seiler, Jon; Danner, Angela; Kercher, Lisa; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Wentworth, David E.; Krauss, Scott; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT H7 subtype influenza A viruses are widely distributed and have been responsible for human infections and numerous outbreaks in poultry with significant impact. Despite this, the disease-causing potential of the precursor low-pathogenic (LP) H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. Our objective was to assess the disease-causing potential of 30 LP H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the United States and Canada using the DBA/2J mouse model. Without prior mammalian adaptation, the majority of viruses, 27 (90%), caused mortality in mice. Of these, 17 (56.7%) caused 100% mortality and 24 were of pathogenicity similar to that of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), which is highly pathogenic in mice. Viruses of duck origin were more pathogenic than those of shorebird origin, as 13 of 18 (72.2%) duck origin viruses caused 100% mortality while 4 of 12 (33.3%) shorebird origin viruses caused 100% mortality, despite there being no difference in mean lung viral titers between the groups. Replication beyond the respiratory tract was also evident, particularly in the heart and brain. Of the 16 viruses studied for fecal shedding, 11 were detected in fecal samples. These viruses exhibited a strong preference for avian-type α2,3-linked sialic acids; however, binding to mammalian-type α2,6-linked sialic acids was also detected. These findings indicate that LP avian H7 influenza A viruses are able to infect and cause disease in mammals without prior adaptation and therefore pose a potential public health risk. IMPORTANCE Low-pathogenic (LP) avian H7 influenza A viruses are widely distributed in the avian reservoir and are the precursors of numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in commercial poultry farms. However, unlike highly pathogenic H7 viruses, the disease-causing potential of LP H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. To address this, we studied 30 LP avian H7 viruses isolated from wild

  5. Evolution of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macken, Catherine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Green, Margaret A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses have circulated in Southeast Asia for more than a decade, are now endemic in parts of this region, and have also spread to more than 60 countries on three continents. The evolution of these viruses is characterized by frequent reassortment events that have created a significant number of different genotypes, both transient and longer lasting. However, fundamental questions remain about the generation and perpetuation of this substantial genetic diversity. These gaps in understanding may, in part, be due to the difficulties of genotyping closely related viruses, and limitations in the size of the data sets used in analysis. Using our recently published novel genotyping procedure ('two-time test'), which is amenable to high throughput analysis and provides an increased level of resolution relative to previous analyses, we propose a detailed model for the evolution and diversification of avian H5N1 viruses. Our analysis suggests that (i) all current H5N1 genotypes are derived from a single, clearly defined sequence of initial reassortment events; (ii) reassortment of the polymerase and NP genes may have played an important role in avian H5N1 virus evolution; (iii) the current genotype Z viruses have diverged into three distinguishable sub-genotypes in the absence of reassortment; (iv) some potentially significant molecular changes appear to be correlated with particular genotypes (for example, reassortment of the internal genes is often paralleled by a change in the HA clade); and (v) as noted in earlier studies of avian influenza A virus evolution, novel segments are typically derived from different donors (i.e., there is no obvious pattern of gene linkage in reassortment). The model of avian H5N1 viral evolution by reassortment and mutation that emerges from our study provides a context within which significant amino acid changes may be revealed; it also may help in predicting the 'success' of newly emerging

  6. Little evidence of subclinical avian influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C Gray

    Full Text Available In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI. Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1% were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0% had detectable antibody titers (≥ 1:10 against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6, 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1, 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2, 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9, and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5. With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these

  7. Deaths among wild birds during highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, van der Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  8. Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, Henk P. van der

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  9. Generation of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in length of the G gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication, pathogenicity and immunity is unknown. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for avian metapneumovirus C a...

  10. The infection of chicken tracheal epithelial cells with a H6N1 avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-I Shen

    Full Text Available Sialic acids (SAs linked to galactose (Gal in α2,3- and α2,6-configurations are the receptors for avian and human influenza viruses, respectively. We demonstrate that chicken tracheal ciliated cells express α2,3-linked SA, while goblet cells mainly express α2,6-linked SA. In addition, the plant lectin MAL-II, but not MAA/MAL-I, is bound to the surface of goblet cells, suggesting that SA2,3-linked oligosaccharides with Galβ1-3GalNAc subterminal residues are specifically present on the goblet cells. Moreover, both α2,3- and α2,6-linked SAs are detected on single tracheal basal cells. At a low multiplicity of infection (MOI avian influenza virus H6N1 is exclusively detected in the ciliated cells, suggesting that the ciliated cell is the major target cell of the H6N1 virus. At a MOI of 1, ciliated, goblet and basal cells are all permissive to the AIV infection. This result clearly elucidates the receptor distribution for the avian influenza virus among chicken tracheal epithelial cells and illustrates a primary cell model for evaluating the cell tropisms of respiratory viruses in poultry.

  11. Molecular Markers for Interspecies Transmission of Avian Influenza Viruses in Mammalian Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehyung

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, a wide range of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have infected various mammalian hosts and continuously threaten both human and animal health. It is a result of overcoming the inter-species barrier which is mostly associated with gene reassortment and accumulation of mutations in their gene segments. Several recent studies have shed insights into the phenotypic and genetic changes that are involved in the interspecies transmission of AIVs. These studies have a major focus on transmission from avian to mammalian species due to the high zoonotic potential of the viruses. As more mammalian species have been infected with these viruses, there is higher risk of genetic evolution of these viruses that may lead to the next human pandemic which represents and raises public health concern. Thus, understanding the mechanism of interspecies transmission and molecular determinants through which the emerging AIVs can acquire the ability to transmit to humans and other mammals is an important key in evaluating the potential risk caused by AIVs among humans. Here, we summarize previous and recent studies on molecular markers that are specifically involved in the transmission of avian-derived influenza viruses to various mammalian hosts including humans, pigs, horses, dogs, and marine mammals. PMID:29236050

  12. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hua; Carney, Paul J.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Guo, Zhu; Chang, Jessie C.; Wentworth, David E.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Stevens, James; Schultz-Cherry, S.

    2016-04-06

    ABSTRACT

    During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential.

    IMPORTANCEThe H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report a molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment.

  13. Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2015-12-31

    Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Avian and human influenza virus compatible sialic acid receptors in little brown bats

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhada K. Chothe; Gitanjali Bhushan; Ruth H. Nissly; Yin-Ting Yeh; Justin Brown; Gregory Turner; Jenny Fisher; Brent J. Sewall; DeeAnn M. Reeder; Mauricio Terrones; Bhushan M. Jayarao; Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to threaten animal and human health globally. Bats are asymptomatic reservoirs for many zoonotic viruses. Recent reports of two novel IAVs in fruit bats and serological evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 infection in frugivorous bats raise questions about the role of bats in IAV epidemiology. IAVs bind to sialic acid (SA) receptors on host cells, and it is widely believed that hosts expressing both SA ?2,3-Gal and SA ?2,6-Gal receptors could facilit...

  15. Wind-mediated spread of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus into the environment during outabreaks at commercial poultry farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, Marcel; Leuken, Van Jeroen; Wouters, Inge; Koch, Guus; Meijer, Adam; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne

  16. Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractViral attachment to the host cell is critical for tissue and species specificity of virus infections. Recently, pattern of viral attachment (PVA) in human respiratory tract was determined for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1. However, PVA of human influenza viruses

  17. Two avian H10 influenza A virus strains with different pathogenicity for mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, L; Hård af Segerstad, C

    1998-01-01

    We compared two strains of avian influenza A viruses of subtype H10 by exposing mink to aerosols of A/mink/Sweden/3,900/84 (H10N4) naturally pathogenic for mink, or A/chicken/Germany/N/49, (H10N7). Lesions in the respiratory tract during the first week after infection were studied and described. Both virus strains caused inflammatory reactions in the lungs and antibody production in exposed mink but only mink/84 virus was reisolated. The lesions caused by mink/84 virus were more severe with higher area density of pneumonia, lower daily weight gain, and more virus in the tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that mink/84 (H10N4), but not chicken/49 virus (H10N7), established multiple cycle replication in infected cells in the mink.

  18. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) recovered from a clinically healthy chicken in the United States and characterization of its pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Moo; LeRoith, Tanya; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F William; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-27

    A genetically distinct strain of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV-VA strain) was isolated from a healthy chicken in Virginia, and thus it is important to characterize and compare its pathogenicity with the prototype strain (avian HEV-prototype) isolated from a diseased chicken. Here we first constructed an infectious clone of the avian HEV-VA strain. Capped RNA transcripts from the avian HEV-VA clone were replication-competent after transfection of LMH chicken liver cells. Chickens inoculated intrahepatically with RNA transcripts of avian HEV-VA clone developed active infection as evidenced by fecal virus shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. To characterize the pathogenicity, RNA transcripts of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype clones were intrahepatically inoculated into the livers of chickens. Avian HEV RNA was detected in feces, serum and bile samples from 10/10 avian HEV-VA-inoculated and 9/9 avian HEV-prototype-inoculated chickens although seroconversion occurred only in some chickens during the experimental period. The histopathological lesion scores were lower for avian HEV-VA group than avian HEV-prototype group in the liver at 3 and 5 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and in the spleen at 3 wpi, although the differences were not statistically significant. The liver/body weight ratio, indicative of liver enlargement, of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype groups were significantly higher than that of the control group at 5 wpi. Overall, the avian HEV-VA strain still induces histological liver lesions even though it was isolated from a healthy chicken. The results also showed that intrahepatic inoculation of chickens with RNA transcripts of avian HEV infectious clone may serve as an alternative for live virus in animal pathogenicity studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  20. Epidemiology of avian influenza H5N1 virus in Egypt and its zoonotic potential

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    Nahed Hamed Ghoneim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiology of avian influenza H5N1 virus in domestic poultry and its zoonotic potential in Egypt. Methods: Tracheal swabs were collected from two hundred and forty three domestic poultry (chickens, ducks and geese from commercial farms and backyards, and thirty two blood samples from unvaccinated chickens. Fifty two throat swabs and twenty blood samples were collected from persons who are in contact with diseased and/or infected birds. Tracheal and throat swabs were examined for the presence of avian influenza virus H5N1 genome by real-time RT-PCR whereas blood samples were tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of avian influenza virus H5 antibodies. Results: The overall prevalence of H5N1 in the examined birds was 5.3% while the prevalence rates among different poultry species were 9%, 4.7% and 0% for ducks, chicken and geese respectively. Moreover, we detected H5 antibodies in 12.5% of the examined backyard chickens. All examined humans were negative for both viral RNA and antibodies. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the broad circulation of H5N1 virus among poultry in Egypt whereas it still has a limited zoonotic potential so far.

  1. Genetic characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N8 viruses isolated from wild birds in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeil, Ahmed; Kayed, Ahmed; Moatasim, Yassmin; Webby, Richard J; McKenzie, Pamela P; Kayali, Ghazi; Ali, Mohamed A

    2017-07-01

    A newly emerged H5N8 influenza virus was isolated from green-winged teal in Egypt during December 2016. In this study, we provide a detailed characterization of full genomes of Egyptian H5N8 viruses and some virological features. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the Egyptian H5N8 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genome of the Egyptian H5N8 viruses was related to recently characterized reassortant H5N8 viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 isolated from different Eurasian countries. Multiple peculiar mutations were characterized in the Egyptian H5N8 viruses, which probably permits transmission and virulence of these viruses in mammals. The Egyptian H5N8 viruses preferentially bound to avian-like receptors rather than human-like receptors. Also, the Egyptian H5N8 viruses were fully sensitive to amantadine and neuraminidase inhibitors. Chicken sera raised against commercial inactivated avian influenza-H5 vaccines showed no or very low reactivity with the currently characterized H5N8 viruses in agreement with the genetic dissimilarity. Surveillance of avian influenza in waterfowl provides early warning of specific threats to poultry and human health and hence should be continued.

  2. Serological evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among Romanian agriculture workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Chereches, Razvan M; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections in Romanian poultry. In 2005 HPAI infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. We sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among Romanian agriculture workers. Between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) swine workers in Tulcea and small, traditional backyard farmers in Cluj-Napoca were enrolled, as well as a non-animal exposed control group from Cluj-Napoca. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of previous infection with 9 avian and 3 human influenza virus strains. Serologic assays showed no evidence of previous infection with 7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses or with HPAI H5N1. However, 33 participants (9.1%) had elevated microneutralization antibody titers against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 5 with titers ≥ 1:80 whom all reported exposure to poultry. Moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated titers after controlling for the subjects' age (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12.1). There was no evidence that previous infection with human H3N2 or H2N2 viruses were confounding the H9N2 seroreactivity. These data suggest that H9N2 virus may have circulated in Romanian poultry and occasionally infected man. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence of avian Plasmodium and West Nile virus in culex species in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T.; Irwin, P.; Hofmeister, E.; Paskewitz, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP?? WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzymebased assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for >1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions. ?? 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

  4. Genetic susceptibility to and presence of endogenous avian leukosis viruses impose no significant impact on survival days of chickens challenged with very virulent plus Marek's disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicks of distinct genotypes at the tumor virus B locus (TVB) in combination with presence or absence of endogenous avian leukosis virus ev21 gene in their genomes were examined for survival day patterns after challenge with very virulent plus Marek’s disease virus (vv+MDV) in three consecutive tria...

  5. Evidence for subclinical avian influenza virus infections among rural Thai villagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntirat, Benjawan P; Yoon, In-Kyu; Blair, Patrick J; Krueger, Whitney S; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Putnam, Shannon D; Supawat, Krongkaew; Gibbons, Robert V; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Capuano, Ana W; Gray, Gregory C

    2011-10-01

    Regions of Thailand reported sporadic outbreaks of A/H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) among poultry between 2004 and 2008. Kamphaeng Phet Province, in north-central Thailand had over 50 HPAI poultry outbreaks in 2004 alone, and 1 confirmed and 2 likely other human HPAI infections between 2004 and 2006. In 2008, we enrolled a cohort of 800 rural Thai adults living in 8 sites within Kamphaeng Phet Province in a prospective study of zoonotic influenza transmission. We studied participants' sera with serologic assays against 16 avian, 2 swine, and 8 human influenza viruses. Among participants (mean age 49.6 years and 58% female) 65% reported lifetime poultry exposure of at least 30 consecutive minutes. Enrollees had elevated antibodies by microneutralization assay against 3 avian viruses: A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), A/Thailand/676/2005(H5N1), and A/Thailand/384/2006(H5N1). Bivariate risk factor modeling demonstrated that male gender, lack of an indoor water source, and tobacco use were associated with elevated titers against avian H9N2 virus. Multivariate modeling suggested that increasing age, lack of an indoor water source, and chronic breathing problems were associated with infection with 1 or both HPAI H5N1 strains. Poultry exposure was not associated with positive serologic findings. These data suggest that people in rural central Thailand may have experienced subclinical avian influenza infections as a result of yet unidentified environmental exposures. Lack of an indoor water source may play a role in transmission.

  6. Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans: epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Matloob

    2014-12-01

    New human influenza A virus strains regularly emerge causing seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Lately, several zoonotic avian influenza A strains have been reported to directly infect humans. In early 2013, a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) strain was discovered in China to cause severe respiratory disease in humans. Since then, over 450 human cases of H7N9 infection have been discovered and 165 of them have died. Multiple epidemiological, phylogenetic, in vivo, and in vitro studies have been done to determine the origin and pathogenesis of novel H7N9 strain. This article reviews the literature related to the epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis of the H7N9 strain since its discovery in February 2013 till August 2014. The data available so far indicate that H7N9 was originated by a two-step reassortment process in birds and transmitted to humans through direct contact with live-bird markets. H7N9 is a low-pathogenic avian virus and contains several molecular signatures for adaptation in mammals. The severity of the respiratory disease caused by novel H7N9 virus in humans can be partly attributed to the age, sex, and underlying medical conditions of the patients. A universal influenza vaccine is not available, though several strain-specific H7N9 candidate vaccine viruses have been developed. Further, novel H7N9 virus is resistant to antiviral drug amantadine and some H7N9 isolates have acquired the resistance to neuraminidase-inhibitors. Therefore, constant surveillance and prompt control measures combined with novel research approaches to develop alternative and effective anti-influenza strategies are needed to overcome influenza A virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The pathogenicity of four avian influenza viruses for fowls, turkeys and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D J; Allan, W H; Parsons, D G; Parsons, G

    1978-03-01

    Groups of 10 two-week-old chicks, turkey poults and ducklings were each infected by the intranasal route with one of four avian influenza viruses: a/fowl/Germany/34 (Hav 1N))--Rostock, A/FPV/Dutch/27 (Hav 1 Neq 1)--Dutch, A/fowl/Victoria/75 (Hav 1 Neq 1)--Australian, and A/parrot/Ulster/73 (Hav 1 N1)--Ulster. Eight hours after infection 10 birds of the same age and species were placed in contact with each group and allowed to mix. The clinical signs of disease and onset of sickness and death were recorded. Ulster virus was completely avirulent for all birds. Rostock, Dutch and Australian viruses were virulent for fowls and turkeys causing death in all birds with the exception of 3/10 in contact fowls from the Rostock virus group and 2/10 in contact fowls from the Australian virus group. Only Rostock virus caused sicked sickness or death in ducks, 9/10 intranasally infected and 6/7 in contact birds showed clinical signs and 2/10 intranasally infected and 3/7 in contact ducks died. Intranasal and in contact pathogenicity indices were calculated for each virus in each bird species and indicated quantitatively the differences in virulence of the four virus strains. Virus isolation and immune response studies indicated that surviving in contact fowls in the Rostock virus group had never been infected but that surviving Australian virus in contact fowls had recovered from infection. Infection was not established in Ulster virus in contact fowls and Australian virus intranasally infected and in contact ducks. The birds in all other groups showed positive virus isolations and a high incidence of positive immune response. The last virus isolation was made at 22 days after intranasal infection of ducks with Ulster virus.

  8. Estimation of transmission parameters of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens.

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    Annemarie Bouma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research efforts, little is yet known about key epidemiological parameters of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in their avian hosts. Here we show how these parameters can be estimated using a limited number of birds in experimental transmission studies. Our quantitative estimates, based on Bayesian methods of inference, reveal that (i the period of latency of H5N1 influenza virus in unvaccinated chickens is short (mean: 0.24 days; 95% credible interval: 0.099-0.48 days; (ii the infectious period of H5N1 virus in unvaccinated chickens is approximately 2 days (mean: 2.1 days; 95%CI: 1.8-2.3 days; (iii the reproduction number of H5N1 virus in unvaccinated chickens need not be high (mean: 1.6; 95%CI: 0.90-2.5, although the virus is expected to spread rapidly because it has a short generation interval in unvaccinated chickens (mean: 1.3 days; 95%CI: 1.0-1.5 days; and (iv vaccination with genetically and antigenically distant H5N2 vaccines can effectively halt transmission. Simulations based on the estimated parameters indicate that herd immunity may be obtained if at least 80% of chickens in a flock are vaccinated. We discuss the implications for the control of H5N1 avian influenza virus in areas where it is endemic.

  9. Uncoupled regulation of fibronectin and collagen synthesis in Rous sarcoma virus transformed avian tendon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, G.; Soo, W.J.; Bissell, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The regulation of fibronectin and procollagen synthesis has been investigated in normal and Rous sarcoma virus transformed primary avian tendon cells. These two proteins interact at the cell periphery and both are reportedly lost upon transformation. Whether their synthesis was coordinately regulated in Rous sarcoma virus-infected cells was thus examined. It was found that while the synthesis of both pro α 1 and pro α 2 peptides was reduced upon transformation, the synthesis of fibronectin was not altered. Nevertheless, long term radiolabeling demonstrated that fibronectin levels were reduced in transformed cells. It is concluded that the reduction in levels of these components at the surface is brought about by different mechanisms; collagen levels being regulated by procollagen synthesis and fibronectin levels by degradation and/or release into the culture medium. The possibility is discussed that fibronectin is lost from the cell periphery of primary avian tendon cells as a consequence of decreased levels of anchoring collagen molecules

  10. Avian influenza virus infection in apparently healthy domestic birds in Sokoto, Nigeria

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    Innocent Okwundu Nwankwo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted among apparently healthy birds brought from different local government areas, neighbouring states and across international boundaries to the Sokoto central live bird market between October 2008 and March 2009. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from 221 apparently healthy birds comprising 182 chickens, 3 turkeys, 11 guineafowl, 17 ducks and 8 pigeons. These samples were analysed using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR to check for the presence of avian influenza virus. An overall prevalence of 1.4% (3 positive cases was detected with two cases observed in chickens and one in a pigeon. The findings indicate the circulation of avian influenza in the study area. This raises concern for human and animal health due to zoonotic and economic implications of this virus.

  11. Low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses infect chicken layers by different routes of inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Smith, Diane M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Spackman, Erica

    2012-06-01

    In order to develop better control measures against avian influenza, it is necessary to understand how the virus transmits in poultry. In a previous study in which the infectivity and transmissibility of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus was examined in different poultry species, we found that no or minimal infection occurred in chicken and turkeys intranasally (IN) inoculated with the virus. However, we demonstrated that the virus can infect laying turkey hens by the intracloacal (IC) and intraoviduct (IO) routes, possibly explaining the drops in egg production observed in turkey breeder farms affected by the virus. Such novel routes of exposure have not been previously examined in chickens and could also explain outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) that cause a decrease in egg production in chicken layers and breeders. In the present study, 46-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chicken layers were infected by the IN, IC, or IO routes with one of two LPAI viruses: a poultry origin virus, A/chicken/CA/1255/02 (H6N2), and a live bird market isolate, A/chicken/NJ/12220/97 (H9N2). Only hens IN inoculated with the H6N2 virus presented mild clinical signs consisting of depression and anorexia. However, a decrease in number of eggs laid was observed in all virus-inoculated groups when compared to control hens. Evidence of infection was found in all chickens inoculated with the H6N2 virus by any of the three routes and the virus transmitted to contact hens. On the other hand, only one or two hens from each of the groups inoculated with the H9N2 virus shed detectable levels of virus, or seroconverted and did not transmit the virus to contacts, regardless of the route of inoculation. In conclusion, LPAI viruses can also infect chickens through other routes besides the IN route, which is considered the natural route of exposure. However, as seen with the H9N2 virus, the infectivity of the virus did not increase when given by these alternate routes.

  12. Novel Polymerase Gene Mutations for Human Adaptation in Clinical Isolates of Avian H5N1 Influenza Viruses.

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    Yasuha Arai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major determinant in the change of the avian influenza virus host range to humans is the E627K substitution in the PB2 polymerase protein. However, the polymerase activity of avian influenza viruses with a single PB2-E627K mutation is still lower than that of seasonal human influenza viruses, implying that avian viruses require polymerase mutations in addition to PB2-627K for human adaptation. Here, we used a database search of H5N1 clade 2.2.1 virus sequences with the PB2-627K mutation to identify other polymerase adaptation mutations that have been selected in infected patients. Several of the mutations identified acted cooperatively with PB2-627K to increase viral growth in human airway epithelial cells and mouse lungs. These mutations were in multiple domains of the polymerase complex other than the PB2-627 domain, highlighting a complicated avian-to-human adaptation pathway of avian influenza viruses. Thus, H5N1 viruses could rapidly acquire multiple polymerase mutations that function cooperatively with PB2-627K in infected patients for optimal human adaptation.

  13. Viral and Host Factors Required for Avian H5N1 Influenza A Virus Replication in Mammalian Cells

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    Hong Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the initial and sporadic emergence into humans of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses in Hong Kong in 1997, we have come to realize the potential for avian influenza A viruses to be transmitted directly from birds to humans. Understanding the basic viral and cellular mechanisms that contribute to infection of mammalian species with avian influenza viruses is essential for developing prevention and control measures against possible future human pandemics. Multiple physical and functional cellular barriers can restrict influenza A virus infection in a new host species, including the cell membrane, the nuclear envelope, the nuclear environment, and innate antiviral responses. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on viral and host factors required for avian H5N1 influenza A viruses to successfully establish infections in mammalian cells. We focus on the molecular mechanisms underpinning mammalian host restrictions, as well as the adaptive mutations that are necessary for an avian influenza virus to overcome them. It is likely that many more viral and host determinants remain to be discovered, and future research in this area should provide novel and translational insights into the biology of influenza virus-host interactions.

  14. Characterization of tumour virus proteins. I. radioimmunoassay of the P27 protein of avian viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, T.

    1977-01-01

    The major structural protein of avian oncornaviruses, a core component of about 27000 daltons, has been measured by radioimmunoassay. The purified protein was labelled with 125 Iodine by chloramine-T method. The immune serum titer was defined as the highest serum dilution able to precipitate 50% of the labelled antigon present in the system. Standard competition curve was constructed in order to determine the equivalents of protein, in a system with limiting antibody concentration. In the experimental conditions used, 0.14 ng of AMV-P27 inhibited 50% of 125 I-AMV-P27 (1.0 ng) precipitation. The 125 I-AMV-P27 vs anti-AMV-P27 system was used to study the competition of normal cells, purified virus suspension, productive cells and supernatant fluids. Most of the chicken ombryo fibroblast showed expression of this viral component. The phenomena of cell transformation, the increase in total protein, and the expression of P27 were studied in rapid transformation of CEF by RSV-SR sub(A) [pt

  15. Investigation of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds due to novel avian-origin influenza A(H10N8) in Nanchang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiansheng; He, Fenglan; Hu, Maohong; Zhou, Xianfeng; Wang, Bin; Feng, Changhua; Wu, Yumei; Li, Youxing; Tu, Junling; Li, Hui; Liu, Mingbin; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Shengen

    2015-01-01

    Multiple reassortment events within poultry and wild birds had resulted in the establishment of another novel avian influenza A(H10N8) virus, and finally resulted in human death in Nanchang, China. However, there was a paucity of information on the prevalence of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds in Nanchang area. We investigated avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds from live poultry markets, poultry countyards, delivery vehicles, and wild-bird habitats in Nanchang. We analyzed 1036 samples from wild birds and domestic poultry collected from December 2013 to February 2014. Original biological samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus using specific primer and probe sets of H5, H7, H9, H10 and N8 subtypes by real-time RT-PCR. In our analysis, the majority (97.98%) of positive samples were from live poultry markets. Among the poultry samples from chickens and ducks, AIV prevalence was 26.05 and 30.81%, respectively. Mixed infection of different HA subtypes was very common. Additionally, H10 subtypes coexistence with N8 was the most prevalent agent during the emergence of H10N8. This event illustrated a long-term surveillance was so helpful for pandemic preparedness and response. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Antigenic and Molecular Characterization of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Feeroz, Mohammed M.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Smith, Gavin J.D.; Fourment, Mathieu; Walker, David; McClenaghan, Laura; Alam, S.M. Rabiul; Hasan, M. Kamrul; Seiler, Patrick; Franks, John; Danner, Angie; Barman, Subrata; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Human infection with avian influenza A(H9N2) virus was identified in Bangladesh in 2011. Surveillance for influenza viruses in apparently healthy poultry in live-bird markets in Bangladesh during 2008–2011 showed that subtype H9N2 viruses are isolated year-round, whereas highly pathogenic subtype H5N1 viruses are co-isolated with subtype H9N2 primarily during the winter months. Phylogenetic analysis of the subtype H9N2 viruses showed that they are reassortants possessing 3 gene segments related to subtype H7N3; the remaining gene segments were from the subtype H9N2 G1 clade. We detected no reassortment with subtype H5N1 viruses. Serologic analyses of subtype H9N2 viruses from chickens revealed antigenic conservation, whereas analyses of viruses from quail showed antigenic drift. Molecular analysis showed that multiple mammalian-specific mutations have become fixed in the subtype H9N2 viruses, including changes in the hemagglutinin, matrix, and polymerase proteins. Our results indicate that these viruses could mutate to be transmissible from birds to mammals, including humans. PMID:23968540

  17. Avian influenza A viruses: From zoonosis to pandemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Richard (Mathilde); M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); S. Herfst (Sander)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractZoonotic influenza A viruses originating from the animal reservoir pose a threat for humans, as they have the ability to trigger pandemics upon adaptation to and invasion of an immunologically naive population. Of particular concern are the H5N1 viruses that continue to circulate in

  18. Avian influenza a virus budding morphology: spherical or filamentous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most strains of influenza A virus (IAV) can produce long (µm length) filamentous virus particles as well as ~100 nm diameter spherical virions. The function of the filamentous particles is unclear but is hypothesized to facilitate transmission within or from the respiratory tract. In mammalian IAVs,...

  19. Mallard or chicken? Comparing the isolation of avian influenza A viruses in embryonated Mallard and chicken eggs

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    Josef D. Järhult

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, the most efficient and robust method for isolating avian influenza A viruses (IAVs is using embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs. It is known that low-pathogenic avian IAVs undergo rapid genetic changes when introduced to poultry holdings, but the factors driving mutagenesis are not well understood. Despite this, there is limited data on the effects of the standard method of virus isolation of avian-derived viruses, that is, whether isolation in ECEs causes adaptive changes in avian IAVs. Eggs from a homologous species could potentially offer an isolation vessel less prone to induce adaptive changes. Methods: We performed eight serial passages of two avian IAVs isolated from fecal samples of wild Mallards in both ECEs and embryonated Mallard eggs, and hemagglutination assay titers and hemagglutinin sequences were compared. Results: There was no obvious difference in titers between ECEs and embryonated Mallard eggs. Sequence analyses of the isolates showed no apparent difference in the rate of introduction of amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin gene (three substitutions in total in embryonated Mallard eggs and two substitutions in ECEs. Conclusion: Embryonated Mallard eggs seem to be good isolation vessels for avian IAVs but carry some practical problems such as limited availability and short egg-laying season of Mallards. Our study finds isolation of Mallard-derived avian IAVs in ECEs non-inferior to isolation in embryonated Mallard eggs, but more research in the area may be warranted as this is a small-scale study.

  20. Isolation and characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 from donkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 is a major avian pathogen that crosses species barriers and seriously affects humans as well as some mammals. It mutates in an intensified manner and is considered a potential candidate for the possible next pandemic with all the catastrophic consequences. Methods Nasal swabs were collected from donkeys suffered from respiratory distress. The virus was isolated from the pooled nasal swabs in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing of both haemagglutingin and neuraminidase were performed. H5 seroconversion was screened using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay on 105 donkey serum samples. Results We demonstrated that H5N1 jumped from poultry to another mammalian host; donkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus clustered within the lineage of H5N1 from Egypt, closely related to 2009 isolates. It harboured few genetic changes compared to the closely related viruses from avian and humans. The neuraminidase lacks oseltamivir resistant mutations. Interestingly, HI screening for antibodies to H5 haemagglutinins in donkeys revealed high exposure rate. Conclusions These findings extend the host range of the H5N1 influenza virus, possess implications for influenza virus epidemiology and highlight the need for the systematic surveillance of H5N1 in animals in the vicinity of backyard poultry units especially in endemic areas. PMID:20398268

  1. Isolation and characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 from donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Ghany Ahmad E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 is a major avian pathogen that crosses species barriers and seriously affects humans as well as some mammals. It mutates in an intensified manner and is considered a potential candidate for the possible next pandemic with all the catastrophic consequences. Methods Nasal swabs were collected from donkeys suffered from respiratory distress. The virus was isolated from the pooled nasal swabs in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and sequencing of both haemagglutingin and neuraminidase were performed. H5 seroconversion was screened using haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay on 105 donkey serum samples. Results We demonstrated that H5N1 jumped from poultry to another mammalian host; donkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus clustered within the lineage of H5N1 from Egypt, closely related to 2009 isolates. It harboured few genetic changes compared to the closely related viruses from avian and humans. The neuraminidase lacks oseltamivir resistant mutations. Interestingly, HI screening for antibodies to H5 haemagglutinins in donkeys revealed high exposure rate. Conclusions These findings extend the host range of the H5N1 influenza virus, possess implications for influenza virus epidemiology and highlight the need for the systematic surveillance of H5N1 in animals in the vicinity of backyard poultry units especially in endemic areas.

  2. Development of a duplex real-time RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and rat theilovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Fengjiao; Huang, Bihong; Lian, Yuexiao; Rao, Dan; Yin, Xueqin; Wu, Miaoli; Zhu, Yujun; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Ren; Guo, Pengju

    2016-10-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and rat theilovirus (RTV), the member of the genus Cardiovirus, are widespread in laboratory mice and rats, and are potential contaminants of biological materials. Cardioviruses infection may cause serious complications in biomedical research. To improve the efficiency of routine screening for Cardioviruses infection, a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of TMEV and RTV. The duplex assay was specific for reference strains of TMEV and RTV, and no cross-reaction was found with seven other rodent viruses. The limits of detection of both TMEV and RTV were 4×10(1) copies RNA/reaction. Reproducibility was estimated using standard dilutions, with coefficients of variation duplex real-time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR. For 439 clinical samples,95 samples were positive for TMEV and 72 samples were positive for RTV using duplex real-time RT-PCR approach, whereas only 77 samples were positive for TMEV and 66 samples were positive for RTV when conventional RT-PCR was applied. Mixed infections were found in 20 samples when analyzed by conventional RT-PCR whereas 30 samples were found to be mixed infection when duplex real-time RT-PCR was applied. This duplex assay provides a useful tool for routine health monitoring and screening of contaminated biological materials of these two viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Baicalin is an inhibitor of subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Kong, Zheng-Ru; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Zong-Yi; Gu, Cheng-Xi; Shao, Hong-Xia; Qin, Ai-Jian

    2018-03-15

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Baicalin, one of the flavonoids present in S.baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to have antiviral activities. To investigate whether baicalin has antiviral effects on the infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, the cells were treated with baicalin at different time points. We found that baicalin could inhibit viral mRNA, protein levels and overall virus infection in a dose- and time-dependent manner using a variety of assays. Baicalin specifically targeted virus internalization and reduced the infectivity of ALV-J particles, but had no effect on the levels of major ALV-J receptor and virus binding to DF-1 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that baicalin might have potential to be developed as a novel antiviral agent for ALV-J infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hampered foraging and migratory performance in swans infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza A virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    Full Text Available It is increasingly acknowledged that migratory birds, notably waterfowl, play a critical role in the maintenance and spread of influenza A viruses. In order to elucidate the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in their natural hosts, a better understanding of the pathological effects in these hosts is required. Here we report on the feeding and migratory performance of wild migratory Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii Yarrell naturally infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI A viruses of subtypes H6N2 and H6N8. Using information on geolocation data collected from Global Positioning Systems fitted to neck-collars, we show that infected swans experienced delayed migration, leaving their wintering site more than a month after uninfected animals. This was correlated with infected birds travelling shorter distances and fuelling and feeding at reduced rates. The data suggest that LPAI virus infections in wild migratory birds may have higher clinical and ecological impacts than previously recognised.

