WorldWideScience

Sample records for avian collision risk

  1. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie New

    Full Text Available Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1 in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4; 80th

  2. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Strickland, Dale M.; Young, Jr., David P.; Sernka, Karyn J.; Good, Rhett E.

    2001-08-01

    It has been estimated that from 100 million to well over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to collisions with human-made structures, including vehicles, buildings and windows, powerlines, communication towers, and wind turbines. Although wind energy is generally considered environmentally friendly (because it generates electricity without emitting air pollutants or greenhouse gases), the potential for avian fatalities has delayed and even significantly contributed to blocking the development of some windplants in the U.S. Given the importance of developing a viable renewable source of energy, the objective of this paper is to put the issue of avian mortality associated with windpower into perspective with other sources of avian collision mortality across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed summary of the mortality data collected at windplants and put avian collision mortality associated with windpower development into perspective with other significant sources of avian collision mortality across the United States. We provide a summary of data collected at many of the U.S. windplants and provide annual bird fatality estimates and projections for all wind turbines in the U.S. For comparison, we also review studies of avian collision mortality from other major human-made structures and report annual bird fatality estimates for these sources. Other sources also significantly contribute to overall avian mortality. For example, the National Audubon Society estimates avian mortality due to house cats at 100 million birds per year. Pesticide use, oil spills, disease, etc., are other significant sources of unintended avian mortality. Due to funding constraints, the scope of this paper is limited to examining only avian mortality resulting from collisions with human-made obstacles.

  3. Modelling seabird collision risk with off-shore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Maria; Arroyo, Gonzalo Munoz; Rosario, Jose Juan Alonso del

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent concern about the adverse effects of collision mortality of avian migrants at wind farms has highlighted the need to understand bird-wind turbine interactions. Here, a stochastic collision model, based on data of seabird behaviour collected on- site, is presented, as a flexible and easy to take tool to assess the collisions probabilities of off-shore wind farms in a pre-construction phase. The collision prediction model considering the wind farm area as a risk window has been constructed as a stochastic model for avian migrants, based on Monte Carlo simulation. The model calculates the probable number of birds collided per time unit. Migration volume, wind farm dimensions, vertical and horizontal distribution of the migratory passage, flight direction and avoidance rates, between other variables, are taken into account in different steps of the model as the input variables. In order to assess the weighted importance of these factors on collision probability predictions, collision probabilities obtained from the set of scenarios resulting from the different combinations of the input variables were modelled by using Generalised Additive Models. The application of this model to a hypothetical project for erecting a wind farm at the Strait of Gibraltar showed that collision probability, and consequently mortality rates, strongly depend on the values of the avoidance rates taken into account, and the distribution of birds into the different altitude layers. These parameters should be considered as priorities to be addressed in post-construction studies. (Author)

  4. Collision Risk Analysis for HSC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1999-01-01

    High Speed Craft (HSC) have a risk profile, which is distinctly different from conventional ferries. Due to different hull building material, structural layout, compartmentation and operation, both frequency and consequences of collision and grounding accidents must be expected to be different from...... conventional ships. To reach a documented level of safety, it is therefore not possible directly to transfer experience with conventional ships. The purpose of this paper is to present new rational scientific tools to assess and quantify the collision risk associated with HSC transportation. The paper...

  5. Communication towers, lights, and birds: successful methods of reducing the frequency of avian collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Joelle; Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Albert M

    2009-03-01

    Estimates suggest that each year millions of birds, predominantly Neotropical migrating songbirds, collide with communication towers. To determine the relative collision risks that different nighttime Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) communication tower obstruction lighting systems pose to night-migrating birds, we compared fatalities at towers with different systems: white strobe lights only; red strobe-like lights only; red, flashing, incandescent lights only; and red, strobe-like lights combined with non-flashing, steady-burning, red lights. Avian fatality data used to compare these tower light systems were collected simultaneously in Michigan on 20 consecutive days during early morning hours during peak songbird migration at 24 towers in May and September 2005 (total = 40 days). Twenty-one towers were 116-146 m above ground level (AGL), and three were > or = 305 m AGL. During the two 20-day sample periods, we found a mean of 3.7 birds under 116-146 m AGL towers equipped with only red or white flashing obstruction lights, whereas towers with non-flashing/steady-burning lights in addition to the flashing lights were responsible for 13.0 fatalities per season. Kruskal-Wallis test, ANOVA, Student's t test, and multiple comparisons procedures determined that towers lit at night with only flashing lights were involved in significantly fewer avian fatalities than towers lit with systems that included the FAA "status quo" lighting system (i.e., a combination of red, flashing lights and red, non-flashing lights). There were no significant differences in fatality rates among towers lit with red strobes, white strobes, and red, incandescent, flashing lights. Results from related studies at the same towers in May and September 2004 and September 2003 provide ancillary support for these findings. Our results suggest that avian fatalities can be reduced, perhaps by 50-71%, at guyed communication towers by removing non-flashing/steady-burning red lights. Our lighting

  6. Collision Risk and Damage after Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    1996-01-01

    of the damage risk is calculated by a numerical procedure. These directly calculated distributions for hull damages are subsequently approximated by analytical expressions suited for probabilistic damage stability calculations similar to the procedure described in IMO regulation A.265.Numerical results...

  7. Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-01-01

    To determine duck hunters’ risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007–2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  8. Duck hunters' perceptions of risk for avian influenza, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-08-01

    To determine duck hunters'risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007-2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  9. Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population-Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beston, Julie A; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Loss, Scott R; Johnson, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species' distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species' conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories) for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson's hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future study and management

  10. Prioritizing avian species for their risk of population-level consequences from wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Loss, Scott; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species’ distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species’ conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories) for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson’s hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future study and

  11. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  12. Avian mortalities due to transmission line collisions: a review of current estimates and field methods with an emphasis on applications to the Canadian electric network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Rioux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Birds are vulnerable to collisions with human-made fixed structures. Despite ongoing development and increases in infrastructure, we have few estimates of the magnitude of collision mortality. We reviewed the existing literature on avian mortality associated with transmission lines and derived an initial estimate for Canada. Estimating mortality from collisions with power lines is challenging due to the lack of studies, especially from sites within Canada, and due to uncertainty about the magnitude of detection biases. Detection of bird collisions with transmission lines varies due to habitat type, species size, and scavenging rates. In addition, birds can be crippled by the impact and subsequently die, although crippling rates are poorly known and rarely incorporated into estimates. We used existing data to derive a range of estimates of avian mortality associated with collisions with transmission lines in Canada by incorporating detection, scavenging, and crippling biases. There are 231,966 km of transmission lines across Canada, mostly in the boreal forest. Mortality estimates ranged from 1 million to 229.5 million birds per year, depending on the bias corrections applied. We consider our most realistic estimate, taking into account variation in risk across Canada, to range from 2.5 million to 25.6 million birds killed per year. Data from multiple studies across Canada and the northern U.S. indicate that the most vulnerable bird groups are (1 waterfowl, (2 grebes, (3 shorebirds, and (4 cranes, which is consistent with other studies. Populations of several groups that are vulnerable to collisions are increasing across Canada (e.g., waterfowl, raptors, which suggests that collision mortality, at current levels, is not limiting population growth. However, there may be impacts on other declining species, such as shorebirds and some species at risk, including Alberta's Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator and western Canada's endangered Whooping

  13. Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qi; Liu, Linqing; Pu, Juan; Zhao, Jingyi; Sun, Yipeng; Shen, Guangnian; Wei, Haitao; Zhu, Junjie; Zheng, Ruifeng; Xiong, Dongyan; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    To determine risk for avian influenza virus infection, we conducted serologic surveillance for H5 and H9 subtypes among poultry workers in Beijing, China, 2009–2010, and assessed workers’ understanding of avian influenza. We found that poultry workers had considerable risk for infection with H9 subtypes. Increasing their knowledge could prevent future infections.

  14. Risk Reducing Effect of AIS Implementation on Collision Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    AIS (Automatic Identification System) is a transponder system developed for sea traffic purposes. The system sends and receives important ship information and other safety-related information between other ships and shore-based AIS stations. The implementation of AIS has now been initiated and......, as a result, the community will undoubtedly observe an increase in navigational safety. However, to the authors? knowledge, no study has so far rigorously quantified the risk reducing effect of using AIS as an integrated part of the navigational system. The objective of this study is to fill this gap....... The risk reducing effect of AIS is quantified by building a Bayesian network facilitating an evaluation of the effect of AIS on the navigational officer?s reaction ability in a potential, critical collision situation. The time-dependent change in the risk reducing effect on ship collisions is analysed...

  15. The avian influenza H9N2 at avian-human interface: A possible risk for the future pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh RahimiRad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The avian influenza subtype H9N2 is considered a low pathogenic virus which is endemic in domestic poultry of a majority of Asian countries. Many reports of seropositivity in occupationally poultry-exposed workers and a number of confirmed human infections with an H9N2 subtype of avian influenza have been documented up to now. Recently, the human infections with both H7N9 and H10N8 viruses highlighted that H9N2 has a great potential for taking a part in the emergence of new human-infecting viruses. This review aimed at discussing the great potential of H9N2 virus which is circulating at avian-human interface, for cross-species transmission, contribution in the production of new reassortants and emergence of new pandemic subtypes. An intensified surveillance is needed for controlling the future risks which would be created by H9N2 circulation at avian-human interfaces.

  16. Cooperative Crisis Management and Avian Influenza. A Risk Assessment Guide for International Contagious Disease Prevention and Risk Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    commercial poultry production facilities, areas in the community where poultry are produced in backyards , and markets where live poultry are sold. Third...goal towards diminishing the risk of avian influenza to humans and poultry ” along with “approaches and implementation plans for the control of...as in the case of avian influenza, where poultry workers and persons who keep small domestic flocks of chickens are at higher risk for exposure from

  17. Total Probability of Collision as a Metric for Finite Conjunction Assessment and Collision Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, R.; Johnson, L.

    The Probability of Collision (Pc) has become a universal metric and statement of on-orbit collision risk. Although several flavors of the computation exist and are well-documented in the literature, the basic calculation requires the same input: estimates for the position, position uncertainty, and sizes of the two objects involved. The Pc is used operationally to make decisions on whether a given conjunction poses significant collision risk to the primary object (or space asset of concern). It is also used to determine necessity and degree of mitigative action (typically in the form of an orbital maneuver) to be performed. The predicted post-maneuver Pc also informs the maneuver planning process into regarding the timing, direction, and magnitude of the maneuver needed to mitigate the collision risk. Although the data sources, techniques, decision calculus, and workflows vary for different agencies and organizations, they all have a common thread. The standard conjunction assessment and collision risk concept of operations (CONOPS) predicts conjunctions, assesses the collision risk (typically, via the Pc), and plans and executes avoidance activities for conjunctions as a discrete events. As the space debris environment continues to increase and improvements are made to remote sensing capabilities and sensitivities to detect, track, and predict smaller debris objects, the number of conjunctions will in turn continue to increase. The expected order-of-magnitude increase in the number of predicted conjunctions will challenge the paradigm of treating each conjunction as a discrete event. The challenge will not be limited to workload issues, such as manpower and computing performance, but also the ability for satellite owner/operators to successfully execute their mission while also managing on-orbit collision risk. Executing a propulsive maneuver occasionally can easily be absorbed into the mission planning and operations tempo; whereas, continuously planning evasive

  18. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

    2013-01-01

    The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated.