  5. Appearance of reassortant European avian-origin H1 influenza A viruses of swine in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemae, N; Nguyen, P T; Le, V T; Nguyen, T N; To, T L; Nguyen, T D; Pham, V P; Vo, H V; Le, Q V T; Do, H T; Nguyen, D T; Uchida, Y; Saito, T

    2018-03-06

    Three subtypes-H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2-of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S) are currently endemic in swine worldwide, but there is considerable genotypic diversity among each subtype and limited geographical distribution. Through IAVs-S monitoring in Vietnam, two H1N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from healthy pigs in Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, Southern Vietnam, on 2 December 2016. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses revealed that their HA and NA genes were derived from those of European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S that contained avian-origin H1 and human-like N2 genes, and were particularly closely related to those of IAVs-S circulating in the Netherlands, Germany or Denmark. In addition, the internal genes of these Vietnamese isolates were derived from human A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, suggesting that the Vietnamese H1N2 IAVs-S are reassortants between European H1N2 IAVs-S and human A(H1N1)pdm09v. The appearance of European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S in Vietnam marks their first transmission outside Europe. Our results and statistical analyses of the number of live pigs imported into Vietnam suggest that the European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S may have been introduced into Vietnam with their hosts through international trade. These findings highlight the importance of quarantining imported pigs to impede the introduction of new IAVs-S. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Avian influenza virus (H5N1; effects of physico-chemical factors on its survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Sajid

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Present study was performed to determine the effects of physical and chemical agents on infective potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 (local strain virus recently isolated in Pakistan during 2006 outbreak. H5N1 virus having titer 108.3 ELD50/ml was mixed with sterilized peptone water to get final dilution of 4HA units and then exposed to physical (temperature, pH and ultraviolet light and chemical (formalin, phenol crystals, iodine crystals, CID 20, virkon®-S, zeptin 10%, KEPCIDE 300, KEPCIDE 400, lifebuoy, surf excel and caustic soda agents. Harvested amnio-allantoic fluid (AAF from embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with H5N1 treated virus (0.2 ml/egg was subjected to haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI tests. H5N1 virus lost infectivity after 30 min at 56°C, after 1 day at 28°C but remained viable for more than 100 days at 4°C. Acidic pH (1, 3 and basic pH (11, 13 were virucidal after 6 h contact time; however virus retained infectivity at pH 5 (18 h, 7 and 9 (more than 24 h. UV light was proved ineffectual in inactivating virus completely even after 60 min. Soap (lifebuoy®, detergent (surf excel® and alkali (caustic soda destroyed infectivity after 5 min at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% dilution. All commercially available disinfectants inactivated virus at recommended concentrations. Results of present study would be helpful in implementing bio-security measures at farms/hatcheries levels in the wake of avian influenza virus (AIV outbreak.

  7. Phi 6 and Phi 8 as Potential Surrogates for Avian Influenza Viruses in Persistence Studies in Water - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses, and water is known to play an important role in the transmission of virus within this reservoir system. Despite its recognized importance, we have very little understanding of what factors enhance or limit...

  8. Phi 6 and Phi 8 as Potential Surrogates for Avian Influenza Viruses in Persistence Studies in Water-Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses, and water is known to play an important role in the transmission of virus within this reservoir system. Despite its recognized importance, we have very little understanding of what factors enhance or limit...

  9. A human-infecting H10N8 influenza virus retains a strong preference for avian-type receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Heng; de Vries, Robert P; Tzarum, Netanel; Zhu, Xueyong; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; Wilson, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Recent avian-origin H10N8 influenza A viruses that have infected humans pose a potential pandemic threat. Alterations in the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), typically are required for influenza A viruses to cross the species barrier for adaptation to a new host, but whether H10N8

  10. Rapid sample preparation for detection and identification of avian influenza virus from chicken faecal samples using magnetic bead microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bu, Minqiang; Handberg, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an infectious agent of birds and mammals. AIV is causing huge economic loss and can be a threat to human health. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used as a method for the detection and identification of AIV virus. Although RT...

  11. Replication Capacity of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus in Pet Birds and Mammals, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenny, Brian J; Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Alam, S M Rabiul; Hasan, M Kamrul; Jones-Engel, Lisa; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webster, Robert G; Jones, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    Avian influenza A(H9N2) is an agricultural and public health threat. We characterized an H9N2 virus from a pet market in Bangladesh and demonstrated replication in samples from pet birds, swine tissues, human airway and ocular cells, and ferrets. Results implicated pet birds in the potential dissemination and zoonotic transmission of this virus.

  12. Pathogenesis and transmission of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in ferrets and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Gustin, Kortney M; Pearce, Melissa B; Maines, Taronna R; Zeng, Hui; Pappas, Claudia; Sun, Xiangjie; Carney, Paul J; Villanueva, Julie M; Stevens, James; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-09-26

    On 29 March 2013, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed the first reported case of human infection with an avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. The recent human infections with H7N9 virus, totalling over 130 cases with 39 fatalities to date, have been characterized by severe pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This is concerning because H7 viruses have typically been associated with ocular disease in humans, rather than severe respiratory disease. This recent outbreak underscores the need to better understand the pathogenesis and transmission of these viruses in mammals. Here we assess the ability of A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9) viruses, isolated from fatal human cases, to cause disease in mice and ferrets and to transmit to naive animals. Both H7N9 viruses replicated to higher titre in human airway epithelial cells and in the respiratory tract of ferrets compared to a seasonal H3N2 virus. Moreover, the H7N9 viruses showed greater infectivity and lethality in mice compared to genetically related H7N9 and H9N2 viruses. The H7N9 viruses were readily transmitted to naive ferrets through direct contact but, unlike the seasonal H3N2 virus, did not transmit readily by respiratory droplets. The lack of efficient respiratory droplet transmission was corroborated by low receptor-binding specificity for human-like α2,6-linked sialosides. Our results indicate that H7N9 viruses have the capacity for efficient replication in mammals and human airway cells and highlight the need for continued public health surveillance of this emerging virus.

  13. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P; Wentworth, David E; Donis, Ruben O; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  14. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.; Wentworth, David E.; Donis, Ruben O.; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  15. Bat lung epithelial cells show greater host species-specific innate resistance than MDCK cells to human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tessa; Eckerle, Isabella; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2018-04-10

    With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the extent bats are susceptible to conventional avian and human influenza A viruses. To this end, three bat species (Eidolon helvum, Carollia perspicillata and Tadarida brasiliensis) of lung epithelial cells were separately infected with two avian and two human influenza viruses to determine their relative host innate immune resistance to infection. All three species of bat cells were more resistant than positive control Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to all four influenza viruses. TB1-Lu cells lacked sialic acid α2,6-Gal receptors and were most resistant among the three bat species. Interestingly, avian viruses were relatively more replication permissive in all three bat species of cells than with the use of human viruses which suggest that bats could potentially play a role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Chemical inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway in bat cells had no effect on virus production suggesting that type I interferon signalling is not a major factor in resisting influenza virus infection. Although all three species of bat cells are relatively more resistant to influenza virus infection than control MDCK cells, they are more permissive to avian than human viruses which suggest that bats could have a contributory role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses.

  16. A short autocomplementary sequence plays an essential role in avian sarcoma-leukosis virus RNA dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossé, P; Motté, N; Roumier, A; Gabus, C; Muriaux, D; Darlix, J L; Paoletti, J

    1996-12-24

    Retroviral genomes consist of two identical RNA molecules joined noncovalently near their 5'-ends. Recently, two models have been proposed for RNA dimer formation on the basis of results obtained in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and Moloney murine leukemia virus RNA. It was first proposed that viral RNA dimerizes by forming an interstrand quadruple helix with purine tetrads. The second model postulates that RNA dimerization is initiated by a loop-loop interaction between the two RNA molecules. In order to better characterize the dimerization process of retroviral genomic RNA, we analyzed the in vitro dimerization of avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV) RNA using different transcripts. We determined the requirements for heterodimer formation, the thermal dissociation of RNA dimers, and the influence of antisense DNA oligonucleotides on dimer formation. Our results strongly suggest that purine tetrads are not involved in dimer formation. Data show that an autocomplementary sequence located upstream from the splice donor site and within a major packaging signal plays a crucial role in ASLV RNA dimer formation in vitro. This sequence is able to form a stem-loop structure, and phylogenetic analysis reveals that it is conserved in 28 different avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses. These results suggest that dimerization of ASLV RNA is initiated by a loop-loop interaction between two RNA molecules and provide an additional argument for the ubiquity of the dimerization process via loop-loop interaction.

  17. Influence of virus strain and antigen mass on efficacy of H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Garcia, M; Stone, H D

    1999-06-01

    The influence of vaccine strain and antigen mass on the ability of inactivated avian influenza (AI) viruses to protect chicks from a lethal, highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus challenge was studied. Groups of 4-week-old chickens were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing one of 10 haemagglutinin subtype H5 AI viruses, one heterologous H7 AI virus or normal allantoic fluid (sham), and challenged 3 weeks later by intra-nasal inoculation with a HP H5 chicken-origin AI virus. All 10 H5 vaccines provided good protection from clinical signs and death, and produced positive serological reactions on agar gel immunodiffusion and haemagglutination inhibition tests. In experiment 1, challenge virus was recovered from the oropharynx of 80% of chickens in the H5 vaccine group. In five H5 vaccine groups, challenge virus was not recovered from the cloaca of chickens. In the other five H5 vaccine groups, the number of chickens with detection of challenge virus from the cloaca was lower than in the sham group (P turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) was the best vaccine candidate of the H5 strains tested (PD50= 0.006 μg AI antigen). These data demonstrate that chickens vaccinated with inactivated H5 whole virus AI vaccines were protected from clinical signs and death, but usage of vaccine generally did not prevent infection by the challenge virus, as indicated by recovery of virus from the oropharynx. Vaccine use reduced cloacal detection rates, and quantity of virus shed from the cloaca and oropharynx in some vaccine groups, which would potentially reduce environmental contamination and disease transmission in the field.

  18. Susceptibility of swine to H5 and H7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzli, Charles; Lager, Kelly; Vincent, Amy; Gauger, Phillip; Brockmeier, Susan; Miller, Laura; Richt, Juergen A; Ma, Wenjun; Suarez, David; Swayne, David E

    2016-07-01

    The ability of pigs to become infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and then generate mammalian adaptable influenza A viruses is difficult to determine. Yet, it is an important link to understanding any relationship between LPAI virus ecology and possible epidemics among swine and/or humans. Assess susceptibility of pigs to LPAI viruses found within the United States and their direct contact transmission potential. Pigs were inoculated with one of ten H5 or H7 LPAI viruses selected from seven different bird species to test infectivity, virulence, pathogenesis, and potential to transmit virus to contact pigs through histological, RRT-PCR and seroconversion data. Although pigs were susceptible to infection with each of the LPAI viruses, no clinical disease was recognized in any pig. During the acute phase of the infection, minor pulmonary lesions were found in some pigs and one or more pigs in each group were RRT-PCR-positive in the lower respiratory tract, but no virus was detected in upper respiratory tract (negative nasal swabs). Except for one group, one or more pigs in each LPAI group developed antibody. No LPAI viruses transmitted to contact pigs. LPAI strains from various bird populations within the United States are capable of infecting pigs. Although adaptability and transmission of individual strains seem unlikely, the subclinical nature of the infections demonstrates the need to improve sampling and testing methods to more accurately measure incidence of LPAI virus infection in pigs, and their potential role in human-zoonotic LPAI virus dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

  20. A survey for selected avian viral pathogens in backyard chicken farms in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Tammiranta, N; Ek-Kommonen, C; Soveri, T; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson Ahomaa, M; Huovilainen, A

    2017-04-01

    Backyard poultry are regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious avian diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anaemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5.4%) had chickens seropositive for avian influenza virus. No farms had chickens seropositive for Newcastle disease virus. Of the 51 farms, five (10%) had chickens positive for coronavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all backyard chicken coronaviruses collected were QX type infectious bronchitis viruses. All chickens tested for avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were negative. To our knowledge, there is no evidence to date to suggest that these diseases would have been transmitted between commercial and non-commercial flocks.

  1. Preliminary Epidemiology of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Tan, Yi; Kang, Min; Liu, Fuqiang; Ren, Ruiqi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yiping; Li, Chao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Hengjiao; Li, Dan; Greene, Carolyn M; Zhou, Suizan; Iuliano, A Danielle; Havers, Fiona; Ni, Daxin; Wang, Dayan; Feng, Zijian; Uyeki, Timothy M; Li, Qun

    2017-08-01

    We compared the characteristics of cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infections in China. HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were more likely to have had exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas and were hospitalized earlier than were LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients.

  2. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORIGUCHI, Sachiko; ONUMA, Manabu; GOKA, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  3. Amino Acid Substitutions Associated with Avian H5N6 Influenza A Virus Adaptation to Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmao Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 15 cases of human beings infected with H5N6 have been reported since 2014, of which at least nine were fatal. The highly pathogenic avian H5N6 influenza virus may pose a serious threat to both public health and the poultry industry. However, the molecular features promoting the adaptation of avian H5N6 influenza viruses to mammalian hosts is not well understood. Here, we sequentially passaged an avian H5N6 influenza A virus (A/Northern Shoveler/Ningxia/488-53/2015 10 times in mice to identify the adaptive amino acid substitutions that confer enhanced virulence to H5N6 in mammals. The 1st and 10th passages of the mouse-adapted H5N6 viruses were named P1 and P10, respectively. P1 and P10 displayed higher pathogenicity in mice than their parent strain. P10 showed significantly higher replication capability in vivo and could be detected in the brains of mice, whereas P1 displayed higher replication efficiency in their lungs but was not detectable in the brain. Similar to its parent strain, P10 remained no transmissible between guinea pigs. Using genome sequencing and alignment, multiple amino acid substitutions, including PB2 E627K, PB2 T23I, PA T97I, and HA R239H, were found in the adaptation of H5N6 to mice. In summary, we identified amino acid changes that are associated with H5N6 adaptation to mice.

  4. In vivo evasion of MxA by avian influenza viruses requires human signature in the viral nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, Christoph M; Hassan, Ebrahim; Mutz, Pascal; Rheinemann, Lara; Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Schilling, Mirjam; Kallfass, Carsten; Nürnberger, Cindy; Soubies, Sébastien; Kochs, Georg; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin; Staeheli, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Zoonotic transmission of influenza A viruses can give rise to devastating pandemics, but currently it is impossible to predict the pandemic potential of circulating avian influenza viruses. Here, we describe a new mouse model suitable for such risk assessment, based on the observation that the innate restriction factor MxA represents an effective species barrier that must be overcome by zoonotic viruses. Our mouse lacks functional endogenous Mx genes but instead carries the human MX1 locus as a transgene. Such transgenic mice were largely resistant to highly pathogenic avian H5 and H7 influenza A viruses, but were almost as susceptible to infection with influenza viruses of human origin as nontransgenic littermates. Influenza A viruses that successfully established stable lineages in humans have acquired adaptive mutations which allow partial MxA escape. Accordingly, an engineered avian H7N7 influenza virus carrying a nucleoprotein with signature mutations typically found in human virus isolates was more virulent in transgenic mice than parental virus, demonstrating that a few amino acid changes in the viral target protein can mediate escape from MxA restriction in vivo. Similar mutations probably need to be acquired by emerging influenza A viruses before they can spread in the human population. © 2017 Deeg et al.

  5. Duplex PCR assay for the detection of avian adeno virus and chicken anemia virus prevalent in Pakistan

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    Iqbal Aqib

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avian Adeno viruses and Chicken Anemia Viruses cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry of Pakistan each year. Timely and efficient diagnosis of the viruses is needed in order to practice prevention and control strategies. In the first part of this study, we investigated broilers, breeder and Layer stocks for morbidity and mortality rates due to AAV and CAV infections and any co-infections by examining signs and symptoms typical of their infestation or post mortem examination. In the second part of the study, we developed a duplex PCR assay for the detection of AAV and CAV which is capable to simultaneously detect both the viral types prevalent in Pakistan with high sensitivity and 100% specificity.

  6. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  7. Pulmonary immunization of chickens using non-adjuvanted spray-freeze dried whole inactivated virus vaccine completely protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Ben; Tonnis, Wouter F.; Murugappan, Senthil; Rottier, Peter; Koch, Guus; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a major threat to public health as well as to the global poultry industry. Most fatal human infections are caused by contact with infected poultry. Therefore, preventing the virus from entering the poultry population is a priority. This is,

  8. Isolation and characterization of virus of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype of chicken from outbreaks in Indonesia

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    Agus Wiyono

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the isolation and characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza of chicken from outbreaks in Indonesia was conducted at Indonesian Research Institute for Veterinary Science. Outbreaks of avian disease had been reported in Indonesia since August 2003 affecting commercial layer, broiler, quail, and ostrich and also native chicken with showing clinical signs such as cyanosis of wattle and comb, nasal discharges and hypersalivation, subcutaneous ptechiae on foot and leg, diarre and sudden high mortality. The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the causal agent of the disease. Samples of serum, feather follicle, tracheal swab, as well as organs of proventriculus, intestine, caecal tonsil, trachea and lungs were collected from infected animals. Serum samples were tested haemaglutination/haemaglutination inhibition to Newcastle Disease and Egg Drop Syndrome viruses. Isolation of virus of the causal agent of the outbreak was conducted from samples of feather follicle, tracheal swab, and organs using 11 days old specific pathogen free (SPF embryonated eggs. The isolated viruses were then characterised by agar gel precipitation test using swine influenza reference antisera, by haemaglutination inhibition using H1 to H15 reference antisera, and by electron microscope examination. The pathogenicity of the viruses was confirmed by intravenous pathogenicity index test and its culture in Chicken Embryo Fibroblast primary cell culture without addition of trypsin. The study revealed that the causative agent of the outbreaks of avian disease in Indonesia was avian influenza H5 subtype virus based upon serological tests, virus isolation and characterization using swine influenza reference antisera, and electron microscope examination. While subtyping of the viruses using H1 to H15 reference antisera suggested that the virus is very likely to be an avian influenza H5N1 subtype virus. The pathogenicity test confirmed that the viruses

  9. Adaptive evolution during the establishment of European avian-like H1N1 influenza A virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Udayan; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D; Su, Yvonne C F

    2018-04-01

    An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginning in 1979 and successfully adapted to form the European avian-like swine (EA-swine) influenza lineage. Genes of the EA-swine lineage that are clearly segregated from its closest avian relatives continue to circulate in swine populations globally and represent a unique opportunity to study the adaptive process of an avian-to-mammalian cross-species transmission. Here, we used a relaxed molecular clock model to test whether the EA-swine virus originated through the introduction of a single avian ancestor as an entire genome, followed by an analysis of host-specific selection pressures among different gene segments. Our data indicated independent introduction of gene segments via transmission of avian viruses into swine followed by reassortment events that occurred at least 1-4 years prior to the EA-swine outbreak. All EA-swine gene segments exhibit greater selection pressure than avian viruses, reflecting both adaptive pressures and relaxed selective constraints that are associated with host switching. Notably, we identified key amino acid mutations in the viral surface proteins (H1 and N1) that play a role in adaptation to new hosts. Following the establishment of EA-swine lineage, we observed an increased frequency of intrasubtype reassortment of segments compared to the earlier strains that has been associated with adaptive amino acid replacements, disease severity and vaccine escape. Taken together, our study provides key insights into the adaptive changes in viral genomes following the transmission of avian influenza viruses to swine and the early establishment of the EA-swine lineage.

  10. Characterization of Avian H9N2 Influenza Viruses from United Arab Emirates 2000 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, U. B.; Wernery, Ulrich; Ilyushina, N.; Webster, R. G.

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to establish the phylogenetic relation of H9N2 avian viruses in the Middle East to other Asian H9N2 lineages by characterization of 7 viruses isolated from United Arab Emirates (2000-2003). All these viruses had an additional basic amino acid at the hemagglutinin-connecting peptide; 6 contained a mutation associated with increased affinity toward human-like sialic acid substrates. The viruses' surface glycoproteins and most internal genes were >90% similar to those of A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2) lineage. The hemadsorbing site of neuraminidase had up to 4 amino acid substitutions, as do human pandemic viruses. M2 sequence analysis revealed amino acid changes at 2 positions, with increasing resistance to amantadine in cell culture. They replicated efficiently in inoculated chickens and were successfully transmitted to contacts. They continue to maintain H5N1-like genes and may augment the spread of H5N1 viruses through regional co-circulation and inapparent infection. These viruses may present as potential pandemic candidates themselves. PMID:17157891

  11. The antigenic property of the H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in central China

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    Zou Wei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three influenza pandemics outbroke in the last century accompanied the viral antigen shift and drift, resulting in the change of antigenic property and the low cross protective ability of the existed antibody to the newly emerged pandemic virus, and eventually the death of millions of people. The antigenic characterizations of the viruses isolated in central China in 2004 and 2006–2007 were investigated in the present study. Results Hemagglutinin inhibition assay and neutralization assay displayed differential antigenic characteristics of the viruses isolated in central China in two periods (2004 and 2006–2007. HA genes of the viruses mainly located in two branches in phylogeny analysis. 53 mutations of the deduced amino acids of the HA genes were divided into 4 patterns. Mutations in pattern 2 and 3 showed the main difference between viruses isolated in 2004 and 2006–2007. Meanwhile, most amino acids in pattern 2 and 3 located in the globular head of the HA protein, and some of the mutations evenly distributed at the epitope sites. Conclusions The study demonstrated that a major antigenic drift had occurred in the viruses isolated in central China. And monitoring the antigenic property should be the priority in preventing the potential pandemic of H5N1 avian influenza virus.

  12. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  13. Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) attachment protein involvement in probable virus evolution concurrent with mass live vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Mattia; Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Clubbe, Jayne; Battilani, Mara; Naylor, Clive J

    2010-11-20

    Avian metapneumoviruses detected in Northern Italy between 1987 and 2007 were sequenced in their fusion (F) and attachment (G) genes together with the same genes from isolates collected throughout western European prior to 1994. Fusion protein genes sequences were highly conserved while G protein sequences showed much greater heterogeneity. Phylogenetic studies based on both genes clearly showed that later Italian viruses were significantly different to all earlier virus detections, including early detections from Italy. Furthermore a serine residue in the G proteins and lysine residue in the fusion protein were exclusive to Italian viruses, indicating that later viruses probably arose within the country and the notion that these later viruses evolved from earlier Italian progenitors cannot be discounted. Biocomputing analysis applied to F and G proteins of later Italian viruses predicted that only G contained altered T cell epitopes. It appears likely that Italian field viruses evolved in response to selection pressure from vaccine induced immunity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Detection of Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus type QX infection in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Brigitte; Tobler, Kurt; Schybli, Martina; Konrad, Leonie; Stöckli, René; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lüschow, Dörte; Hafez, Hafez M; Britton, Paul; Hoop, Richard K; Vögtlin, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis, a disease of chickens caused by Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), leads to severe economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. Various attempts to control the virus based on vaccination strategies are performed. However, due to the emergence of novel genotypes, an effective control of the virus is hindered. In 1996, a novel viral genotype named IBV-QX was reported for the first time in Qingdao, Shandong province, China. The first appearance of an IBV-QX isolate in Europe was reported between 2003 and 2004 in The Netherlands. Subsequently, infections with this genotype were found in several other European countries such as France, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Slovenia, and Sweden. The present report describes the use of a new set of degenerate primers that amplify a 636-bp fragment within the S1 gene by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect the occurrence of IBV-QX infection in Switzerland.

  16. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien G Dugan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes from 14 bird species sampled in four locations across the United States. These isolates represented 29 type A influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA subtype combinations, with up to 26% of isolates showing evidence of mixed subtype infection. Through a phylogenetic analysis of the largest data set of AIV genomes compiled to date, we were able to document a remarkably high rate of genome reassortment, with no clear pattern of gene segment association and occasional inter-hemisphere gene segment migration and reassortment. From this, we propose that AIV in wild birds forms transient "genome constellations," continually reshuffled by reassortment, in contrast to the spread of a limited number of stable genome constellations that characterizes the evolution of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses.

  17. Roll of hemagglutinin gene in the biology of avian inflenza virus

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    Masoud Soltanialvar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hemagglutinin (HA, the major envelope glycoprotein of influenza, plays an important role during the early stage of infection, and changes in the HA gene prior to the emergence of pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The HA protein controls viral entry through membrane fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane and allows the genetic information released to initiate new virus synthesis. Sharp antigenic variation of HA remains the critical challenge to the development of effective vaccines. Therefore, we highlight the role of HA in need of review: structure of HA, the fusion process and the HA receptor binding specificity in interspecies transmission and the impact of multiple mutations at antigenic sites and host antibodies to the parental virus, and the host susceptibility to productive infection by the drift strains.

  18. Seroepizootiological investigations of animals from Obedska bara locality for presence of Avian influenza virus

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    Đuričić Bosiljka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disease caused by Influenza viruses has been well known for a very long time. In the recent period there has been noted an occurrence of pandemics caused by Influenza viruses type A with a high rate of mortality. The ongoing pandemic caused by avian influenza virus serotype H9N9 began in Hong Kong in 1992, and another pandemic caused by serotype H5N1 began in China (Hong Kong in 1999. The world wide spreading of these viruses occurred due to migratory birds. Avian influenza was confirmed in Serbia in 2007. The goal of this study was to examine whether the avian influenza viruses type A circulate in the region of the Obedska bara marsh, which is a famous resort for many birds in Serbia, as well as many birds migrating from Europe to Africa and vice versa. The samples of blood sera of many animal species (123 samples from fowl, 64 samples from donkeys, 40 samples from horses were tested by serologic reaction of inhibition of haemmaglutination (IHA for the presence of antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H7N1 and H7N2. Also, the samples of blood sera of experimental chicken exposed to wild life in Obedska bara (sentinel species were tested. Antibodies to subtypes H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H7N1 and H7N2 were found in chicken from Dec, Boljevci, Petrovcic and Kupinovo villages but no antibodies were found in blood sera from hams from Dobanovci, Jakovo, Becmen and Surcin villages. From 23 samples from ducks antibodies were detected in 3 samples, and from 22 geese blood sera antibodies were found in 4 samples. From a total of 40 horse blood sera tested one was tested positive, and from 64 donkey sera 17 were positive for the presence of antibodies for avian influenza type A. In blood sera of experimental chicken antibodies were found by subtype H5N1 with corrections with H5N2 and H7N1.

  19. Use of FTA sampling cards for molecular detection of avian influenza virus in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Shamus P; Ferro, Pamela J; Brown, Justin D; Fang, Xingwang; El-Attrache, John; Poulson, Rebecca; Jackwood, Mark W; Stallknecht, David E

    2012-03-01

    Current avian influenza (AI) virus surveillance programs involving wild birds rely on sample collection methods that require refrigeration or low temperature freezing to maintain sample integrity for virus isolation and/or reverse-transcriptase (RT) PCR. Maintaining the cold chain is critical for the success of these diagnostic assays but is not always possible under field conditions. The aim of this study was to test the utility of Finders Technology Associates (FTA) cards for reliable detection of AI virus from cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs of wild birds. The minimum detectable titer was determined, and the effect of room temperature storage was evaluated experimentally using multiple egg-propagated stock viruses (n = 6). Using real time RT-PCR, we compared results from paired cloacal swab and samples collected on FTA cards from both experimentally infected mallards (Anasplatyrhynchos) and hunter-harvested waterfowl sampled along the Texas Gulf Coast. Based on the laboratory trials, the average minimal detectable viral titer was determined to be 1 x 10(4.7) median embryo infectious dose (EID50)/ml (range: 1 x 10(4.3) to 1 x 10(5.4) EID50/ml), and viral RNA was consistently detectable on the FTA cards for a minimum of 20 days and up to 30 days for most subtypes at room temperature (23 C) storage. Real-time RT-PCR of samples collected using the FTA cards showed fair to good agreement in live birds when compared with both real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation of swabs. AI virus detection rates in samples from several wild bird species were higher when samples were collected using the FTA cards compared with cloacal swabs. These results suggest that FTA cards can be used as an alternative sample collection method when traditional surveillance methods are not possible, especially in avian populations that have historically received limited testing or situations in which field conditions limit the ability to properly store or ship swab samples.

  20. Transmission and immunopathology of the avian influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) human isolate in three commonly commercialized avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaña, B; Dolz, R; Busquets, N; Ramis, A; Sánchez, R; Rivas, R; Valle, R; Cordón, I; Solanes, D; Martínez, J; Majó, N

    2018-05-01

    H7N9 virus infection is a global concern, given that it can cause severe infection and mortality in humans. However, the understanding of H7N9 epidemiology, animal reservoir species and zoonotic risk remains limited. This work evaluates the pathogenicity, transmissibility and local innate immune response of three avian species harbouring different respiratory distribution of α2,6 and α2,3 SA receptors. Muscovy ducks, European quails and SPF chickens were intranasally inoculated with 10 5 embryo infectious dose (EID) 50 of the human H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013) influenza isolate. None of the avian species showed clinical signs or macroscopic lesions, and only mild microscopic lesions were observed in the upper respiratory tract of quail and chickens. Quail presented more severe histopathologic lesions and avian influenza virus (AIV) positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC), which correlated with higher IL-6 responses. In contrast, Muscovy ducks were resistant to disease and presented higher IFNα and TLR7 response. In all species, viral shedding was higher in the respiratory than in the digestive tract. Higher viral shedding was observed in quail, followed by chicken and ducks, which presented similar viral titres. Efficient transmission was observed in all contact quail and half of the Muscovy ducks, while no transmission was observed between chicken. All avian species showed viral shedding in drinking water throughout infection. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Prevalence of Antibodies to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Backyard Chickens around Maharlou Lake in Iran

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    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour*, Gholamhossein Habibi and Amir Vosoughi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backyard chickens play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 500 backyard chickens from villages around Maharlou lake in Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 7.73 and 81.6%, respectively.

  2. Fluorescence biosensor based on CdTe quantum dots for specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa Nguyen, Thi; Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Hien Vu, Thi; Tran, Thi Kim Chi; Quyen Dong, Van; Khang Dinh, Duy; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2012-09-01

    This report highlights the fabrication of fluorescence biosensors based on CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus. The core biosensor was composed of (i) the highly luminescent CdTe/CdS QDs, (ii) chromatophores extracted from bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum, and (iii) the antibody of β-subunit. This core part was linked to the peripheral part of the biosensor via a biotin-streptavidin-biotin bridge and finally connected to the H5N1 antibody to make it ready for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus. Detailed studies of each constituent were performed showing the image of QDs-labeled chromatophores under optical microscope, proper photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CdTe/CdS QDs, chromatophores and the H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

  3. Inhibition of Avian Influenza A Virus Replication in Human Cells by Host Restriction Factor TUFM Is Correlated with Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Ming; Chen, Chi-Jene; Chang, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Tzu-Jou; Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2017-06-13

    Avian influenza A viruses generally do not replicate efficiently in human cells, but substitution of glutamic acid (Glu, E) for lysine (Lys, K) at residue 627 of avian influenza virus polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) can serve to overcome host restriction and facilitate human infectivity. Although PB2 residue 627 is regarded as a species-specific signature of influenza A viruses, host restriction factors associated with PB2 627 E have yet to be fully investigated. We conducted immunoprecipitation, followed by differential proteomic analysis, to identify proteins associating with PB2 627 K (human signature) and PB2 627 E (avian signature) of influenza A/WSN/1933(H1N1) virus, and the results indicated that Tu elongation factor, mitochondrial (TUFM), had a higher binding affinity for PB2 627 E than PB2 627 K in transfected human cells. Stronger binding of TUFM to avian-signature PB2 590 G/ 591 Q and PB2 627 E in the 2009 swine-origin pandemic H1N1 and 2013 avian-origin H7N9 influenza A viruses was similarly observed. Viruses carrying avian-signature PB2 627 E demonstrated increased replication in TUFM-deficient cells, but viral replication decreased in cells overexpressing TUFM. Interestingly, the presence of TUFM specifically inhibited the replication of PB2 627 E viruses, but not PB2 627 K viruses. In addition, enhanced levels of interaction between TUFM and PB2 627 E were noted in the mitochondrial fraction of infected cells. Furthermore, TUFM-dependent autophagy was reduced in TUFM-deficient cells infected with PB2 627 E virus; however, autophagy remained consistent in PB2 627 K virus-infected cells. The results suggest that TUFM acts as a host restriction factor that impedes avian-signature influenza A virus replication in human cells in a manner that correlates with autophagy. IMPORTANCE An understanding of the mechanisms that influenza A viruses utilize to shift host tropism and the identification of host restriction factors that can limit infection are both

  4. Molecular detection of avian pox virus from nodular skin and mucosal fibrinonecrotic lesions of Iranian backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha; Namjoo, Abdolrasul

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, some outbreaks of skin lesions suspected to be avian pox were observed in the backyard poultry in different parts of western areas in Iran. Consequently, 328 backyard poultries with suspected signs of avian pox virus infection were sampled. All birds showed nodular lesions on unfeathered head skin and/or fibronecrotic lesions on mucus membrane of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. For histopathological analysis, the sections of tissue samples from cutaneous lesions of examined birds were stained with H&E method. For PCR, after DNA extraction a 578-bp fragment of avian pox virus from 4b core protein gene was amplified. Results showed 217 and 265 out of 328 (66.1 and 80.7%, respectively) samples were positive for avian pox virus on histopathological and PCR examination, respectively. In this study, the samples that had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies on pathologic examination were PCR positive. This study revealed that PCR is a valuable tool for identification of an avian pox virus and that the frequency of pox infection in backyard poultry in western areas of Iran is high.

  5. Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses Exhibit Few Barriers to Gene Flow in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Nguyen, Tung; Emch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Locating areas where genetic change is inhibited can illuminate underlying processes that drive evolution of pathogens. The persistence of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Vietnam since 2003, and the continuous molecular evolution of Vietnamese avian influenza viruses, indicates that local environmental factors are supportive not only of incidence but also of viral adaptation. This article explores whether gene flow is constant across Vietnam, or whether there exist boundary areas where gene flow exhibits discontinuity. Using a dataset of 125 highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses, principal components analysis and wombling analysis are used to indicate the location, magnitude, and statistical significance of genetic boundaries. Results show that a small number of geographically minor boundaries to gene flow in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses exist in Vietnam, but that overall there is little division in genetic exchange. This suggests that differences in genetic characteristics of viruses from one region to another are not the result of barriers to H5N1 viral exchange in Vietnam, and that H5N1 avian influenza is able to spread relatively unimpeded across the country. PMID:22350419

  6. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hadipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. Overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.

  7. Avian influenza A virus PB2 promotes interferon type I inducing properties of a swine strain in porcine dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocaña-Macchi, Manuela; Ricklin, Meret E.; Python, Sylvie; Monika, Gsell-Albert; Stech, Jürgen; Stech, Olga; Summerfield, Artur

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic resulted from reassortment of avian, human and swine strains probably in pigs. To elucidate the role of viral genes in host adaptation regarding innate immune responses, we focussed on the effect of genes from an avian H5N1 and a porcine H1N1 IAV on infectivity and activation of porcine GM-CSF-induced dendritic cells (DC). The highest interferon type I responses were achieved by the porcine virus reassortant containing the avian polymerase gene PB2. This finding was not due to differential tropism since all viruses infected DC equally. All viruses equally induced MHC class II, but porcine H1N1 expressing the avian viral PB2 induced more prominent nuclear NF-κB translocation compared to its parent IAV. The enhanced activation of DC may be detrimental or beneficial. An over-stimulation of innate responses could result in either pronounced tissue damage or increased resistance against IAV reassortants carrying avian PB2.

  8. Avian influenza A virus PB2 promotes interferon type I inducing properties of a swine strain in porcine dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana-Macchi, Manuela; Ricklin, Meret E.; Python, Sylvie; Monika, Gsell-Albert [Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhaeusern (Switzerland); Stech, Juergen; Stech, Olga [Friedrich-Loeffler Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems (Germany); Summerfield, Artur, E-mail: artur.summerfield@ivi.admin.ch [Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhaeusern (Switzerland)

    2012-05-25

    The 2009 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic resulted from reassortment of avian, human and swine strains probably in pigs. To elucidate the role of viral genes in host adaptation regarding innate immune responses, we focussed on the effect of genes from an avian H5N1 and a porcine H1N1 IAV on infectivity and activation of porcine GM-CSF-induced dendritic cells (DC). The highest interferon type I responses were achieved by the porcine virus reassortant containing the avian polymerase gene PB2. This finding was not due to differential tropism since all viruses infected DC equally. All viruses equally induced MHC class II, but porcine H1N1 expressing the avian viral PB2 induced more prominent nuclear NF-{kappa}B translocation compared to its parent IAV. The enhanced activation of DC may be detrimental or beneficial. An over-stimulation of innate responses could result in either pronounced tissue damage or increased resistance against IAV reassortants carrying avian PB2.

  9. Published sequences do not support transfer of oseltamivir resistance mutations from avian to human influenza A virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Peter; Lindh, Magnus; Olofsson, Sigvard

    2015-03-28

    Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate ester, OE) is a widely used antiviral active against influenza A virus. Its active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is chemically stable and secreted into wastewater treatment plants. OC contamination of natural habitats of waterfowl might induce OC resistance in influenza viruses persistently infecting waterfowl, and lead to transfer of OC-resistance from avian to human influenza. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such has occurred. A genomics approach including phylogenetic analysis and probability calculations for homologous recombination was applied on altogether 19,755 neuraminidase (N1 and N2) genes from virus sampled in humans and birds, with and without resistance mutations. No evidence for transfer of OE resistance mutations from avian to human N genes was obtained, and events suggesting recombination between human and avian influenza virus variants could not be traced in the sequence material studied. The results indicate that resistance in influenza viruses infecting humans is due to the selection pressure posed by the global OE administration in humans rather than transfer from avian influenza A virus strains carrying mutations induced by environmental exposure to OC.

  10. Towards mutual trust, transparency and equity in virus sharing mechanism: the avian influenza case of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Isfandari, Siti; Soendoro, Triono; Supari, Siti Fadilah

    2008-06-01

    As the country hardest hit by avian influenza, both in poultry and in human, Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) has fired up a global controversy. The objective of this paper is to describe the position taken by Indonesia in the events leading to the decision and in those conducted to resolve the situation. The sources for this paper are the Indonesian human influenza A(H5N1) case reports and study results, summaries, minutes and reports of national and international meetings of virus sharing, and other related Indonesian and WHO documents. The International Health Regulations 2005 have been applied in different ways based on different interpretations. While one party insists on the importance of free, non-conditional, virus sharing for risk assessment and risk response, Indonesia--as supported by most of the developing countries--stresses on the more basic principles such as sovereignty of a country over its biological materials, transparency of the global system, and equity between developed and developing nations. This event demonstrates the unresolved imbalance between the affluent high-tech countries and the poor agriculture-based countries. Regional, global and in-country meetings must continue to be conducted to find solutions acceptable to all.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Afghanistan (2016-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hossein; Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Arash; Fallah Mehrabadi, Mohammad Hossein; Sediqian, Mohammad Saeed; Shayeganmehr, Arzhang; Ghafouri, Seyed Ali; Maghsoudloo, Hossein; Abdollahi, Hamed; Farahani, Reza Kh

    2017-10-01

    Avian influenza A virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 is the most prevalent subtype found in terrestrial poultry throughout Eurasia and has been isolated from poultry outbreaks worldwide. Tracheal tissue specimens from 100 commercial broiler flocks in Afghanistan were collected between 2016 and 2017. After real-time RT-PCR, AI-positive samples were further characterized. A part of the HA gene was amplified using RT-PCR and sequenced. The results of real-time RT-PCR showed that 40 percent of the flocks were AI positive. Phylogenetic studies showed that these H9N2 AIVs grouped within the Eurasian-lineage G1 AIVs and had a correlation with H9N2 AIV circulating in the poultry population of the neighboring countries over the past decade. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of HA revealed that the detected H9N2 viruses possessed molecular profiles suggestive of low pathogenicity and specificity for the avian-like SAα2,3 receptor, demonstrating their specificity for and adaptation to domestic poultry. The results of the current study provide great insights into H9N2 viruses circulating in Afghanistan's poultry industry and demonstrate the necessity of planning an applied policy aimed at controlling and managing H9N2 infection in Afghan poultry.

  12. Isolation of avian influenza virus (H9N2 from emu in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Wenhua

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first reported isolation of avian influenza virus (AIV from emu in China. An outbreak of AIV infection occurred at an emu farm that housed 40 four-month-old birds. Various degrees of haemorrhage were discovered in the tissues of affected emus. Cell degeneration and necrosis were observed microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed round or oval virions with a diameter of 80 nm to 120 nm, surrounded by an envelope with spikes. The virus was classified as low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV, according to OIE standards. It was named A/Emu/HeNen/14/2004(H9N2(Emu/HN/2004. The HA gene (1683bp was amplified by RT-PCR and it was compared with other animal H9N2 AIV sequences in GenBank, the US National Institutes of Health genetic sequence database. The results suggested that Emu/HN/2004 may have come from an avian influenza virus (H9N2 from Southern China.

  13. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Changwen; Mok, Chris Ka Pun; Zhu, Wenfei; Zhou, Haibo; He, Jianfeng; Guan, Wenda; Wu, Jie; Song, Wenjun; Wang, Dayan; Liu, Jiexiong; Lin, Qinhan; Chu, Daniel Ka Wing; Yang, Lei; Zhong, Nanshan; Yang, Zifeng; Shu, Yuelong; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik

    2017-07-01

    The recent increase in zoonotic avian influenza A(H7N9) disease in China is a cause of public health concern. Most of the A(H7N9) viruses previously reported have been of low pathogenicity. We report the fatal case of a patient in China who was infected with an A(H7N9) virus having a polybasic amino acid sequence at its hemagglutinin cleavage site (PEVPKRKRTAR/GL), a sequence suggestive of high pathogenicity in birds. Its neuraminidase also had R292K, an amino acid change known to be associated with neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. Both of these molecular features might have contributed to the patient's adverse clinical outcome. The patient had a history of exposure to sick and dying poultry, and his close contacts had no evidence of A(H7N9) disease, suggesting human-to-human transmission did not occur. Enhanced surveillance is needed to determine whether this highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus will continue to spread.

  14. Contact variables for exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, P; Perdue, M; Mumford, E

    2010-06-01

    Although the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to cause infections in both avian and human populations, the specific zoonotic risk factors remain poorly understood. This review summarizes available evidence regarding types of contact associated with transmission of H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface. A systematic search of the published literature revealed five analytical studies and 15 case reports describing avian influenza transmission from animals to humans for further review. Risk factors identified in analytical studies were compared, and World Health Organization-confirmed cases, identified in case reports, were classified according to type of contact reported using a standardized algorithm. Although cases were primarily associated with direct contact with sick/unexpectedly dead birds, some cases reported only indirect contact with birds or contaminated environments or contact with apparently healthy birds. Specific types of contacts or activities leading to exposure could not be determined from data available in the publications reviewed. These results support previous reports that direct contact with sick birds is not the only means of human exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus. To target public health measures and disease awareness messaging for reducing the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza H5N1 virus, the specific types of contacts and activities leading to transmission need to be further understood. The role of environmental virus persistence, shedding of virus by asymptomatic poultry and disease pathophysiology in different avian species relative to human zoonotic risk, as well as specific modes of zoonotic transmission, should be determined.

  15. Drugs against avian influenza a virus: design of novel sulfonate inhibitors of neuraminidase N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udommaneethanakit, Thanyarat; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Frecer, Vladimir; Seneci, Pierfausto; Miertus, Stanislav; Bren, Urban

    2014-01-01

    The outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus has raised a global concern for both the animal as well as human health. Besides vaccination, that may not achieve full protection in certain groups of patients, inhibiting neuraminidase or the transmembrane protein M2 represents the main measure of controlling the disease. Due to alarming emergence of influenza virus strains resistant to the currently available drugs, development of new neuraminidase N1 inhibitors is of utmost importance. The present paper provides an overview of the recent advances in the design of new antiviral drugs against avian influenza. It also reports findings in binding free energy calculations for nine neuraminidase N1 inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir -carboxylate, -phosphonate, and -sulfonate) using the Linear Interaction Energy method. Molecular dynamics simulations of these inhibitors were performed in a free and two bound states - the so called open and closed conformations of neuraminidase N1. Obtained results successfully reproduce the experimental binding affinities of the already known neuraminidase N1 inhibitors, i.e. peramivir being a stronger binder than zanamivir that is in turn stronger binder than oseltamivir, or phosphonate inhibitors being stronger binders than their carboxylate analogues. In addition, the newly proposed sulfonate inhibitors are predicted to be the strongest binders - a fact to be confirmed by their chemical synthesis and a subsequent test of their biological activity. Finally, contributions of individual inhibitor moieties to the overall binding affinity are explicitly evaluated to assist further drug development towards inhibition of the H5N1 avian influenza A virus.

  16. Contemporary avian influenza A virus subtype H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 hemagglutinin genes encode a mammalian virulence factor similar to the 1918 pandemic virus H1 hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Pujanauski, Lindsey M; Davis, A Sally; Schwartzman, Louis M; Chertow, Daniel S; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Hartshorn, Kevan L; Slemons, Richard D; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kash, John C; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2014-11-18

    Zoonotic avian influenza virus infections may lead to epidemics or pandemics. The 1918 pandemic influenza virus has an avian influenza virus-like genome, and its H1 hemagglutinin was identified as a key mammalian virulence factor. A chimeric 1918 virus expressing a contemporary avian H1 hemagglutinin, however, displayed murine pathogenicity indistinguishable from that of the 1918 virus. Here, isogenic chimeric avian influenza viruses were constructed on an avian influenza virus backbone, differing only by hemagglutinin subtype expressed. Viruses expressing the avian H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 subtypes were pathogenic in mice and cytopathic in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, in contrast to H2-, H3-, H5-, H9-, H11-, H13-, H14-, and H16-expressing viruses. Mouse pathogenicity was associated with pulmonary macrophage and neutrophil recruitment. These data suggest that avian influenza virus hemagglutinins H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 contain inherent mammalian virulence factors and likely share a key virulence property of the 1918 virus. Consequently, zoonotic infections with avian influenza viruses bearing one of these hemagglutinins may cause enhanced disease in mammals. Influenza viruses from birds can cause outbreaks in humans and may contribute to the development of pandemics. The 1918 pandemic influenza virus has an avian influenza virus-like genome, and its main surface protein, an H1 subtype hemagglutinin, was identified as a key mammalian virulence factor. In a previous study, a 1918 virus expressing an avian H1 gene was as virulent in mice as the reconstructed 1918 virus. Here, a set of avian influenza viruses was constructed, differing only by hemagglutinin subtype. Viruses with the avian H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 subtypes caused severe disease in mice and damaged human lung cells. Consequently, infections with avian influenza viruses bearing one of these hemagglutinins may cause enhanced disease in mammals, and therefore surveillance for human infections

  17. Comparative pathology of chickens experimentally inoculated with avian influenza viruses of low and high pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, I P; Brugh, M; Fletcher, O J; Rowland, G N; Swayne, D E

    1997-01-01

    Pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigen as determined by immunohistochemistry were compared among 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated intratracheally with avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates of either low or high pathogenicity. Viruses of low pathogenicity, previously characterized as mildly pathogenic (MP), included A/chicken/Pennsylvania/21525/83 (H5N2) (MP-Penn) and A/chicken/Alabama/7395/75 (H4N8) (MP-Alab). Viruses of high pathogenicity included A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2), A/chicken/Victoria/A185/85 (H7N7), and A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (H5N9). Extremely variable clinical signs ranging from mild respiratory distress to high mortality were present among chickens inoculated with these viruses. Chickens inoculated with highly pathogenic (HP) virus had histologic lesions of necrosis and inflammation in cloacal bursa, thymus, spleen, heart, pancreas, kidney, brain, trachea, lung, and skeletal muscle, whereas chickens inoculated with MP virus had histologic lesions most frequently in lung and trachea or lacked histologic lesions. Immunospecific staining for avian influenza viral proteins was most common in cells within heart, lung, kidney, brain, and pancreas of chicken inoculated with HP viruses, but immunospecific staining was present only and infrequently in trachea and lung of chickens inoculated with MP-Penn AIV. MP-Alab did not produce lesions nor have viral antigen in inoculated chickens but did produce serologic evidence of infection. The pattern of organ involvement and viral antigen distribution in chickens intratracheally inoculated with HP AIV isolates indicates a common capability to spread beyond the respiratory tract and confirms the pantrophic replicative, pathobiologic, and lethal nature of the viruses. However, variability in severity and lesion distribution exists between different HP AIVs. By contrast, MP viruses had the ability to replicate in respiratory or enteric tracts or both and produce lesions

  18. Molecular Evolution and Emergence of H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingying; Chen, Mingyue; Yang, Jiayun; Jia, Yane; Han, Shufang; Holmes, Edward C; Cui, Jie

    2017-06-15

    H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) has posed a potential threat to public health since its emergence in China in 2013. To understand the evolution and emergence of H5N6 AIV in the avian population, we performed molecular surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) in Wugang Prefecture, Hunan Province, in central China, during 2014 and 2015. Wugang Prefecture is located on the Eastern Asian-Australian migratory bird flyway, and a human death due to an H5N6 virus was reported in the prefecture on 21 November 2016. In total, we sampled and sequenced the complete genomes of 175 H5N6 AIVs. Notably, our analysis revealed that H5N6 AIVs contain at least six genotypes arising from segment reassortment, including a rare variant that possesses an HA gene derived from H5N1 clade 2.3.2 and a novel NP gene that has its origins with H7N3 viruses. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed that genetically similar H5N6 AIVs tend to cluster according to their geographic regions of origin. These results help to reveal the evolutionary behavior of influenza viruses prior to their emergence in humans. IMPORTANCE The newly emerged H5N6 influenza A virus has caused more than 10 human deaths in China since 2013. In November 2016, a human death due to an H5N6 virus, in Wugang Prefecture, Hunan Province, was confirmed by the WHO. To better understand the evolution and emergence of H5N6 viruses, we surveyed live poultry markets (LPMs) in Wugang Prefecture before the reported human death, with a focus on revealing the diversity and genomic origins of H5N6 in birds during 2014 and 2015. In general, H5N6 viruses in this region were most closely related to H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4, with the exception of one virus with an HA gene derived from clade 2.3.2 such that it represents a novel reassortant. Clearly, the ongoing surveillance of LPMs is central to monitoring the emergence of pathogenic influenza viruses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Poultry farms as a source of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus reassortment and human infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Donglin; Zou, Shumei; Bai, Tian; Li, Jing; Zhao, Xiang; Yang, Lei; Liu, Hongmin; Li, Xiaodan; Yang, Xianda; Xin, Li; Xu, Shuang; Zou, Xiaohui; Li, Xiyan; Wang, Ao; Guo, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    Live poultry markets are a source of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. On February 21, 2014, a poultry farmer infected with H7N9 virus was identified in Jilin, China, and H7N9 and H9N2 viruses were isolated from the patient's farm. Reassortment between these subtype viruses generated five genotypes, one of which caused the human infection. The date of H7N9 virus introduction to the farm is estimated to be between August 21, 2013 (95% confidence interval [CI] June 6, 2013-Oc...

  20. Putative Human and Avian Risk Factors for Avian Influenza Virus Infections in Backyard Poultry in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Basma M.; Fuller, Trevon L.; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Aziz, Soad Abdel; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A.; Elbokl, Mohamed M.; Habbak, Lotfy Z.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1,084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010–2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242)and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n = 51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F = 15.7, p< 0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F= 29.5, p< 0.0001). PMID:24315038

  1. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    Avian influenza (AI) is a disease of major threat to poultry production. Surveillance of AI in wild birds contributes to the control of AI. In Denmark (DK) and Greenland (GL), extensive surveillance of AI viruses in the wild bird population has been conducted. The surveillance aimed at detecting......7 subtypes were detected throughout the period together with several other LPAI subtypes. In GL, HPAI was not detected, but few samples were PCR positive for AI. The occurrence of AI subtypes in the wild bird population correlates with concurrent outbreaks of LPAI in Danish poultry, which may...

  2. Viremia associated with fatal outcomes in ferrets infected with avian H5N1 influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    Full Text Available Avian H5N1 influenza viruses cause severe disease and high mortality in infected humans. However, tissue tropism and underlying pathogenesis of H5N1 virus infection in humans needs further investigation. The objective of this work was to study viremia, tissue tropism and disease pathogenesis of H5N1 virus infection in the susceptible ferret animal model. To evaluate the relationship of morbidity and mortality with virus loads, we performed studies in ferrets infected with the H5N1 strain A/VN/1203/04 to assess clinical signs after infection and virus load in lung, brain, ileum, nasal turbinate, nasal wash, and blood. We observed that H5N1 infection in ferrets is characterized by high virus load in the brain and and low levels in the ileum using real-time PCR. In addition, viral RNA was frequently detected in blood one or two days before death and associated with symptoms of diarrhea. Our observations further substantiate pathogenicity of H5N1 and further indicate that viremia may be a bio-marker for fatal outcomes in H5N1 infection.

  3. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I...... and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig...

  4. Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Some Localities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah N. Alkhalaf

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out prevalence and types of avian influenza virus (AIV among broilers, native chickens, ducks and pigeons in Saudi Arabia. Field investigation was carried out in four localities including Al-Qassim, Hail, Al-Jouf and Northern Border regions. Serum sample, tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from broilers (n=1561, layers (n=988, ducks (n=329 and pigeons (n=450 from these localities and tested for three different avian influenza viruses (H9, H5 and H3 using Enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA test, hamagglutination inhibition (HI test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All tested samples were negative for H5 and H3 viruses. In contrast, all positive results were found to be for H9 AI virus using PCR, ELISA and HI test. Chicken sera tested by ELISA for AIV revealed the highest positive samples in Northern Border regions (45.71%, followed by Al-Jouf (29.65%, Al-Qassim (23.98% and Hial (20.94% with non-significant difference (χ2=5.983; P=0.112. HI test carried out on duck sera revealed 35.90% prevalence of antibodies against AIV. PCR amplification resulted in 34.28 and 21.36% positive samples in ducks and chickens, respectively. The highest (45.71% PCR positive chicken samples were from Northern Border regions, followed by Al-Jouf (24.13%, Al-Qassim (19.30% and Hail (16.69% with significant difference (χ2=7.620; P=0.055. All tested pigeons samples were negative for the three virus serotypes included in the study.

  5. Evaluation of Nobuto filter paper strips for the detection of avian influenza virus antibody in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    The utility of using Nobuto paper strips for the detection of avian influenza antibodies was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) experimentally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Blood was collected 2 wk after infection and was preserved either as serum or whole blood absorbed onto Nobuto strips. Analysis of samples using a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed comparable results (???96% sensitivity for all methods) between sera stored at -30 C and the Nobuto strip preservation method even when the Nobuto strips were stored up to 3 mo at room temperature (RT). Significant differences were detected in the ratio of sample absorbance to negative control absorbance for Nobuto strips stored at RT compared with sera stored at -30 C, although these differences did not affect the ability of the test to reliably detect positive and negative samples. Nobuto strips are a convenient and sensitive alternative to the collection of serum samples when maintaining appropriate storage temperatures is difficult. ?? 2011 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  6. Genome characterisation of the newly discovered avian influenza A H5N7 virus subtype combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, in 2003, a previously unknown subtype combination of avian influenza A virus, H5N7 (A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03), was isolated from a flock of 12,000 mallards. The H5N7 subtype combination might be a reassortant between recent European avian influenza A H5, H7, and a third subtype......) and the human-fatal A/Netherlands/219/03 (H7N7), respectively. The basic polymerase 1 and 2 genes were phylogenetically equidistant to both A/Duck/Denmark/65047/04 (H5N2) and A/Chicken/Netherlands/1/03 (H7N7). The nucleoprotein and matrix gene had highest nucleotide sequence similarity to the H6 subtypes A....../Duck/Hong Kong/3096/99 (H6N2) and A/WDk/ST/1737/2000 (H6N8), respectively. All genes of the H5N7 strain were of avian origin, and no further evidence of pathogenicity to humans has been found....

  7. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (l NDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a l NDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultan...

  8. Dinamika Seroprevalensi Virus Avian Influenza H5 pada Itik di Pasar Unggas Beringkit dan Galiran

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    I Gusti Ngurah Narendra Putra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Live Bird Market (LBM has a high potential for spreading Avian Influenza Virus (AIV between fowls or from fowl to human. Up to now, a dinamic of avian flue incidents at many LBMs in Bali has not been reported. This research aimed to reveal a dynamic of seroprevalences of avian influenza in ducks at Beringkit (Badung and Galiran (Kelungkung LBMs. A total of 35 duck blood samples was collected from each of LBMs. Sampling was conducted monthly from March to August, 2012 . AIV antibody of duck serum was measured using Rapid Hemagglutination Inhibition (Rapid HI test. Seroprevalence differences were analyzes with Chi-square (?2 Nonparametric statistical test. The results showed that seroprevalences of AIV H5 in ducks at Beringkit and Galiran LBMs were very high, ranged from 68.6% to 100% and 65.7% to 97.1% respectively. A Dynamic of AIV H5 seroprevalences in ducks at Beringkit and Galiran LBM had a similar pattern, except in July 2012. This indicates that VAI H5 has been circulating for a long time and has been to be an endemic virus infection in ducks at LBMs in Bali. It can be suggested that an Avian Influenza Virus monitoring should be done continuously over a long period. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  9. Prospective study of avian influenza virus infections among rural Thai villagers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney S Krueger

    Full Text Available In 2008, 800 rural Thai adults living within Kamphaeng Phet Province were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Serological analyses of enrollment sera suggested this cohort had experienced subclinical avian influenza virus (AIV infections with H9N2 and H5N1 viruses.After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 mos for acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI. Cohort members confirmed to have influenza A infections were enrolled with their household contacts in a family transmission study involving paired sera and respiratory swab collections. Cohort members also provided sera at 12 and 24 months after enrollment. Serologic and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed against avian, swine, and human influenza viruses.Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 81 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted; 31 (38% were identified as influenza A infections by qRT-PCR. Eighty-three household contacts were enrolled; 12 (14% reported ILIs, and 11 (92% of those were identified as influenza infections. A number of subjects were found to have slightly elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2 virus: 21 subjects (2.7% at 12-months and 40 subjects (5.1% at 24-months. Among these, two largely asymptomatic acute infections with H9N2 virus were detected by >4-fold increases in annual serologic titers (final titers 1:80. While controlling for age and influenza vaccine receipt, moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated H9N2 titers (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04-5.2 at the 24-month encounter. One subject had an elevated titer (1:20 against H5N1 during follow-up.From 2008-10, evidence for AIV infections was sparse among this rural population. Subclinical H9N2 AIV infections likely occurred, but serological results were confounded by antibody cross-reactions. There is a critical need for improved serological diagnostics to more accurately detect subclinical AIV infections in

  10. Prospective study of avian influenza virus infections among rural Thai villagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Whitney S; Khuntirat, Benjawan; Yoon, In-Kyu; Blair, Patrick J; Chittagarnpitch, Malinee; Putnam, Shannon D; Supawat, Krongkaew; Gibbons, Robert V; Bhuddari, Darunee; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Heil, Gary L; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, 800 rural Thai adults living within Kamphaeng Phet Province were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Serological analyses of enrollment sera suggested this cohort had experienced subclinical avian influenza virus (AIV) infections with H9N2 and H5N1 viruses. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 mos for acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have influenza A infections were enrolled with their household contacts in a family transmission study involving paired sera and respiratory swab collections. Cohort members also provided sera at 12 and 24 months after enrollment. Serologic and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed against avian, swine, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 81 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted; 31 (38%) were identified as influenza A infections by qRT-PCR. Eighty-three household contacts were enrolled; 12 (14%) reported ILIs, and 11 (92%) of those were identified as influenza infections. A number of subjects were found to have slightly elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2) virus: 21 subjects (2.7%) at 12-months and 40 subjects (5.1%) at 24-months. Among these, two largely asymptomatic acute infections with H9N2 virus were detected by >4-fold increases in annual serologic titers (final titers 1:80). While controlling for age and influenza vaccine receipt, moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated H9N2 titers (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04-5.2) at the 24-month encounter. One subject had an elevated titer (1:20) against H5N1 during follow-up. From 2008-10, evidence for AIV infections was sparse among this rural population. Subclinical H9N2 AIV infections likely occurred, but serological results were confounded by antibody cross-reactions. There is a critical need for improved serological diagnostics to more accurately detect subclinical AIV infections in humans.

  11. Hatchability, serology and virus excretion following in ovo vaccination of chickens with an avian metapneumovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Heincz, U

    2004-12-01

    The present investigation describes for the first time the effect of an avian metapneumovirus vaccine administered in ovo to 18-day-old chicken embryos. The application of the vaccine had no adverse effect on the hatchability or the health of the chicks post hatch. The antibody titres achieved were higher than those determined for birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Not only were the mean titres in the in ovo vaccinated groups higher, but many more birds developed a measurable antibody response than birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Variation of the vaccine dose used in ovo had little effect on the serological responses that peaked 21 to 28 days post hatch. Re-isolation of the vaccine virus was much more successful from birds vaccinated in ovo than from birds vaccinated at 1 day old, and detection of the nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction correlated with the results of live virus isolation.

  12. Phylodynamic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, Ana; Pereda, Ariel; Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Craig, María Isabel; Hernández, Diego; Banda, Alejandro; Villegas, Pedro; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2015-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus of chickens that causes great economic losses to the global poultry industry. The present study focuses on South American IBVs and their genetic relationships with global strains. We obtained full-length sequences of the S1 coding region and N gene of IBV field isolates from Uruguay and Argentina, and performed Phylodynamic analysis to characterize the strains and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor. We identified two major South American genotypes, which were here denoted South America I (SAI) and Asia/South America II (A/SAII). The SAI genotype is an exclusive South American lineage that emerged in the 1960s. The A/SAII genotype may have emerged in Asia in approximately 1995 before being introduced into South America. Both SAI and A/SAII genotype strains clearly differ from the Massachusetts strains that are included in the vaccine formulations being used in most South American countries. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate.

  14. Isolation and Metagenomic Identification of Avian Leukosis Virus Associated with Mortality in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruku Bande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus (ALV belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate.

  15. Strategies and challenges for eliciting immunity against avian influenza virus in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, David E; Kapczynski, Darrell

    2008-10-01

    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged during the past two decades as essential tools in avian influenza (AI) control for poultry, because they increase resistance to infection, prevent illness and death, reduce virus replication and shed from respiratory and alimentary tracts, and reduce virus transmission to birds and mammals, including humans. Such protection in birds is primarily mediated by homosubtypic humoral immunity against the hemagglutinin protein, but cell-mediated and innate immunity contribute to protection in some bird species. The immune response to the neuraminidase protein can contribute to protection, but immunity to the viral internal proteins is generally not protective. Although, some preliminary studies with M2e protein in chickens suggest partial protection may be achievable. Historically, the H5 subtype AI vaccines have demonstrated broad homosubtypic protection, primarily against H5 high-pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses isolated in the early stages of outbreaks. However, as H5 viruses have become endemic and outbreaks prolonged, some drift variants with resistance to earlier H5 AI vaccines have emerged in Central America, China, Egypt, and Indonesia. How widespread such drift variants are will remain unknown until more detailed genetic and antigenic analyses are conducted on field isolates. Future vaccines will utilize biotechnology to produce new AI vaccine seed strains using HA genes more closely matching circulating field viruses. In addition, newer technologies for AI vaccines will improve vaccine coverage by using mass application technologies for example by drinking water, by spray, or via injection in ovo or at the hatchery.

  16. Identification of Gene Resistance to Avian InfluenzaVirus (Mx Gene among Wild Waterbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Elfidasari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mx gene is an antiviral gene used to determine the resistance or the susceptibility to different types of viruses, including the Avian Influenza (AI virus subtype H5N1. The AI virus subtype H5N1 infection in chickens causes Mx gene polymorphism. The Mx+ gene shows resistant to the AIvirus subtype H5N1, whereas the Mx-gene shows signs of susceptible. The objective of thisresearch was to detect the Mxgene in wild aquatic birds using the Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method with the primer pairs F2 and NE-R2/R and the RsaI restriction enzyme. DNA samples were obtained from eight species of wild waterbirds with positive and negative exposure to the AI virus subtype H5N1. DNA amplification results showed that the Mxgene in wild aquatic birds is found in a 100 bp fragment, which is the same as the Mx gene found in chickens. However, unlike chickens, the Mxgene in wild aquatic birds did not show any polymorphism. This study proves that Mx- based resistance to AI virus subtype H5N1 in different in wild birds than in chickens.

  17. Avian Influenza Virus (H11N9) in Migratory Shorebirds Wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo Júnior, Severino M.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F.; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M.; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M. M.; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B.; da Silva, Adriana C. S.; Rodrigues, Arlinéa M. M.; Bomfim, Leonardo L.; Mota, Marcelo A.; Larrazábal, Maria E.; Branco, Joaquim O.; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S.; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

  18. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Federova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  19. Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2014-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. PRODUKSI KOLOSTRUM ANTIVIRUS AVIAN INFLUENZA DALAM RANGKA PENGENDALIAN INFEKSI VIRUS FLU BURUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esfandari

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the prospect of bovine colostrum utilization to produce specific antibody as passive immunotherapy against avian influenza. Pregnant Frisian Holstein cows were injected with commercial killed Avian Influenza (AI vaccine given double doses subcutaneously three times every two weeks. Prior to vaccination, the cows were given immunomodulator 0.1 mg.kg-1 BW administered orally for three days. The animals then were injected by inactive H5N1 antigent without adjuvant intravenously to meet the dose of 104 HAU. Blood samples were collected to detect anti AI antibody using Enzyme Linked Jmmunosorbent Assay technique. Colostral samples were analysed to detect antibody against AI using Haemagglutination Inhibition technique. IgG stabilities were tested against enzyme, pH, and spray dried prosessing with inlet dan outlet temperature of 1400C and 520C.repectively. The colostral lgG efficacy on neutralizing H5N1 virus activity was determined in vitro (by using Serum Neutralization Test and protective titer measurement and in ovo (challenge test by using Embryonic Chicken Egg. The result indicated that serum antibody against H5N1 was detected one week after the second vaccination. Titer of colostral antibody against H5N1 was high (28 . Biological activity of colostral IgG remain stable at pH 5-7 and after spraying-drying prosessing, but decreased after treatment by trypsin and pepsin enzymes. The neutralization test showed that the fresh and spray dried colostral IgG against H5N1 were able to neutralize 107 EID50 AI virus H5N1 with neutralization index of 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. In conclusion, pregnant Frisian Holstein cows injected with commercial killed Avian Influenza (AI vaccine were able to produce colostral lgG against AI H5Nl

  1. Tenacity of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in different types of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A; Stallknecht, D; Ritz, C; García, M

    2012-08-01

    To determine the risk of infection associated with exposure to low-pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus-contaminated poultry litter, the tenacity of low pathogenic A/Ck/CA/431/00(H6N2), A/Mallard/MN/355779/00(H5N2), and A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04(H3N2) was evaluated. Viral stocks were incubated with poultry litter from commercial flocks at 25°C. Three types of poultry litter, wood shavings, shavings plus gypsum, and shavings plus peanut hulls, from commercial broiler flocks were used. The 3 low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses retained infectivity for one day in wood shavings and shavings plus peanut hulls litter types, whereas in wood shavings plus gypsum, litter viruses remained infective for up to 3 d. In contrast to the survivability in litter, all the viruses maintained infectivity in water for 4 d at titers of log(10)4.5. The infectivity of A/Ck/CA/431/00(H6N2) shed by experimentally infected layers, broilers, and turkeys was retained for one day, independently of the type of litter. In commercial production where a high density of birds are housed, the viral load shed by an infected flock will be significantly higher than the viral load shed 3 d postinfection obtained under the experimental conditions used in this study. Therefore proper management and disposal of poultry by products, such as windrow composting of litter and the composting of carcasses during an AI outbreak should be implemented.

  2. Internal Gene Cassette from a Genotype S H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus Attenuates the Pathogenicity of H5 Viruses in Chickens and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV of genotype S frequently donate internal genes to facilitate the generation of novel reassortants such as H7N9, H10N8, H5N2 and H5N6 AIVs, posing an enormous threat to both human health and poultry industry. However, the pathogenicity and transmission of reassortant H5 viruses with internal gene cassette of genotype S H9N2-origin in chickens and mice remain unknown. In this study, four H5 reassortants carrying the HA and NA genes from different clades of H5 viruses and the remaining internal genes from an H9N2 virus of the predominant genotype S were generated by reverse genetics. We found that all four H5 reassortant viruses showed attenuated virulence in both chickens and mice, thus leading to increased the mean death times compared to the corresponding parental viruses. Consistently, the polymerase activity and replication ability in mammalian and avian cells, and the cytokine responses in the lungs of chickens and mice were also decreased when compared to their respective parental viruses. Moreover, these reassortants transmitted from birds to birds by direct contact but not by an airborne route. Our data indicate that the internal genes as a whole cassette from genotype S H9N2 viruses play important roles in reducing the pathogenicity of the H5 recombinants in chickens and mice, and might contribute to the circulation in avian or mammalian hosts.