  19. Does avian conspicuous colouration increase or reduce predation risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, M; Avilés, J M; Cuervo, J J; Parejo, D; Ruano, F; Zamora-Muñoz, C; Sergio, F; López-Jiménez, L; Tanferna, A; Martín-Vivaldi, M

    2013-09-01

    Animals often announce their unprofitability to predators through conspicuous coloured signals. Here we tested whether the apparently conspicuous colour designs of the four European Coraciiformes and Upupiformes species may have evolved as aposematic signals, or whether instead they imply a cost in terms of predation risk. Because previous studies suggested that these species are unpalatable, we hypothesized that predators could avoid targeting them based on their colours. An experiment was performed where two artificial models of each bird species were exposed simultaneously to raptor predators, one painted so as to resemble the real colour design of these birds, and the other one painted using cryptic colours. Additionally, we used field data on the black kite's diet to compare the selection of these four species to that of other avian prey. Conspicuous models were attacked in equal or higher proportions than their cryptic counterparts, and the attack rate on the four species increased with their respective degree of contrast against natural backgrounds. The analysis of the predator's diet revealed that the two least attacked species were negatively selected in nature despite their abundance. Both conspicuous and cryptic models of one of the studied species (the hoopoe) received fewer attacks than cryptic models of the other three species, suggesting that predators may avoid this species for characteristics other than colour. Globally, our results suggest that the colour of coraciiforms and upupiforms does not function as an aposematic signal that advises predators of their unprofitability, but also that conspicuous colours may increase predation risk in some species, supporting thus the handicap hypothesis.

  20. Mercury risk to avian piscivores across western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Josh; Willacker, James J.; Elliott, John E.; Lepak, Jesse M; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    The widespread distribution of mercury (Hg) threatens wildlife health, particularly piscivorous birds. Western North America is a diverse region that provides critical habitat to many piscivorous bird species, and also has a well-documented history of mercury contamination from legacy mining and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of landscapes in the west limits the distribution of avian piscivore species, complicating broad comparisons across the region. Mercury risk to avian piscivores was evaluated across the western United States and Canada using a suite of avian piscivore species representing a variety of foraging strategies that together occur broadly across the region. Prey fish Hg concentrations were size-adjusted to the preferred size class of the diet for each avian piscivore (Bald Eagle = 36 cm, Osprey = 30 cm, Common and Yellow-billed Loon = 15 cm, Western and Clark's Grebe = 6 cm, and Belted Kingfisher = 5 cm) across each species breeding range. Using a combination of field and lab-based studies on Hg effect in a variety of species, wet weight blood estimates were grouped into five relative risk categories including: background ( 3 μg/g). These risk categories were used to estimate potential mercury risk to avian piscivores across the west at a 1 degree-by-1 degree grid cell resolution. Avian piscivores foraging on larger-sized fish generally were at a higher relative risk to Hg. Habitats with a relatively high risk included wetland complexes (e.g., prairie pothole in Saskatchewan), river deltas (e.g., San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, Columbia River), and arid lands (Great Basin and central Arizona). These results indicate that more intensive avian piscivore sampling is needed across Western North America to generate a more robust assessment of exposure risk.

  1. Implications of public understanding of avian influenza for fostering effective risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Brenda L; Brand, Michael; Regens, James L; Boatright, Daniel T

    2008-10-01

    Avian influenza has three of the four properties necessary to cause a pandemic. However, are we as individuals and communities prepared for a pandemic flu in the United States? To help answer this question, 12 focus groups (N = 60) were conducted in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to determine the level of awareness of avian and pandemic flu for the county health department to develop effective communication messages. The overall findings indicate that the general Tulsa public lacks information about avian influenza or pandemics, does not believe a pandemic will occur, and believes if one does occur the government will take care of it. Finally, the groups agreed that education would be the key to preventing widespread panic if a pandemic occurred. Five themes emerged: confusion about terminology, seriousness of avian influenza, disaster fatigue, appropriate precautions, and credibility of health information. Each should be considered in developing effective risk communication messages.

  2. Using Logistic Regression to Identify Risk Factors Causing Rollover Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Dabbour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rollover collisions are among the most serious collisions that usually result in severe injuries or fatalities. In 2009, there were 8,732 fatal rollover collisions in the United States of America that resulted in the death of 9,833 persons. Those numbers represent approximately 28% and 29% of the total numbers of fatal collisions and fatalities, respectively. The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of different risk factors that may contribute to this type of serious collisions to help develop countermeasures that limit them. To avoid the bias that may be caused by interactions among different drivers, this analysis focuses on rollover related to single-vehicle collisions so that the behavior of the driver of the collided vehicle can be analyzed more effectively. Logistic regression technique is utilized to analyze single-vehicle rollover collisions that occurred on state and interstate highways in the states of Ohio and Washington in 2009. The results obtained from this analysis have the potential to help decision makers identify different strategies to limit the severity of this type of collisions.

  3. Establishment of a Risk Assessment Framework for Analysis of the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Jing-fei; WU Chun-yan; YANG Yan-tao; JI Zeng-tao; WANG Hong-bin

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in mainland China, a risk assessment framework was built.Risk factors were determined by analyzing the epidemic data using the brainstorming method; the analytic hierarchy process was designed to weigh risk factors, and the integrated multicriteria analysis was used to evaluate the final result.The completed framework included the risk factor system, data standards for risk factors, weights of risk factors, and integrated assessment methods. This risk assessment framework can be used to quantitatively analyze the outbreak and spread of HPAI in mainland China.

  4. Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermarco Aroldi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.

  5. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Hsu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1 the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2 the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3 consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception.

  6. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORIGUCHI, Sachiko; ONUMA, Manabu; GOKA, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  7. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Onuma, Manabu; Goka, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species.

  8. Poultry slaughtering practices in rural communities of Bangladesh and risk of avian influenza transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi

    2014-01-01

    Slaughtering sick poultry is a risk factor for human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza and is a common practice in Bangladesh. This paper describes human exposures to poultry during slaughtering process and the customs and rituals influencing these practices in two Bangladeshi rura...

  9. Risk for Avian Influenza Virus Exposure at Human–Wildlife Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Siembieda, J; Johnson, CK; Boyce, W; Sandrock, C; Cardona, C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess risk for human exposure to avian influenza viruses (AIV), we sampled California wild birds and marine mammals during October 2005-August 2007and estimated human-wildlife contact. Waterfowl hunters were 8 times more likely to have contact with AIV-infected wildlife than were persons with casual or occupational exposures (p

  10. Estimating Risks of Inapparent Avian Exposure for Human Infection: Avian Influenza Virus A (H7N9) in Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Erjia; Zhang, Renjie; Li, Dengkui; Wei, Xiaolin; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Inapparent avian exposure was suspected for the sporadic infection of avian influenza A(H7N9) occurring in China. This type of exposure is usually unnoticed and difficult to model and measure. Infected poultry with avian influenza H7N9 virus typically remains asymptomatic, which may facilitate infection through inapparent poultry/bird exposure, especially in a country with widespread practice of backyard poultry. The present study proposed a novel approach that integrated ecological and case-control methods to quantify the risk of inapparent avian exposure on human H7N9 infection. Significant associations of the infection with chicken and goose densities, but not with duck density, were identified after adjusting for spatial clustering effects of the H7N9 cases across multiple geographic scales of neighborhood, community, district and city levels. These exposure risks varied geographically in association with proximity to rivers and lakes that were also proxies for inapparent exposure to avian-related environment. Males, elderly people, and farmers were high-risk subgroups for the virus infection. These findings enable health officials to target educational programs and awareness training in specific locations to reduce the risks of inapparent exposure. PMID:28054599

  11. Total Probability of Collision as a Metric for Finite Conjunction Assessment and Collision Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.; Plakalovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    On-orbit collision risk is becoming an increasing mission risk to all operational satellites in Earth orbit. Managing this risk can be disruptive to mission and operations, present challenges for decision-makers, and is time-consuming for all parties involved. With the planned capability improvements to detecting and tracking smaller orbital debris and capacity improvements to routinely predict on-orbit conjunctions, this mission risk will continue to grow in terms of likelihood and effort. It is very real possibility that the future space environment will not allow collision risk management and mission operations to be conducted in the same manner as it is today. This paper presents the concept of a finite conjunction assessment-one where each discrete conjunction is not treated separately but, rather, as a continuous event that must be managed concurrently. The paper also introduces the Total Probability of Collision as an analogous metric for finite conjunction assessment operations and provides several options for its usage in a Concept of Operations.

  12. A literature review of risk assessment of ship-FPSO collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ge; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of the research and analysis on the risks of collision with offshore installations. The focus is placed on: existing criteria, FPSO collision accident, design scenarios for FPSO collision, mechanics of collision incidents, and consequences. The content...

  13. Navigational Traffic Conflict Technique: A Proactive Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Collision Risks in Port Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Chin, Hoong Chor

    Navigational safety analysis relying on collision statistics is often hampered because of the low number of observations. A promising alternative approach that overcomes this problem is proposed in this paper. By analyzing critical vessel interactions this approach proactively measures collision risk in port waters. The proposed method is illustrated for quantitative measurement of collision risks in Singapore port fairways, and validated by examining correlations between the measured risks with those perceived by pilots. This method is an ethically appealing alternative to the collision-based analysis for fast, reliable and effective safety assessment, thus possessing great potential for managing collision risks in port waters.

  14. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  15. Incorporating risk communication into highly pathogenic avian influenza preparedness and response efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Shauna J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Sampedro, Fernando; Snider, Tim; Goldsmith, Timothy; Hueston, William D; Lauer, Dale C; Halvorson, David A

    2012-12-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the United States will initiate a federal emergency response effort that will consist of disease control and eradication efforts, including quarantine and movement control measures. These movement control measures will not only apply to live animals but also to animal products. However, with current egg industry "just-in-time" production practices, limited storage is available to hold eggs. As a result, stop movement orders can have significant unintended negative consequences, including severe disruptions to the food supply chain. Because stakeholders' perceptions of risk vary, waiting to initiate communication efforts until an HPAI event occurs can hinder disease control efforts, including the willingness of producers to comply with the response, and also can affect consumers' demand for the product. A public-private-academic partnership was formed to assess actual risks involved in the movement of egg industry products during an HPAI event through product specific, proactive risk assessments. The risk analysis process engaged a broad representation of stakeholders and promoted effective risk management and communication strategies before an HPAI outbreak event. This multidisciplinary team used the risk assessments in the development of the United States Department of Agriculture, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Secure Egg Supply Plan, a comprehensive response plan that strives to maintain continuity of business. The collaborative approach that was used demonstrates how a proactive risk communication strategy that involves many different stakeholders can be valuable in the development of a foreign animal disease response plan and build working relationships, trust, and understanding.