  3. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Central Bosnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletić, Teufik; Gagić, Abdulah; Residbegović, Emina; Kustura, Aida; Kavazović, Aida; Savić, Vladimir; Harder, Timm; Starick, Elke; Prasović, Senad

    2010-03-01

    In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds in Bosnia and Herzegovina, extensive surveillance was carried out between October 2005 and April 2006. A total of 394 samples representing 41 bird species were examined for the presence of influenza A virus using virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs, PCR, and nucleotide sequencing. AIV subtype H5N1 was detected in two mute swans (Cygnus olor). The isolates were determined to be highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and the hemagglutinin sequence was closely similar to A/Cygnus olor/Astrakhan/ Ast05-2-10/2005 (H5N1). This is the first report of HPAI subtype H5N1 in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  4. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in wildlife: diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keawcharoen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 outbreaks have been reported in Southeast Asia causing high mortality in poultry and have also been found to cross the species barrier infecting human and other mammalian species. Thailand is one of the countries severely affected by

  5. Differential display technique of RNA from tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic variants of hamster cells transformed with avian sarcoma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leksa, V.; Altaner, C.

    1997-01-01

    Differential display technique was applied to study expression of RNA in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cell variants of avian sarcoma virus transformed hamster cells. Methodical conditions were worked out, which allowed identifying a cDNA fragment of an unknown gene expressed in non-tumorigenic cell variant only. Its role in tumor suppression remains to be determined. (author)

  6. GADD45ß, an anti-tumor gene, inhibits avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a retrovirus that induces neoplasia, hepatomegaly, immunosuppression and poor performance in chickens. The tumorigenic and pathogenic mechanisms of ALV-J remain a hot topic. To explore anti-tumor genes that confer genetic resistance to ALV-J infection in ch...

  7. Genetic Diversity of NHE1, Receptor for Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus, in Domestic Chicken and Wild Anseriform Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reinišová, Markéta; Plachý, Jiří; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Vinkler, M.; Hejnar, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), e0150589-e0150589 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1419; GA ČR GA13-30983S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : avian leukosis virus * NHE1 * Genetic Diversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  8. Comparative Pathogenesis of an Avian H5N2 and a Swine H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Atanasova, Kalina; Van Borm, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal) ...

  9. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ramis (Antonio); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); R. Vanderstichel (R.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHistorically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental

  10. Using egg production data to quantify within-flock transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial layer chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, J.L.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Goot, van der J.A.; Bontje, D.M.; Koch, G.; Wit, de J.J.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv) affect the poultry industry of several countries in the world, information about their transmission characteristics in poultry is sparse. Outbreak reports of LPAIv in layer chickens have described drops in egg production that appear to be

  11. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul C.; Grear, Daniel A.; Ip, Hon S.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl.

  12. Variable epidemiology of the three outbreaks of unrelated highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in the United States, 2014-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three unrelated highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks have occurred in the United States (US) during 2014-2017. Late in 2014, Canada reported the first outbreak of an H5N2 reassortment virus between the A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD)-lineage H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4A HPAI and North American...

  13. Single Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Differential Identification of Human and Avian Influenza Virus Types, Subtypes, and Emergent Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    peptide biomarker loci will increasingly fail, through false-positive and/or false-negative results. This will adversely impact critical decision...and field specimen isolates of avian influenza virus represented subtypes A/H10N7 (4), A/H7N7 (2), A/H11 (1) or A/ H13 (1). In marked contrast to

  14. Rapid detection of avian influenza virus in chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic capture reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Handberg, Kurt; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes great economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide and threatens the human population with a pandemic. The conventional detection method for AIV involves sample preparation of viral RNA extraction and purification from raw sample such as bird droppings...

  15. Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/24/2013.

  16. Induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken; implications for development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, de E.D.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Vervelde, L.

    2012-01-01

    The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV,

  17. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 recognized by avian antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encheng Sun

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24 were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Duck Plague Virus (DPV and Goose Parvovirus (GPV antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and

  18. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramis , Antonio; van Amerongen , Geert; van de Bildt , Marco; Leijten , Loneke; Vanderstichel , Raphael; Osterhaus , Albert; Kuiken , Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Historically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental HPAIV H5N1 infection of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) to determine their susceptibility to infection and disease from this virus, pattern of viral shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes a...

  19. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Derek D.; Azeem, Shahan; Lundy, Coady W.; Sato, Yuko; Guo, Baoqing; Blanchong, Julie A.; Gauger, Phillip C.; Marks, David R.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Adelman, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human ...

  20. Full-Genome Analysis of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus from a Human, North America, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Wong, Sallene; Li, Yan; Bastien, Nathalie; Tang, Julian W.; Drews, Steven J.; Jang, Yunho; Davis, C. Todd; Tipples, Graham A.

    2014-01-01

    Full-genome analysis was conducted on the first isolate of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus from a human in North America. The virus has a hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.3.2.1c and is a reassortant with an H9N2 subtype lineage polymerase basic 2 gene. No mutations conferring resistance to adamantanes or neuraminidase inhibitors were found. PMID:24755439

  1. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  2. Extended viral shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis.

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    J Jeffrey Root

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis are susceptible to infection with some influenza A viruses. However, the viral shedding capability of this peri-domestic mammal and its potential role in influenza A virus ecology are largely undetermined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Striped skunks were experimentally infected with a low pathogenic (LP H4N6 avian influenza virus (AIV and monitored for 20 days post infection (DPI. All of the skunks exposed to H4N6 AIV shed large quantities of viral RNA, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and confirmed for live virus with virus isolation, from nasal washes and oral swabs (maximum ≤ 10(6.02 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL and ≤ 10(5.19 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL, respectively. Some evidence of potential fecal shedding was also noted. Following necropsy on 20 DPI, viral RNA was detected in the nasal turbinates of one individual. All treatment animals yielded evidence of a serological response by 20 DPI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that striped skunks have the potential to shed large quantities of viral RNA through the oral and nasal routes following exposure to a LP AIV. Considering the peri-domestic nature of these animals, along with the duration of shedding observed in this species, their presence on poultry and waterfowl operations could influence influenza A virus epidemiology. For example, this species could introduce a virus to a naive poultry flock or act as a trafficking mechanism of AIV to and from an infected poultry flock to naive flocks or wild bird populations.

  3. Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus-receptor interactions: From classical genetics to novel insights into virus-cell membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.J.O.; Elleder, D.; Young, J.A.T.

    2006-01-01

    For over 40 years, avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV)-receptor interactions have been employed as a useful model system to study the mechanism of retroviral entry into cells. Pioneering studies on this system focused upon the genetic basis of the differential susceptibilities of different lines of chickens to infection by distinct subgroups of ASLV. These studies led to the definition of three distinct autosomal recessive genes that were predicted to encode cellular receptors for different viral subgroups. They also led to the concept of viral interference, i.e. the mechanism by which infection by one virus can render cells resistant to reinfection by other viruses that use the same cellular receptor. Here, we review the contributions that analyses of the ASLV-receptor system have made in unraveling the mechanisms of retroviral entry into cells and focus on key findings such as identification and characterization of the ASLV receptor genes and the subsequent elucidation of an unprecedented mechanism of virus-cell fusion. Since many of the initial findings on this system were published in the early volumes of Virology, this subject is especially well suited to this special anniversary issue of the journal

  4. The avian-origin PB1 gene segment facilitated replication and transmissibility of the H3N2/1968 pandemic influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Isabel; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Doedt, Jennifer; Kochs, Georg; Wilhelm, Jochen; Staeheli, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Matrosovich, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    The H2N2/1957 and H3N2/1968 pandemic influenza viruses emerged via the exchange of genomic RNA segments between human and avian viruses. The avian hemagglutinin (HA) allowed the hybrid viruses to escape preexisting immunity in the human population. Both pandemic viruses further received the PB1 gene segment from the avian parent (Y. Kawaoka, S. Krauss, and R. G. Webster, J Virol 63:4603-4608, 1989), but the biological significance of this observation was not understood. To assess whether the avian-origin PB1 segment provided pandemic viruses with some selective advantage, either on its own or via cooperation with the homologous HA segment, we modeled by reverse genetics the reassortment event that led to the emergence of the H3N2/1968 pandemic virus. Using seasonal H2N2 virus A/California/1/66 (Cal) as a surrogate precursor human virus and pandemic virus A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) (HK) as a source of avian-derived PB1 and HA gene segments, we generated four reassortant recombinant viruses and compared pairs of viruses which differed solely by the origin of PB1. Replacement of the PB1 segment of Cal by PB1 of HK facilitated viral polymerase activity, replication efficiency in human cells, and contact transmission in guinea pigs. A combination of PB1 and HA segments of HK did not enhance replicative fitness of the reassortant virus compared with the single-gene PB1 reassortant. Our data suggest that the avian PB1 segment of the 1968 pandemic virus served to enhance viral growth and transmissibility, likely by enhancing activity of the viral polymerase complex. Despite the high impact of influenza pandemics on human health, some mechanisms underlying the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses still are poorly understood. Thus, it was unclear why both H2N2/1957 and H3N2/1968 reassortant pandemic viruses contained, in addition to the avian HA, the PB1 gene segment of the avian parent. Here, we addressed this long-standing question by modeling the emergence of the H3N2

  5. Virus pathotype and deep sequencing of the HA gene of a low pathogenicity H7N1 avian influenza virus causing mortality in Turkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Iqbal

    Full Text Available Low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI viruses of the H7 subtype generally cause mild disease in poultry. However the evolution of a LPAI virus into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus results in the generation of a virus that can cause severe disease and death. The classification of these two pathotypes is based, in part, on disease signs and death in chickens, as assessed in an intravenous pathogenicity test, but the effect of LPAI viruses in turkeys is less well understood. During an investigation of LPAI virus infection of turkeys, groups of three-week-old birds inoculated with A/chicken/Italy/1279/99 (H7N1 showed severe disease signs and died or were euthanised within seven days of infection. Virus was detected in many internal tissues and organs from culled birds. To examine the possible evolution of the infecting virus to a highly pathogenic form in these turkeys, sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA gene cleavage site was carried out by analysing multiple cDNA amplicons made from swabs and tissue sample extracts employing Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing. In addition, a RT-PCR assay to detect HPAI virus was developed. There was no evidence of the presence of HPAI virus in either the virus used as inoculum or from swabs taken from infected birds. However, a small proportion (<0.5% of virus carried in individual tracheal or liver samples did contain a molecular signature typical of a HPAI virus at the HA cleavage site. All the signature sequences were identical and were similar to HPAI viruses collected during the Italian epizootic in 1999/2000. We assume that the detection of HPAI virus in tissue samples following infection with A/chicken/Italy/1279/99 reflected amplification of a virus present at very low levels within the mixed inoculum but, strikingly, we observed no new HPAI virus signatures in the amplified DNA analysed by deep-sequencing.

  6. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Wei Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-05-02

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

  7. Analytical study of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus dimeric RNA generated in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlix, J L; Gabus, C; Allain, B

    1992-12-01

    The retroviral genome consists of two identical RNA molecules associated at their 5' ends by a stable structure called the dimer linkage structure. The dimer linkage structure, while maintaining the dimer state of the retroviral genome, might also be involved in packaging and reverse transcription, as well as recombination during proviral DNA synthesis. To study the dimer structure of the retroviral genome and the mechanism of dimerization, we analyzed features of the dimeric genome of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) type A and identified elements required for its dimerization. Here we report that the REV dimeric genome extracted from virions and infected cells, as well as that synthesized in vitro, is more resistant to heat denaturation than avian sarcoma and leukemia virus, murine leukemia virus, or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dimeric RNA. The minimal domain required to form a stable REV RNA dimer in vitro was found to map between positions 268 and 452 (KpnI and SalI sites), thus corresponding to the E encapsidation sequence (J. E. Embretson and H. M. Temin, J. Virol. 61:2675-2683, 1987). In addition, both the 5' and 3' halves of E are necessary in cis for RNA dimerization and the extent of RNA dimerization is influenced by viral sequences flanking E. Rapid and efficient dimerization of REV RNA containing gag sequences in addition to the E sequences and annealing of replication primer tRNA(Pro) to the primer-binding site necessitate the nucleocapsid protein.

  8. The use of FTA® filter papers for diagnosis of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, E M; Lüschow, Dörte; Harder, Timm C; Hafez, Hafez M

    2011-06-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) infect a wide range of host species including domestic poultry and wild birds; also, AIVs may infect humans in whom some highly pathogenic viruses (HPAIV) may cause acute fatal disease. Accurate laboratory diagnosis of AIV infections requires time-consuming and logistically complex precautionary measures for shipment of specimens or viruses to avoid biohazard exposure. The feasibility was investigated of the Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA® card) for infectivity of AIVs and to preserve viral RNA for detection by RT-qPCR, sequencing and by DNA microarray assay. The infectivity of AIV subtype H6N2 and HPAIV subtype H5N1 was inactivated completely within one hour after adsorption to the FTA card at room temperature. FTA-adsorbed viral RNA remained stable for five months. Swab samples obtained from chickens infected experimentally with H5N1 virus and spotted directly onto the FTA® cards allowed a sensitive and straightforward diagnosis by RT-qPCR. FTA® cards were also suitable for examination of field samples, although AIV RNA was detected with reduced sensitivity in comparison to direct examination of swab fluids. The use of FTA® cards will facilitate safe transport of samples for molecular diagnosis of AIV avoiding the need for an uninterrupted cold storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protection against avian metapneumovirus subtype C in turkeys immunized via the respiratory tract with inactivated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2011-01-10

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes a severe upper respiratory tract (URT) infection in turkeys. Turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with inactivated aMPV/C adjuvanted with synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly IC). Immunized turkeys had elevated numbers of mucosal IgA+ cells in the URT and increased levels of virus-specific IgG and IgA in the lachrymal fluid and IgG in the serum. After 7 or 21 days post immunization, turkeys were challenged oculonasally with pathogenic aMPV/C. Immunized groups were protected against respiratory lesions induced by the challenge virus. Further, the viral copy number of the challenge virus in the URT were significantly lower in the immunized turkeys than in the unimmunized turkeys (P<0.05). These results showed that inactivated aMPV/C administered by the respiratory route induced protective immunity against pathogenic virus challenge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in Western Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, D.V.; Ip, Hon S.; Trust, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta) in western Alaska is an immense and important breeding ground for waterfowl. Migratory birds from the Pacific Americas, Central Pacific, and East Asian-Australasian flyways converge in this region, providing opportunities for intermixing of North American- and Eurasian-origin hosts and infectious agents, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). We characterized the genomes of 90 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates from 11 species of waterfowl sampled on the Y-K Delta between 2006 and 2009 as part of an interagency surveillance program for the detection of the H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) strain of AIV. We found evidence for subtype and genetic differences between viruses from swans and geese, dabbling ducks, and sea ducks. At least one gene segment in 39% of all isolates was Eurasian in origin. Target species (those ranked as having a relatively high potential to introduce HP H5N1 AIV to North America) were no more likely than nontarget species to carry viruses with genes of Eurasian origin. These findings provide evidence that the frequency at which viral gene segments of Eurasian origin are detected does not result from a strong species effect, but rather we suspect it is linked to the geographic location of the Y-K Delta in western Alaska where flyways from different continents overlap. This study provides support for retaining the Y-K Delta as a high priority region for the surveillance of Asian avian pathogens such as HP H5N1 AIV.

  11. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Hareaki; Shiga, Yusei; Ichikawa, Nobumichi.

    1988-01-01

    A previously healthy 39-year-old woman suddenly became stuporous following a slight upper respiratory infection. She went into a coma within a few hours. On admission to our hospital, adenine arabinoside was administered upon the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, but it had no apparent effect. The patient showed moderate leukocytosis, but no other abnormal laboratory data. Serological examinations for virus titer were all negative. A CT scan on the 9th day showed a diffuse low-density area extending into the cerebral and cerebellar white matter, but no contrast-enhancement effect or midline shift was observed. She has since remained in a coma, and repeated CT scans have revealed marked ventricular dilatation. The clinical course, laboratory data, and CT findings suggest acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, but acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis cannot exactly be ruled out. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a widespread white-matter lesion, while positron-emission CT demonstrated a dysfunction in both the white and gray matter. (author)

  12. Replication of avian, human and swine influenza viruses in porcine respiratory explants and association with sialic acid distribution

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    Nauwynck Hans J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the history of human influenza pandemics, pigs have been considered the most likely "mixing vessel" for reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses (AIVs. However, the replication efficiencies of influenza viruses from various hosts, as well as the expression of sialic acid (Sia receptor variants in the entire porcine respiratory tract have never been studied in detail. Therefore, we established porcine nasal, tracheal, bronchial and lung explants, which cover the entire porcine respiratory tract with maximal similarity to the in vivo situation. Subsequently, we assessed virus yields of three porcine, two human and six AIVs in these explants. Since our results on virus replication were in disagreement with the previously reported presence of putative avian virus receptors in the trachea, we additionally studied the distribution of sialic acid receptors by means of lectin histochemistry. Human (Siaα2-6Gal and avian virus receptors (Siaα2-3Gal were identified with Sambucus Nigra and Maackia amurensis lectins respectively. Results Compared to swine and human influenza viruses, replication of the AIVs was limited in all cultures but most strikingly in nasal and tracheal explants. Results of virus titrations were confirmed by quantification of infected cells using immunohistochemistry. By lectin histochemistry we found moderate to abundant expression of the human-like virus receptors in all explant systems but minimal binding of the lectins that identify avian-like receptors, especially in the nasal, tracheal and bronchial epithelium. Conclusions The species barrier that restricts the transmission of influenza viruses from one host to another remains preserved in our porcine respiratory explants. Therefore this system offers a valuable alternative to study virus and/or host properties required for adaptation or reassortment of influenza viruses. Our results indicate that, based on the expression of Sia

  13. Newcastle disease virus-based H5 influenza vaccine protects chickens from lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jingjiao; Lee, Jinhwa; Liu, Haixia; Mena, Ignacio; Davis, A. Sally; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Lang, Yuekun; Duff, Michael; Morozov, Igor; Li, Yuhao; Yang, Jianmei; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A.; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Since December 2014, Eurasian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses including H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 subtypes (called H5Nx viruses), which belong to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4, have been detected in U.S. wild birds. Subsequently, highly pathogenic H5N2 and H5N8 viruses have caused outbreaks in U.S. domestic poultry. Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to control influenza outbreaks and protect animal and public health. Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based influenza vaccines ha...

  14. Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annebel De Vleeschauwer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused a productive infection of the entire respiratory tract and epithelial cells in the lungs were the major target. Compared to the swine virus, the AIV produced lower virus titers and fewer antigen positive cells at all levels of the respiratory tract. The respiratory part of the nasal mucosa in particular showed only rare AIV positive cells and this was associated with reduced nasal shedding of the avian compared to the swine virus. The titers and distribution of the AIV varied extremely between individual pigs and were strongly affected by the route of inoculation. Gross lung lesions and clinical signs were milder with the avian than with the swine virus, corresponding with lower viral loads in the lungs. The brainstem was the single extra-respiratory tissue found positive for virus and viral RNA with both viruses. Our data do not reject the theory of the pig as an intermediate host for AIVs, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further studies on the molecular pathogenesis and neurotropism of AIVs in mammals.

  15. Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt

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    El-Zoghby Elham F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment of two main genetic clusters. The 2.2.1/C group where all recent human and majority of backyard origin viruses clustered together, meanwhile the majority of viruses derived from vaccinated poultry in commercial farms grouped in 2.2.1.1 clade. Findings In the present investigation, an HPAIV H5N1 was isolated from twenty weeks old layers chickens that were vaccinated with a homologous H5N1 vaccine at 1, 7 and 16 weeks old. At twenty weeks of age, birds showed cyanosis of comb and wattle, decrease in egg production and up to 27% mortality. Examined serum samples showed low antibody titer in HI test (Log2 3.2± 4.2. The hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the isolated virus were closely related to viruses in 2.2.1/C group isolated from poultry in live bird market (LBM and backyards or from infected people. Conspicuous mutations in the HA and NA genes including a deletion within the receptor binding domain in the HA globular head region were observed. Conclusions Despite repeated vaccination of layer chickens using a homologous H5N1 vaccine, infection with HPAIV H5N1 resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. In endemic countries like Egypt, rigorous control measures including enforcement of biosecurity, culling of infected birds and constant update of vaccine virus strains are highly required to prevent circulation of HPAIV H5N1 between backyard birds, commercial poultry, LBM and humans.

  16. Neuropathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1 in experimentally infected chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Aida J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to understand the mechanism of neuroinvasion of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV into the central nervous system (CNS of chickens, specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with a H7N1 HPAIV. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, nasal cavity and brain tissue samples were obtained from 1 to 4 days post-inoculation (dpi of infected and control chickens. Viral antigen topographical distribution, presence of influenza A virus receptors in the brain, as well as, the role of the olfactory route in virus CNS invasion were studied using different immunohistochemistry techniques. Besides, viral RNA load in CSF and blood was quantified by means of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Viral antigen was observed widely distributed in the CNS, showing bilateral and symmetrical distribution in the nuclei of the diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. Viral RNA was detected in blood and CSF at one dpi, indicating that the virus crosses the blood-CSF-barrier early during infection. This early dissemination is possibly favoured by the presence of Siaα2,3 Gal and Siaα2,6 Gal receptors in brain vascular endothelial cells, and Siaα2,3 Gal receptors in ependymal and choroid plexus cells. No viral antigen was observed in olfactory sensory neurons, while the olfactory bulb showed only weak staining, suggesting that the virus did not use this pathway to enter into the brain. The sequence of virus appearance and the topographical distribution of this H7N1 HPAIV indicate that the viral entry occurs via the haematogenous route, with early and generalized spreading through the CSF.

  17. Neuropathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1) in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Aida J; Busquets, Núria; Valle, Rosa; Rivas, Raquel; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Dolz, Roser; Ramis, Antonio; Darji, Ayub; Majó, Natàlia

    2011-10-07

    In order to understand the mechanism of neuroinvasion of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) into the central nervous system (CNS) of chickens, specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with a H7N1 HPAIV. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nasal cavity and brain tissue samples were obtained from 1 to 4 days post-inoculation (dpi) of infected and control chickens. Viral antigen topographical distribution, presence of influenza A virus receptors in the brain, as well as, the role of the olfactory route in virus CNS invasion were studied using different immunohistochemistry techniques. Besides, viral RNA load in CSF and blood was quantified by means of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Viral antigen was observed widely distributed in the CNS, showing bilateral and symmetrical distribution in the nuclei of the diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. Viral RNA was detected in blood and CSF at one dpi, indicating that the virus crosses the blood-CSF-barrier early during infection. This early dissemination is possibly favoured by the presence of Siaα2,3 Gal and Siaα2,6 Gal receptors in brain vascular endothelial cells, and Siaα2,3 Gal receptors in ependymal and choroid plexus cells. No viral antigen was observed in olfactory sensory neurons, while the olfactory bulb showed only weak staining, suggesting that the virus did not use this pathway to enter into the brain. The sequence of virus appearance and the topographical distribution of this H7N1 HPAIV indicate that the viral entry occurs via the haematogenous route, with early and generalized spreading through the CSF.

  18. Avian metapneumovirus infection of chicken and turkey tracheal organ cultures: comparison of virus-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sandra; Sid, Hicham; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, which can cause high economic losses in infected poultry. aMPV mainly causes infection of the upper respiratory tract in both chickens and turkeys, although turkeys seem to be more susceptible. Little is known about virus-host interactions at epithelial surfaces after aMPV infection. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) are a suitable model to investigate virus-host interaction in the respiratory epithelium. Therefore, we investigated virus replication rates and lesion development in chicken and turkey TOC after infection with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Aspects of the innate immune response, such as interferon-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression, as well as virus-induced apoptosis were determined. The aMPV-replication rate was higher in turkey (TTOC) compared to chicken TOC (CTOC) (P < 0.05), providing circumstantial evidence that indeed turkeys may be more susceptible. The interferon-α response was down-regulated from 2 to 144 hours post infection in both species compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05); this was more significant for CTOC than TTOC. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly up-regulated in aMPV-A-infected TTOC and CTOC compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05). However, the results suggest that NO may play a different role in aMPV pathogenesis between turkeys and chickens as indicated by differences in apoptosis rate and lesion development between species. Overall, our study reveals differences in innate immune response regulation and therefore may explain differences in aMPV - A replication rates between infected TTOC and CTOC, which subsequently lead to more severe clinical signs and a higher rate of secondary infections in turkeys.

  19. Epitope selection from an uncensored peptide library displayed on avian leukosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Pranay D.; Rosales, Ana G.; Bailey, Kent R.; Russell, Stephen J.; Federspiel, Mark J.

    2003-01-01

    Phage display libraries have provided an extraordinarily versatile technology to facilitate the isolation of peptides, growth factors, single chain antibodies, and enzymes with desired binding specificities or enzymatic activities. The overall diversity of peptides in phage display libraries can be significantly limited by Escherichia coli protein folding and processing machinery, which result in sequence censorship. To achieve an optimal diversity of displayed eukaryotic peptides, the library should be produced in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells using a eukaryotic display platform. In the accompanying article, we presented experiments that demonstrate that polypeptides of various sizes could be efficiently displayed on the envelope glycoproteins of a eukaryotic virus, avian leukosis virus (ALV), and the displayed polypeptides could efficiently attach to cognate receptors without interfering with viral attachment and entry into susceptible cells. In this study, methods were developed to construct a model library of randomized eight amino acid peptides using the ALV eukaryotic display platform and screen the library for specific epitopes using immobilized antibodies. A virus library with approximately 2 x 10 6 different members was generated from a plasmid library of approximately 5 x 10 6 diversity. The sequences of the randomized 24 nucleotide/eight amino acid regions of representatives of the plasmid and virus libraries were analyzed. No significant sequence censorship was observed in producing the virus display library from the plasmid library. Different populations of peptide epitopes were selected from the virus library when different monoclonal antibodies were used as the target. The results of these two studies clearly demonstrate the potential of ALV as a eukaryotic platform for the display and selection of eukaryotic polypeptides libraries

  20. Remote sensing and avian influenza: A review of image processing methods for extracting key variables affecting avian influenza virus survival in water from Earth Observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annelise; Goutard, Flavie; Chamaillé, Lise; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Lo Seen, Danny

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of water in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses and the existence of often interacting variables that determine the survival rate of these viruses in water; the two main variables are temperature and salinity. Remote sensing has been used to map and monitor water bodies for several decades. In this paper, we review satellite image analysis methods used for water detection and characterization, focusing on the main variables that influence AI virus survival in water. Optical and radar imagery are useful for detecting water bodies at different spatial and temporal scales. Methods to monitor the temperature of large water surfaces are also available. Current methods for estimating other relevant water variables such as salinity, pH, turbidity and water depth are not presently considered to be effective.

  1. Genetic and biological characterization of three poultry-origin H5N6 avian influenza viruses with all internal genes from genotype S H9N2 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaituo; Gu, Min; Hu, Shunlin; Gao, Ruyi; Li, Juan; Shi, Liwei; Sun, Wenqi; Liu, Dong; Gao, Zhao; Xu, Xiulong; Hu, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan

    2018-04-01

    During surveillance for avian influenza viruses, three H5N6 viruses were isolated in chickens obtained from live bird markets in eastern China, between January 2015 and April 2016. Sequence analysis revealed a high genomic homology between these poultry isolates and recent human H5N6 variants whose internal genes were derived from genotype S H9N2 avian influenza viruses. Glycan binding assays revealed that all avian H5N6 viruses were capable of binding to both human-type SAα-2,6Gal receptors and avian-type SAα-2,3Gal receptors. Their biological characteristics were further studied in BALB/c mice, specific-pathogen-free chickens, and mallard ducks. All three isolates had low pathogenicity in mice but were highly pathogenic to chickens, as evidenced by 100% mortality 36-120 hours post infection at a low dose of 10 3.0 EID 50 and through effective contact transmission. Moreover, all three poultry H5N6 isolates caused asymptomatic infections in ducks, which may serve as a reservoir host for their maintenance and dissemination; these migrating waterfowl could cause a potential global pandemic. Our study suggests that continuous epidemiological surveillance in poultry should be implemented for the early prevention of future influenza outbreaks.

  2. Multiple reassorted viruses as cause of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus epidemic, the Netherlands, 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, Nancy; Heutink, Rene; Bergervoet, Saskia A.; Harders, Frank; Bossers, Alex; Koch, Guus

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, an epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N8 in the Netherlands caused mass deaths among wild birds, and several commercial poultry farms and captive bird holdings were affected. We performed complete genome sequencing to study the relationship between the wild bird

  3. Effect of housing arrangement on fecal-oral transmission of avian hepatitis E virus in chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyuan; Sun, Yani; Chen, Yiyang; Du, Taofeng; Nan, Yuchen; Wang, Xinjie; Li, Huixia; Huang, Baicheng; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2017-09-07

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is common in chicken flocks in China, as currently no measures exist to prevent the spread of the disease. In this study, we analyzed the effect of caged versus cage-free housing arrangements on avian HEV transmission. First, 127 serum and 110 clinical fecal samples were collected from 4 chicken flocks including the two arrangements in Shaanxi Province, China and tested for HEV antibodies and/or virus. Concurrently, 36 specific-pathogen-free chickens were divided equally into four experimental living arrangement groups, designated cage-free (Inoculated), caged (Inoculated), cage-free (Negative) and caged (Negative) groups. In caged groups, three cages contained 3 chickens each. Three chickens each from cage-free (Inoculated) and caged (Inoculated) groups (one chicken of each cage) were inoculated by cutaneous ulnar vein with the same dose of avian HEV, respectively. The cage-free (Negative) and caged (Negative) groups served as negative control. Serum and fecal samples were collected at 1 to 7 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and liver lesions were scored at 7 wpi. The results of serology showed that the avian HEV infection rate (54.10%) of the cage-free chickens was significantly higher than the one (12.12%) for caged chickens (P chickens (6) was significantly higher than the one for the uninoculated caged birds (2), as evidenced by seroconversion, fecal virus shedding, viremia and gross and microscopic liver lesions. These results suggest that reduction of contact with feces as seen in the caged arrangement of housing chickens can reduce avian HEV transmission. This study provides insights for prevention and control of avian HEV infection in chicken flocks.

  4. Unique Determinants of Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance among N3, N7, and N9 Avian Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Suk; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Kumar, Gyanendra; Wong, Sook-San; Rubrum, Adam; Zanin, Mark; Choi, Young-Ki; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A; Webby, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Human infections with avian influenza viruses are a serious public health concern. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the frontline anti-influenza drugs and are the major option for treatment of newly emerging influenza. Therefore, it is essential to identify the molecular markers of NAI resistance among specific NA subtypes of avian influenza viruses to help guide clinical management. NAI-resistant substitutions in NA subtypes other than N1 and N2 have been poorly studied. Here, we identified NA amino acid substitutions associated with NAI resistance among influenza viruses of N3, N7, and N9 subtypes which have been associated with zoonotic transmission. We applied random mutagenesis and generated recombinant influenza viruses carrying single or double NA substitution(s) with seven internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. In a fluorescence-based NA inhibition assay, we identified three categories of NA substitutions associated with reduced inhibition by NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir): (i) novel subtype-specific substitutions in or near the enzyme catalytic site (R152W, A246T, and D293N, N2 numbering), (ii) subtype-independent substitutions (E119G/V and/or D and R292K), and (iii) substitutions previously reported in other subtypes (Q136K, I222M, and E276D). Our data show that although some markers of resistance are present across NA subtypes, other subtype-specific markers can only be determined empirically. The number of humans infected with avian influenza viruses is increasing, raising concerns of the emergence of avian influenza viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Since most studies have focused on NAI-resistance in human influenza viruses, we investigated the molecular changes in NA that could confer NAI resistance in avian viruses grown in immortalized monolayer cells, especially those of the N3, N7, and N9 subtypes, which have caused human infections. We identified not only numerous NAI

  5. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-06-02

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs.

  6. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Zhang, Peng-Chao; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Pan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Hui-Li; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2009-08-21

    As pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses, they have been proposed to be intermediate hosts or mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment or adaptation to the mammalian host. In this study, we reported avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was closely to avian-like H1N1 viruses and seemed to be derived from the European swine H1N1 viruses, which was for the first time reported in China; and the two H1N2 viruses (A/swine/Shanghai/1/07 and A/swine/Guangxi/13/06) were novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses containing genes from the classical swine (HA, NP, M and NS), human (NA and PB1) and avian (PB2 and PA) lineages, which indicted that the reassortment among human, avian, and swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in China and resulted in the generation of new viruses. The isolation of avian-like H1N1 influenza virus originated from the European swine H1N1 viruses, especially the emergence of two novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs serve as intermediate hosts or "mixing vessels", and swine influenza virus surveillance in China should be given a high priority.

  7. Modelling the wind-borne spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus between farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Ssematimba

    Full Text Available A quantitative understanding of the spread of contaminated farm dust between locations is a prerequisite for obtaining much-needed insight into one of the possible mechanisms of disease spread between farms. Here, we develop a model to calculate the quantity of contaminated farm-dust particles deposited at various locations downwind of a source farm and apply the model to assess the possible contribution of the wind-borne route to the transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus (HPAI during the 2003 epidemic in the Netherlands. The model is obtained from a Gaussian Plume Model by incorporating the dust deposition process, pathogen decay, and a model for the infection process on exposed farms. Using poultry- and avian influenza-specific parameter values we calculate the distance-dependent probability of between-farm transmission by this route. A comparison between the transmission risk pattern predicted by the model and the pattern observed during the 2003 epidemic reveals that the wind-borne route alone is insufficient to explain the observations although it could contribute substantially to the spread over short distance ranges, for example, explaining 24% of the transmission over distances up to 25 km.

  8. [An overview of surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Shi, Jing-Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds (mainly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes) are recognized as the natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The long-term surveillance of AIVs in wild birds has been conducted in North America and Europe since 1970s. More and more surveillance data revealed that all the HA and NA subtypes of AIVs were identified in the wild ducks, shorebirds, and gulls, and the AIVs circulating in wild birds were implicated in the outbreaks of AIVs in poultry and humans. Therefore, the AIVs in wild birds pose huge threat to poultry industry and human health. To gain a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in wild birds, we summarize the transmission of AIVs between wild birds, poultry, and humans, the main results of surveillance of AIVs in wild birds worldwide and methods for surveillance, and the types of samples and detection methods for AIVs in wild birds, which would be vital for the effective control of avian influenza and response to possible influenza pandemic.

  9. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodnomdarjaa Ruuragchaa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP avian influenza virus (AIV in Asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. In accordance with this a surveillance program for AIV in wild birds was conducted in Mongolia from 2005-2007. An important feature of Mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore AIV detection in wild birds would not likely be from spill-over from domestic poultry. Results During 2005-2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for AIV by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR and/or virus isolation. Bird age and health status were recorded. Ninety rRT-PCR AIV positive samples representing 89 individual birds of 19 species including 9 low pathogenicity (LP AIVs were isolated from 6 species. A Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus, a Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus and 2 Ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea were positive for H12N3 LP AIV. H16N3 and H13N6 viruses were isolated from Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus. A Red-crested pochard (Rhodonessa rufina and 2 Mongolian gulls (Larus vagae mongolicus were positive for H3N6 and H16N6 LP AIV, respectively. Full genomes of each virus isolate were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically and were most closely related to recent European and Asian wild bird lineage AIVs and individual genes loosely grouped by year. Reassortment occurred within and among different years and subtypes. Conclusion Detection and/or isolation of AIV infection in numerous wild bird species, including 2 which have not been previously described as hosts, reinforces the wide host range of AIV within avian species. Reassortment complexity within the genomes indicate the introduction of new AIV strains into wild bird populations annually, however there is enough over-lap of infection for reassortment to occur. Further work is

  10. Isolation and identification of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; Khan, Owais Ahmed; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lu, Huaguang

    2010-03-01

    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first diagnosed in a "backyard" flock of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) raised on palace premises in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in December 3, 2007. The flock consisted of 40 peafowl, and their ages ranged from 3 to 5 years old. Affected birds suffered from depression, anorexia, and white diarrhea. Four dead birds were submitted for HPAI diagnosis at the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Riyadh. Brain and liver tissues and tracheal and cloacal swabs were taken from the dead birds and processed for a real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test and virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs. The H5N1 subtype of avian influenza virus was isolated from the four dead birds and identified by a real-time RT-PCR before and after egg inoculation. The virus isolates were characterized as HPAI H5N1 virus by sequencing analysis. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed that the H5N1 viruses isolated from peafowl belong to the genetic clade 2.2 according to the World Health Organization nomenclature. The peafowl H5N1 virus falls into 2.2.2 sublineage II and clusters with the H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in Saudi Arabia in 2007-08.

  11. Vaccination with recombinant RNA replicon particles protects chickens from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Halbherr

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*ΔG(HA was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×10⁸ infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade. Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry.

  12. Vaccination against H9N2 avian influenza virus reduces bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue formation in cynomolgus macaques after intranasal virus challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Misako; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Itoh, Yasushi; Soda, Kosuke; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Park, Chun-Ho; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2016-12-01

    H9N2 avian influenza virus causes sporadic human infection. Since humans do not possess acquired immunity specific to this virus, we examined the pathogenicity of an H9N2 virus isolated from a human and then analyzed protective effects of a vaccine in cynomolgus macaques. After intranasal challenge with A/Hong Kong/1073/1999 (H9N2) (HK1073) isolated from a human patient, viruses were isolated from nasal and tracheal swabs in unvaccinated macaques with mild fever and body weight loss. A formalin-inactivated H9N2 whole particle vaccine derived from our virus library was subcutaneously inoculated to macaques. Vaccination induced viral antigen-specific IgG and neutralization activity in sera. After intranasal challenge with H9N2, the virus was detected only the day after inoculation in the vaccinated macaques. Without vaccination, many bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues (BALTs) were formed in the lungs after infection, whereas the numbers of BALTs were smaller and the cytokine responses were weaker in the vaccinated macaques than those in the unvaccinated macaques. These findings indicate that the H9N2 avian influenza virus HK1073 is pathogenic in primates but seems to cause milder symptoms than does H7N9 influenza virus as found in our previous studies and that a formalin-inactivated H9N2 whole particle vaccine induces protective immunity against H9N2 virus. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Isolation of recombinant phage antibodies targeting the hemagglutinin cleavage site of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Dong

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses, which have emerged in poultry and other wildlife worldwide, contain a characteristic multi-basic cleavage site (CS in the hemagglutinin protein (HA. Because this arginine-rich CS is unique among influenza virus subtypes, antibodies against this site have the potential to specifically diagnose pathogenic H5N1. By immunizing mice with the CS peptide and screening a phage display library, we isolated four antibody Fab fragment clones that specifically bind the antigen peptide and several HPAI H5N1 HA proteins in different clades. The soluble Fab fragments expressed in Escherichia coli bound the CS peptide and the H5N1 HA protein with nanomolar affinity. In an immunofluorescence assay, these Fab fragments stained cells infected with HPAI H5N1 but not those infected with a less virulent strain. Lastly, all the Fab clones could detect the CS peptide and H5N1 HA protein by open sandwich ELISA. Thus, these recombinant Fab fragments will be useful novel reagents for the rapid and specific detection of HPAI H5N1 virus.

  14. Molecular Characterization and Cluster Analysis of Field Isolates of Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Craig

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is a worldwide infectious disease that causes important economic losses in the poultry industry. Although it is known that ILT virus (ILTV is present in Argentina, there is no information about the circulating strains. With the aim to characterize them, seven different genomic regions (thymidine kinase, glycoproteins D, G, B, C, and J, and infected cell polypeptide 4 were partially sequenced and compared between field samples. The gJ sequence resulted to be the most informative segment, it allowed the differentiation among field sample strains, and also, between wild and vaccine viruses. Specific changes in selected nucleotidic positions led to the definition of five distinct haplotypes. Tests for detection of clustering were run to test the null hypothesis that ILTV haplotypes were randomly distributed in time in Argentina and in space in the most densely populated poultry region of this country, Entre Rios. From this study, it was possible to identify a 46 km radius cluster in which higher proportions of haplotypes 4 and 5 were observed, next to a provincial route in Entre Rios and a significant decline of haplotype 5 between 2009 and 2011. Results here provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of ILT in Argentina, including data on specific genome segments that may be used for rapid characterization of the virus in the field. Ultimately, results will contribute to the surveillance of ILT in the country.

  15. Avian leukosis virus is a versatile eukaryotic platform for polypeptide display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Pranay D.; Russell, Stephen J.; Federspiel, Mark J.

    2003-01-01

    Display technology refers to methods of generating libraries of modularly coded biomolecules and screening them for particular properties. Retroviruses are good candidates to be a eukaryotic viral platform for the display of polypeptides synthesized in eukaryotic cells. Here we demonstrate that avian leukosis virus (ALV) provides an ideal platform for display of nonviral polyaeptides expressed in a eukaryotic cell substrate. Different sizes of polypeptides were genetically fused to the extreme N-terminus of the ALV envelope glycoprotein in an ALV infectious clone containing an alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. The chimeric envelope glycoproteins were efficiently incorporated into virions and were stably displayed on the surface of the virions through multiple virus replication cycles. The foreign polypeptides did not interfere with the attachment and entry functions of the underlying ALV envelope glycoproteins. The displayed polypeptides were fully functional and could efficiently mediate attachment of the recombinant viruses to their respective cognate receptors. This study demonstrates that ALV is an ideal display platform for the generation and selection of libraries of polypeptides where there is a need for expression, folding, and posttranslational modification in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells

  16. Protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine against H9N2 avian influenza virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Shen, Weixia; Liu, Qinfang; Rong, Guangyu; Chen, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Li, Zejun

    2015-09-17

    Wild ducks play an important role in the evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Domestic ducks in China are known to carry and spread H9N2 AIVs that are thought to have contributed internal genes for the recent outbreak of zoonotic H7N9 virus. In order to protect animal and public health, an effective vaccine is urgently needed to block and prevent the spread of H9N2 virus in ducks. We developed an inactivated H9N2 vaccine (with adjuvant Montanide ISA 70VG) based on an endemic H9N2 AIV and evaluated this vaccine in ducks. The results showed that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine was able to induce a strong and fast humoral immune response in vaccinated ducks. The hemagglutination inhibition titer in the sera increased fast, and reached its peak of 12.3 log2 at 5 weeks post-vaccination in immunized birds and remained at a high level for at least 37 weeks post-vaccination. Moreover, viral shedding was completely blocked in vaccinated ducks after challenge with a homologous H9N2 AIV at both 3 and 37 weeks post-vaccination. The results of this study indicate that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine induces high and prolonged immune response in vaccinated ducks and are efficacious in protecting ducks from H9N2 infection.

  17. Genetic changes that accompanied shifts of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses toward higher pathogenicity in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of H5 and H7 subtypes exhibit two different pathotypes in poultry: infection with low pathogenic (LP) strains results in minimal, if any, health disturbances, whereas highly pathogenic (HP) strains cause severe morbidity and mortality. LPAIV of H5 and H7 subtypes can spontaneously mutate into HPAIV. Ten outbreaks caused by HPAIV are known to have been preceded by circulation of a predecessor LPAIV in poultry. Three of them were caused by H5N2 subtype and seven involved H7 subtype in combination with N1, N3, or N7. Here, we review those outbreaks and summarize the genetic changes which resulted in the transformation of LPAIV to HPAIV under natural conditions. Mutations that were found directly in those outbreaks are more likely to be linked to virulence, pathogenesis, and early adaptation of AIV. PMID:23863606

  18. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shuo; Bi, Yuhai; Wong, Gary; Gray, Gregory C; Gao, George F; Li, Shoujun

    2015-09-01

    Novel reassortants of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. Combined with the sometimes enzootic H5N1 and H9N2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse AIVs pose significant risks to public health. Here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of AIVs in China, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel AIVs, and identify warning signs which may point to the emergence of a potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIV to humans. This review will be useful to authorities who consider options for the detection and control of AIV transmission in animals and humans, with the goal of preventing future epidemics and pandemics. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  20. Effects of closing and reopening live poultry markets on the epidemic of human infection with avian influenza A virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jian; Liu, Wendong; Xia, Rui; Dai, Qigang; Bao, Changjun; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, yefei; Wang, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Live poultry markets (LPMs) are crucial places for human infection of influenza A (H7N9 virus). In Yangtze River Delta, LPMs were closed after the outbreak of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, and then reopened when no case was found. Our purpose was to quantify the effect of LPMs? operations in this region on the transmission of influenza A (H7N9) virus. We obtained information about dates of symptom onset and locations for all human influenza A (H7N9) cases repor...

  1. Tropism and Infectivity of Influenza Virus, Including Highly Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Virus, in Ferret Tracheal Differentiated Primary Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Maines, Taronna R.; Belser, Jessica A.; Gustin, Kortney M.; Pekosz, Andrew; Zaki, Sherif R.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and adaptation of influenza viruses to new hosts is partly dependent on the distribution of the sialic acid (SA) receptors to which the viral hemagglutinin (HA) binds. Ferrets have been established as a valuable in vivo model of influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission because of similarities to humans in the distribution of HA receptors and in clinical signs of infection. In this study, we developed a ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture model that consisted of a layered epithelium structure with ciliated and nonciliated cells on its apical surface. We found that human-like (α2,6-linked) receptors predominated on ciliated cells, whereas avian-like (α2,3-linked) receptors, which were less abundant, were presented on nonciliated cells. When we compared the tropism and infectivity of three human (H1 and H3) and two avian (H1 and H5) influenza viruses, we observed that the human influenza viruses primarily infected ciliated cells and replicated efficiently, whereas a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) replicated efficiently within nonciliated cells despite a low initial infection rate. Furthermore, compared to other influenza viruses tested, VN/1203 virus replicated more efficiently in cells isolated from the lower trachea and at a higher temperature (37°C) compared to a lower temperature (33°C). VN/1203 virus infection also induced higher levels of immune mediator genes and cell death, and virus was recovered from the basolateral side of the cell monolayer. This ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture system provides a valuable in vitro model for studying cellular tropism, infectivity, and the pathogenesis of influenza viruses. PMID:23255802

  2. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses and a Newcastle disease virus from wild birds in Barbados: 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kirk O; Lavoie, Marc C; Kim, L Mia; Afonso, Claudio L; Suarez, David L

    2007-09-01

    Zoonotic transmission of an H5N1 avian influenza A virus to humans in 2003-present has generated increased public health and scientific interest in the prevalence and variability of influenza A viruses in wild birds and their potential threat to human health. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are regarded as the primordial reservoir of all influenza A viral subtypes and have been repeatedly implicated in avian influenza outbreaks in domestic poultry and swine. All of the 16 hemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase influenza subtypes have been isolated from wild birds, but waterfowl of the order Anseriformes are the most commonly infected. Using 9-to-11-day-old embryonating chicken egg culture, virus isolation attempts were conducted on 168 cloacal swabs from various resident, imported, and migratory bird species in Barbados during the months of July to October of 2003 and 2004. Hemagglutination assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to screen all allantoic fluids for the presence of hemagglutinating agents and influenza A virus. Hemagglutination positive-influenza negative samples were also tested for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is also found in waterfowl. Two influenza A viruses and one NDV were isolated from Anseriformes (40/168), with isolation rates of 5.0% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40), respectively, for influenza A and NDV. Sequence analysis of the influenza A virus isolates showed them to be H4N3 viruses that clustered with other North American avian influenza viruses. This is the first report of the presence of influenza A virus and NDV in wild birds in the English-speaking Caribbean.

  3. Identification of viral epitopes recognized by the immune system following vaccination and challenge with the H7N9 avian influenza virus from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March of 2013, the first cases of H7N9 influenza were reported in humans in China, and shortly thereafter the virus was confirmed from poultry in live bird markets. Since that time the virus has persisted in both human and avian populations. The genetic composition of these H7N9 influenza virus...

  4. Generation of recombinant newcastle disease viruses, expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus, subtype A, or B, for use as bivalent vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, or B, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses, rLS/aMPV-A G and rLS/aMPV-B G, were slightly att...

  5. Development of reliable techniques for the differential diagnosis of avian tumor viruses by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, several techniques have been developed as diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of tumours produced by Marek’s disease virus (MDV) from those induced by avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). However, most current techniques are unreliable using form...

  6. Co-circulation of avian influenza viruses in commercial farms, backyards and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Kaoud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloacal and tracheal swab-samples were collected from commercial farms, backyards and live market birds (LBM to identify the potential existence and genetic drifts of avian influenza subtypes (AI H5 and H9 that are circulating among bird species in Egypt. The results revealed that, one sample out of 50 samples of chicken commercial farms was positive for the isolation of subtype H9N2 [KC699549, Influenza A virus: A/chicken/Egypt/VRLCU-R33/2012(H9N2]; from Sharkeia province. Two samples out of 20 samples of Backyard ducks were positive for the isolation of 2 subtypes H5N1; [KC699547, Influenza A virus: A/duck/Egypt/VRLCU-R11/2012(H5N1, “backyard duck”] from El-Fayoum province and the other from Giza province [A/duck/Egypt/VRLCU-R28/2012(H5N1, “backyard duck”]. Analysis of haemagglutinin (HA and the phylogenetic tree of the isolated viruses (H5N1 were fallen within the clade 2.2.1.1. Antigenic cartography for the isolated Egyptian H9N2 AI virus can intuitively be of group-B. The number of mutations in the amino acid sites (33, 47, 65, 90, 92, 143, and 150 and the Long Branch observed in the phylogenetic tree may suggest a rather long evolution period. The sequenced H9N2 Egyptian virus in the study was closely related to the previous Egyptian isolates.

  7. Prevalence and control of H7 avian influenza viruses in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, E M; Veits, J; Mettenleiter, T C

    2014-05-01

    The H7 subtype HA gene has been found in combination with all nine NA subtype genes. Most exhibit low pathogenicity and only rarely high pathogenicity in poultry (and humans). During the past few years infections of poultry and humans with H7 subtypes have increased markedly. This review summarizes the emergence of avian influenza virus H7 subtypes in birds and humans, and the possibilities of its control in poultry. All H7Nx combinations were reported from wild birds, the natural reservoir of the virus. Geographically, the most prevalent subtype is H7N7, which is endemic in wild birds in Europe and was frequently reported in domestic poultry, whereas subtype H7N3 is mostly isolated from the Americas. In humans, mild to fatal infections were caused by subtypes H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 and H7N9. While infections of humans have been associated mostly with exposure to domestic poultry, infections of poultry have been linked to wild birds or live-bird markets. Generally, depopulation of infected poultry was the main control tool; however, inactivated vaccines were also used. In contrast to recent cases caused by subtype H7N9, human infections were usually self-limiting and rarely required antiviral medication. Close genetic and antigenic relatedness of H7 viruses of different origins may be helpful in development of universal vaccines and diagnostics for both animals and humans. Due to the wide spread of H7 viruses and their zoonotic importance more research is required to better understand the epidemiology, pathobiology and virulence determinants of these viruses and to develop improved control tools.

  8. Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds; Towards improvement of surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josanne H.; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Schutten, Martin; Guldemeester, Judith; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Slaterus, Roy; Hornman, Menno; Koch, Guus; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Lierz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and

  9. Avian Influenza: Potential Impact on Sub-Saharan Military Populations with High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-01-01

    ...)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease...

  10. Molecular Characterization of Subtype H11N9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Shorebirds in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Hurtado

    Full Text Available Migratory aquatic birds play an important role in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV. Many species of aquatic migratory birds tend to use similar migration routes, also known as flyways, which serve as important circuits for the dissemination of AIV. In recent years there has been extensive surveillance of the virus in aquatic birds in the Northern Hemisphere; however in contrast only a few studies have been attempted to detect AIV in wild birds in South America. There are major flyways connecting South America to Central and North America, whereas avian migration routes between South America and the remaining continents are uncommon. As a result, it has been hypothesized that South American AIV strains would be most closely related to the strains from North America than to those from other regions in the world. We characterized the full genome of three AIV subtype H11N9 isolates obtained from ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres on the Amazon coast of Brazil. For all gene segments, all three strains consistently clustered together within evolutionary lineages of AIV that had been previously described from aquatic birds in North America. In particular, the H11N9 isolates were remarkably closely related to AIV strains from shorebirds sampled at the Delaware Bay region, on the Northeastern coast of the USA, more than 5000 km away from where the isolates were retrieved. Additionally, there was also evidence of genetic similarity to AIV strains from ducks and teals from interior USA and Canada. These findings corroborate that migratory flyways of aquatic birds play an important role in determining the genetic structure of AIV in the Western hemisphere, with a strong epidemiological connectivity between North and South America.

  11. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  12. Genetics, receptor binding property, and transmissibility in mammals of naturally isolated H9N2 Avian Influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyong Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 subtype influenza viruses have been detected in different species of wild birds and domestic poultry in many countries for several decades. Because these viruses are of low pathogenicity in poultry, their eradication is not a priority for animal disease control in many countries, which has allowed them to continue to evolve and spread. Here, we characterized the genetic variation, receptor-binding specificity, replication capability, and transmission in mammals of a series of H9N2 influenza viruses that were detected in live poultry markets in southern China between 2009 and 2013. Thirty-five viruses represented 17 genotypes on the basis of genomic diversity, and one specific "internal-gene-combination" predominated among the H9N2 viruses. This gene combination was also present in the H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that have infected humans in China. All of the 35 viruses preferentially bound to the human-like receptor, although two also retained the ability to bind to the avian-like receptor. Six of nine viruses tested were transmissible in ferrets by respiratory droplet; two were highly transmissible. Some H9N2 viruses readily acquired the 627K or 701N mutation in their PB2 gene upon infection of ferrets, further enhancing their virulence and transmission in mammals. Our study indicates that the widespread dissemination of H9N2 viruses poses a threat to human health not only because of the potential of these viruses to cause an influenza pandemic, but also because they can function as "vehicles" to deliver different subtypes of influenza viruses from avian species to humans.

  13. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Houston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Avian influenza virus (AIV infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human activities are thought to spread the virus into domestic populations. Consequently, biosecurity measures have been implemented to limit human-facilitated outbreaks. The 2015 avian influenza outbreak in the United States, which occurred among poultry operations with strict biosecurity controls, suggests that alternative routes of virus infiltration may exist, including bridge hosts: wild animals that transfer virus from areas of high waterfowl and shorebird densities. Methods Here, we examined small, wild birds (songbirds, woodpeckers, etc. and mammals in Iowa, one of the regions hit hardest by the 2015 avian influenza epizootic, to determine whether these animals carry AIV. To assess whether influenza A virus was present in other species in Iowa during our sampling period, we also present results from surveillance of waterfowl by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and Unites Stated Department of Agriculture. Results Capturing animals at wetlands and near poultry facilities, we swabbed 449 individuals, internally and externally, for the presence of influenza A virus and no samples tested positive by qPCR. Similarly, serology from 402 animals showed no antibodies against influenza A. Although several species were captured at both wetland and poultry sites, the overall community structure of wild species differed significantly between these types of sites. In contrast, 83 out of 527 sampled waterfowl tested positive for influenza A via qPCR. Discussion

  14. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Derek D; Azeem, Shahan; Lundy, Coady W; Sato, Yuko; Guo, Baoqing; Blanchong, Julie A; Gauger, Phillip C; Marks, David R; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Adelman, James S

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human activities are thought to spread the virus into domestic populations. Consequently, biosecurity measures have been implemented to limit human-facilitated outbreaks. The 2015 avian influenza outbreak in the United States, which occurred among poultry operations with strict biosecurity controls, suggests that alternative routes of virus infiltration may exist, including bridge hosts: wild animals that transfer virus from areas of high waterfowl and shorebird densities. Here, we examined small, wild birds (songbirds, woodpeckers, etc.) and mammals in Iowa, one of the regions hit hardest by the 2015 avian influenza epizootic, to determine whether these animals carry AIV. To assess whether influenza A virus was present in other species in Iowa during our sampling period, we also present results from surveillance of waterfowl by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and Unites Stated Department of Agriculture. Capturing animals at wetlands and near poultry facilities, we swabbed 449 individuals, internally and externally, for the presence of influenza A virus and no samples tested positive by qPCR. Similarly, serology from 402 animals showed no antibodies against influenza A. Although several species were captured at both wetland and poultry sites, the overall community structure of wild species differed significantly between these types of sites. In contrast, 83 out of 527 sampled waterfowl tested positive for influenza A via qPCR. These results suggest that even though influenza A viruses

  15. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-06

    Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a lNDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultaneously or sequentially three days apart. No clinical signs were observed in chickens co-infected with the lNDV and LPAIV or in chickens infected with the viruses individually. However, the pattern of virus shed was different with co-infected chickens, which excreted lower titers of lNDV and LPAIV at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and higher titers at subsequent time points. All turkeys inoculated with the LPAIV, whether or not they were exposed to lNDV, presented mild clinical signs. Co-infection effects were more pronounced in turkeys than in chickens with reduction in the number of birds shedding virus and in virus titers, especially when LPAIV was followed by lNDV. In conclusion, co-infection of chickens or turkeys with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses but did not affect clinical signs. The effect on virus replication was different depending on the species and on the time of infection. These results suggest that infection with a heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated, which decreases with time.

  16. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  17. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jonges

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, upwind and downwind of buildings holding poultry infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, and tested them for the presence of endotoxins and influenza virus to characterize the potential impact of airborne influenza virus transmission during outbreaks at commercial poultry farms. Influenza viruses were detected by RT-PCR in filter-rinse fluids collected up to 60 meters downwind from the barns, but virus isolation did not yield any isolates. Viral loads in the air samples were low and beyond the limit of RT-PCR quantification except for one in-barn measurement showing a virus concentration of 8.48 x 10(4 genome copies/m(3. Air samples taken outside poultry barns had endotoxin concentrations of ~50 EU/m(3 that declined with increasing distance from the barn. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of particulate matter, using location-specific meteorological data for the sampling days, demonstrated a positive correlation between endotoxin measurements and modeled particulate matter concentrations, with an R(2 varying from 0.59 to 0.88. Our data suggest that areas at high risk for human or animal exposure to airborne influenza viruses can be modeled during an outbreak to allow directed interventions following targeted surveillance.

  18. Chinese and global distribution of H9 subtype avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Jiang

    Full Text Available H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs are of significance in poultry and public health, but epidemiological studies about the viruses are scarce. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of the viruses were analyzed based on 1233 previously reported sequences and 745 novel sequences of the viral hemagglutinin gene. The novel sequences were obtained through large-scale surveys conducted in 2008-2011 in China. The results revealed distinct distributions of H9 subtype AIVs in different hosts, sites and regions in China and in the world: (1 the dominant lineage of H9 subtype AIVs in China in recent years is lineage h9.4.2.5 represented by A/chicken/Guangxi/55/2005; (2 the newly emerging lineage h9.4.2.6, represented by A/chicken/Guangdong/FZH/2011, has also become prevalent in China; (3 lineages h9.3.3, h9.4.1 and h9.4.2, represented by A/duck/Hokkaido/26/99, A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 and A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97, respectively, have become globally dominant in recent years; (4 lineages h9.4.1 and h9.4.2 are likely of more risk to public health than others; (5 different lineages have different transmission features and host tropisms. This study also provided novel experimental data which indicated that the Leu-234 (H9 numbering motif in the viral hemagglutinin gene is an important but not unique determinant in receptor-binding preference. This report provides a detailed and updated panoramic view of the epidemiological distributions of H9 subtype AIVs globally and in China, and sheds new insights for the prevention of infection in poultry and preparedness for a potential pandemic caused by the viruses.

  19. Feline aminopeptidase N is not a functional receptor for avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbison Carole E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronaviruses are an important cause of infectious diseases in humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, and have the continued potential for emergence from animal species. A major factor in the host range of a coronavirus is its receptor utilization on host cells. In many cases, coronavirus-receptor interactions are well understood. However, a notable exception is the receptor utilization by group 3 coronaviruses, including avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN serves as a functional receptor for most group 1 coronaviruses including feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV, canine coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. A recent report has also suggested a role for fAPN during IBV entry (Miguel B, Pharr GT, Wang C: The role of feline aminopeptidase N as a receptor for infectious bronchitis virus. Brief review. Arch Virol 2002, 147:2047–2056. Results Here we show that, whereas both transient transfection and constitutive expression of fAPN on BHK-21 cells can rescue FIPV and TGEV infection in non-permissive BHK cells, fAPN expression does not rescue infection by the prototype IBV strain Mass41. To account for the previous suggestion that fAPN could serve as an IBV receptor, we show that feline cells can be infected with the prototype strain of IBV (Mass 41, but with low susceptibility compared to primary chick kidney cells. We also show that BHK-21 cells are slightly susceptible to certain IBV strains, including Ark99, Ark_DPI, CA99, and Iowa97 ( Conclusion We conclude that fAPN is not a functional receptor for IBV, the identity of which is currently under investigation.

  20. Emergence of the virulence-associated PB2 E627K substitution in a fatal human case of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A(H7N7) infection as determined by Illumina ultra-deep sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, Marcel; Welkers, Matthijs R. A.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Meijer, Adam; Schneeberger, Peter; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Koopmans, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are capable of crossing the species barrier and infecting humans. Although evidence of human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses to date is limited, evolution of variants toward more-efficient human-to-human transmission could result in a new influenza virus

  1. Chimeric avian paramyxovirus-based vector immunization against highly pathogenic avian influenza followed by conventional Newcastle disease vaccination eliminates lack of protection from virulent ND virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steglich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we described a chimeric, hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5 expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV-based vector vaccine (chNDVFHNPMV8H5 in which NDV envelope glycoproteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus-8 (APMV-8. This chimeric vaccine induced solid protection against lethal HPAIV H5N1 even in chickens with maternal antibodies against NDV (MDA+. However, due to the absence of the major NDV immunogens it failed to induce protection against Newcastle disease (ND. Here, we report on protection of MDA+ chickens against HPAI H5N1 and ND, by vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 either on day 1 or day seven after hatch, and subsequent immunization with live attenuated NDV seven days later. Vaccination was well tolerated and three weeks after immunization, challenge infections with highly pathogenic NDV as well as HPAIV H5N1 were carried out. All animals remained healthy without exhibiting any clinical signs, whereas non-vaccinated animals showed morbidity and mortality. Therefore, vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 can be followed by NDV vaccination to protect chickens from HPAIV as well as NDV, indicating that the antibody response against chNDVFHNPMV8H5 does not interfere with live ND vaccination.

  2. Screening of Feral Pigeon (Colomba livia, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos and Graylag Goose (Anser anser Populations for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Avian Influenza Virus and Avian Paramyxovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesse LL

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in April. Also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in August. In addition, samples were taken from 200 feral pigeons and five mallards. The cultivation of bacteria detected Campylobacter jejuni jejuni in six of the pigeons, and in one of the mallards. Salmonella diarizona 14:k:z53 was detected in one graylag goose, while all pigeons and mallards were negative for salmonellae. No avian paramyxovirus was found in any of the samples tested. One mallard, from an Oslo river, was influenza A virus positive, confirmed by RT-PCR and by inoculation of embryonated eggs. The isolate termed A/Duck/Norway/1/03 was found to be of H3N8 type based on sequence analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments, and serological tests. This is the first time an avian influenza virus has been isolated in Norway. The study demonstrates that the wild bird species examined may constitute a reservoir for important bird pathogens and zoonotic agents in Norway.

  3. The comparison of pathology in ferrets infected by H9N2 avian influenza viruses with different genomic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rongbao; Bai, Tian; Li, Xiaodan; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Yiwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Ye; Bo, Hong; Zou, Shumei; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-15

    H9N2 avian influenza virus circulates widely in poultry and has been responsible for sporadic human infections in several regions. Few studies have been conducted on the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV isolates that have different genomic features. We compared the pathology induced by a novel reassortant H9N2 virus and two currently circulating H9N2 viruses that have different genomic features in ferrets. The results showed that the three viruses can induce infections with various amounts of viral shedding in ferrets. The novel H9N2 induced respiratory infection, but no pathological lesions were observed in lung tissues. The other two viruses induced mild to intermediate pathological lesions in lung tissues, although the clinical signs presented mildly in ferrets. The pathological lesions presented a diversity consistent with viral replication in ferrets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro evolution of H5N1 avian influenza virus toward human-type receptor specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Blixt, Klas Ola; Stevens, James

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of a2-6 sialoside receptor specificity by a2-3 specific highly-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) is thought to be a prerequisite for efficient transmission in humans. By in vitro selection for binding a2-6 sialosides, we identified four variant viruses with amino acid....... Unlike the wild type H5N1, this mutant virus was transmitted by direct contact in the ferret model although not by airborne respiratory droplets. However, a reassortant virus with the mutant hemagglutinin, a human N2 neuraminidase and internal genes from an H5N1 virus was partially transmitted via...... respiratory droplets. The complex changes required for airborne transmissibility in ferrets suggest that extensive evolution is needed for H5N1 transmissibility in humans....

  5. Zoonotic Risk, Pathogenesis, and Transmission of Avian-Origin H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hailiang; Blackmon, Sherry; Yang, Guohua; Waters, Kaitlyn; Li, Tao; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Xu, Yifei; Shyu, Daniel; Wen, Feng; Cooley, Jim; Senter, Lucy; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard; Hanson, Larry; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-11-01

    Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV H3N8 (CIV-H3N8), are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have been demonstrated to seroconvert in response to diverse IAVs, and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antiserum, we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting that there may be minimal herd immunity in humans. We assessed the public health risk of CIV-H3N2 × pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) reassortants by characterizing their in vitro genetic compatibility and in vivo pathogenicity and transmissibility. Using a luciferase minigenome assay, we quantified the polymerase activity of all possible 16 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes (PB2, PB1, PA, NP) between CIV-H3N2 and pdmH1N1, identifying some combinations that were more active than either parental virus complex. Using reverse genetics and fixing the CIV-H3N2 hemagglutinin (HA), we found that 51 of the 127 possible reassortant viruses were viable and able to be rescued. Nineteen of these reassortant viruses had high-growth phenotypes in vitro , and 13 of these replicated in mouse lungs. A single reassortant with the NP and HA gene segments from CIV-H3N2 was selected for characterization in ferrets. The reassortant was efficiently transmitted by contact but not by the airborne route and was pathogenic in ferrets. Our results suggest that CIV-H3N2 reassortants may pose a moderate risk to public health and that the canine host should be monitored for emerging IAVs. IMPORTANCE IAV pandemics are caused by the introduction of novel viruses that are capable of efficient and sustained transmission into a human population with limited herd immunity. Dogs are a a potential mixing vessel for avian

  6. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangwei; Liu, Lanlan; Hao, Ruijun; Han, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  7. Host behaviour and physiology underpin individual variation in avian influenza virus infection in migratory Bewick's swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel

    2012-02-07

    Individual variation in infection modulates both the dynamics of pathogens and their impact on host populations. It is therefore crucial to identify differential patterns of infection and understand the mechanisms responsible. Yet our understanding of infection heterogeneity in wildlife is limited, even for important zoonotic host-pathogen systems, owing to the intractability of host status prior to infection. Using novel applications of stable isotope ecology and eco-immunology, we distinguish antecedent behavioural and physiological traits associated with avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in free-living Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii). Swans infected with AIV exhibited higher serum δ13C (-25.3±0.4) than their non-infected counterparts (-26.3±0.2). Thus, individuals preferentially foraging in aquatic rather than terrestrial habitats experienced a higher risk of infection, suggesting that the abiotic requirements of AIV give rise to heterogeneity in pathogen exposure. Juveniles were more likely to be infected (30.8% compared with 11.3% for adults), shed approximately 15-fold higher quantity of virus and exhibited a lower specific immune response than adults. Together, these results demonstrate the potential for heterogeneity in infection to have a profound influence on the dynamics of pathogens, with concomitant impacts on host habitat selection and fitness.

  8. High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska: implications for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.

  9. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential.

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    Justin Bahl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection.

  10. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Justin; Pham, Truc T.; Hill, Nichola J.; Hussein, Islam T. M.; Ma, Eric J.; Easterday, Bernard C.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David E.; Kayali, Ghazi; Krauss, Scott; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Swartz, Michael D.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:27166585

  11. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the up......Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig...