  16. Food risks and consumer trust : European governance of Avian influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1990s, many European countries faced one or more food crises, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), E. coli, dioxin residues, and foot-and-mouth disease. These crises were marked by a growing public recognition of food-related risks and the changing nature of these risks, and te

  17. A quantitative framework for estimating risk of collision between marine mammals and boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Sabatier, Quentin; Gowan, Timothy A.; Giraud, Christophe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Calleson, Scott; Ortega-Ortiz, Joel G.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Rycyk, Athena; Koslovsky, Stacie M.

    2016-01-01

    Speed regulations of watercraft in protected areas are designed to reduce lethal collisions with wildlife but can have economic consequences. We present a quantitative framework for investigating the risk of deadly collisions between boats and wildlife.

  18. Putative human and avian risk factors for avian influenza virus infections in backyard poultry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Basma M; Fuller, Trevon L; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Abdel Aziz, Soad; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A; Elbokl, Mohamed M; Habbak, Lotfy Z; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-01-10

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010-2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242) and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n=51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F=15.7, p<0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F=29.5, p<0.0001).

  19. Pedestrian-motorcycle collisions: associated risks and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariffin Aqbal Hafeez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the statistics, there are serious concerns over the relatively high number of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrianmotorcycle in Malaysia. The high number of motorcycle registration on road, compounded by its popularity as the major mode of transportation in the nation, imposes safety risk to pedestrians, as well as to other road users. Data from 1,626 related road crashes of Royal Malaysia Police (RMP for the 2009-2013 period were retrospectively collected via MIROS Road Accident Analysis and Database System (M-ROADS. The data were then analyzed via logistic regression method to determine associations between risks and injury severity in pedestrian-motorcycle collisions. The results indicate that five factors were significantly related to injury severity, which include age, location of body injury, as well as speed limit, road geometry and lighting condition of collision site. Subsequently, focus group discussions with stakeholders were also conducted to gather relevant data to identify related issues and suggestions on motorcycle safety technology with regards to collision with pedestrian.

  20. CAESAR: An Initiative of Public Service for Collision Risks Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Francois; Moury, Monique; Beaumet, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    This paper starts by describing the conjunction analysis which has to be performed using CSM data provided by JSpOC. This description not only demonstrates that Collision Avoidance is a 2-step process (close approach detection followed by risk evaluation for collision avoidance decision) but also leads to the conclusion that there is a need for Middle Man role.After describing the Middle Man concept, it introduces the French response CAESAR and the need for collaborative work environment which is implied by Middle Man concept. It includes a description of the environment put in place for CAESAR (secure website and dedicated tools), the content of the service, and the condition for the distribution of the CNES software JAC and the advantages for subscribers.

  1. Risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease in smallholder farming systems, Madagascar highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina Andriamanivo, H; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Rakotondrafara, T F; Jourdan, M; Renard, J F; Gil, P; Servan de Almeida, R; Albina, E; Martinez, D; Tillard, E; Rakotondravao, R; Chevalier, V

    2012-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are issues of interest to avian producers in Madagascar. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the major constraint for village aviculture, and avian influenza viruses type A (AIAV) are known to circulate in bird flocks. This study aims at classifying smallholder poultry farms, according to the combination of risk factors potentially associated with NDV and AIAV transmission and to assess the level of infection for each farm class. Two study sites, Lake Alaotra and Grand Antananarivo, were chosen with respect to their differences in terms of agro-ecological features and poultry productions. A typology survey involving 526 farms was performed to identify possible risk factors for (i) within-village, and (ii) between-village virus transmission. A cross-sectional serological study was also carried out in 270 farms to assess sero-prevalences of NDV and AIAV for each farm class and the link between them and risk factor patterns. For within-village transmission, four classes of farms were identified in Grand Antananarivo and five in Lake Alaotra. For between-village virus transmission, four classes of farms were identified for each site. In both sites, NDV sero-prevalence was higher than for AIAV. There was no evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 subtypes of AIAV. Sero-prevalences were significantly higher in Lake Alaotra than in Grand Antananarivo for both viruses (OR=2.4, p=0.02 for NDV, and OR=9.6, prisk of virus transmission between the different farm classes. In Grand Antananarivo, farm visits by collectors or animal health workers, and farm contacts with several markets were identified as potential risk factors for NDV transmission. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, and provide adapted control measures.

  2. Retraction: Risks of avian influenza (H5) in duck farms in the Ayeyarwaddy Delta Region, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The following article from Zoonoses and Public Health, 'Risks of Avian Influenza (H5) in Duck Farms in the Ayeyarwaddy Delta Region, Myanmar' by H. H. Win, C. C. Su Mon, K. M. Aung, K. N. Oo, K. Sunn, T. Htun, T. Tiensin, M. Maclean, W. Kalpravidh and A. Amonsin published online on 09 August 2013 on Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/) has been retracted by the journal Editor-in-Chief, Mary Torrence, the Authors, and Blackwell Verlag GmbH, as the article has already been published in the Myanmar Veterinary Journal [Myanmar Veterinary Journal 2013, Vol. 15, No. 1, 43–50].

  3. The development of poultry farms risk assessment tool for avian influenza in Imo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinani, Chidi; Onweagba, Anthony; Lloyd, Linda; Ross, Micheal; Troisi, Cathrine; Ohazurika, Nathaniel; Chukwu, Andrew O

    2014-09-01

    This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results was analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha >0.70.

  4. Modeling of Ship Collision Risk Index Based on Complex Plane and Its Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encountering situation of multi-ships is constructed, then the three-dimensional image and spatial curve of the risk index are figured out. Finally, single chip microcomputer is used to realize the model. And attaching this single chip microcomputer to ARPA is helpful to the decision-making of the marine navigators.

  5. Mapping risk of avian influenza transmission at the interface of domestic poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Erwin, R. Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of avian influenza viruses with high lethality to humans, such as the currently circulating highly pathogenic A(H5N1) (emerged in 1996) and A(H7N9) cause serious concern for the global economic and public health sectors. Understanding the spatial and temporal interface between wild and domestic populations, from which these viruses emerge, is fundamental to taking action. This information, however, is rarely considered in influenza risk models, partly due to a lack of data. We aim to identify areas of high transmission risk between domestic poultry and wild waterfowl in China, the epicenter of both viruses. Two levels of models were developed: one that predicts hotspots of novel virus emergence between domestic and wild birds, and one that incorporates H5N1 risk factors, for which input data exists. Models were produced at 1 and 30 km spatial resolution, and two temporal seasons. Patterns of risk varied between seasons with higher risk in the northeast, central-east, and western regions of China during spring and summer, and in the central and southeastern regions during winter. Monte-Carlo uncertainty analyses indicated varying levels of model confidence, with lowest errors in the densely populated regions of eastern and southern China. Applications and limitations of the models are discussed within.

  6. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining hunting quota. Open

  7. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We carried out an in-depth interview study aiming to systematically explore all the poultry production activities to identify the activities that could potentially be related to virus introduction and transmission. One of the between-farm contact risks that were identified is the movement of birds between farms during thinning with violations of on-farm biosecurity protocols. In addition, several other risky management practices, risky visitor behaviours and biosecurity breaches were identified. They include human and fomite contacts that occurred without observing biosecurity protocols, poor waste management practices, presence of other animal species on poultry farms, and poor biosecurity against risks from farm neighbourhood activities. Among the detailed practices identified, taking cell phones and jewellery into poultry houses, not observing shower-in protocols and the exchange of unclean farm equipment were common. Also, sometimes certain protocols or biosecurity facilities were lacking. We also asked the interviewed farmers about their perception of transmission risks and found that they had divergent opinions about the visitor- and neighbourhood-associated risks. We performed a qualitative assessment of contact risks (as transmission pathways) based on contact type, corresponding biosecurity practices, and contact frequency. This assessment suggests that the most risky contact types are bird movements during thinning and restocking, most human movements accessing poultry houses and proximity to other poultry farms. The overall risk posed by persons and equipment accessing storage rooms and the premises-only contacts was considered to be medium. Most of the exposure

  8. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant

  9. Development of an active risk-based surveillance strategy for avian influenza in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E; Alfonso, P; Ippoliti, C; Abeledo, M; Calistri, P; Blanco, P; Conte, A; Sánchez, B; Fonseca, O; Percedo, M; Pérez, A; Fernández, O; Giovannini, A

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed a risk-based approach to the selection of poultry flocks to be sampled in order to further improve the sensitivity of avian influenza (AI) active surveillance programme in Cuba. The study focused on the western region of Cuba, which harbours nearly 70% of national poultry holdings and comprise several wetlands where migratory waterfowl settle (migratory waterfowl settlements - MWS). The model took into account the potential risk of commercial poultry farms in western Cuba contracting from migratory waterfowl of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes through dispersion for pasturing of migratory birds around the MWS. We computed spatial risk index by geographical analysis with Python scripts in ESRI(®) ArcGIS 10 on data projected in the reference system NAD 1927-UTM17. Farms located closer to MWS had the highest values for the risk indicator pj and in total 31 farms were chosen for targeted surveillance during the risk period. The authors proposed to start active surveillance in the study area 3 weeks after the onset of Anseriformes migration, with additional sampling repeated twice in the same selected poultry farms at 15 days interval (Comin et al., 2012; EFSA, 2008) to cover the whole migration season. In this way, the antibody detectability would be favoured in case of either a posterior AI introduction or enhancement of a previous seroprevalence under the sensitivity level. The model identified the areas with higher risk for AIV introduction from MW, aiming at selecting poultry premises for the application of risk-based surveillance. Given the infrequency of HPAI introduction into domestic poultry populations and the relative paucity of occurrences of LPAI epidemics, the evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach would require its application for several migration seasons to allow the collection of sufficient reliable data.