  12. Analysis of human infectious avian influenza virus: hemagglutinin genetic characteristics in Asia and Africa from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jirong; Lei, Fumin

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, we used nucleotide and protein sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1, which were obtained in Asia and Africa, analyzed HA proteins using ClustalX1.83 and MEGA4.0, and built a genetic evolutionary tree of HA nucleotides. The analysis revealed that the receptor specificity amino acid of A/HK/213/2003, A/Turkey/65596/2006 and etc mutated into QNG, which could bind with á-2, 3 galactose and á-2, 6 galactose. A mutation might thus take place and lead to an outbreak of human infections of avian influenza virus. The mutations of HA protein amino acids from 2004 to 2009 coincided with human infections provided by the World Health Organization, indicating a "low-high-highest-high-low" pattern. We also found out that virus strains in Asia are from different origins: strains from Southeast Asia and East Asia are of the same origin, whereas those from West Asia, South Asia and Africa descend from one ancestor. The composition of the phylogenetic tree and mutations of key site amino acids in HA proteins reflected the fact that the majority of strains are regional and long term, and virus diffusions exist between China, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iraq. We would advise that pertinent vaccines be developed and due attention be paid to the spread of viruses between neighboring countries and the dangers of virus mutation and evolution. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  13. The characterization of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Le, Mai Q; Phuong, Lien S; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Tsunekuni, Ryota; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ono, Etsuro; Otsuki, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Due to concerns that wild birds could possibly spread H5N1 viruses, surveillance was conducted to monitor the types of avian influenza viruses circulating among the wild birds migrating to or inhabiting in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. An H5N2 virus isolated from a Eurasian woodcock had a close phylogenetic relationship to H5 viruses recently isolated in South Korea and Japan, suggesting that H5N2 has been shared between Vietnam, South Korea, and Japan. An H9N2 virus isolated from a Chinese Hwamei was closely related to two H9N2 viruses that were isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 2009, suggesting that an H9N2 strain relevant to the human isolates had been transmitted to and maintained among the wild bird population in Vietnam and South China. The results support the idea that wild bird species play a significant role in the spread and maintenance of avian influenza and that this also occurs in Vietnam. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses Differ from Avian Precursors by a Higher pH Optimum of Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Jan; Kouassi, Nancy Mounogou; Foni, Emanuela; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Matrosovich, Mikhail

    2016-02-01

    The H1N1 Eurasian avian-like swine (EAsw) influenza viruses originated from an avian H1N1 virus. To characterize potential changes in the membrane fusion activity of the hemagglutinin (HA) during avian-to-swine adaptation of the virus, we studied EAsw viruses isolated in the first years of their circulation in pigs and closely related contemporary H1N1 viruses of wild aquatic birds. Compared to the avian viruses, the swine viruses were less sensitive to neutralization by lysosomotropic agent NH4Cl in MDCK cells, had a higher pH optimum of hemolytic activity, and were less stable at acidic pH. Eight amino acid substitutions in the HA were found to separate the EAsw viruses from their putative avian precursor; four substitutions-T492S, N722D, R752K, and S1132F-were located in the structural regions of the HA2 subunit known to play a role in acid-induced conformational transition of the HA. We also studied low-pH-induced syncytium formation by cell-expressed HA proteins and found that the HAs of the 1918, 1957, 1968, and 2009 pandemic viruses required a lower pH for fusion induction than did the HA of a representative EAsw virus. Our data show that transmission of an avian H1N1 virus to pigs was accompanied by changes in conformational stability and fusion promotion activity of the HA. We conclude that distinctive host-determined fusion characteristics of the HA may represent a barrier for avian-to-swine and swine-to-human transmission of influenza viruses. Continuing cases of human infections with zoonotic influenza viruses highlight the necessity to understand which viral properties contribute to interspecies transmission. Efficient binding of the HA to cellular receptors in a new host species is known to be essential for the transmission. Less is known about required adaptive changes in the membrane fusion activity of the HA. Here we show that adaptation of an avian influenza virus to pigs in Europe in 1980s was accompanied by mutations in the HA, which decreased

  15. Evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam between 2001 and 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Feng Wan

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses have caused dramatic economic losses to the poultry industry of Vietnam and continue to pose a serious threat to public health. As of June 2008, Vietnam had reported nearly one third of worldwide laboratory confirmed human H5N1 infections. To better understand the emergence, spread and evolution of H5N1 in Vietnam we studied over 300 H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from Vietnam since their first detection in 2001. Our phylogenetic analyses indicated that six genetically distinct H5N1 viruses were introduced into Vietnam during the past seven years. The H5N1 lineage that evolved following the introduction in 2003 of the A/duck/Hong Kong/821/2002-like viruses, with clade 1 hemagglutinin (HA, continued to predominate in southern Vietnam as of May 2007. A virus with a clade 2.3.4 HA newly introduced into northern Vietnam in 2007, reassorted with pre-existing clade 1 viruses, resulting in the emergence of novel genotypes with neuraminidase (NA and/or internal gene segments from clade 1 viruses. A total of nine distinct genotypes have been present in Vietnam since 2001, including five that were circulating in 2007. At least four of these genotypes appear to have originated in Vietnam and represent novel H5N1 viruses not reported elsewhere. Geographic and temporal analyses of H5N1 infection dynamics in poultry suggest that the majority of viruses containing new genes were first detected in northern Vietnam and subsequently spread to southern Vietnam after reassorting with pre-existing local viruses in northern Vietnam. Although the routes of entry and spread of H5N1 in Vietnam remain speculative, enhanced poultry import controls and virologic surveillance efforts may help curb the entry and spread of new HPAI viral genes.

  16. Thermal Inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christopher B; Spackman, Erica

    2017-09-15

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-43.3°C, at ∼11°C intervals. Samples were collected at numerous time points for each temperature. Virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs was conducted to determine if viable virus was present. Each sample was also tested by real-time RT-PCR. Low pathogenicity AIV was inactivated at 1day at 26.7°C or above. At 10.0, 15.6 and 21.1°C, inactivation times increased to 2-5days. Highly pathogenic AIV followed a similar trend; the virus was inactivated after 1day at 43.3°C and 32.2°C, and required 2 and 5days for inactivation at 21.1°C and 10.0°C respectively. While low pathogenicity AIV appeared to be inactivated at a lower temperature than high pathogenicity AIV, this was not due to any difference in the strains, but due to fewer temperature points being evaluated for high pathogenicity. Endpoints for detection by real-time RT-PCR were not found even weeks after the virus was inactivated. This provides a guideline for the time required, at specific temperatures to inactivate AIV in poultry litter and likely on surfaces within the house. Heat treatment will provide an added level of safety to personnel and against further spread by eliminating infectious virus prior to cleaning a house. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel, Recombinant H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strains Isolated from Vaccinated Chickens with Clinical Symptoms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiying Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA and matrix (M genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains.

  18. Genetic and biological characterisation of an avian-like H1N2 swine influenza virus generated by reassortment of circulating avian-like H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Bragstad, Karoline; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine. In 2003, a reassorted H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype appeared and became prevalent in Denmark. In the present study, the reassortant H1N2 subtype was characterised genetically...... and the infection dynamics compared to an “avian-like” H1N1 virus by an experimental infection study. METHODS: Sequence analyses were performed of the H1N2 virus. Two groups of pigs were inoculated with the reassortant H1N2 virus and an “avian-like” H1N1 virus, respectively, followed by inoculation...... with the opposite subtype four weeks later. Measurements of HI antibodies and acute phase proteins were performed. Nasal virus excretion and virus load in lungs were determined by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the reassorted H1N2 virus contained a European “avian-like” H1-gene...

  19. Evolution of an Eurasian avian-like influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo R Murcia

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV in naïve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1 gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies.

  20. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David E

    2015-05-15

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it is not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (Pducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (Pducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

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    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  2. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs

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    Viuff Birgitte M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3 and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6 influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA I, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA. Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results SIV antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally in bronchiolar epithelial cells. SA-alpha-2,6 was the predominant receptor in all areas of the respiratory tract with an average of 80-100% lining at the epithelial cells. On the contrary, the SA-alpha-2,3 was not present (0% at epithelial cells of nose, trachea, and most bronchi, but was found in small amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions A difference in predilection sites between SIV and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated

  3. Spatiotemporal Structure of Molecular Evolution of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Margaret A.; Emch, Michael; Jobe, R. Todd; Moody, Aaron; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Background Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. First identified in Vietnam in poultry in 2001 and in humans in 2004, the virus has since caused 111 cases and 56 deaths in humans. In 2003/2004 H5N1 outbreaks, nearly the entire poultry population of Vietnam was culled. Our earlier study (Wan et al., 2008, PLoS ONE, 3(10): e3462) demonstrated that there have been at least six independent H5N1 introductions into Vietnam and...

  4. Structural basis for the development of avian virus capsids that display influenza virus proteins and induce protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Elena; Mata, Carlos P; Gómez-Blanco, Josué; Moreno, Noelia; Bárcena, Juan; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez-Frandsen, Ariel; Nieto, Amelia; Carrascosa, José L; Castón, José R

    2015-03-01

    Bioengineering of viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) is a well-established approach in the development of new and improved vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. We report here that the capsid of a major avian pathogen, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), can accommodate heterologous proteins to induce protective immunity. The structural units of the ~70-nm-diameter T=13 IBDV capsid are trimers of VP2, which is made as a precursor (pVP2). The pVP2 C-terminal domain has an amphipathic α helix that controls VP2 polymorphism. In the absence of the VP3 scaffolding protein, 466-residue pVP2 intermediates bearing this α helix assemble into genuine VLPs only when expressed with an N-terminal His6 tag (the HT-VP2-466 protein). HT-VP2-466 capsids are optimal for protein insertion, as they are large enough (cargo space, ~78,000 nm(3)) and are assembled from a single protein. We explored HT-VP2-466-based chimeric capsids initially using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The VLP assembly yield was efficient when we coexpressed EGFP-HT-VP2-466 and HT-VP2-466 from two recombinant baculoviruses. The native EGFP structure (~240 copies/virion) was successfully inserted in a functional form, as VLPs were fluorescent, and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy showed that the EGFP molecules incorporated at the inner capsid surface. Immunization of mice with purified EGFP-VLPs elicited anti-EGFP antibodies. We also inserted hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix (M2) protein epitopes derived from the mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 influenza virus and engineered several HA- and M2-derived chimeric capsids. Mice immunized with VLPs containing the HA stalk, an M2 fragment, or both antigens developed full protection against viral challenge. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multimeric protein cages that mimic the infectious virus capsid and are potential candidates as nonliving vaccines that induce long-lasting protection. Chimeric VLPs can display or include foreign

  5. [Role of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in the transmission of avian influenza A virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, D; Heffels-Redmann, U; Köhler, K; Lierz, M; Kaleta, E F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus [D.] gallinae) in the horizontal transmission of avian influenza A virus (AIV) to chickens. This mite is the most common ectoparasite in poultry worldwide, and may play a role in the spread of infectious agents including AIV. Currently, the control of mites is difficult due to frequently developed resistance to many acaricides, their nocturnality and their ability to survive hidden without feeding for months. D. gallinae were collected in a commercial layer farm and housed in self-made fibreboard boxes. SPF chickens were intravenously infected with AIV strain A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9). The viraemia in chickens was monitored and at an appropriate time point about 1000 mites were allowed to suck on the AIV infected chickens. Re-isolation of the virus from blood-filled mites was tried daily for 14 days using chicken embryo fibroblast cultures and embryonated chicken eggs. Subsequently, the virus containing mites were placed into boxes that contained naïve SPF chickens to enable virus transmission from mites to chickens. Possible transmission to the chickens was examined using clinical signs, serology, gross lesions, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Chickens developed a dose-dependent viraemia one day after infection, therefore this day was chosen for the bloodmeal of the mites. AIV was detected in mites after bloodsucking on AIV-infected chickens over a 10-day period. Naïve SPF chickens were infected during bloodsucking of AIV carrying mites. AIV isolates in mites and in chickens were undistinguishable from the original AIV inoculum by RT-PCR. D. gallinae ingested AIV during bloodmeals on AIV infected chickens and are able to transmit AIV to SPF chickens. Therefore, mites serve as mechanical vector of AIV and may play a major role in the circulation of AIV within a facility or area although the life span of infectious virus in the mite is limited. The proven

  6. Experimental infection of swans and geese with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) of Asian lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D; Stallknecht, David E; Swayne, David E

    2008-01-01

    The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contribution to the spread of the responsible viruses in Eurasia and Africa are unclear. To better understand the potential role of swans and geese in the epidemiology of this virus, we infected 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese with an HPAI virus of Asian lineage recovered from a whooper swan in Mongolia in 2005, A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/2005 (H5N1). The highest mortality rates were observed in swans, and species-related differences in clinical illness and viral shedding were evident. These results suggest that the potential for HPAI (H5N1) viral shedding and the movement of infected birds may be species-dependent and can help explain observed deaths associated with HPAI (H5N1) infection in anseriforms in Eurasia.

  7. Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.; Wilbrink, B.; Conyn, M.; Natrop, G.; Nat, H. van der; Vennema, H.; Meijer, A.; Steenbergen, J. van; Fouchier, R.; Osterhaus, A.; Bosman, A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H7N7 started at the end of February, 2003, in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Although the risk of transmission of these viruses to humans was initially thought to be low, an outbreak investigation was launched

  8. Adaption of wild-bird origin H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza virus Clade 2.3.4.4 in vaccinated poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2014-2015 incursion of H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus caused the largest animal health emergency in U.S. history and renewed interest in developing vaccines against these newly emergent viruses. Our previous research demonstrated several H5 vaccines with varyi...

  9. A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 with 2009 pandemic H1N1 internal genes demonstrated increased replication and transmission in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reverse-genetics derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV), A/Iraq/775/06, and a reassortant virus comprised of the HA and NA from A/Iraq/775/06 and the internal genes of a 2009 pandemic H1N1, A/N...

  10. Intronic deletions that disrupt mRNA splicing of the tva receptor gene result in decreased susceptibility to infection by avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reinišová, Markéta; Plachý, Jiří; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Šenigl, Filip; Kučerová, Dana; Geryk, Josef; Svoboda, Jan; Hejnar, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), s. 2021-2030 ISSN 1098-5514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : avian sarcoma and leukosis virus * virus-host coevolution * resistance to retroviruses Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. Intronic deletions that disrupt mRNA splicing of the tva receptor gene result in decreased susceptibility to infection by avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reinišová, Markéta; Plachý, Jiří; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Šenigl, Filip; Kučerová, Dana; Geryk, Josef; Svoboda, Jan; Hejnar, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), s. 2021-2030 ISSN 1098-5514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : avian sarcoma and leukosis virus * virus- host coevolution * resistance to retroviruses Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouchier, R.A.M.; Schneeberger, P.M.; Rozendaal, F.W.; Broekman, J.M.; Kemink, S.A.G.; Munnster, V.; Kuiken, T.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F.; Schutten, M.; Doornum, van G.J.J.; Koch, G.; Bosman, A.; Koopmans, M.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including at least seven fatal cases, posing a serious human

  13. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  14. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Xiao-ping; Jiang, Tao; Li, Yong-qiang; Lin, Fang; Liu, Hong; Chang, Guo-hui; Zhu, Qing-yu; Qin, E-de; Qin, Cheng-feng; Yang, Yin-hui

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was improved for simultaneous detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 (2009) influenza virus, which is suitable for early diagnosis of influenza-like patients and for epidemiological surveillance. The sensitivity of this duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was 0.02 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) for H5N1 and 0.2 TCID50 for the pandemic H1N1, which was the same a...

  15. Genetic and biological characterisation of an avian-like H1N2 swine influenza virus generated by reassortment of circulating avian-like H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Bragstad, Karoline; Larsen, Lars Erik; Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Heegaard, Peter M H; Fomsgaard, Anders; Viuff, Birgitte; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2013-09-18

    The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine. In 2003, a reassorted H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype appeared and became prevalent in Denmark. In the present study, the reassortant H1N2 subtype was characterised genetically and the infection dynamics compared to an "avian-like" H1N1 virus by an experimental infection study. Sequence analyses were performed of the H1N2 virus. Two groups of pigs were inoculated with the reassortant H1N2 virus and an "avian-like" H1N1 virus, respectively, followed by inoculation with the opposite subtype four weeks later. Measurements of HI antibodies and acute phase proteins were performed. Nasal virus excretion and virus load in lungs were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the reassorted H1N2 virus contained a European "avian-like" H1-gene and a European "swine-like" N2-gene, thus being genetically distinct from most H1N2 viruses circulating in Europe, but similar to viruses reported in 2009/2010 in Sweden and Italy. Sequence analyses of the internal genes revealed that the reassortment probably arose between circulating Danish "avian-like" H1N1 and H3N2 SIVs. Infected pigs developed cross-reactive antibodies, and increased levels of acute phase proteins after inoculations. Pigs inoculated with H1N2 exhibited nasal virus excretion for seven days, peaking day 1 after inoculation two days earlier than H1N1 infected pigs and at a six times higher level. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. Pigs euthanized on day 4 after inoculation, had a high virus load in all lung lobes. After the second inoculation, the nasal virus excretion was minimal. There were no clinical sign except elevated body temperature under the experimental conditions. The "avian-like" H1N2 subtype, which has been established in the Danish pig population at least since 2003, is a reassortant between circulating swine "avian-like" H1N1 and H3N2. The Danish

  16. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become ...... of implementing specific biosecurity measures on reducing the probability of AIV entering into a poultry holding. Human diligence is pivotal to select, implement and maintain specific, effective biosecurity measures....

  17. Pleomorphic Malignant Mesothelioma in a Broiler Breeder Infected with Avian Leucosis Virus Subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Sassa, Y

    2018-04-01

    Avian leucosis virus (ALV) is an oncogenic retrovirus that induces tumours including lymphoid leucosis and myeloid leucosis. Pleomorphic malignant mesothelioma and myelocytoma, which were thought to be induced by ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) infection, were identified in a 432-day-old broiler breeder. The bird showed no clinical signs; however, at necropsy examination there were multiple nodules in the alimentary tract. Microscopical analysis showed that these consisted of pleomorphic cells and myelocyte-like cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the pleomorphic cells were atypical and expressed cytokeratin, vimentin, c-kit, calretinin and ALV. The myelocyte-like cells were also positive for ALV. Retroviral type C particles were observed by electron microscopy. ALV-E and ALV-J nucleotide sequences were detected in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded small intestinal tissue. Based on these results, the tumours were diagnosed as pleomorphic malignant mesothelioma and myelocytoma and were thought to have been induced by ALV-J infection. This is the first report of malignant mesothelioma associated with naturally acquired ALV-J infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwstra, Ruth; Gonzales, Jose L; de Wit, Sjaak; Stahl, Julia; Fouchier, Ron A M; Elbers, Armin R W

    2017-09-01

    Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007-2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors: distance from poultry farms to clay soil, waterways, and wild waterfowl areas. Outdoor-layer, turkey (meat and breeder), and duck (meat and breeder) farms had a significantly higher risk for LPAIV introduction than did indoor-layer farms. Except for outdoor-layer, all poultry types (i.e., broilers, chicken breeders, ducks, and turkeys) are kept indoors. For all production types, LPAIV risk decreased significantly with increasing distance to medium-sized waterways and with increasing distance to areas with defined wild waterfowl, but only for outdoor-layer and turkey farms. Future research should focus not only on production types but also on distance to waterways and wild bird areas. In addition, settlement of new poultry farms in high-risk areas should be discouraged.

  19. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.

  20. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  1. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses.

  2. Enzootic genotype S of H9N2 avian influenza viruses donates internal genes to emerging zoonotic influenza viruses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Chen, Hongzhi; Li, Qunhui; Huang, Junqing; Zhao, Mingjun; Gu, Xiaobing; Jiang, Kaijun; Wang, Xiaoquan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2014-12-05

    Avian influenza viruses of subtype H9N2 are widely prevalent in poultry in many Asian countries, and the segmented nature of the viral genome results in multiple distinct genotypes via reassortment. In this study, genetic evolution of H9N2 viruses circulating in eastern China during 2007-2013 was analyzed. The results showed that the diversity of the gene constellations generated six distinct genotypes, in which a novel genotype (S) bearing the backbone of A/chicken/Shanghai/F/98-like viruses by acquiring A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97-like polymerase basic subunit 2 and matrix genes has gradually established its ecological niche and been consistently prevalent in chicken flocks in eastern China since its first detection in 2007. Furthermore, genotype S possessed the peculiarity to donate most of its gene segments to other emerging influenza A viruses in China, including the novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2, the 2013 novel H7N7, H7N9 and the latest reassortant H10N8 viruses, with potential threat to poultry industry and human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative transmission characteristics of different H5 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niqueux, Éric; Picault, Jean-Paul; Amelot, Michel; Allée, Chantal; Lamandé, Josiane; Guillemoto, Carole; Pierre, Isabelle; Massin, Pascale; Blot, Guillaume; Briand, François-Xavier; Rose, Nicolas; Jestin, Véronique

    2014-01-10

    EU annual serosurveillance programs show that domestic duck flocks have the highest seroprevalence of H5 antibodies, demonstrating the circulation of notifiable avian influenza virus (AIV) according to OIE, likely low pathogenic (LP). Therefore, transmission characteristics of LPAIV within these flocks can help to understand virus circulation and possible risk of propagation. This study aimed at estimating transmission parameters of four H5 LPAIV (three field strains from French poultry and decoy ducks, and one clonal reverse-genetics strain derived from one of the former), using a SIR model to analyze data from experimental infections in SPF Muscovy ducks. The design was set up to accommodate rearing on wood shavings with a low density of 1.6 ducks/m(2): 10 inoculated ducks were housed together with 15 contact-exposed ducks. Infection was monitored by RNA detection on oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs using real-time RT-PCR with a cutoff corresponding to 2-7 EID50. Depending on the strain, the basic reproduction number (R0) varied from 5.5 to 42.7, confirming LPAIV could easily be transmitted to susceptible Muscovy ducks. The lowest R0 estimate was obtained for a H5N3 field strain, due to lower values of transmission rate and duration of infectious period, whereas reverse-genetics derived H5N1 strain had the highest R0. Frequency and intensity of clinical signs were also variable between strains, but apparently not associated with longer infectious periods. Further comparisons of quantitative transmission parameters may help to identify relevant viral genetic markers for early detection of potentially more virulent strains during surveillance of LPAIV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel multi-variant epitope ensemble vaccine against avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Defang; Wang, Guihua; Huang, Libo; Zheng, Qiankun; Li, Chengui; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-12-04

    The hypervariable antigenicity and immunosuppressive features of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has led to great challenges to develop effective vaccines. Epitope vaccine will be a perspective trend. Previously, we identified a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope in hypervariable region 1 (hr1) of ALV-J, N-LRDFIA/E/TKWKS/GDDL/HLIRPYVNQS-C. BLAST analysis showed that the mutation of A, E, T and H in this epitope cover 79% of all ALV-J strains. Base on this data, we designed a multi-variant epitope ensemble vaccine comprising the four mutation variants linked with glycine and serine. The recombinant multi-variant epitope gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The expressed protein of the variant multi-variant epitope gene can react with positive sera and monoclonal antibodies of ALV-J, while cannot react with ALV-J negative sera. The multi-variant epitope vaccine that conjugated Freund's adjuvant complete/incomplete showed high immunogenicity that reached the titer of 1:64,000 at 42 days post immunization and maintained the immune period for at least 126 days in SPF chickens. Further, we demonstrated that the antibody induced by the variant multi-variant ensemble epitope vaccine recognized and neutralized different ALV-J strains (NX0101, TA1, WS1, BZ1224 and BZ4). Protection experiment that was evaluated by clinical symptom, viral shedding, weight gain, gross and histopathology showed 100% chickens that inoculated the multi-epitope vaccine were well protected against ALV-J challenge. The result shows a promising multi-variant epitope ensemble vaccine against hypervariable viruses in animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of bird movements in the epidemiology of West Nile and avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Perry, William M.; Smith, Lacy M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian infl uenza virus (AIV) is infl uenced by site fi delity and movements of bird hosts. We examined the movement ecology of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) as potential hosts for West Nile virus (WNV) and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) as potential hosts for AIVs. Research was based on radio-telemetry studies conducted in the Central Valley of California, USA. While crows were restricted to a small area of only a few square kilometers, the distribution of the geese encompassed the northern Central Valley. The crows used 1.5 to 3.5 different roosting areas monthly from February through October, revealing lower roost fi delity than the geese that used 1.1 to 1.5 roosting areas each month from November through March. The crows moved a mean distance of 0.11 to 0.49 km/month between their roosting sites and 2.5 to 3.9 km/month between roosting and feeding sites. In contrast, the geese moved 4.2 to 19.3 km/month between roosting areas, and their feeding range varied from 13.2 to 19.0 km/month. Our comparison of the ecological characteristics of bird movements suggests that the limited local movements of crows coupled with frequent turnover of roosts may result in persistence of focal areas for WNV infection. In contrast, widespread areas used by geese will provide regular opportunities for intermixing of AIVs over a much greater geographic area.

  6. Phylodynamic analysis and molecular diversity of the avian infectious bronchitis virus of chickens in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Aline Padilha de; Gräf, Tiago; Pereira, Cleiton Schneider; Ikuta, Nilo; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2018-03-21

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease, which results in severe economic losses to the poultry industry. The spike protein (S1 subunit) is responsible for the molecular diversity of the virus and many sero/genotypes are described around the world. Recently a new standardized classification of the IBV molecular diversity was conducted, based on phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene sequences sampled worldwide. Brazil is one of the biggest poultry producers in the world and the present study aimed to review the molecular diversity and reconstruct the evolutionary history of IBV in the country. All IBV S1 gene sequences, with local and year of collection information available on GenBank, were retrieved. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on a maximum likelihood method for the classification of genotypes occurring in Brazil, according to the new classification. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were performed with the Brazilian clade and related international sequences to determine the evolutionary history of IBV in Brazil. A total of 143 Brazilian sequences were classified as GI-11 and 46 as GI-1 (Mass). Within the GI-11 clade, we have identified a potential recombinant strain circulating in Brazil. Phylodynamic analysis demonstrated that IBV GI-11 lineage was introduced in Brazil in the 1950s (1951, 1917-1975 95% HPD) and population dynamics was mostly constant throughout the time. Despite the national vaccination protocols, our results show the widespread dissemination and maintenance of the IBV GI-11 lineage in Brazil and highlight the importance of continuous surveillance to evaluate the impact of currently used vaccine strains on the observed viral diversity of the country. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato

    2014-10-01

    Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections.

  8. Three-dimensional printed magnetophoretic system for the continuous flow separation of avian influenza H5N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhe; Li, Yanbin; Wang, Ronghui; Wang, Maohua; Lin, Jianhan

    2017-04-01

    As a result of the low concentration of avian influenza viruses in samples for routine screening, the separation and concentration of these viruses are vital for their sensitive detection. We present a novel three-dimensional printed magnetophoretic system for the continuous flow separation of the viruses using aptamer-modified magnetic nanoparticles, a magnetophoretic chip, a magnetic field, and a fluidic controller. The magnetic field was designed based on finite element magnetic simulation and developed using neodymium magnets with a maximum intensity of 0.65 T and a gradient of 32 T/m for dragging the nanoparticle-virus complexes. The magnetophoretic chip was designed by SOLIDWORKS and fabricated by a three-dimensional printer with a magnetophoretic channel for the continuous flow separation of the viruses using phosphate-buffered saline as carrier flow. The fluidic controller was developed using a microcontroller and peristaltic pumps to inject the carrier flow and the viruses. The trajectory of the virus-nanoparticle complexes was simulated using COMSOL for optimization of the carrier flow and the magnetic field, respectively. The results showed that the H5N1 viruses could be captured, separated, and concentrated using the proposed magnetophoretic system with the separation efficiency up to 88% in a continuous flow separation time of 2 min for a sample volume of 200 μL. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. DC-SIGN mediates avian H5N1 influenza virus infection in cis and in trans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-F.; Huang, Jason C.; Lee, Y.-M.; Liu, S.-J.; Chan, Yu-Jiun; Chau, Y.-P.; Chong, P.; Chen, Y.-M.A.

    2008-01-01

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), has been identified as a receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, Ebola virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus, and the SARS coronavirus. We used H5N1 pseudotyped and reverse-genetics (RG) virus particles to study their ability to bind with DC-SIGN. Electronic microscopy and functional assay results indicate that pseudotyped viruses containing both HA and NA proteins express hemagglutination and are capable of infecting cells expressing α-2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Results from a capture assay show that DC-SIGN-expressing cells (including B-THP-1/DC-SIGN and T-THP-1/DC-SIGN) and peripheral blood dendritic cells are capable of transferring H5N1 pseudotyped and RG virus particles to target cells; this action can be blocked by anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies. In summary, (a) DC-SIGN acts as a capture or attachment molecule for avian H5N1 virus, and (b) DC-SIGN mediates infections in cis and in trans

  10. Molecular surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds across the United States: inferences from the hemagglutinin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette J Piaggio

    Full Text Available A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV. We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for a phylogenetic assessment of hemagglutinin (HA diversity in the United States. We analyzed sequences from all HA subtypes except H5, H7, H14 and H15 to examine genetic variation, exchange between Eurasia and North America, and geographic distribution of LPAIV in wild birds in the United States. This study confirms intercontinental exchange of some HA subtypes (including a newly documented H9 exchange event, as well as identifies subtypes that do not regularly experience intercontinental gene flow but have been circulating and evolving in North America for at least the past 20 years. These HA subtypes have high levels of genetic diversity with many lineages co-circulating within the wild birds of North America. The surveillance effort that provided these samples demonstrates that such efforts, albeit labor-intensive, provide important information about the ecology of LPAIV circulating in North America.

  11. Seroprevalence of avian influenza A (H5N1 virus among poultry workers in Jiangsu Province, China: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Xiang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 to 06 Jan 2012, the number of laboratory confirmed human cases of infection with avian influenza in China was 41 and 27 were fatal. However, the official estimate of the H5N1 case-fatality rate has been described by some as an over estimation since there may be numerous undetected asymptomatic/mild cases of H5N1 infection. This study was conducted to better understand the real infection rate and evaluate the potential risk factors for the zoonotic spread of H5N1 viruses to humans. Methods A seroepidemiological survey was conducted in poultry workers, a group expected to have the highest level of exposure to H5N1-infected birds, from 3 counties with habitat lakes of wildfowl in Jiangsu province, China. Serum specimens were collected from 306 participants for H5N1 serological test. All participants were interviewed to collect information about poultry exposures. Results The overall seropositive rate was 2.61% for H5N1 antibodies. The poultry number was found associated with a 2.39-fold significantly increased subclinical infection risk after adjusted with age and gender. Conclusions Avian-to -human transmission of avian H5N1 virus remained low. Workers associated with raising larger poultry flocks have a higher risk on seroconversion.

  12. Intervention strategies to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza viruses: scientific basis, challenges and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Leslie D

    2013-09-01

    A range of measures has been recommended and used for the control and prevention of avian influenza. These measures are based on the assessment of local epidemiological situations, field observations and other scientific information. Other non-technical factors are (or in some cases should be) taken into account when developing and recommending control measures. The precise effects under field conditions of most individual interventions applied to control and prevent avian influenza have not been established or subjected to critical review, often because a number of measures are applied simultaneously without controls. In most cases, the combination of measures used results in control or elimination of the virus although there are some countries where this has not been the case. In others, especially those with low poultry density, it is not clear whether the link between the adoption of a set of measures and the subsequent control of the disease is causative. This article discusses the various measures recommended, with particular emphasis on stamping out and vaccination, examines how these measures assist in preventing zoonotic infections with avian influenza viruses and explores gaps in knowledge regarding their effectiveness. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Sample preparation for avian and porcine influenza virus cDNA amplification simplified: Boilign vs. conventional RNA extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fereidouni, S.R.; Starick, E.; Ziller, M.; Harder, T.C.; Unger, H.; Hamilton, K.; Globig, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: RNA extraction and purification is a fundamental step that allows for highly sensitive amplification of specific RNA targets in PCR applications. However, commercial extraction kits that are broadly used because of their robustness and high yield of purified RNA are expensive and labor-intensive. In this study, boiling in distilled water or a commerical lysis buffer of different sample matrices containing avian or porcine influenza viruses was tested as an alternative. Real-time PCR (RTaPCR) for nucleoprotein gene fragment was used as read out. Results were compared with freshly extracted RNA by use of a commercial extraction kit. Different batches of virus containing material materials, including diluted virus positive allontoic fluid or cell culture supernatnat, and avian faecal, cloacal or oropharyngeal swab samples were used in this study. Simple boiling of samples without any additional purification steps can be used as an alternative RNA preparation method to detect influenza A virus nucleoprotein RNA in oropharyngeal swab samples, allantoic fluid or cell-culture supernatant. The boiling method is not applicable for sample matrices containing faecal material. (author)

  14. Deletion of the M2-2 gene from avian metapneumovirus subgroup C impairs virus replication and immunogenicity in Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos N; Roth, Jason P; Hu, Haixia; Zsak, Laszlo

    2011-06-01

    The second matrix (M2) gene of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), encoding two putative proteins, M2-1 and M2-2. Both proteins are believed to be involved in viral RNA transcription or replication. To further characterize the function of the M2-2 protein in virus replication, the non-overlapping region of the M2-2 ORF was deleted from an infectious cDNA clone of the aMPV-C strain, and a viable virus was rescued by using reverse genetics technology. The recombinant virus, raMPV-C ΔM2-2, was characterized in vitro and in vivo. In Vero cells, raMPV-C ΔM2-2 replicated slightly less efficiently than the parental virus, 10-fold reduction at 48-h post-infection. The raMPV-C ΔM2-2 virus induced typical cytopathic effects (CPE) that were indistinguishable from those seen with the parental virus infection. In specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys, raMPV-C ΔM2-2 was attenuated and caused no clinical signs of disease. Less than 20% of the inoculated birds shed detectable virus in tracheal tissue during the first 5 days post-infection, and no virus shedding was detected afterward. Forty percent of infected birds produced a weak antibody response at 14 days post-infection. Upon challenge with a virulent aMPV-C strain, more than 80% of the raMPV-C ΔM2-2-inoculated birds showed typical disease signs and virus shedding in tracheal tissue. These results suggest that the M2-2 protein of aMPV-C virus is not essential for virus replication in vitro, but is required for sufficient virus replication to maintain pathogenicity and immunogenicity in the natural host.

  15. Partial direct contact transmission in ferrets of a mallard H7N3 influenza virus with typical avian-like receptor specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araya Yonas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses of the H7 subtype have caused multiple outbreaks in domestic poultry and represent a significant threat to public health due to their propensity to occasionally transmit directly from birds to humans. In order to better understand the cross species transmission potential of H7 viruses in nature, we performed biological and molecular characterizations of an H7N3 virus isolated from mallards in Canada in 2001. Results Sequence analysis that the HA gene of the mallard H7N3 virus shares 97% identity with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H7N3 virus isolated from a human case in British Columbia, Canada in 2004. The mallard H7N3 virus was able to replicate in quail and chickens, and transmitted efficiently in quail but not in chickens. Interestingly, although this virus showed preferential binding to analogs of avian-like receptors with sialic acid (SA linked to galactose in an α2–3 linkage (SAα2–3Gal, it replicated to high titers in cultures of primary human airway epithelial (HAE cells, comparable to an avian H9N2 influenza virus with human-like α2–6 linkage receptors (SAα2–6Gal. In addition, the virus replicated in mice and ferrets without prior adaptation and was able to transmit partially among ferrets. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance and need for systematic in vitro and in vivo analysis of avian influenza viruses isolated from the natural reservoir in order to define their zoonotic potential.

  16. Lessons from the Largest Epidemic of Avian Influenza Viruses in Taiwan, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Fen; King, Chwan-Chuen; Wan, Cho-Hua; Chang, Yun-Cheng; Chan, Ta-Chien; David Lee, Chang-Chun; Chou, Po-Hao Borris; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Li, Yao-Tsun; Tseng, Tzu-Jung; Lee, Pei-Fen; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2016-05-01

    The largest epidemic of avian influenza (AI) in history attacked poultry and wild birds throughout Taiwan starting January 6, 2015. This study analyzed surveillance results, epidemiologic characteristics, and viral sequences by using government-released information, with the intention to provide recommendations to minimize future pandemic influenza. The H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic AI viruses (HPAIVs) had not been detected in Taiwan before 2015. During this epidemic, four types of etiologic agents were identified: the three novel subtypes H5N2, H5N8, and H5N3 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs and one endemic chicken H5N2 subtype (Mexican-like lineage) of low pathogenic AI viruses. Cocirculation of mixed subtypes also occurred, with H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIVs accompanied by the H5N8 and H5N3 subtypes or old H5N2 viruses in the same farm. More than 90% of domestic geese died from this AI epidemic; geese were affected the most at the early outbreaks. The epidemic peaked in mid-January for all three novel H5 subtypes. Spatial epidemiology found that most affected areas were located in southwestern coastal areas. In terrestrial poultry (mostly chickens), different geographic distributions of AI virus subtypes were detected, with hot spots of H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 vs. past-endemic old H5N2 viruses in Changhwa (P = 0.03) and Yunlin (P = 0.007) counties, respectively, of central Taiwan. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of all the early 10 Taiwan H5 clade 2.3.4.4 isolates covering the three subtypes showed that they were very different from the HA of the past local H5 viruses from domestic ducks (75%-80%) and chickens (70%-75%). However, they had the highest sequence identity percentages (99.53%-100%), with the HA of A/crane/Kagoshima/KU13/2014(H5N8) isolated on December 7, 2014, in Japan being higher than those of recent American and Korean H5 HPAIVs [A/Northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014 (H5N2) and A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014 (H5N8): 99.02%-99.54% and A/Baikal teal

  17. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza A (H5) and A (H9) Viruses among Market Poultry Workers, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Uyeki, Timothy M.; Nguyen, Doan C.; Rowe, Thomas; Lu, Xiuhua; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Huynh, Lien P.; Hang, Nguyen L. K.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of avian influenza A virus infections among poultry workers is not well understood. METHODS: A seroprevalence study of market poultry workers and persons without occupational poultry exposure was conducted during 2001 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sera were tested for avian influenza H5 and H9 antibodies by microneutralization and Western blot assays. RESULTS: Seroprevalence of H5 and H9 antibodies was 4% and 3% in poultry workers and 1% and 3.5% in non-poultry workers, respect...

  18. Isolation and properties of viruses from poultry in Hong Kong which represent a new (sixth) distinct group of avian paramyxoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, K F; Alexander, D J; Collins, M S

    1980-08-01

    Eight viruses isolated in Hong Kong were shown to be serologically related. One was obtained from the tracheal swab of a chicken and four were from cloacal swabs of ducks sampled at a poultry dressing plant. Three isolations were made from samples taken at a duck farm: two from pond water and one from faeces. Representatives of these isolates were shown to be paramyxoviruses but were serologically distinct from other avian and mammalian paramyxoviruses by haemagglutination inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition tests. Slight variations were seen in the properties of three isolates examined in detail. All three were apathogenic for chickens. The structural polypeptides of one isolate, PMV-6/duck/Hong Kong/199/77, were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seven polypeptides were detected, with mol. wt. 180000, 76000, 60000, 55000, 51000, 48000 and 40000. The isolates represent a sixth serologically distinct avian paramyxovirus group.

  19. Mesenchymal stromal cell treatment prevents H9N2 avian influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in mice

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    Yan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The avian influenza virus (AIV can cross species barriers and expand its host range from birds to mammals, even humans. Avian influenza is characterized by pronounced activation of the proinflammatory cytokine cascade, which perpetuates the inflammatory response, leading to persistent systemic inflammatory response syndrome and pulmonary infection in animals and humans. There are currently no specific treatment strategies for avian influenza. Methods We hypothesized that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs would have beneficial effects in the treatment of H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice. Six- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with 1 × 104 MID50 of A/HONG KONG/2108/2003 [H9N2 (HK] H9N2 virus to induce acute lung injury. After 30 min, syngeneic MSCs were delivered through the caudal vein. Three days after infection, we measured the survival rate, lung weight, arterial blood gas, and cytokines in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum, and assessed pathological changes to the lungs. Results MSC administration significantly palliated H9N2 AIV-induced pulmonary inflammation by reducing chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines levels, as well as reducing inflammatory cell recruit into the lungs. Thus, H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury was markedly alleviated in mice treated with MSCs. Lung histopathology and arterial blood gas analysis were improved in mice with H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury following MSC treatment. Conclusions MSC treatment significantly reduces H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice and is associated with reduced pulmonary inflammation. These results indicate a potential role for MSC therapy in the treatment of clinical avian influenza.

  20. The replication of Bangladeshi H9N2 avian influenza viruses carrying genes from H7N3 in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik K; Jones, Jeremy C; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; Turner, Jasmine; Rabiul Alam, S M; Kamrul Hasan, M; Akhtar, Sharmin; Seiler, Patrick; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2016-04-20

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses are continuously monitored by the World Health Organization because they are endemic; they continually reassort with H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses; and they periodically cause human infections. We characterized H9N2 influenza viruses carrying internal genes from highly pathogenic H7N3 viruses, which were isolated from chickens or quail from live-bird markets in Bangladesh between 2010 and 2013. All of the H9N2 viruses used in this study carried mammalian host-specific mutations. We studied their replication kinetics in normal human bronchoepithelial cells and swine tracheal and lung explants, which exhibit many features of the mammalian airway epithelium and serve as a mammalian host model. All H9N2 viruses replicated to moderate-to-high titers in the normal human bronchoepithelial cells and swine lung explants, but replication was limited in the swine tracheal explants. In Balb/c mice, the H9N2 viruses were nonlethal, replicated to moderately high titers and the infection was confined to the lungs. In the ferret model of human influenza infection and transmission, H9N2 viruses possessing the Q226L substitution in hemagglutinin replicated well without clinical signs and spread via direct contact but not by aerosol. None of the H9N2 viruses tested were resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitors. Our study shows that the Bangladeshi H9N2 viruses have the potential to infect humans and highlights the importance of monitoring and characterizing this influenza subtype to better understand the potential risk these viruses pose to humans.

  1. Pathogenicity of the Korean H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial domestic poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N8 triggered outbreaks in wild birds and poultry farms in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the pathogenicity of the H5N8 HPAI virus, belonging to the clade 2.3.4.4, in different species of poultry. For this, we examined clinical signs and viral shedding levels following intranasal inoculation of the virus in 3-week-old commercial layer chickens and quails, 10-week-old Korean native chickens, and 8-week-old Muscovy ducks. Intranasal inoculation with 10(6.0) viruses at 50% egg-infective dose resulted in 100% mortality in the layer chickens (8/8) and quails (4/4), but 60% and 0% deaths in the Korean native chickens (3/5) and Muscovy ducks (0/4), respectively. In addition, transmission of the inoculated virus to contact-exposed birds was evident in all the species used in this study. Based on our results, we conclude that the H5N8 HPAI virus has lower pathogenicity and transmissibility in poultry species compared with previously reported H5N1 HPAI viruses.

  2. H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus Is Efficiently Transmissible and Induces an Antibody Response in Chickens

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    Peirong Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available H7N9 viruses pose a threat to human health and they are no less harmful to the poultry industry than the H5N1 avian influenza viruses. However, the pathogenesis, transmissibility, and the host immune response of the H7N9 virus in chickens and mice remain unclear. In this study, we found that H7N9 viruses replicated in multiple organs of the chicken and viral shedding persisted up to 30 days postinoculation (DPI. The viruses were efficiently transmitted between chickens through direct contact. Notably, chickens infected with H7N9 had high antibody levels throughout the entire observation period and their antibody response lasted for 30 DPI. The expression levels of the pattern-recognition receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly upregulated in the brain using quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of TLR3, TLR7, MDA5, Mx, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-α, and IFN-γ were also significantly different in the lungs of infected chickens. We found that the viruses isolated from these birds had low pathogenicity in mice, produced little weight loss and could only replicate in the lungs. Our findings suggested that the H7N9 viruses could replicate in chickens and mice and be efficiently transmitted between chickens, which presented a significant threat to human and poultry health.

  3. Pathology of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) infected with H5N1 avian influenza virus in Akita, Japan, in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shuji; Yamamoto, Yu; Yamada, Manabu; Mase, Masaji; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2009-10-01

    Two (1 adult and 1 young bird) of 4 H5N1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza (HPAI)-virus-infected whooper swans in Akita, Japan, in 2008 were investigated pathologically. Macroscopically, white spots with hemorrhages were scattered in the pancreas in the adult bird. Histologically, the adult bird had severe necrotizing pancreatitis and mild nonpurulent encephalitis. The young bird had severe nonpurulent encephalitis and nonpurulent enteric ganglionitis, and intestinal venous wall thickening. Virus antigens were detected in the lesions of pancreatitis in the adult bird and of encephalitis in adult and young birds. These findings suggest that the swans died or became moribund due to neurological disorders and necrotizing pancreatitis caused by H5N1 HPAI virus infection.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of circulating highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in chickens, in Bangladesh, 2007-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    Bangladesh has been severely hit by highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI-H5N1). However, little is known about the genetic diversity and the evolution of the circulating viruses in Bangladesh. In the present study, we analyzed the hemagglutinin gene of 30 Bangladeshi chicken isolates from...... several amino acid substitutions, but they are not indicative of adaptation toward human infection. The Mantel correlation test confirmed significant correlation between genetic distances and temporal distances between the viruses. The Bayesian tree shows that isolates from waves 3 and 4 derived from...... virus in Bangladesh. Furthermore, the formation of a subclade capable of transmission to humans cannot be ruled out. The findings of this study might provide valuable information for future surveillance, prevention and control programme....

  5. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus 793B, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, S; Bettridge, J; Christley, R; Habte, T; Ganapathy, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry. Mycoplasma gallisepticum was also found to be present; however, infectious laryngotracheitis virus was not detected by PCR. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was not detected by PCR, but variable levels of anti-NDV HI antibody titres shows possible exposure to virulent strains or poor vaccine take, or both. For the burgeoning-intensive industry in Ethiopia, this study highlights several circulating infectious respiratory pathogens that can impact on poultry welfare and productivity.

  6. Structure and receptor binding preferences of recombinant hemagglutinins from avian and human H6 and H10 influenza A virus subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Carney, Paul J; Chang, Jessie C; Villanueva, Julie M; Stevens, James

    2015-04-01

    During 2013, three new avian influenza A virus subtypes, A(H7N9), A(H6N1), and A(H10N8), resulted in human infections. While the A(H7N9) virus resulted in a significant epidemic in China across 19 provinces and municipalities, both A(H6N1) and A(H10N8) viruses resulted in only a few human infections. This study focuses on the major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinins from both of these novel human viruses. The detailed structural and glycan microarray analyses presented here highlight the idea that both A(H6N1) and A(H10N8) virus hemagglutinins retain a strong avian receptor binding preference and thus currently pose a low risk for sustained human infections. Human infections with zoonotic influenza virus subtypes continue to be a great public health concern. We report detailed structural analysis and glycan microarray data for recombinant hemagglutinins from A(H6N1) and A(H10N8) viruses, isolated from human infections in 2013, and compare them with hemagglutinins of avian origin. This is the first structural report of an H6 hemagglutinin, and our results should further the understanding of these viruses and provide useful information to aid in the continuous surveillance of these zoonotic influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Detection of distribution of avian influenza H5N1 virus by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in situ hybridization and real-time PCR techniques in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnanpood, Chanpen; Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Sanguansermsri, Phanchana

    2011-03-01

    Ten specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated intranasally with avian influenza virus subtype H5N1. Evaluation revealed distribution of the virus in twelve organs: liver, intestine, bursa, lung, trachea, thymus, heart, pancreas, brain, spleen, kidney, and esophagus. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were developed and compared for detection of the virus from the organs. The distribution of avian influenza H5N1 in chickens varied by animal and detecting technique. The heart, kidneys, intestines, lungs, and pancreas were positive with all three techniques, while the others varied by techique. The three techniques can be used to detect avian influenza effectively, but the pros and cons of each technique need to be determined. The decision of which technique to use depends on the objective of the examination, budget, type and quality of samples, laboratory facilities and technician skills.

  8. Detection and subtyping (H5 and H7) of avian type A influenza virus by reverse transcription-PCR and PCR-ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, M.; Nielsen, L.P.; Handberg, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    A. A panel of reference influenza strains from various hosts including avian species, human, swine and horse were evaluated in a one tube RT-PCR using primers designed for the amplification of a 218 bp fragment of the NP gene. The PCR products were detected by PCR-ELISA by use of an internal......Avian influenza virus infections are a major cause of morbidity and rapid identification of the virus has important clinical, economical and epidemiological implications. We have developed a one-tube Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the rapid diagnosis of avian influenza...... catching probe confirming the NP influenza A origin. The PCR-ELISA was about 100 times more sensitive than detection of PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis. RT-PCR and detection by PCR-ELISA is comparable in sensitivity to virus propagation in eggs. We also designed primers for the detection...

  9. Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus H5N1 Protected Mice against Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Mooney, Alaina J.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Gao, Xiudan; Xu, Pei; Place, Ryan J.; Hogan, Robert J.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2013-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to prevent large-scale highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in the human population. The current FDA-approved H5N1 vaccine has serious limitations. A more efficacious H5N1 vaccine is urgently needed. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a paramyxovirus, is not known to cause any illness in humans. PIV5 is an attractive vaccine vector. In our studies, a single dose of a live recombinant PIV5 expressing a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1 (rPIV5-H5) from the H5N1 subtype provided sterilizing immunity against lethal doses of HPAI H5N1 infection in mice. Furthermore, we have examined the effect of insertion of H5N1 HA at different locations within the PIV5 genome on the efficacy of a PIV5-based vaccine. Interestingly, insertion of H5N1 HA between the leader sequence, the de facto promoter of PIV5, and the first viral gene, nucleoprotein (NP), did not lead to a viable virus. Insertion of H5N1 HA between NP and the next gene, V/phosphorprotein (V/P), led to a virus that was defective in growth. We have found that insertion of H5N1 HA at the junction between the small hydrophobic (SH) gene and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene gave the best immunity against HPAI H5N1 challenge: a dose as low as 1,000 PFU was sufficient to protect against lethal HPAI H5N1 challenge in mice. The work suggests that recombinant PIV5 expressing H5N1 HA has great potential as an HPAI H5N1 vaccine. PMID:23077314

  10. SURVEILLANCE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS, AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM IN WILD BIRDS NEAR COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMS SURROUNDED BY ATLANTIC RAINFOREST REMNANTS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The geographic overlap between areas of Atlantic rainforest and human activities allows interactions to occur between humans and wild and domestic animals. Despite the great importance of the domestic animal-wildlife-human interface that occurs at poultry farms in terms of public health, economic production and wildlife conservation, there are few studies in Brazil examining the distribution and health of wild birds that interact with poultry farms. From January to December 2010, mist nets were used to capture 166 free-ranging birds that were within close proximity to three poultry farms in Atlantic rainforest remnants in south-eastern Brazil. The species composition was examined, and molecular methods were used to test for avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The avian communities near the poultry farms were dominated by three synanthropic species, which corresponded to 70% of all captured individuals: house sparrows Passer domesticus (33%, saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola (22%, and ruddy ground-doves (Columbina talpacoti (15%. These predominant bird species were in poor body condition (27%, were infested with feather mites (43%, or presented both conditions (23%. No evidence of infection by avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus or M. gallisepticum was identified in any of the studied birds. Although no evidence of the studied pathogens was, our findings demonstrate that differences in the environmental characteristics and biosecurity practices influence the wild bird community near poultry farms, which in turn may affect the health status of these synanthropic birds and strengthen their role in the transmission of pathogens.

  11. An overview of the recent outbreaks of the avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 virus in the human

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    Ren-Bin Tang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the first human infection with influenza A (H7N9 viruses have been identified in Shanghai on March 31, 2013, the latest variant of the avian flu virus has spread across four Chinese provinces recently. Human infections with avian influenza are rare and this is the first time that human infection with a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus has been associated with fatal outcome. To date (May 5th, 2013, China had reported 128 confirmed H7N9 infections in human, among 27 died. Most reported cases have severe respiratory illness resulting in severe pneumonia and in some cases have died. No evidence of sustained human-to -humans at this time, however, there is one family cluster with two confirmed cases for which human-to-human transmission cannot be ruled out. Recent evidence showed that the gene sequences of this novel H7N9 virus is primarily zoonotic and may be better adapted than other avian influenza viruses to infect human. Effective global infection control is urgently needed, and further surveillance and analyses should be undertaken to identify the source and mode of transmission of these viruses.

  12. An overview of the recent outbreaks of the avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ren-Bin; Chen, Hui-Lan

    2013-05-01

    Since the first human infection with influenza A (H7N9) viruses have been identified in Shanghai on March 31, 2013, the latest variant of the avian flu virus has spread across four Chinese provinces recently. Human infections with avian influenza are rare and this is the first time that human infection with a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus has been associated with fatal outcome. To date (May 5(th), 2013), China had reported 128 confirmed H7N9 infections in human, among 27 died. Most reported cases have severe respiratory illness resulting in severe pneumonia and in some cases have died. No evidence of sustained human-to -humans at this time, however, there is one family cluster with two confirmed cases for which human-to-human transmission cannot be ruled out. Recent evidence showed that the gene sequences of this novel H7N9 virus is primarily zoonotic and may be better adapted than other avian influenza viruses to infect human. Effective global infection control is urgently needed, and further surveillance and analyses should be undertaken to identify the source and mode of transmission of these viruses. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus), avian influenza virus, and Salmonella spp. in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic Coast of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R; Arsnoe, Dustin M; Afonso, Claudio L; Bevins, Sarah N; Miller, Patti J; Randall, Adam R; DeLiberto, Thomas J

    2014-03-01

    Since their introduction to the United States in the late 19th century, mute swans (Cygnus olor) have become a nuisance species by causing damage to aquatic habitats, acting aggressively toward humans, competing with native waterfowl, and potentially transmitting or serving as a reservoir of infectious diseases to humans and poultry. In an effort to investigate their potential role as a disease reservoir and to establish avian health baselines for pathogens that threaten agricultural species or human health, we collected samples from 858 mute swans and tested them for avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), and Salmonella spp. when possible. Our results indicate that exposure to APMV-1 and AIV is common (60%, n = 771, and 45%, n = 344, antibody prevalence, respectively) in mute swans, but detection of active viral shedding is less common (8.7%, n = 414, and 0.8%, n = 390, respectively). Salmonella was isolated from three mute swans (0.6%, n = 459), and although the serovars identified have been implicated in previous human outbreaks, it does not appear that Salmonella is commonly carried by mute swans.

  14. Comparison of three media for transport and storage of the samples collected for detection of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guang-Yu; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Du, Xiang; Huang, Bao-Xu; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2015-09-15

    Detection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) is important for diagnosis, surveillance and control of avian influenza which is of great economic and public health significance. Proper transport and storage of samples is critical for the detection when the samples cannot be detected immediately. As recommended by some international or national authoritative entities and some publications, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS-glycerol and brain heart infusion broth (BHIB) are frequently used for transport and storage of the samples collected for detection of AIVs worldwide. In this study, we compared these three media for transport and storage of simulated and authentic swab and feces samples collected for detection of AIVs using virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR. The results suggest that PBS-glycerol is superior to PBS and BHIB as the sample transport and storage media. The results also suggest that the samples collected for detection of AIVs should be detected as soon as possible because the virus concentration of the samples may decline rapidly during storage within days at 4 or -20°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus in a common synanthropic mammal--the cottontail rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Root

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cottontails (Sylvilagus spp. are common mammals throughout much of the U.S. and are often found in peridomestic settings, potentially interacting with livestock and poultry operations. If these animals are susceptible to avian influenza virus (AIV infections and shed the virus in sufficient quantities they may pose a risk for movement of avian influenza viruses between wildlife and domestic animals in certain situations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the viral shedding potential of AIV in cottontails, we nasally inoculated fourteen cottontails with a low pathogenic AIV (H4N6. All inoculated cottontails shed relatively large quantities of viral RNA both nasally (≤ 10(6.94 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL and orally (≤ 10(5.09 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL. However, oral shedding tended to decline more quickly than did nasal shedding. No animals showed any obvious signs of disease throughout the study. Evidence of a serological response was found in all infected rabbits at 22 days post infection in convalescent sera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, cottontails have not been previously assessed for AIV shedding. However, it was obvious that they shed AIV RNA extensively via the nasal and oral routes. This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere. These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, such as farms, parks, and suburban neighborhoods, often becoming habituated to human activities. Thus, if infected these mammals could easily transport AIVs short distances.

  16. Human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Li, Hong; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N6 virus has caused four human infections in China. This study reports the preliminary findings of the first known human case of H5N6 in Yunnan province. The patient initially developed symptoms of sore throat and coughing on 27 January 2015. The disease rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunctions and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the patient died on 6 February. Virological analysis determined that the virus belonged to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 and it has obtained partial ability for mammalian adaptation and amantadine resistance. Environmental investigation found H5 in 63% of the samples including poultry faeces, tissues, cage surface swabs and sewage from local live poultry markets by real-time RT-PCR. These findings suggest that the expanding and enhancing of surveillance in both avian and humans are necessary to monitor the evolution of H5 influenza virus and to facilitate early detection of suspected cases.

  17. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Avian Influenza Virus by Fluorescent DNA Barcode-based Immunoassay with Sensitivity Comparable to PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Cuong; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong

    2010-01-01

    involves the sandwiching of the target AIV between magnetic immunoprobes and barcode-carrying immunoprobes. Because each barcode-carrying immunoprobe is functionalized with a multitude of fluorophore-DNA barcode strands, many DNA barcodes are released for each positive binding event resulting......In this paper, a coupling of fluorophore-DNA barcode and bead-based immunoassay for detecting avian influenza virus (AIV) with PCR-like sensitivity is reported. The assay is based on the use of sandwich immunoassay and fluorophore-tagged oligonucleotides as representative barcodes. The detection...

  19. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Struck Migratory Birds in China in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Zhenjie; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Yanbo; Hong, Jianmin; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Haiming; Wong, Gary; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yunfeng; Ru, Wendong; Gao, Ruyi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George F; Shi, Weifeng; Lei, Fumin

    2015-08-11

    Approximately 100 migratory birds, including whooper swans and pochards, were found dead in the Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China during January 2015. The causative agent behind this outbreak was identified as H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this Sanmenxia H5N1 virus was a novel reassortant, possessing a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA gene and a H9N2-derived PB2 gene. Sanmenxia Clade 2.3.2.1c-like H5N1 viruses possess the closest genetic identity to A/Alberta/01/2014 (H5N1), which recently caused a fatal respiratory infection in Canada with signs of meningoencephalitis, a highly unusual symptom with influenza infections in humans. Furthermore, this virus was shown to be highly pathogenic to both birds and mammals, and demonstrate tropism for the nervous system. Due to the geographical location of Sanmenxia, these novel H5N1 viruses also have the potential to be imported to other regions through the migration of wild birds, similar to the H5N1 outbreak amongst migratory birds in Qinghai Lake during 2005. Therefore, further investigation and monitoring is required to prevent this novel reassortant virus from becoming a new threat to public health.

  20. Neuraminidase and hemagglutinin matching patterns of a highly pathogenic avian and two pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus displays strong reassortment characteristics, which enable it to achieve adaptation in human infection. Surveying the reassortment and virulence of novel viruses is important in the prevention and control of an influenza pandemic. Meanwhile, studying the mechanism of reassortment may accelerate the development of anti-influenza strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA matching patterns of two pandemic H1N1 viruses (the 1918 and current 2009 strains and a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1 were studied using a pseudotyped particle (pp system. Our data showed that four of the six chimeric HA/NA combinations could produce infectious pps, and that some of the chimeric pps had greater infectivity than did their ancestors, raising the possibility of reassortment among these viruses. The NA of H5N1 (A/Anhui/1/2005 could hardly reassort with the HAs of the two H1N1 viruses. Many biological characteristics of HA and NA, including infectivity, hemagglutinating ability, and NA activity, are dependent on their matching pattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest the existence of an interaction between HA and NA, and the HA NA matching pattern is critical for valid viral reassortment.

  1. Insights into genetic diversity and biological propensities of potentially zoonotic avian influenza H9N2 viruses circulating in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Parvin, Rokshana; Beer, Martin; Vahlenkamp, Thomas; Harder, Timm C

    2017-11-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have established endemic status in Egyptian poultry populations since 2012. Recently, four cases of human H9N2 virus infections in Egypt demonstrated the zoonotic potential of these viruses. Egyptian H9N2 viruses obtained from 2011 to 2014 phylogenetically grouped into three clusters (1-3) within subclade B of the G1 lineage. Antigenically, a close clustering of the Egyptian H9N2 viruses with other recent G1-B like H9N2 strains and a significant antigenic distance from viruses outside the G1-B lineage was evident. Recent Egyptian LPAIV H9N2 showed a tendency to increased binding with erythrocytes expressing α 2,6-linked sialic acid which correlated with the Q226L amino acid substitution at the receptor binding unit of the hemagglutinin (Q234L, H9 numbering). Sequence analyses of the N2 neuraminidase (NA) revealed substitutions in the NA hemadsorption site similar to the N2 of prepandemic H3N2/1968, but no distinct antigenic or functional characteristics of the H9N2 NA associated with increased zoonotic potential could be identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's egg pasteurization processes on the inactivation of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in processed egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1983 (H5N2), and velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) AMPV-1/California/212676/2002 were inoculated into various egg products then heat treated at various temperatures for 0 to 30 min to determine thermal inactivation p...

  3. X-ray structure of the hemagglutinin of a potential H3 avian progenitor of the 1968 Hong Kong pandemic influenza virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Ya; Stevens, David J.; Skehel, John J.; Wiley, Don C.

    2003-01-01

    We have determined the structure of the HA of an avian influenza virus, A/duck/Ukraine/63, a member of the same antigenic subtype, H3, as the virus that caused the 1968 Hong Kong influenza pandemic, and a possible progenitor of the pandemic virus. We find that structurally significant differences between the avian and the human HAs are restricted to the receptor-binding site particularly the substitutions Q226L and G228S that cause the site to open and residues within it to rearrange, including the conserved residues Y98, W153, and H183. We have also analyzed complexes formed by the HA with sialopentasaccharides in which the terminal sialic acid is in either α2,3- or α2,6-linkage to galactose. Comparing the structures of complexes in which an α2,3-linked receptor analog is bound to the H3 avian HA or to an H5 avian HA leads to the suggestion that all avian influenza HAs bind to their preferred α2,3-linked receptors similarly, with the analog in a trans conformation about the glycosidic linkage. We find that α2,6-linked analogs are bound by both human and avian HAs in a cis conformation, and that the incompatibility of an α2,6-linked receptor with the α2,3-linkage-specific H3 avian HA-binding site is partially resolved by a small change in the position and orientation of the sialic acid. We discuss our results in relation to the mechanism of transfer of influenza viruses between species

  4. Pathogenesis and transmissibility of highly (H7N1) and low (H7N9) pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran, Kateri; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Busquets, Núria; Dolz, Roser; Ramis, Antoni; Abad, Francesc Xavier; Chaves, Aida; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Barral, Marta; Höfle, Ursula; Majó, Natàlia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) was carried out in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in order to study clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, and viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. Birds were infected with a HPAIV subtype H7N1 (A/Chicken/Italy/5093/1999) and a LPAIV subtype H7N9 (A/Anas crecca/Spain/1460/2008). Uninoculated birds were included as contacts in bot...

  5. Detection of H5 Avian Influenza Viruses by Antigen-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using H5-Specific Monoclonal Antibody▿

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qigai; Velumani, Sumathy; Du, Qingyun; Lim, Chee Wee; Ng, Fook Kheong; Donis, Ruben; Kwang, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Asia and Europe is threatening animals and public health systems. Effective diagnosis and control management are needed to control the disease. To this end, we developed a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) and implemented an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) to detect the H5 viral antigen. Mice immunized with denatured hemagglutinin (H...

  6. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups each......-Q-R-E-T-R*G-L-F- at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin protein, typical of non-pathogenic AIVs. In addition, an avirulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus was isolated from one pool of kidney tissues. Bacteriological examination gave no significant results. The most characteristic pathological findings were impaction...

  7. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  8. Virus-like particles displaying H5, H7, H9 hemagglutinins and N1 neuraminidase elicit protective immunity to heterologous avian influenza viruses in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushko, Peter; Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Kapczynski, Darrell R.

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. Here we prepared triple-subtype VLPs that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 antigens derived from H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 viruses. VLPs also contained influenza N1 neuraminidase and retroviral gag protein. The H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs were prepared using baculovirus expression. Biochemical, functional and antigenic characteristics were determined including hemagglutination and neuraminidase enzyme activities. VLPs were further evaluated in a chicken AI challenge model for safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy against heterologous AI viruses including H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2 subtypes. All vaccinated birds survived challenges with H5N2 and H7N3 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses, while all controls died. Immune response was also detectable after challenge with low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) H9N2 virus suggesting that H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs represent a promising approach for the development of broadly protective AI vaccine. - Highlights: •VLPs were prepared that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 subtypes in a VLP envelope. •VLPs were characterized including electron microscopy, HA assay and NA enzyme activity. •Experimental VLP vaccine was evaluated in an avian influenza challenge model. •VLPs induced immune responses against heterologous H5, H7 and H9 virus challenges.

  9. Heterologous prime-boost immunization of Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccines protected broiler chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K

    2017-07-24

    Avian Influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen for both human and animal health. There is a great need to develop a safe and effective vaccine for AI infections in the field. Live-attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored AI vaccines have shown to be effective, but preexisting antibodies to the vaccine vector can affect the protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. To improve the efficacy of AI vaccine, we generated a novel vectored vaccine by using a chimeric NDV vector that is serologically distant from NDV. In this study, the protective efficacy of our vaccines was evaluated by using H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/Vietnam/1203/2004, a prototype strain for vaccine development. The vaccine viruses were three chimeric NDVs expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) protein in combination with the neuraminidase (NA) protein, matrix 1 protein, or nonstructural 1 protein. Comparison of their protective efficacy between a single and prime-boost immunizations indicated that prime immunization of 1-day-old SPF chicks with our vaccine viruses followed by boosting with the conventional NDV vector strain LaSota expressing the HA protein provided complete protection of chickens against mortality, clinical signs and virus shedding. Further verification of our heterologous prime-boost immunization using commercial broiler chickens suggested that a sequential immunization of chickens with chimeric NDV vector expressing the HA and NA proteins following the boost with NDV vector expressing the HA protein can be a promising strategy for the field vaccination against HPAIVs and against highly virulent NDVs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Virus-like particles displaying H5, H7, H9 hemagglutinins and N1 neuraminidase elicit protective immunity to heterologous avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushko, Peter, E-mail: ppushko@medigen-usa.com [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia [USDA SEPRL, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA (United States); Tumpey, Terrence M. [Influenza Division, CDC,1600 Clifton Road N.E., Atlanta, GA (United States); Kapczynski, Darrell R. [USDA SEPRL, 934 College Station Rd, Athens, GA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. Here we prepared triple-subtype VLPs that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 antigens derived from H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 viruses. VLPs also contained influenza N1 neuraminidase and retroviral gag protein. The H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs were prepared using baculovirus expression. Biochemical, functional and antigenic characteristics were determined including hemagglutination and neuraminidase enzyme activities. VLPs were further evaluated in a chicken AI challenge model for safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy against heterologous AI viruses including H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2 subtypes. All vaccinated birds survived challenges with H5N2 and H7N3 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses, while all controls died. Immune response was also detectable after challenge with low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) H9N2 virus suggesting that H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs represent a promising approach for the development of broadly protective AI vaccine. - Highlights: •VLPs were prepared that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 subtypes in a VLP envelope. •VLPs were characterized including electron microscopy, HA assay and NA enzyme activity. •Experimental VLP vaccine was evaluated in an avian influenza challenge model. •VLPs induced immune responses against heterologous H5, H7 and H9 virus challenges.

  11. Mumps virus encephalomyelitis in a 19-year old male patient with an undefined severe combined immunodeficiency post-haematopoietic bone marrow transplantation: a rare fatal complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Toby A; Pelosi, Emanuela; McQuaid, Stephen; Richardson, Deborah; Newman, Joan; Hill, Kate; Veys, Paul; Davies, Graham; Orchard, Kim H

    2013-06-01

    We describe a rare case of fatal mumps encephalomyelitis occurring in 19-year old male following matched unrelated donor peripheral blood haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The indication for HSCT was for an undefined form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Molecular typing of the mumps viral RNA isolated from neural tissue indicated that the infection was acquired at the time of a mumps outbreak in England and Wales that occurred between 2004 and 2006. This case highlights the importance of considering mumps in the differential diagnosis of central nervous system infection in highly immunosuppressed patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Exposure to avian influenza virus and the infection status of virus among people breeding or butchering ducks in the suburb of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-na; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Hai-yue; Zhang, Li; Li, Li-li; Li, Chao; Yang, Yu-song; Chen, He; Zhang, Song-jian; Liu, Xiu-jun; Wang, Quan-yi

    2012-04-01

    To understand the exposure and the infection status of virus among people engaging in breeding or butchering ducks in the suburb of Beijing. People from six districts (Daxing, Fangshan, Huairou, Miyun, Shunyi, Tongzhou) who engaged in breeding or butchering ducks were studied and the status of infecting avian influenza virus was obtained by testing antibody level in serum. Information on demographic characteristics, status of regular exposure and exposure to sick or dead poultry were collected through a self-designed questionnaire. 1741 people were involved in this study in which 313 (18.0%) were workers in duck-breeding enterprise, 562 (32.3%) were workers in duck slaughterhouse, 261 (15.0%) farmers were in individual small-scale duck farms, 605 (34.7%) were farmers raising duck in backyard. Among farmers raising duck in backyard, the percentage of people whose ducks ever contacted with wild birds was higher than the other three groups (66.8%) (Ppoultry, higher proportion was found among those who had ever closely contacted sick or dead poultry commercial duck raisers (36.1%) and individuals who raise large amount of ducks (36.0%). 70.8% of the individual duck raisers had never taken any protective measures when closely contacting the sick or dead poultry. Among 1741 samples, 0 were positive to avian influenza virus H5 and H7 subtypes. 12 were positive to H9 subtype (positive rate was 0.7%), in which 10 were farmers raising ducks in backyard (the positive rate of 1.7%). Differences between H9 subtype antibody positive rates difference in 4 population groups were statistically significant (χ2=13.699, Ppoultry. Our findings suggested that some intervention measures should be taken to reduce the risk of avian influenza infection.