  10. Dilemmas of securitization and health risk management in the People's Republic of China: the cases of SARS and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishnick, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Since the SARS epidemic in 2003, the international community has urged Chinese leaders to do more to address infectious diseases. This paper looks at two cases in which the Chinese government securitized infectious disease (SARS and avian influenza) and examines the pros and cons of securitization. It is argued that the reactive mobilization involved in a securitizing move runs counter to the preventive risk management strategy needed to address infectious diseases. Although the Copenhagen School favours desecuritization as a return to normal practices, in the Chinese cases desecuritizing moves proved detrimental, involving cover-ups and restrictions on activists pressing for greater information. The article begins by examining the contributions of the Copenhagen School and sociological theories of risk to conceptualizing the security challenges that pandemics pose. Although analysis of the cases of SARS and avian influenza gives credence to criticisms of this approach, securitization theory proves useful in outlining the different stages in China's reaction to epidemics involving reactive mobilization and subsequent efforts to return to politics as usual. The second section examines securitizing and desecuritizing moves in Chinese responses to SARS and avian influenza. Each case study concludes with an assessment of the consequences for health risk management in China. The reactive mobilization implicit in Chinese securitization moves in the two cases is contrasted with the preventive logic of risk management. A third section draws out the implications of these cases for theories of securitization and risk. It is argued here that when securitization has occurred, risk management has failed. Although Copenhagen School theorists see the return to politics as usual-what they call 'desecuritization'-as optimal, this turns out to be far from the case in China during SARS and avian influenza, where the process involved retribution against whistleblowers and new

  11. Interventions to reduce zoonotic and pandemic risks from avian influenza in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, J S Malik; Cowling, Benjamin J; Wu, Joseph T; Feng, Luzhao; Guan, Yi; Yu, Hongjie; Leung, Gabriel M

    2016-02-01

    Novel influenza viruses continue to emerge, posing zoonotic and potentially pandemic threats, such as with avian influenza A H7N9. Although closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) in mainland China stopped H7N9 outbreaks temporarily, closures are difficult to sustain, in view of poultry production and marketing systems in China. In this Personal View, we summarise interventions taken in mainland China, and provide evidence for other more sustainable but effective interventions in the live poultry market systems that reduce risk of zoonotic influenza including rest days, and banning live poultry in markets overnight. Separation of live ducks and geese from land-based (ie, non-aquatic) poultry in LPM systems can reduce the risk of emergence of zoonotic and epizootic viruses at source. In view of evidence that H7N9 is now endemic in over half of the provinces in mainland China and will continue to cause recurrent zoonotic disease in the winter months, such interventions should receive high priority in China and other Asian countries at risk of H7N9 through cross-border poultry movements. Such generic measures are likely to reduce known and future threats of zoonotic influenza.

  12. Avian influenza seroprevalence and biosecurity risk factors in Maryland backyard poultry: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-01-01

    Major implications on a country's economy, food source, and public health. With recent concern over the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks around the world, government agencies are carefully monitoring and inspecting live bird markets, commercial flocks, and migratory bird populations. However, there remains limited surveillance of non-commercial poultry. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in backyard poultry flocks using a convenience sampling method across three regions of Maryland from July 2011 to August 2011. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza by investigating the prevalence and seroprevalence in this potentially vulnerable population and by evaluating biosecurity risk factors associated with positive findings. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds among 39 registered premises. Analysis indicated bird and flock seroprevalence as 4.2% (11/262) and 23.1% (9/39), respectively. Based on RT-qPCR analysis, none of the samples were found to be positive for AI RNA and evidence of AI hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H7, or H9 were not detected. Although no statistically significant biosecurity associations were identified (p≤0.05), AI seroprevalence was positively associated with exposure to waterfowl, pest control, and location. AI seropositive flocks exposed to waterfowl were 3.14 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those not exposed (p = 0.15). AI seropositive flocks that did not use pest control were 2.5 times as likely to be AI seropositive compared to those that did and AI seropositive flocks located in the Northern region of Maryland were 2.8 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those that were located elsewhere.

  13. Avian influenza seroprevalence and biosecurity risk factors in Maryland backyard poultry: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Madsen

    Full Text Available Major implications on a country's economy, food source, and public health. With recent concern over the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks around the world, government agencies are carefully monitoring and inspecting live bird markets, commercial flocks, and migratory bird populations. However, there remains limited surveillance of non-commercial poultry. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in backyard poultry flocks using a convenience sampling method across three regions of Maryland from July 2011 to August 2011. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza by investigating the prevalence and seroprevalence in this potentially vulnerable population and by evaluating biosecurity risk factors associated with positive findings. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds among 39 registered premises. Analysis indicated bird and flock seroprevalence as 4.2% (11/262 and 23.1% (9/39, respectively. Based on RT-qPCR analysis, none of the samples were found to be positive for AI RNA and evidence of AI hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H7, or H9 were not detected. Although no statistically significant biosecurity associations were identified (p≤0.05, AI seroprevalence was positively associated with exposure to waterfowl, pest control, and location. AI seropositive flocks exposed to waterfowl were 3.14 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those not exposed (p = 0.15. AI seropositive flocks that did not use pest control were 2.5 times as likely to be AI seropositive compared to those that did and AI seropositive flocks located in the Northern region of Maryland were 2.8 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those that were located elsewhere.

  14. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Tom, J.; Neumann, N.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Bourassa, M.; Bay, K. J.; Sernka, K. J.

    2005-08-01

    The primary objective of this study at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area was to estimate and compare bird utilization, fatality rates, and the risk index among factors including bird taxonomic groups, wind turbine and reference areas, wind turbine sizes and types, and geographic locations. The key questions addressed to meet this objective include: (1) Are there any differences in the level of bird activity, called ''utilization rate'' or ''use'', with the operating wind plant and within the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (2) Are there any differences in the rate of bird fatalities (or avian fatality) within the operating wind plant or the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (3) Does bird use, fatality rates, or bird risk index vary according to the geographic location, type and size of wind turbine, and/or type of bird within the operating wind plant and surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; and (4) How do raptor fatality rates at San Gorgonio compare to other wind projects with comparable data?

  15. Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3)

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Oliver; Kuhne, Mirjam; Nair, Pat; Verlander, Neville Q.; Preece, Richard; McDougal, Marianne; Zambon, Maria; Reacher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of avian influenza (H7N3) among poultry resulted in laboratory-confirmed disease in 1 of 103 exposed persons. Incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was associated with conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms. Rigorous use of PPE by persons managing avian influenza outbreaks may reduce exposure to potentially hazardous infected poultry materials.

  16. Parental prey selection affects risk-taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Ramsay, Scot L; Donaldson, Christine; Adam, Aileen

    2007-10-22

    Early nutrition shapes life history. Parents should, therefore, provide a diet that will optimize the nutrient intake of their offspring. In a number of passerines, there is an often observed, but unexplained, peak in spider provisioning during chick development. We show that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, varies significantly with the age of chicks but is unrelated to the timing of breeding or spider availability. Moreover, this parental prey selection supplies nestlings with high levels of taurine particularly at younger ages. This amino acid is known to be both vital and limiting for mammalian development and consequently found in high concentrations in placenta and milk. Based on the known roles of taurine in mammalian brain development and function, we then asked whether by supplying taurine-rich spiders, avian parents influence the stress responsiveness and cognitive function of their offspring. To test this, we provided wild blue tit nestlings with either a taurine supplement or control treatment once daily from the ages of 2-14 days. Then pairs of size- and sex-matched siblings were brought into captivity for behavioural testing. We found that juveniles that had received additional taurine as neonates took significantly greater risks when investigating novel objects than controls. Taurine birds were also more successful at a spatial learning task than controls. Additionally, those individuals that succeeded at a spatial learning task had shown intermediate levels of risk taking. Non-learners were generally very risk-averse controls. Early diet therefore has downstream impacts on behavioural characteristics that could affect fitness via foraging and competitive performance. Fine-scale prey selection is a mechanism by which parents can manipulate the behavioural phenotype of offspring.

  17. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I; Newman, Scott H; Takekawa, John Y; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  18. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hothorn

    Full Text Available Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining

  19. Paradoxical risk perception and behaviours related to Avian Flu outbreak and education campaign, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorvongseng Somchay

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Laos, small backyard poultry systems predominate (90%. The first lethal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI occurred in 2007. Few studies have addressed the impact of outbreaks and education campaigns on a smallholder producer system. We evaluated awareness and behaviours related to educational campaigns and the 2007 HPAI outbreaks. Methods During a national 2-stage cross-sectional randomised survey we interviewed 1098 households using a pre-tested questionnaire in five provinces representative of the Southern to Northern strata of Laos. We used multivariate analysis (Stata, version 8; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA to analyse factors affecting recollection of HPAI educational messages, awareness of HPAI, and behaviour change. Results Of the 1098 participants, 303 (27.6% received training on HPAI. The level of awareness was similar to that in 2006. The urban population considered risk to be decreased, yet unsafe behaviours persisted or increased. This contrasted with an increase in awareness and safe behaviour practices in rural areas. Reported behaviour changes in rural areas included higher rates of cessation of poultry consumption and dead poultry burial when compared to 2006. No participants reported poultry deaths to the authorities. Overall, 70% could recall an educational message but the content and accuracy differed widely depending on training exposure. Washing hands and other hygiene advice, messages given during the HPAI educational campaign, were not recalled. Trained persons were able to recall only one message while untrained participants recalled a broader range of messages. Factors associated with an awareness of a threat of AI in Laos were: having received HPAI training, literacy level, access to TV, recent information, living in rural areas. Conclusion We report a paradoxical relationship between unsafe behaviours and risk perception in urban areas, as well as exposure to

  20. A probabilistic model for hydrokinetic turbine collision risks: exploring impacts on fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, Linus; Eggertsen, Linda; Andersson, Sandra; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Arvidsson, Rickard; Gullström, Martin; Molander, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    A variety of hydrokinetic turbines are currently under development for power generation in rivers, tidal straits and ocean currents. Because some of these turbines are large, with rapidly moving rotor blades, the risk of collision with aquatic animals has been brought to attention. The behavior and fate of animals that approach such large hydrokinetic turbines have not yet been monitored at any detail. In this paper, we conduct a synthesis of the current knowledge and understanding of hydrokinetic turbine collision risks. The outcome is a generic fault tree based probabilistic model suitable for estimating population-level ecological risks. New video-based data on fish behavior in strong currents are provided and models describing fish avoidance behaviors are presented. The findings indicate low risk for small-sized fish. However, at large turbines (≥5 m), bigger fish seem to have high probability of collision, mostly because rotor detection and avoidance is difficult in low visibility. Risks can therefore be substantial for vulnerable populations of large-sized fish, which thrive in strong currents. The suggested collision risk model can be applied to different turbine designs and at a variety of locations as basis for case-specific risk assessments. The structure of the model facilitates successive model validation, refinement and application to other organism groups such as marine mammals.