  13. Spatiotemporal structure of molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret A; Emch, Michael; Jobe, R Todd; Moody, Aaron; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-01-08

    Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. First identified in Vietnam in poultry in 2001 and in humans in 2004, the virus has since caused 111 cases and 56 deaths in humans. In 2003/2004 H5N1 outbreaks, nearly the entire poultry population of Vietnam was culled. Our earlier study (Wan et al., 2008, PLoS ONE, 3(10): e3462) demonstrated that there have been at least six independent H5N1 introductions into Vietnam and there were nine newly emerged reassortants from 2001 to 2007 in Vietnam. H5N1 viruses in Vietnam cluster distinctly around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. However, the nature of the relationship between genetic divergence and geographic patterns is still unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic distances between H5N1 viruses in Vietnam are correlated with geographic distances, as the result of distinct population and environment patterns along Vietnam's long north to south longitudinal extent. Based on this hypothesis, we combined spatial statistical methods with genetic analytic techniques and explicitly used geographic space to explore genetic evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses at the sub-national scale in Vietnam. Our dataset consisted of 125 influenza viruses (with whole genome sets) isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007. Our results document the significant effect of space and time on genetic evolution and the rise of two regional centers of genetic mixing by 2007. These findings give insight into processes underlying viral evolution and suggest that genetic differentiation is associated with the distance between concentrations of human and poultry populations around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The results show that genetic evolution of H5N1 viruses in Vietnamese domestic poultry is highly correlated with the location and spread of those viruses in geographic space. This correlation varies by scale, time, and gene, though a classic isolation by

  14. Spatiotemporal structure of molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Carrel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. First identified in Vietnam in poultry in 2001 and in humans in 2004, the virus has since caused 111 cases and 56 deaths in humans. In 2003/2004 H5N1 outbreaks, nearly the entire poultry population of Vietnam was culled. Our earlier study (Wan et al., 2008, PLoS ONE, 3(10: e3462 demonstrated that there have been at least six independent H5N1 introductions into Vietnam and there were nine newly emerged reassortants from 2001 to 2007 in Vietnam. H5N1 viruses in Vietnam cluster distinctly around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. However, the nature of the relationship between genetic divergence and geographic patterns is still unclear.In this study, we hypothesized that genetic distances between H5N1 viruses in Vietnam are correlated with geographic distances, as the result of distinct population and environment patterns along Vietnam's long north to south longitudinal extent. Based on this hypothesis, we combined spatial statistical methods with genetic analytic techniques and explicitly used geographic space to explore genetic evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses at the sub-national scale in Vietnam. Our dataset consisted of 125 influenza viruses (with whole genome sets isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007. Our results document the significant effect of space and time on genetic evolution and the rise of two regional centers of genetic mixing by 2007. These findings give insight into processes underlying viral evolution and suggest that genetic differentiation is associated with the distance between concentrations of human and poultry populations around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.The results show that genetic evolution of H5N1 viruses in Vietnamese domestic poultry is highly correlated with the location and spread of those viruses in geographic space. This correlation varies by scale, time, and gene, though a classic

  15. Differential replication of avian influenza H9N2 viruses in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiris Malik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avian influenza virus H9N2 isolates cause a mild influenza-like illness in humans. However, the pathogenesis of the H9N2 subtypes in human remains to be investigated. Using a human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 as host, we found that A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2/G1, which shares 6 viral "internal genes" with the lethal A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1/97 virus, replicates efficiently whereas other H9N2 viruses, A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (H9N2/Y280 and A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2/G9, replicate poorly. Interestingly, we found that there is a difference in the translation of viral protein but not in the infectivity or transcription of viral genes of these H9N2 viruses in the infected cells. This difference may possibly be explained by H9N2/G1 being more efficient on viral protein production in specific cell types. These findings suggest that the H9N2/G1 virus like its counterpart H5N1/97 may be better adapted to the human host and replicates efficiently in human alveolar epithelial cells.

  16. Avian Influenza Virus Isolated in Wild Waterfowl in Argentina: Evidence of a potentially unique phylogenetic lineage in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel J.; Uhart, Marcela; Perez, Alberto A.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.; La Sala, Luciano; Decarre, Julieta; Goijman, Andrea; Solari, Laura; Suarez, Romina; Craig, Maria I.; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Rimondi, Agustina; König, Guido; Terrera, Maria V.; Kaloghlian, Analia; Song, Haichen; Sorrell, Erin M.; Perez, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses have been sporadically isolated in South America. The most recent reports are from an outbreak in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002 and its putative ancestor from a wild bird in Bolivia in 2001. Extensive surveillance in wild birds was carried out in Argentina during 2006-2007. Using RRT-PCR, 12 AI positive detections were made from cloacal swabs. One of those positive samples yielded an AI virus isolated from a wild kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) captured in the South Atlantic coastline of Argentina. Further characterization by nucleotide sequencing reveals that it belongs to the H13N9 subtype. Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 viral genes suggests that the 6 internal genes are related to the isolates from Chile and Bolivia. The analysis also indicates that a cluster of phylogenetically related AI viruses from South America may have evolved independently, with minimal gene exchange, from influenza viruses in other latitudes. The data produced from our investigations are valuable contributions to the study of AI viruses in South America. PMID:18632129

  17. Identification of Two novel reassortant avian influenza a (H5N6) viruses in whooper swans in Korea, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; Woo, Chanjin; Ip, Hon S; An, Injung; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kwanghee; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeonghwa; Sleeman, Jonathan; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-03-21

    On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identification of HPAIVs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Gangjin H5N6 viruses classified into Asian H5 clade 2.3.4.4 lineage and were distinguishable from H5N8 and H5N1 HPAIVs previously isolated in Korea. With the exception of the polymerase acidic (PA) gene, the viruses were most closely related to A/duck/Guangdong/01.01SZSGXJK005-Y/2016 (H5N6) (98.90 ~ 99.74%). The PA genes of the two novel Gangjin H5N6 viruses were most closely related to AIV isolates previously characterized from Korea, A/hooded crane/Korea/1176/2016 (H1N1) (99.16%) and A/environment/Korea/W133/2006 (H7N7) (98.65%). The lack of more recent viruses to A/environment/Korea/W133/2006 (H7N7) indicates the need for analysis of recent wild bird AIVs isolated in Korea because they might provide further clues as to the origin of these novel reassortant H5N6 viruses. Although research on the origins and epidemiology of these infections is ongoing, the most likely route of infection for the whooper swans was through direct or indirect contact with reassortant viruses shed by migratory wild birds in Korea. As H5N6 HPAIVs can potentially be transmitted to poultry and humans, continuous monitoring of AIVs among wild birds will help to mitigate this risk.

  18. Unexpected infection outcomes of China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Marek J; Seekings, Amanda H; Mahmood, Sahar; Thomas, Saumya; Puranik, Anita; Watson, Samantha; Byrne, Alexander M P; Hicks, Daniel; Nunez, Alejandro; Brown, Ian H; Brookes, Sharon M

    2018-05-09

    The China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) emerged as a zoonotic threat in 2013 where it continues to circulate in live poultry markets. Absence of overt clinical signs in poultry is a typical LPAIV infection outcome, and has contributed to its insidious maintenance in China. This study is the first description of H7N9 LPAIV (A/Anhui/1/13) infection in turkeys, with efficient transmission to two additional rounds of introduced contact turkeys which all became infected during cohousing. Surprisingly, mortality was observed in six of eight (75%) second-round contact turkeys which is unusual for LPAIV infection, with unexpected systemic dissemination to many organs beyond the respiratory and enteric tracts, but interestingly no accompanying mutation to highly pathogenic AIV. The intravenous pathogenicity index score for a turkey-derived isolate (0.39) affirmed the LPAIV phenotype. However, the amino acid change L235Q in the haemagglutinin gene occurred in directly-infected turkeys and transmitted to the contacts, including those that died and the two which resolved infection to survive to the end of the study. This polymorphism was indicative of a reversion from mammalian to avian adaptation for the H7N9 virus. This study underlined a new risk to poultry in the event of H7N9 spread beyond China.

  19. Pathobiology and transmission of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Dolz, Roser; Busquets, Núria; Gamino, Virginia; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Chaves, Aida J; Ramis, Antonio; Abad, F Xavier; Höfle, Ursula; Majó, Natàlia

    2013-03-28

    European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix) may share with Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) its potential as an intermediate host and reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). To elucidate this question, European quail were experimentally challenged with two highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) (H7N1/HP and H5N1/HP) and one low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) (H7N2/LP). Contact animals were also used to assess the viral transmission among birds. Severe neurological signs and mortality rates of 67% (H7N1/HP) and 92% (H5N1/HP) were observed. Although histopathological findings were present in both HPAIV-infected groups, H5N1/HP-quail displayed a broader viral antigen distribution and extent of microscopic lesions. Neither clinical nor pathological involvement was observed in LPAIV-infected quail. Consistent long-term viral shedding and effective transmission to naive quail was demonstrated for the three studied AIV. Drinking water arose as a possible transmission route and feathers as a potential origin of HPAIV dissemination. The present study demonstrates that European quail may play a major role in AI epidemiology, highlighting the need to further understand its putative role as an intermediate host for avian/mammalian reassortant viruses.

  20. A 4-year study of avian influenza virus prevalence and subtype diversity in ducks of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Dobbin, Ashley; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The island of Newfoundland, Canada, is at the eastern edge of North America and has migratory bird connections with the continental mainland as well as across the North Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report a 4-year avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemiological study in ducks in the St. John's region of Newfoundland. The overall prevalence of AIV detection in ducks during this study was 7.2%, with American Black Ducks contributing the vast majority of the collected samples and the AIV positives. The juvenile ducks showed a significantly higher AIV detection rate (10.6%) compared with adults (3.4%). Seasonally, AIV prevalence rates were higher in the autumn (8.4%), but positives were still detected in the winter (4.6%). Preliminary serology tests showed a high incidence of previous AIV infection (20/38, 52.6%). A total of 43 viruses were characterized for their HA-NA or HA subtypes, which revealed a large diversity of AIV subtypes and little recurrence of subtypes from year to year. Investigation of the movement patterns of ducks in this region showed that it is a largely non-migratory duck population, which may contribute to the observed pattern of high AIV subtype turnover. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 H1N1 and one H5N4 AIVs showed these viruses were highly similar to other low pathogenic AIV sequences from waterfowl in North America and assigned all gene segments into American-avian clades. Notably, the H1N1 viruses, which were identified in consecutive years, possessed homologous genomes. Such detection of homologous AIV genomes across years is rare, but indicates the role of the environmental reservoir in viral perpetuation.

  1. Experimental challenge and pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in dunlin (Calidris alpina), an intercontinental migrant shorebird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Franson, J. Christian; Gill, Robert E.; Meteyer, Carol U.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate from wintering areas in central and eastern Asia, where HPAIV H5N1 is endemic, across the Bering Sea to breeding areas in Alaska. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus has been previously detected in dunlin, and thus, dunlin represent a potential risk to transport HPAIV to North America. To date no experimental challenge studies have been performed in shorebirds.

  2. Avian pox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.

    1999-01-01

    Avian pox is the common name for a mild-to-severe, slowdeveloping disease of birds that is caused by a large virus belonging to the avipoxvirus group, a subgroup of poxviruses. This group contains several similar virus strains; some strains have the ability to infect several groups or species of birds but others appear to be species-specific. Mosquitoes are common mechanical vectors or transmitters of this disease. Avian pox is transmitted when a mosquito feeds on an infected bird that has viremia or pox virus circulating in its blood, or when a mosquito feeds on virus-laden secretions seeping from a pox lesion and then feeds on another bird that is susceptible to that strain of virus. Contact with surfaces or exposure to air-borne particles contaminated with poxvirus can also result in infections when virus enters the body through abraded skin or the conjunctiva or the mucous membrane lining that covers the front part of the eyeball and inner surfaces of the eyelids of the eye.

  3. H5N1 Influenza A Virus PB1-F2 Relieves HAX-1-Mediated Restriction of Avian Virus Polymerase PA in Human Lung Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel-Sanchez, B; Boal-Carvalho, I; Silva, F; Dijkman, R; Schmolke, M

    2018-06-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAV) from avian hosts were first reported to directly infect humans 20 years ago. However, such infections are rare events, and our understanding of factors promoting or restricting zoonotic transmission is still limited. One accessory protein of IAV, PB1-F2, was associated with pathogenicity of pandemic and zoonotic IAV. This short (90-amino-acid) peptide does not harbor an enzymatic function. We thus identified host factors interacting with H5N1 PB1-F2, which could explain its importance for virulence. PB1-F2 binds to HCLS1-associated protein X1 (HAX-1), a recently identified host restriction factor of the PA subunit of IAV polymerase complexes. We demonstrate that the PA of a mammal-adapted H1N1 IAV is resistant to HAX-1 imposed restriction, while the PA of an avian-origin H5N1 IAV remains sensitive. We also showed HAX-1 sensitivity for PAs of A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 (H1N1) and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9), two avian-origin zoonotic IAV. Inhibition of H5N1 polymerase by HAX-1 can be alleviated by its PB1-F2 through direct competition. Accordingly, replication of PB1-F2-deficient H5N1 IAV is attenuated in the presence of large amounts of HAX-1. Mammal-adapted H1N1 and H3N2 viruses do not display this dependence on PB1-F2 for efficient replication in the presence of HAX-1. We propose that PB1-F2 plays a key role in zoonotic transmission of avian H5N1 IAV into humans. IMPORTANCE Aquatic and shore birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses from which the virus can jump into a variety of bird and mammal host species, including humans. H5N1 influenza viruses are a good model for this process. They pose an ongoing threat to human and animal health due to their high mortality rates. However, it is currently unclear what restricts these interspecies jumps on the host side or what promotes them on the virus side. Here we show that a short viral peptide, PB1-F2, helps H5N1 bird influenza viruses to overcome a human restriction

  4. Could Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of Northeastern China Have Influenced the Long-Distance Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5Nx Viruses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gilbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several reassortant subtypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI H5Nx have emerged in East Asia. These new viruses, mostly of subtype H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 belonging to clade 2.3.4.4, have been found in several Asian countries and have caused outbreaks in poultry in China, South Korea, and Vietnam. HPAI H5Nx also have spread over considerable distances with the introduction of viruses belonging to the same 2.3.4.4 clade in the U.S. (2014–2015 and in Europe (2014–2015 and 2016–2017. In this paper, we examine the emergence and spread of these new viruses in Asia in relation to published datasets on HPAI H5Nx distribution, movement of migratory waterfowl, avian influenza risk models, and land-use change analyses. More specifically, we show that between 2000 and 2015, vast areas of northeast China have been newly planted with rice paddy fields (3.21 million ha in Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning in areas connected to other parts of Asia through migratory pathways of wild waterfowl. We hypothesize that recent land use changes in northeast China have affected the spatial distribution of wild waterfowl, their stopover areas, and the wild-domestic interface, thereby altering transmission dynamics of avian influenza viruses across flyways. Detailed studies of the habitat use by wild migratory birds, of the extent of the wild–domestic interface, and of the circulation of avian influenza viruses in those new planted areas may help to shed more light on this hypothesis, and on the possible impact of those changes on the long-distance patterns of avian influenza transmission.

  5. A baculovirus dual expression system-based vaccine confers complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 avian influenza virus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype have become highly prevalent in avian species. Although these viruses generally cause only mild to moderate disease, they can infect a wide variety of species, including chickens, quail, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasant, partridge, and pigeon, even transmitted to mammalian species, including humans, accelerating the efforts to devise protective strategies against them. Results The results showed that stronger immune responses were induced in a mouse model immunized with BV-Dual-HA than in those vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding the same antigen. Moreover, complete protection against lethal challenge with H9N2 virus was observed in mice. Conclusion BV-Dual-HA could be utilized as a vaccine candidate against H9N2 virus infection.

  6. Studies on Nanoparticle Based Avian Influenza Vaccines to Present Immunogenic Epitopes of the Virus with Concentration on Ectodomain of Matrix 2 (M2e) Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babapoor Dighaleh, Sankhiros

    2011-12-01

    Avian influenza is an infectious disease of avian species caused by type A influenza viruses with a significant economic impact on the poultry industry. Vaccination is the main prevention strategy in many countries worldwide. However, available vaccines elicit antibodies against two major surface protein of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), where they constantly change by point mutations. Influenza viruses can also easily undergo gene reassortment. Therefore, to protect chickens against new strain of avian influenza virus, as well as control and prevent virus spread among farms, new vaccines needed to be designed which is a tedious, time consuming and expensive. Recently, conserved regions of the influenza genome have been evaluated as possible universal vaccines to eliminate constant vaccine updates based on circulating virus. In this study, peptide nanotechnology was used to generate vaccine nanoparticles that carry the highly conserved external domain of matrix 2 protein (M2e). These nanoparticles presented M2e in monomeric or tetrameric forms, designated as PSC-M2e-CH and BNSC-M2eN-CH. respectively. First, to demonstrate immunogenicity of these nanoparticles, we measured anti-M2e antibody in chickens, particularly when a high dose was applied. Prior to vaccination-challenge study, the challenge dose were determined by oculonasal inoculation of 10 6 EID50 or 107.7 EID50 of low pathogenicity AI virus HSN2 followed by measuring cloacal and tracheal virus shedding. A biphasic virus shedding pattern was observed with two peaks of virus shedding at days 4 and 8 for both tracheal and cloacal swabs. The chickens infected with 107.7 EID50 had significant virus shedding as compared with 106 EID50. Based on results of mentioned studies, a vaccination-challenge study was conducted by using 75mug of each vaccine construct per inoculation (with and without adjuvant) and higher dose of virus for challenge. BN5C-M2e-CH with adjuvant significantly reduced the

  7. Novel H7N2 and H5N6 Avian Influenza A Viruses in Sentinel Chickens: A Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, surveillance of sentinel chicken for avian influenza virus was conducted in aquatic bird habitat near Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China. Two H7N2, one H5N6, and two H9N2 viruses were isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that the H7N2 virus is a novel reassortant of H7N9 and H9N2 viruses and H5N6 virus is a reassortant of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 and H6N6 viruses. Substitutions V186 and L226 (H3 numbering in the hemagglutinin (HA gene protein was found in two H7N2 viruses but not in the H5N6 virus. Two A138 and A160 mutations were identified in the HA gene protein of all three viruses but a P128 mutation was only in the H5N6 virus. A deletion of three and eleven amino acids in the neuraminidase stalk region was found in two H7N2 and H5N6 viruses, respectively. Moreover, a mutation of N31 in M2 protein was observed in both two H7N2 viruses. High similarity of these isolated viruses to viruses previously identified among poultry and humans, suggests that peridomestic aquatic birds may play a role in sustaining novel virus transmission. Therefore, continued surveillance is needed to monitor these avian influenza viruses in wild bird and domestic poultry that may pose a threat to poultry and human health.

  8. Avian infectious bronchitis virus: a possible cause of reduced fertility in the rooster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, David A; Nakai, Masaaki; Bahra, Janice M

    2004-12-01

    The formation of epididymal stones in the rooster epididymis is a widespread problem that has detrimental effects on sperm production and fertility. The cause of epididymal stones is unknown, but an infectious agent, the avian infectious bronchitis virus (AIBV), has been implicated. The goal of this study was to determine if administering the live attenuated AIBV vaccine to male chicks increases the incidence of stones in the epididymal region of the adult rooster. Specific pathogen free (SPF) Leghorn roosters were divided into two groups: a vaccine-free group (n = 7) and a group vaccinated with AIBV (n = 12). The vaccine was administered orally at 2, 4, 10, and 14 wk of age. Blood was drawn weekly to monitor antibodies to AIBV. At 26 wk of age, blood was obtained to determine testosterone concentrations, and reproductive tracts were removed to analyze daily sperm production and to detect epididymal stones. Nine of 12 vaccinated roosters developed stones, whereas those not given the vaccine did not develop stones. Serum testosterone concentrations were significantly (P roosters with epididymal stones (3.6 +/- 0.30 ng/ml) when compared with nonvaccinated roosters that did not have epididymal stones (7.0 +/- 1.63 ng/ml). Testis weight was significantly (P roosters with epididymal stones (12.1 +/- 0.76 g), as compared with nonvaccinated roosters without epididymal stones (15.2 +/- 0.81 g). Daily sperm production was significantly (P roosters with epididymal stones (5.03 +/- 0.31 x 10(8) sperm/testis/day) when compared with nonvaccinated roosters without epididymal stones (7.43 +/- 0.52 x 10(8) sperm/testis/day). Comparing daily sperm production on a per gram basis, vaccinated roosters with epididymal stones had 4.38 +/- 0.14 x 10(7) sperm/g of testis, which was significantly (P roosters without epididymal stones, which had 5.17 +/- 0.17 x 10(7) sperm/g of testis. We conclude that the use of a live attenuated AIBV vaccine increases the incidence of epididymal stones in

  9. Hampered performance of migratory swans: intra- and inter-seasonal effects of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Huig, Naomi; de Vries, Peter; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tijsen, Wim; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M; van Gils, Jan A

    2016-08-01

    The extent to which animal migrations shape parasite transmission networks is critically dependent on a migrant's ability to tolerate infection and migrate successfully. Yet, sub-lethal effects of parasites can be intensified through periods of increased physiological stress. Long-distance migrants may, therefore, be especially susceptible to negative effects of parasitic infection. Although a handful of studies have investigated the short-term, transmission-relevant behaviors of wild birds infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV), the ecological consequences of LPAIV for the hosts themselves remain largely unknown. Here, we assessed the potential effects of naturally-acquired LPAIV infections in Bewick's swans, a long-distance migratory species that experiences relatively low incidence of LPAIV infection during early winter. We monitored both foraging and movement behavior in the winter of infection, as well as subsequent breeding behavior and inter-annual resighting probability over 3 years. Incorporating data on infection history we hypothesized that any effects would be most apparent in naïve individuals experiencing their first LPAIV infection. Indeed, significant effects of infection were only seen in birds that were infected but lacked antibodies indicative of prior infection. Swans that were infected but had survived a previous infection were indistinguishable from uninfected birds in each of the ecological performance metrics. Despite showing reduced foraging rates, individuals in the naïve-infected category had similar accumulated body stores to re-infected and uninfected individuals prior to departure on spring migration, possibly as a result of having higher scaled mass at the time of infection. And yet individuals in the naïve-infected category were unlikely to be resighted 1 year after infection, with 6 out of 7 individuals that never resighted again compared to 20 out of 63 uninfected individuals and 5 out of 12 individuals in

  10. The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, D L; Spackman, E; Senne, D A; Bulaga, L; Welsch, A C; Froberg, K

    2003-01-01

    An avian influenza (AI) real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) test was previously shown to be a rapid and sensitive method to identify AI virus-infected birds in live-bird markets (LBMs). The test can also be used to identify avian influenza virus (AIV) from environmental samples. Consequently, the use of RRT-PCR was being considered as a component of the influenza eradication program in the LBMs to assure that each market was properly cleaned and disinfected before allowing the markets to be restocked. However, the RRT-PCR test cannot differentiate between live and inactivated virus, particularly in environmental samples where the RRT-PCR test potentially could amplify virus that had been inactivated by commonly used disinfectants, resulting in a false positive test result. To determine whether this is a valid concern, a study was conducted in three New Jersey LBMs that were previously shown to be positive for the H7N2 AIV. Environmental samples were collected from all three markets following thorough cleaning and disinfection with a phenolic disinfectant. Influenza virus RNA was detected in at least one environmental sample from two of the three markets when tested by RRT-PCR; however, all samples were negative by virus isolation using the standard egg inoculation procedure. As a result of these findings, laboratory experiments were designed to evaluate several commonly used disinfectants for their ability to inactivate influenza as well as disrupt the RNA so that it could not be detected by the RRT-PCR test. Five disinfectants were tested: phenolic disinfectants (Tek-trol and one-stroke environ), a quaternary ammonia compound (Lysol no-rinse sanitizer), a peroxygen compound (Virkon-S), and sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). All five disinfectants were effective at inactivating AIV at the recommended concentrations, but AIV RNA in samples inactivated with phenolic and quaternary ammonia compounds could still be detected by RRT

  11. Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks is significantly reduced by a genetically distant H5N2 vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der J.A.; Boven, van M.; Stegeman, A.; Water, van de S.G.P.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of H5N1 avian influenza. Although it is known that vaccines that have a high homology with the challenge virus are able to prevent infection in ducks, little is yet known about the ability of genetically more distant vaccines in preventing

  12. Reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in a wild Mandarin Duck, South Korea, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused significant economic losses in the poultry industries and represents a serious threat to public health. H5N1 HPAIV was first detected in 1996 from a domestic goose in Guangdong China (Gs/GD) and has subsequently evolved into 10 geneticall...

  13. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region of Ukraine (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in a region of Ukraine known as being intercontinental (North-South and East-West) flyways. A total of 6,281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and 11 orders. From these samples, 69 ...

  14. A cross-sectional serological survey of the Dutch commercial poultry population for the presence of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de J.J.; Koch, G.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2004-01-01

    After the discovery of poultry infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of subtype H7N7 in the central area of the Netherlands on 28 February 2003, the hypothesis was put forward that an outbreak of the low pathogenic (LP) variant of H7N7 had preceded, unnoticed, the occurrence

  15. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  16. Reoccurrence of H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds during 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian-origin H5N1 A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) has become widespread across four continents, affecting poultry, wild birds and humans. H5N1 HPAIV has evolved into multiple hemagglutinin (HA) genetic clades and reassorting with dif...

  17. Naturally occurred frame-shift mutations in the tvb receptor gene are responsible for decreased susceptibility to subgroups B, D, and E avian leukosis virus infection in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    The group of highly related avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) in chickens were thought to have evolved from a common retroviral ancestor into six subgroups, A to E and J. These ALV subgroups use diverse cellular proteins encoded by four genetic loci in chickens as receptors to gain entry into host cells...

  18. Host-specific exposure and fatal neurologic disease in wild raptors from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 during the 2006 outbreak in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); O. Krone (Oliver); P.U. Wolf (Peter U.); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractRaptors may contract highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 by hunting or scavenging infected prey. However, natural H5N1 infection in raptors is rarely reported. Therefore, we tested raptors found dead during an H5N1 outbreak in wild waterbirds in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania,

  19. Evaluation of a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of avian influenza virus subtype H5 antibodies in zoo birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Andersen, Jannie Holmegaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is the current gold standard for detecting antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been explored for use in poultry and certain wild bird species because of high efficiency and lower cost. This study com...

  20. Biological assessment of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene in cultured cells and SPF turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in length of the glycoprotein (G) gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication and pathogenicity is unknown. In this study, we generated two Colorado (CO) strain-based recombinan...

  1. Deletion of the M2-2 Gene from Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C (aMPV-C) Impairs Virus Replication and Immunogenicity in Turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second matrix (M2) gene of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), encoding two putative proteins, M2-1 and M2-2. Both proteins are believed to be involved in either viral RNA transcription or replication. To further characterize the f...

  2. Local amplification of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses in wild birds in the Netherlands, 2016 to 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poen, Marjolein J.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Vuong, Oanh; Scheuer, Rachel D.; Jeugd, van der Henk P.; Kleyheeg, Erik; Eggink, Dirk; Lexmond, Pascal; Brand, van den Judith M.A.; Begeman, Lineke; Vliet, van der Stefan; Müskens, Gerhard J.D.M.; Majoor, Frank A.; Koopmans, Marion P.G.; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N8 were re-introduced into the Netherlands by late 2016, after detections in southeast Asia and Russia. This second H5N8 wave resulted in a large number of outbreaks in poultry farms and the deaths of large numbers of wild

  3. Local amplification of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses in wild birds in the Netherlands, 2016 to 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poen, Marjolein J; Bestebroer, Theo M; Vuong, Oanh; Scheuer, Rachel D; van der Jeugd, Henk P; Kleyheeg, Erik; Eggink, Dirk; Lexmond, Pascal; van den Brand, Judith M A; Begeman, Lineke; van der Vliet, Stefan; Müskens, Gerhard J D M; Majoor, Frank A; Koopmans, Marion P G; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M

    IntroductionHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N8 were re-introduced into the Netherlands by late 2016, after detections in south-east Asia and Russia. This second H5N8 wave resulted in a large number of outbreaks in poultry farms and the deaths of large numbers of wild

  4. Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlhoch, C.; Gossner, C.; Koch, G.; Brown, I.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Verdonck, F.; Penttinen, P.; Harder, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are

  5. Host-Specific and Segment-Specific Evolutionary Dynamics of Avian and Human Influenza A Viruses: A Systematic Review

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kiyeon

    2016-01-13

    Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of influenza viruses is essential to control both avian and human influenza. Here, we analyze host-specific and segment-specific Tajima’s D trends of influenza A virus through a systematic review using viral sequences registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information. To avoid bias from viral population subdivision, viral sequences were stratified according to their sampling locations and sampling years. As a result, we obtained a total of 580 datasets each of which consists of nucleotide sequences of influenza A viruses isolated from a single population of hosts at a single sampling site within a single year. By analyzing nucleotide sequences in the datasets, we found that Tajima’s D values of viral sequences were different depending on hosts and gene segments. Tajima’s D values of viruses isolated from chicken and human samples showed negative, suggesting purifying selection or a rapid population growth of the viruses. The negative Tajima’s D values in rapidly growing viral population were also observed in computer simulations. Tajima’s D values of PB2, PB1, PA, NP, and M genes of the viruses circulating in wild mallards were close to zero, suggesting that these genes have undergone neutral selection in constant-sized population. On the other hand, Tajima’s D values of HA and NA genes of these viruses were positive, indicating HA and NA have undergone balancing selection in wild mallards. Taken together, these results indicated the existence of unknown factors that maintain viral subtypes in wild mallards.

  6. Host-Specific and Segment-Specific Evolutionary Dynamics of Avian and Human Influenza A Viruses: A Systematic Review

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kiyeon; Omori, Ryosuke; Ueno, Keisuke; Iida, Sayaka; Ito, Kimihito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of influenza viruses is essential to control both avian and human influenza. Here, we analyze host-specific and segment-specific Tajima’s D trends of influenza A virus through a systematic review using viral sequences registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information. To avoid bias from viral population subdivision, viral sequences were stratified according to their sampling locations and sampling years. As a result, we obtained a total of 580 datasets each of which consists of nucleotide sequences of influenza A viruses isolated from a single population of hosts at a single sampling site within a single year. By analyzing nucleotide sequences in the datasets, we found that Tajima’s D values of viral sequences were different depending on hosts and gene segments. Tajima’s D values of viruses isolated from chicken and human samples showed negative, suggesting purifying selection or a rapid population growth of the viruses. The negative Tajima’s D values in rapidly growing viral population were also observed in computer simulations. Tajima’s D values of PB2, PB1, PA, NP, and M genes of the viruses circulating in wild mallards were close to zero, suggesting that these genes have undergone neutral selection in constant-sized population. On the other hand, Tajima’s D values of HA and NA genes of these viruses were positive, indicating HA and NA have undergone balancing selection in wild mallards. Taken together, these results indicated the existence of unknown factors that maintain viral subtypes in wild mallards.

  7. Penerapan Metode Diagnosis Cepat Virus Avian Influenza H5N1 dengan Metode Single Step Multiplex RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI virus is a segmented single stranded (ss RNA virus with negative polarity andbelong to the Orthomyxoviridae family. Diagnose of AI virus can be performed using conventional methodsbut it has low sensitivity and specificity. The objective of the research was to apply rapid, precise, andaccurate diagnostic method for AI virus and also to determine its type and subtype based on the SingleStep Multiplex Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting M, H5, and N1 genes. In thismethod M, H5 and NI genes were simultaneously amplified in one PCR tube. The steps of this researchconsist of collecting viral RNAs from 10 different AI samples originated from Maros Disease InvestigationCenter during 2007. DNA Amplification was conducted by Simplex RT-PCR using M primer set. Then, bysingle step multiplex RT-PCR were conducted simultaneously using M, H5 and N1 primers set. The RTPCRproducts were then separated on 1.5% agarose gel, stained by ethidum bromide and visualized underUV transilluminator. Results showed that 8 of 10 RNA virus samples could be amplified by Simplex RTPCRfor M gene which generating a DNA fragment of 276 bp. Amplification using multiplex RT-PCRmethod showed two of 10 samples were AI positive using multiplex RT-PCR, three DNA fragments weregenerated consisting of 276 bp for M gene, 189 bp for H5 gene, and 131 bp for N1. In this study, rapid andeffective diagnosis method for AI virus can be conducted by using simultaneous Single Step Multiplex RTPCR.By this technique type and subtype of AI virus, can also be determined, especially H5N1.

  8. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. Little evidence of avian or equine influenza virus infection among a cohort of Mongolian adults with animal exposures, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyamdavaa Khurelbaatar

    Full Text Available Avian (AIV and equine influenza virus (EIV have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia's migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI. Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36% were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10 against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8; 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1, 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2, and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4 virus. However, all such titers were <1∶80 and none were statistically associated with avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this

  10. Little Evidence of Avian or Equine Influenza Virus Infection among a Cohort of Mongolian Adults with Animal Exposures, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia’s migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective study of Mongolians with animal exposures. PMID

  11. Little evidence of avian or equine influenza virus infection among a cohort of Mongolian adults with animal exposures, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia's migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective study of Mongolians with animal exposures.

  12. Avian metapneumovirus RT-nested-PCR: a novel false positive reducing inactivated control virus with potential applications to other RNA viruses and real time methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchieri, Marco; Brown, Paul A; Catelli, Elena; Naylor, Clive J

    2012-12-01

    Using reverse genetics, an avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) was modified for use as a positive control for validating all stages of a popular established RT-nested PCR, used in the detection of the two major AMPV subtypes (A and B). Resultant amplicons were of increased size and clearly distinguishable from those arising from unmodified virus, thus allowing false positive bands, due to control virus contamination of test samples, to be identified readily. Absorption of the control virus onto filter paper and subsequent microwave irradiation removed all infectivity while its function as an efficient RT-nested-PCR template was unaffected. Identical amplicons were produced after storage for one year. The modified virus is likely to have application as an internal standard as well as in real time methods. Additions to AMPV of RNA from other RNA viruses, including hazardous examples such HIV and influenza, are likely to yield similar safe RT-PCR controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Application of NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox System in the Generation of Bivalent Duck Enteritis Virus Vaccine against Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxiang Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Duck-targeted vaccines to protect against avian influenza are critically needed to aid in influenza disease control efforts in regions where ducks are endemic for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Duck enteritis virus (DEV is a promising candidate viral vector for development of vaccines targeting ducks, owing to its large genome and narrow host range. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 system is a versatile gene-editing tool that has proven beneficial for gene modification and construction of recombinant DNA viral vectored vaccines. Currently, there are two commonly used methods for gene insertion: non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and homology-directed repair (HDR. Owing to its advantages in efficiency and independence from molecular requirements of the homologous arms, we utilized NHEJ-dependent CRISPR/Cas9 to insert the influenza hemagglutinin (HA antigen expression cassette into the DEV genome. The insert was initially tagged with reporter green fluorescence protein (GFP, and a Cre-Lox system was later used to remove the GFP gene insert. Furthermore, a universal donor plasmid system was established by introducing double bait sequences that were independent of the viral genome. In summary, we provide proof of principle for generating recombinant DEV viral vectored vaccines against the influenza virus using an integrated NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox system.

  14. Penentuan Secara Imunopatologi Organ Target Virus Flu Burung Menggunakan Streptavidin Biotin (DETERMINATION OF TARGET ORGANS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS USING IMMUNOPATHOLOGICAL IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY STREPTAVIDIN-BIOTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)