  1. A probabilistic model for hydrokinetic turbine collision risks: exploring impacts on fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Hammar

    Full Text Available A variety of hydrokinetic turbines are currently under development for power generation in rivers, tidal straits and ocean currents. Because some of these turbines are large, with rapidly moving rotor blades, the risk of collision with aquatic animals has been brought to attention. The behavior and fate of animals that approach such large hydrokinetic turbines have not yet been monitored at any detail. In this paper, we conduct a synthesis of the current knowledge and understanding of hydrokinetic turbine collision risks. The outcome is a generic fault tree based probabilistic model suitable for estimating population-level ecological risks. New video-based data on fish behavior in strong currents are provided and models describing fish avoidance behaviors are presented. The findings indicate low risk for small-sized fish. However, at large turbines (≥5 m, bigger fish seem to have high probability of collision, mostly because rotor detection and avoidance is difficult in low visibility. Risks can therefore be substantial for vulnerable populations of large-sized fish, which thrive in strong currents. The suggested collision risk model can be applied to different turbine designs and at a variety of locations as basis for case-specific risk assessments. The structure of the model facilitates successive model validation, refinement and application to other organism groups such as marine mammals.

  2. Risk assessment applied to Spain's prevention strategy against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M; Muñoz, M J; De la Torre, A; Martínez, B; Iglesias, I; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2007-03-01

    Notifiable avian influenza (NAI) had never been reported in Spain, until July 2006 when a dead Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) was found positive to the highly pathogenic H5N1 subtype as part of the active wild bird surveillance plan. The current program of the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (MAPA)'s strategic preventive plan against NAI is divided in the following parts: identification of risk areas and risk wild bird species, increased biosecurity measures, early detection of infection with surveillance intensification and development of rapid diagnostic tests, and other policies, which include continuing education and training to ensure early detection of the disease. In 2003 an active surveillance plan was introduced for domestic fowl; the plan was extended to wild birds in 2004. A total of 18,780 samples in poultry and 3687 samples in wild birds had been analyzed through December 2005 to detect the presence and spread of avian influenza subtypes H5 and H7. In the present work we suggest some contributions to be implemented in MAPA's action plan: 1) the identification of risks because of migratory birds, within the risk assessment of the introduction of NAI virus in Spain and 2) an interactive digital simulator of the disease developed for continuing education and training.

  3. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  4. Spatial Modeling of Wild Bird Risk Factors for Highly Pathogenic A(H5N1) Avian Influenza Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J; Hungerford, Laura L; Erwin, R Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y; Newman, Scott H; Xiao, Xiangming; Ellis, Erle C

    2016-05-01

    One of the longest-persisting avian influenza viruses in history, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N1), continues to evolve after 18 yr, advancing the threat of a global pandemic. Wild waterfowl (family Anatidae) are reported as secondary transmitters of HPAIV and primary reservoirs for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, yet spatial inputs for disease risk modeling for this group have been lacking. Using geographic information software and Monte Carlo simulations, we developed geospatial indices of waterfowl abundance at 1 and 30 km resolutions and for the breeding and wintering seasons for China, the epicenter of H5N1. Two spatial layers were developed: cumulative waterfowl abundance (WAB), a measure of predicted abundance across species, and cumulative abundance weighted by H5N1 prevalence (WPR), whereby abundance for each species was adjusted based on prevalence values and then totaled across species. Spatial patterns of the model output differed between seasons, with higher WAB and WPR in the northern and western regions of China for the breeding season and in the southeast for the wintering season. Uncertainty measures indicated highest error in southeastern China for both WAB and WPR. We also explored the effect of resampling waterfowl layers from 1 to 30 km resolution for multiscale risk modeling. Results indicated low average difference (less than 0.16 and 0.01 standard deviations for WAB and WPR, respectively), with greatest differences in the north for the breeding season and southeast for the wintering season. This work provides the first geospatial models of waterfowl abundance available for China. The indices provide important inputs for modeling disease transmission risk at the interface of poultry and wild birds. These models are easily adaptable, have broad utility to both disease and conservation needs, and will be available to the scientific community for advanced modeling applications.

  5. Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with

  6. Ecologic risk factor investigation of clusters of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensin, Thanawat; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Songserm, Thaweesak; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Wongkasemjit, Surapong; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Chanachai, Karoon; Thanapongtham, Weerapong; Chotinan, Suwit; Stegeman, Arjan; Nielen, Mirjam

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate space and time clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection and to determine risk factors at the subdistrict level in Thailand. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) was diagnosed in 1890 poultry flocks located in 953 subdistricts during 2004-2007. The ecologic risk for H5N1 virus infection was assessed on the basis of a spatial-based case-control study involving 824 case subdistricts and 3296 control subdistricts from 6 study periods. Risk factors investigated in clustered areas of H5N1 included human and animal demographic characteristics, poultry production systems, and wild birds and their habitats. Six variables remained statistically significant in the final model: flock density of backyard chickens (odds ratio [OR], 0.98), flock density of fighting cocks (OR, 1.02), low and high human density (OR, 0.60), presence of quail flocks (OR, 1.21), free-grazing duck flocks (OR, 2.17), and a poultry slaughterhouse (OR, 1.33). We observed a strong association between subdistricts with H5N1 virus-infected poultry flocks and evidence of prior and concomitant H5N1 infection in wild birds in the same subdistrict.

  7. Avian cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Anneliese; Wilson, G Heather

    2003-01-01

    The field of avian cardiology is continually expanding. Although a great deal of the current knowledge base has been derived from poultry data, research and clinical reports involving companion avian species have been published. This article will present avian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, history and physical examination considerations in the avian cardiac disease patient, specific diagnostic tools, cardiovascular disease processes, and current therapeutic modalities.

  8. Avian influenza trasnmission risks: analysis of biosecuritiy measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssematimba, A.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Wit, de J.J.; Ruiterkamp, F.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We car

  9. Lesser prairie-chicken fence collision risk across its northern distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock fences have been hypothesized to significantly contribute to mortality of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus); however, quantification of mortality due to fence collisions is lacking across their current distribution. Variation in fence density, landscape composition and configuration, and land use could influence collision risk of lesser prairie-chickens. We monitored fences within 3 km of known leks during spring and fall and surveyed for signs of collision occurrence within 20 m of fences in 6 study sites in Kansas and Colorado, USA during 2013 and 2014. We assessed mortality locations of radio-tagged birds (n = 286) for evidence of fence collisions and compared distance to fence relative to random points. Additionally, we quantified locations, propensity, and frequency of fences crossed by lesser prairie-chickens. We tested for landscape and vegetative characteristics that influenced fence-cross propensity and frequency of global positioning system (GPS)-marked birds. A minimum of 12,706 fence crossings occurred by GPS-marked lesser prairie-chickens. We found 3 carcasses and 12 additional possible instances of evidence of collision during >2,800 km of surveyed fences. We found evidence for a single suspected collision based on carcass evidence for 148 mortalities of transmittered birds. Mortality locations of transmittered birds were located at distances from fences 15% farther than expected at random. Our data suggested minimal biological significance and indicated that propensity and frequency of fence crossings were random processes. Lesser prairie-chickens do not appear to be experiencing significant mortality risk due to fence collisions in Kansas and Colorado. Focusing resources on other limiting factors (i.e., habitat quality) has greater potential for impact on population demography than fence marking and removal.

  10. Overview of risk analysis research on tanker groundings and collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1999-01-01

    The Marine Board of the National Research Council (NRC) has initiated a new study on evaluating alterntive Tanker designs to double hull tankers. This effort was mandated by the US Congress in the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1998. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology for eval......The Marine Board of the National Research Council (NRC) has initiated a new study on evaluating alterntive Tanker designs to double hull tankers. This effort was mandated by the US Congress in the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1998. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology...... for evaluation of the oil outlfow performance of alternative tanker designs in the event of a collision or grounding. The present paper is an invited contribution oto the first meeting of the Committee on Evaluating Double Hull Alterntive Tanker Designs held at the National Academy of Sciences' Georgetown...

  11. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Van Boeckel

    Full Text Available Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide

  12. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention.

  13. Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.), and the pine marten (Martes martes, L.). The study combined 23 years of countrywide data from nesting records of eagles and wildlife track counts of mesopredators in Finland, northern Europe. The predation risk of the golden eagle was modeled as a function of territory density, density of fledglings produced, and distance to nearest active eagle territory, with the expectation that a high predation risk would reduce the abundances of smaller sized pine martens in particular. Red foxes appeared not to suffer from eagle predation, being in fact most numerous close to eagle nests and in areas with more eagle territories. This is likely due to similar prey preferences of the two predators and the larger size of foxes enabling them to escape eagle predation risk. Somewhat contrary to our prediction, the abundance of pine martens increased from low to intermediate territory density and at close proximity to eagle nests, possibly because of similar habitat preferences of martens and eagles. We found a slightly decreasing trend of marten abundance at high territory density, which could indicate that the response in marten populations is dependent on eagle density. However, more research is needed to better establish whether mesopredators are intimidated or predated by golden eagles, and whether such effects could in turn cascade to lower trophic levels, benefitting herbivorous species.

  14. Too risky to settle: avian community structure changes in response to perceived predation risk on adults and offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Fletcher, Robert J.; Sieving, Kathryn E.; Dorazio, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Predation risk is widely hypothesized as an important force structuring communities, but this potential force is rarely tested experimentally, particularly in terrestrial vertebrate communities. How animals respond to predation risk is generally considered predictable from species life-history and natural-history traits, but rigorous tests of these predictions remain scarce. We report on a large-scale playback experiment with a forest bird community that addresses two questions: (i) does perceived predation risk shape the richness and composition of a breeding bird community? And (ii) can species life-history and natural-history traits predict prey community responses to different types of predation risk? On 9 ha plots, we manipulated cues of three avian predators that preferentially prey on either adult birds or offspring, or both, throughout the breeding season. We found that increased perception of predation risk led to generally negative responses in the abundance, occurrence and/or detection probability of most prey species, which in turn reduced the species richness and shifted the composition of the breeding bird community. Species-level responses were largely predicted from the key natural-history trait of body size, but we did not find support for the life-history theory prediction of the relationship between species' slow/fast life-history strategy and their response to predation risk.

  15. Evaluating surveillance in wild birds by the application of risk assessment of avian influenza introduction into Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Perez, A M; de la Torre, A; Iglesias, I; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Muñoz, M J

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in its natural reservoirs is a prerequisite for preventing disease spread to humans. The risk of introduction of H5N1 HPAI was assessed in order to design a risk-based surveillance system in Spain. Areas at highest risk for H5N1 HPAI followed a northeast-southwest direction, with two significant clusters located in the north and the southwest of the country. Most (83%) of the veterinary units (VUs) obtained fewer samples than would have been expected if samples had been collected using a risk-based design. In October 2009, a HPAI outbreak was reported for the first time in a Spanish layer farm located in a VU at high risk for HPAI, but no samples were collected. This risk-based surveillance approach will increase the cost-effectiveness of HPAI surveillance in Spain and can be easily extended to and adopted by other countries and regions throughout the world.

  16. Risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infection in backyard chicken farms, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Gasqui, Patrick; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thongratsakul, Sukanya; Ducrot, Christian; Roger, François

    2011-06-01

    To reduce the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infection in humans, the pathways by which HPAI is spread in poultry must be determined. Backyard poultry farmers are particularly vulnerable to the threat of HPAI, with both their health and livelihoods at risk. Identifying the risk factors for HPAI infection in backyard farms should allow control measures to be better targeted. To study the risk factors of HPAI H5N1 infection, we carried out a case-control study on backyard chicken farms in Thailand, analyzing 104 case farms and 382 control farms. Data on farming practices and environmental characteristics were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. We show that farms where owners bought live chickens from another backyard farm had a higher risk of HPAI H5N1 infection (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.72-6.47), while those where owners used a disinfectant to clean poultry areas were exposed to lower risk (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.87). Our results highlight the important role of the trade of poultry between farms in the transmission of HPAI H5N1, in addition to farming practices and environmental characteristics. Findings from this study may help to tailor prevention measures to the local circumstances of backyard farms in different regions of the world.

  17. Avian anemia's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raukar Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with avian anemia's classified by MCHC/MCV and with types of anemia's. Father hematological and immunological research is needed to secure information on hematological parameters in different avian species at their earliest age. Anemia is a common clinical finding in birds because the avian erythrocyte half - life is much shorter than the mammalian. Therefore anemia should be determined as soon as possible. Researchers should standardize hematological parameters for every single avian species.

  18. Risk Distribution of Human Infections with Avian Influenza H7N9 and H5N1 virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Lou; Yang, Yang; Sun, Ye; Chen, Wan-Jun; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Liu, Kun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Liang, Song; Yao, Hong-Wu; Gray, Gregory C; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-12-22

    It has been documented that the epidemiological characteristics of human infections with H7N9 differ significantly between H5N1. However, potential factors that may explain the different spatial distributions remain unexplored. We use boosted regression tree (BRT) models to explore the association of agro-ecological, environmental and meteorological variables with the occurrence of human cases of H7N9 and H5N1, and map the probabilities of occurrence of human cases. Live poultry markets, density of human, coverage of built-up land, relative humidity and precipitation were significant predictors for both. In addition, density of poultry, coverage of shrub and temperature played important roles for human H7N9 infection, whereas human H5N1 infection was associated with coverage of forest and water body. Based on the risks and distribution of ecological characteristics which may facilitate the circulation of the two viruses, we found Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, along with a few spots on the southeast coastline, to be the high risk areas for H7N9 and H5N1. Additional, H5N1 risk spots were identified in eastern Sichuan and southern Yunnan Provinces. Surveillance of the two viruses needs to be enhanced in these high risk areas to reduce the risk of future epidemics of avian influenza in China.

  19. Middle Man Concept for In-Orbit Collision Risks Mitigation, CAESAR and CARA Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, Monique; Newman, Lauri K.; Laporte, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conjunction analysis which has to be performed using data provided by JSpOC. This description not only demonstrates that Collision Avoidance is a 2- step process (close approach detection followed by risk evaluation for collision avoidance decision) but also leads to the conclusion that there is a need for a Middle Man role. After describing the Middle Man concept, this paper introduces two examples with their similarities and particularities: the American civil space effort delivered by the NASA CARA team (Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis) and the French response CAESAR (Conjunction Assessment and Evaluation Service: Alerts and Recommendations). For both, statistics are presented and feedbacks discussed. All together, around 80 satellites are served by CARA and/or CAESAR. Both processes regularly evolve in order either to follow JSpOC upgrades or to improve analysis according to experience acquired during the past years.

  20. An exploration of how perceptions of the risk of avian influenza in poultry relate to urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Melissa L; Nghiem, Tuyen; Saksena, Sumeet; Nguyen, Lam; Fox, Jefferson; Spencer, James H; Thau, Trinh Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This research examined how perceptions of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 in poultry are related to urbanization. Via in-depth interviews with village leaders, household farmers, and large farm operators in modern, transitional, and traditional communes in the north of Vietnam, we explored behaviors, attitudes, cultural values, and traditions that might amplify or attenuate HPAI outbreaks. We also explored conceptualizations of urbanization and its impacts on animal husbandry and disease outbreaks. Qualitative theme analyses identified the key impacts, factors related to HPAI outbreaks, and disease prevention and management strategies. The analyses also highlighted how urbanization improves some aspects of life (e.g., food security, family wealth and health, more employment opportunities, and improved infrastructure), but simultaneously poses significant challenges for poultry farming and disease management. Awareness of qualitative aspects of HPAI risk perceptions and behaviors and how they vary with urbanization processes may help to improve the prevention and management of emerging infectious diseases.

  1. Collision risks at sea: species composition and altitude distributions of birds in Danish offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blew, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Nehls, G. [BioConsult SH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This study investigates the collision risks of birds in operating offshore wind farms, focussing on all bird species present in the direct vicinity of the wind farms, their altitude distribution and reactions. The project was conducted jointly by BioConsult SH and the University of Hamburg in the two Danish offshore wind farms Horns Rev (North Sea) and Nysted (Baltic Sea) in the framework of a Danish-German cooperation and financed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). Data were collected between March 2005 and November 2006, using a ship anchored at the edge of the offshore wind farms. In this way, bird species of all sizes could be considered. Daytime observations yielded data on species composition, flight routes and potential reactions of the birds. Radar observations provided altitude distributions inside and outside the wind farm area and also reactions. The results shall help to further describe and assess the collision risk of different species groups. Since data analysis is still running, exemplary results will be presented here. 114 species have been recorded in Nysted and 99 in Horns Rev, approximately 65% of which have been observed inside the wind farm areas. Migrating birds seem to avoid flying into the wind farms, whereas individuals present in the areas for extended time periods utilize areas within the wind farms. While a barrier effect exists for species on migration, resident species probably have a higher collision risk. Raptors migrating during daylight frequently enter the wind farm area on their flight routes, correcting their flight paths in order to avoid collisions. Radar results show that during times of intensive migration, the proportion of birds flying at high altitudes and thus above windmill height is higher than in times of low migration intensity. Consequently, there is a lower proportion of migrating birds flying within the risk area. Data will be further analysed to

  2. Collision effects of wind-power generators and other obstacles on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewitt, Allan L; Langston, Rowena H W

    2008-01-01

    There is extensive literature on avian mortality due to collision with man-made structures, including wind turbines, communication masts, tall buildings and windows, power lines, and fences. Many studies describe the consequences of bird-strike rather than address the causes, and there is little data based on long-term, standardized, and systematic assessments. Despite these limitations, it is apparent that bird-strike is a significant cause of mortality. It is therefore important to understand the effects of this mortality on bird populations. The factors which determine avian collision risk are described, including location, structural attributes, such as height and the use of lighting, weather conditions, and bird morphology and behavior. The results of incidental and more systematic observations of bird-strike due to a range of structures are presented and the implications of collision mortality for bird populations, particularly those of scarce and threatened species susceptible to collisions, are discussed. Existing measures for reducing collision mortality are described, both generally and specifically for each type of structure. It is concluded that, in some circumstances, collision mortality can adversely affect bird populations, and that greater effort is needed to derive accurate estimates of mortality levels locally, regionally, and nationally to better assess impacts on avian populations. Priority areas for future work are suggested, including further development of remote technology to monitor collisions, research into the causes of bird-strike, and the design of new, effective mitigation measures.

  3. Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisner, Anette Jægerfeldt; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Yde Granath, Simon Wilhelm; Madsen, Karin Ølgaard; Desholm, Mark

    2010-11-01

    An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements of body mass, wingspan and wing area of eight European raptor species, to calculate their Best Glide Ratio (BGR). The BGR was used to construct a linear equation, which, by the use of initial take-off altitude, could be used to calculate a Theoretical Maximum Distance (TMD) from the coast, attained by these soaring-gliding raptor species. If the nearest turbine, of future marine wind farms, is placed farther away from the coast than the estimated TMD, the collision risk between the turbine blades and these gliding raptors will be minimized. The tool was demonstrated in a case study at the Rødsand II wind farm in Denmark. Data on raptor migration altitude were gathered by radar. From the TMD attained by registered soaring-gliding raptors in the area, we concluded that the Rødsand II wind farm is not sited ideally, from an ornithological point of view, as potentially all three registered species are at risk of gliding through the area swept by the turbine rotor blades, and thereby at risk of colliding with the wind turbines.

  4. Minimizing collision risk between migrating raptors and marine wind farms: development of a spatial planning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisner, Anette Jaegerfeldt; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Yde Granath, Simon Wilhelm; Madsen, Karin Olgaard; Desholm, Mark

    2010-11-01

    An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements of body mass, wingspan and wing area of eight European raptor species, to calculate their Best Glide Ratio (BGR). The BGR was used to construct a linear equation, which, by the use of initial take-off altitude, could be used to calculate a Theoretical Maximum Distance (TMD) from the coast, attained by these soaring-gliding raptor species. If the nearest turbine, of future marine wind farms, is placed farther away from the coast than the estimated TMD, the collision risk between the turbine blades and these gliding raptors will be minimized. The tool was demonstrated in a case study at the Rødsand II wind farm in Denmark. Data on raptor migration altitude were gathered by radar. From the TMD attained by registered soaring-gliding raptors in the area, we concluded that the Rødsand II wind farm is not sited ideally, from an ornithological point of view, as potentially all three registered species are at risk of gliding through the area swept by the turbine rotor blades, and thereby at risk of colliding with the wind turbines.

  5. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G R William; Robinson, Timothy P; Tatem, Andrew J; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-06-17

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease.

  6. Food risks and consumer trust. Avian influenza and the knowing and non-knowing on UK shopping floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Krom, Michiel P M M; Mol, Arthur P J

    2010-12-01

    Irrespective of major food crises in the 2000s consumer trust in food seems to remain high in Western Europe. Transparent information provision to consumers on food risks is a central strategy of the EU, its Member States and private food providers to build food trust among consumers. But can the interpretation of such information by consumers explain high levels of trust in food safety? Following recent outbreaks of avian influenza in the UK, this paper investigates the constitution of food trust among UK poultry consumers by focusing on the place where consumer decisions are made: the shopping floor. In-store qualitative interviews with consumers of a variety of poultry products at different shops are used to reveal the use of information in constructing trust. Besides on knowledge inducted from information provision, trust depends as much on consumer strategies to handle non-knowing of food risks. Three main forms of trust relations are distinguished, which together at a system level result in high levels of consumer trust in food.

  7. Dangerous dining: surface foraging of North Atlantic right whales increases risk of vessel collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Susan E; Warren, Joseph D; Stamieszkin, Karen; Mayo, Charles A; Wiley, David

    2012-02-23

    North Atlantic right whales are critically endangered and, despite international protection from whaling, significant numbers die from collisions with ships. Large groups of right whales migrate to the coastal waters of New England during the late winter and early spring to feed in an area with large numbers of vessels. North Atlantic right whales have the largest per capita record of vessel strikes of any large whale population in the world. Right whale feeding behaviour in Cape Cod Bay (CCB) probably contributes to risk of collisions with ships. In this study, feeding right whales tagged with archival suction cup tags spent the majority of their time just below the water's surface where they cannot be seen but are shallow enough to be vulnerable to ship strike. Habitat surveys show that large patches of right whale prey are common in the upper 5 m of the water column in CCB during spring. These results indicate that the typical spring-time foraging ecology of right whales may contribute to their high level of mortality from vessel collisions. The results of this study suggest that remote acoustic detection of prey aggregations may be a useful supplement to the management and conservation of right whales.

  8. Spatial distribution and risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J.; Guo, Fusheng; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was first encountered in 1996 in Guangdong province (China) and started spreading throughout Asia and the western Palearctic in 2004–2006. Compared to several other countries where the HPAI H5N1 distribution has been studied in some detail, little is known about the environmental correlates of the HPAI H5N1 distribution in China. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreaks, and HPAI virus (HPAIV) H5N1 isolated from active risk-based surveillance sampling of domestic poultry (referred to as HPAIV H5N1 surveillance positives in this manuscript) were modeled separately using seven risk variables: chicken, domestic waterfowl population density, proportion of land covered by rice or surface water, cropping intensity, elevation, and human population density. We used bootstrapped logistic regression and boosted regression trees (BRT) with cross-validation to identify the weight of each variable, to assess the predictive power of the models, and to map the distribution of HPAI H5N1 risk. HPAI H5N1 clinical disease outbreak occurrence in domestic poultry was mainly associated with chicken density, human population density, and elevation. In contrast, HPAIV H5N1 infection identified by risk-based surveillance was associated with domestic waterfowl density, human population density, and the proportion of land covered by surface water. Both models had a high explanatory power (mean AUC ranging from 0.864 to 0.967). The map of HPAIV H5N1 risk distribution based on active surveillance data emphasized areas south of the Yangtze River, while the distribution of reported outbreak risk extended further North, where the density of poultry and humans is higher. We quantified the statistical association between HPAI H5N1 outbreak, HPAIV distribution and post-vaccination levels of seropositivity (percentage of effective post-vaccination seroconversion in vaccinated birds) and found that provinces with either outbreaks or HPAIV H5N1 surveillance

  9. Avian GIS models signal human risk for West Nile virus in Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grala Katarzyna

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV poses a significant health risk for residents of Mississippi. Physicians and state health officials are interested in new and efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Geographic Information Systems (GIS models have the potential to support these efforts. Environmental conditions favorable for mosquito habitat were modeled using GIS to derive WNV risk maps for Mississippi. Variables important to WNV dissemination were selected and classified as static and dynamic. The static variables included road density, stream density, slope, and vegetation. The dynamic variable represented seasonal water budget and was calculated using precipitation and evaporation estimates. Significance tests provided deterministic evidence of variable importance to the models. Results Several models were developed to estimate WNV risk including a landscape-base model and seasonal climatic sub-models. P-values from t-tests guided variable importance ranking. Variables were ranked and weights assigned as follows: road density (0.4, stream density (0.3, slope (0.2 and vegetation (0.1. This landscape-base model was modified by climatic conditions to assess the importance of climate to WNV risk. Human case data at the zip code level were used to validate modeling results. All models were summarized by zip codes for interpretation and model validation. For all models, estimated risk was higher for zip codes with at least one human case than for zip codes where no human cases were recorded. Overall median measure of risk by zip code indicated that 67% of human cases occurred in the high-risk category. Conclusion Modeling results indicated that dead bird occurrences are correlated with human WNV risk and can facilitate the assessment of environmental variables that contribute to that risk. Each variable's importance in GIS-based risk predictions was assigned deterministically. Our models indicated

  10. Risk-based surveillance for H5N1 avian influenza virus in wild birds in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, L C; Newson, S E; Musgrove, A J; Cranswick, P A; Crick, H Q P; Wilesmith, J W

    2007-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of the H5N1 strain of avian influenza in Europe have highlighted the need for continuous surveillance and early detection to reduce the likelihood of a major outbreak in the commercial poultry industry. In Great Britain (gb), one possible route by which H5N1 could be introduced into domestic poultry is through migratory wild birds from Europe and Asia. Extensive monitoring data on the 24 wild bird species considered most likely to introduce the virus into GB, and analyses of local poultry populations, were used to develop a risk profile to identify the areas where H5N1 is most likely to enter and spread to commercial poultry. The results indicate that surveillance would be best focused on areas of Norfolk, Suffolk, Lancashire, Lincolnshire, south-west England and the Welsh borders, with areas of lower priority in Anglesey, south-west Wales, north-east Aberdeenshire and the Firth of Forth area of Scotland. These areas have significant poultry populations including a large number of free-range flocks, and a high abundance of the 24 wild bird species.

  11. Changes in avian disease and mosquito vector prevalence; A 15-year perceptive and assessment of future risk: Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mosquito-borne avian disease, avian malaria and avian pox, is a major limiting factor for Hawaiian forest birds. While native bird communities at Hakalau Forest NWR...

  12. Risk factors for avian influenza virus contamination of live poultry markets in Zhejiang, China during the 2015–2016 human influenza season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qimei; Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Mao, Haiyan; Chen, Enfu

    2017-01-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs), being a potential source of avian influenza virus, require effective environmental surveillance management. In our study, a total of 2865 environmental samples were collected from 292 LBMs during the 2015–2016 human influenza season from 10 cities in Zhejiang province, China. The samples were tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Field investigations were carried out to investigate probable risk factors. Of the environmental samples, 1519 (53.0%) were contaminated by A subtype. The highest prevalence of the H9 subtype was 30.2%, and the frequencies of the H5 and H7 subtype were 9.3% and 17.3%, respectively. Hangzhou and Jinhua cities were contaminated more seriously than the others. The prevalence of H5/H7/H9 in drinking water samples was highest, at 50.9%, and chopping board swabs ranked second, at 49.3%. Duration of sales per day, types of live poultry, LBM location and the number of live poultry were the main risk factors for environmental contamination, according to logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, LBMs in Zhejiang were contaminated by avian influenza. Our study has provided clues for avian influenza prevention and control during the human influenza season, especially in areas where LBMs are not closed. PMID:28256584

  13. Avian influenza risk perception and preventive behavior among traditional market workers and shoppers in Taiwan: practical implications for prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chun Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza (AI can be highly pathogenic and fatal. Preventive behavior such as handwashing and wearing face masks has been recommended. However, little is known about what psychosocial factors might influence people's decision to adopt such preventive behavior. This study aims to explore risk perception and other factors associated with handwashing and wearing face masks to prevent AI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An interviewer-administered survey was conducted among 352 traditional market workers and shoppers in Taiwan between December 2009 and January 2010. Factors associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior (i.e., when in a traditional market, wearing a face mask and also washing hands after any contact with poultry included: having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.18, knowing of severe cases of AI (AOR = 2.13, being informed of local AI outbreaks (AOR = 2.24, living in northeastern Taiwan (AOR = 6.01, having a senior high-school education (AOR = 3.33, and having a university or higher education (AOR = 6.86. Gender interactive effect was also found among participants with a senior high-school education, with males being less likely to engage in the recommended AI preventive behavior than their female counterparts (AOR = 0.34. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specific information concerning AI risk perception was associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior. In particular, having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI and being informed of severe cases and local outbreaks of AI were linked to increased AI preventive behavior. These findings underscore the importance of transparency in dealing with epidemic information. These results also have practical implications for prevention and policy-making to more effectively promote the recommended AI preventive behavior in the public.

  14. Avian Cholera emergence in Arctic-nesting northern Common Eiders: using community-based, participatory surveillance to delineate disease outbreak patterns and predict transmission risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Iverson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are a growing concern in wildlife conservation. Documenting outbreak patterns and determining the ecological drivers of transmission risk are fundamental to predicting disease spread and assessing potential impacts on population viability. However, evaluating disease in wildlife populations requires expansive surveillance networks that often do not exist in remote and developing areas. Here, we describe the results of a community-based research initiative conducted in collaboration with indigenous harvesters, the Inuit, in response to a new series of Avian Cholera outbreaks affecting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima and other comingling species in the Canadian Arctic. Avian Cholera is a virulent disease of birds caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Common Eiders are a valuable subsistence resource for Inuit, who hunt the birds for meat and visit breeding colonies during the summer to collect eggs and feather down for use in clothing and blankets. We compiled the observations of harvesters about the growing epidemic and with their assistance undertook field investigation of 131 colonies distributed over >1200 km of coastline in the affected region. Thirteen locations were identified where Avian Cholera outbreaks have occurred since 2004. Mortality rates ranged from 1% to 43% of the local breeding population at these locations. Using a species-habitat model (Maxent, we determined that the distribution of outbreak events has not been random within the study area and that colony size, vegetation cover, and a measure of host crowding in shared wetlands were significantly correlated to outbreak risk. In addition, outbreak locations have been spatially structured with respect to hypothesized introduction foci and clustered along the migration corridor linking Arctic breeding areas with wintering areas in Atlantic Canada. At present, Avian Cholera remains a localized threat to Common Eider populations in the

  15. Risk Analysis Of Collision Between Passenger Ferry And Chemical Tanker In The Western Zone Of The Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przywarty Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents assumptions and process of the forming of a risk assessment model for collision between a passenger ferry departing from or approaching port of Świnoujście and a chemical tanker carrying a dangerous cargo. In order to assess navigational safety on the basis of data obtained from AIS system, were prepared probabilistic domains of ships, which made it possible to estimate number of navigational incidents as well as their spatial distribution, that consequently allowed to determine potentially dangerous areas. The next phase was formulation of a simulative model intended for the calculating of probability of collision between the ferry and chemical tanker as well as the determining of characteristic scenarios for such collision. This paper presents also an analysis of consequences of the collision with taking into consideration a damage of cargo tanks.

  16. Risk of poultry compartments for transmission of High Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, G.J.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Backer, J.A.; Nodelijk, G.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The application for a poultry compartment by VPI and the prospect of further ones motivates the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority to raise the following three questions: 1) What are the additional transmission risks that the (specific)

  17. Avian Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  18. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of avian influenza A in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East. Hundreds ... to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray Culture from the nose or throat A method or ...

  19. Avian Influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a letter from a professor at Clemson University about waterfowl that had been tested for avian influenza at Santee National Wildlife Refuge

  20. Avian hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Avian veterinarians often rely heavily on the results of various diagnostic tests, including hematology results. As such, cellular identification and evaluation of the cellular response are invaluable tools that help veterinarians understand the health or condition of their patient, as well as to monitor severity and clinical progression of disease and response to treatment. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly understand how to identify and evaluate changes in the avian erythron and leukon, as well as to interpret normal and abnormal results.

  1. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  2. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish

  3. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality contents that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  4. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most signi cant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,Avian Research provides a unique opportunity to publish

  5. Collision Avoidance Short Course: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis - NASA Robotic CARA. Part I: ; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Frigm, Ryan C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction assessment is perhaps the fastest growing area in space situational awareness and protection with military, civil and commercial satellite owner-operators embracing more and more sophisticated processes to avoid the avoidable - namely collisions between high value space assets and orbital debris. NASA and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) have collaborated to offer an introductory short course on all the major aspects of the conjunctions assessment problem. This half-day course will cover satellite conjunction dynamics and theory. Joint Space Operations Center (JsPOC) conjunction data products, major risk assessment parameters and plots, conjunction remediation decision support, and present and future challenges. This briefing represents the NASA portion of the course.

  6. Avian mercury exposure and toxicological risk across western North America: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Peterson, Sarah; Evers, David C.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Elliott, John E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of the environment is an important issue globally, and birds are useful bioindicators for mercury monitoring programs. The available data on mercury contamination of birds in western North America were synthesized. Original data from multiple databases were obtained and a literature review was conducted to obtain additional mercury concentrations. In total, 29219 original bird mercury concentrations from 225 species were compiled, and an additional 1712 mean mercury concentrations, representing 19998 individuals and 176 species, from 200 publications were obtained. To make mercury data comparable across bird tissues, published equations of tissue mercury correlations were used to convert all mercury concentrations into blood-equivalent mercury concentrations. Blood-equivalent mercury concentrations differed among species, foraging guilds, habitat types, locations, and ecoregions. Piscivores and carnivores exhibited the greatest mercury concentrations, whereas herbivores and granivores exhibited the lowest mercury concentrations. Bird mercury concentrations were greatest in ocean and salt marsh habitats and lowest in terrestrial habitats. Bird mercury concentrations were above toxicity benchmarks in many areas throughout western North America, and multiple hotspots were identified. Additionally, published toxicity benchmarks established in multiple tissues were summarized and translated into a common blood-equivalent mercury concentration. Overall, 66% of birds sampled in western North American exceeded a blood-equivalent mercury concentration of 0.2 μg/g wet weight (ww; above background levels), which is the lowest-observed effect level, 28% exceeded 1.0 μg/g ww (moderate risk), 8% exceeded 3.0 μg/g ww (high risk), and 4% exceeded 4.0 μg/g ww (severe risk). Mercury monitoring programs should sample bird tissues, such as adult blood and eggs, that are most-easily translated into tissues with well-developed toxicity benchmarks and that

  7. Spatial modeling of wild bird risk factors to investigate highly pathogenic A(H5N1) avian influenza virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Erwin, R. Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Xiao, Xianming; Ellis, Erie C.

    2016-01-01

    One of the longest-persisting avian influenza viruses in history, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N1), continues to evolve after 18 years, advancing the threat of a global pandemic. Wild waterfowl (family Anatidae), are reported as secondary transmitters of HPAIV, and primary reservoirs for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, yet spatial inputs for disease risk modeling for this group have been lacking. Using GIS and Monte Carlo simulations, we developed geospatial indices of waterfowl abundance at 1 and 30 km resolutions and for the breeding and wintering seasons for China, the epicenter of H5N1. Two spatial layers were developed: cumulative waterfowl abundance (WAB), a measure of predicted abundance across species, and cumulative abundance weighted by H5N1 prevalence (WPR), whereby abundance for each species was adjusted based on prevalence values then totaled across species. Spatial patterns of the model output differed between seasons, with higher WAB and WPR in the northern and western regions of China for the breeding season and in the southeast for the wintering season. Uncertainty measures indicated highest error in southeastern China for both WAB and WPR. We also explored the effect of resampling waterfowl layers from 1 km to 30 km resolution for multi-scale risk modeling. Results indicated low average difference (less than 0.16 and 0.01 standard deviations for WAB and WPR, respectively), with greatest differences in the north for the breeding season and southeast for the wintering season. This work provides the first geospatial models of waterfowl abundance available for China. The indices provide important inputs for modeling disease transmission risk at the interface of poultry and wild birds. These models are easily adaptable, have broad utility to both disease and conservation needs, and will be available to the scientific community for advanced modeling applications.

  8. Bibliography of Literature for Avian Issues in Solar and Wind Energy and Other Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); White, Ellen M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meyers, Stephanie A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics; Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics

    2015-04-01

    Utility-scale solar energy has been a rapidly expanding energy sector in the United States in recent years and is expected to continue to grow. In 2014, concerns were raised over the risk of avian fatalities associated with utility-scale solar plants. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Program, Argonne National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory studied the issue and released A Review of Avian Monitoring and Mitigation Information at Existing Utility-Scale Solar Facilities (ANL/EVS-15/2, March 2015). A comprehensive literature review included peer-reviewed journal articles on avian fatalities from solar energy facilities and other sources (e.g., wind energy, building collisions, etc.), project-specific technical reports on avian monitoring and fatality at solar facilities, information on mitigation measures and best management practices, and literature pertaining to avian behavioral patterns and habitat use. The source citations are listed in this bibliography; they are current through December 2014.

  9. Birds of a feather? Food and agricultural risk governance of avian influenza in different EU Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    From 2005 onwards, highly pathogenic avian influenza (bird flu) spread towards and eventually within Europe via different border-crossing flows, including those of wild birds and agricultural trade. Fear existed that via such movements, the virus would disseminate into and across territorially-based

  10. Development of Disease-specific, Context-specific Surveillance Models: Avian Influenza (H5N1)-Related Risks and Behaviours in African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, F O; Njage, P M K; Ali, A M M; Yilma, J M; Bwala, D G; Rivas, A L; Stegeman, A J

    2016-02-01

    Avian influenza virus (H5N1) is a rapidly disseminating infection that affects poultry and, potentially, humans. Because the avian virus has already adapted to several mammalian species, decreasing the rate of avian-mammalian contacts is critical to diminish the chances of a total adaptation of H5N1 to humans. To prevent the pandemic such adaptation could facilitate, a biology-specific disease surveillance model is needed, which should also consider geographical and socio-cultural factors. Here, we conceptualized a surveillance model meant to capture H5N1-related biological and cultural aspects, which included food processing, trade and cooking-related practices, as well as incentives (or disincentives) for desirable behaviours. This proof of concept was tested with data collected from 378 Egyptian and Nigerian sites (local [backyard] producers/live bird markets/village abattoirs/commercial abattoirs and veterinary agencies). Findings revealed numerous opportunities for pathogens to disseminate, as well as lack of incentives to adopt preventive measures, and factors that promoted epidemic dissemination. Supporting such observations, the estimated risk for H5N1-related human mortality was higher than previously reported. The need for multidimensional disease surveillance models, which may detect risks at higher levels than models that only measure one factor or outcome, was supported. To develop efficient surveillance systems, interactions should be captured, which include but exceed biological factors. This low-cost and easily implementable model, if conducted over time, may identify focal instances where tailored policies may diminish both endemicity and the total adaptation of H5N1 to the human species.

  11. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  12. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  13. Influence of Manatees' Diving on Their Risk of Collision with Watercraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Edwards

    Full Text Available Watercraft pose a threat to endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris. Mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population's growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. To assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying GPS tags and time-depth recorders in Tampa Bay, Florida, during winters 2002-2006. We applied a Bayesian formulation of generalized linear mixed models to depth data to model the probability (Pt that manatees would be no deeper than 1.25 m from the water's surface as a function of behavioral and habitat covariates. Manatees above this threshold were considered to be within striking depth of a watercraft. Seventy-eight percent of depth records (individual range 62-86% were within striking depth (mean = 1.09 m, max = 16.20 m, illustrating how vulnerable manatees are to strikes. In some circumstances manatees made consecutive dives to the bottom while traveling, even in areas >14 m, possibly to conserve energy. This is the first documentation of potential cost-efficient diving behavior in manatees. Manatees were at higher risk of being within striking depth in shallow water (<0.91 m, over seagrass, at night, and while stationary or moving slowly; they were less likely to be within striking depth when ≤50 m from a charted waterway. In shallow water the probability of a manatee being within striking depth was 0.96 (CI = 0.93-0.98 and decreased as water depth increased. The probability was greater over seagrass (Pt = 0.96, CI = 0.93-0.98 than over other substrates (Pt = 0.73, CI = 0.58-0.84. Quantitative approaches to assessing risk can improve the effectiveness of manatee conservation measures by helping identify areas for protection.

  14. Influence of Manatees' Diving on Their Risk of Collision with Watercraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Holly H; Martin, Julien; Deutsch, Charles J; Muller, Robert G; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Smith, Alexander J; Barlas, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    Watercraft pose a threat to endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population's growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. To assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying GPS tags and time-depth recorders in Tampa Bay, Florida, during winters 2002-2006. We applied a Bayesian formulation of generalized linear mixed models to depth data to model the probability (Pt) that manatees would be no deeper than 1.25 m from the water's surface as a function of behavioral and habitat covariates. Manatees above this threshold were considered to be within striking depth of a watercraft. Seventy-eight percent of depth records (individual range 62-86%) were within striking depth (mean = 1.09 m, max = 16.20 m), illustrating how vulnerable manatees are to strikes. In some circumstances manatees made consecutive dives to the bottom while traveling, even in areas >14 m, possibly to conserve energy. This is the first documentation of potential cost-efficient diving behavior in manatees. Manatees were at higher risk of being within striking depth in shallow water (manatee being within striking depth was 0.96 (CI = 0.93-0.98) and decreased as water depth increased. The probability was greater over seagrass (Pt = 0.96, CI = 0.93-0.98) than over other substrates (Pt = 0.73, CI = 0.58-0.84). Quantitative approaches to assessing risk can improve the effectiveness of manatee conservation measures by helping identify areas for protection.

  15. Influence of manatees' diving on their risk of collision with watercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Holly H.; Martin, Julien; Deutsch, Charles J.; Muller, Robert G; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Smith, Alexander J; Barlas, Margie E.

    2016-01-01

    Watercraft pose a threat to endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population’s growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. To assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying GPS tags and time–depth recorders in Tampa Bay, Florida, during winters 2002–2006. We applied a Bayesian formulation of generalized linear mixed models to depth data to model the probability (Pt) that manatees would be no deeper than 1.25 m from the water’s surface as a function of behavioral and habitat covariates. Manatees above this threshold were considered to be within striking depth of a watercraft. Seventy-eight percent of depth records (individual range 62–86%) were within striking depth (mean = 1.09 m, max = 16.20 m), illustrating how vulnerable manatees are to strikes. In some circumstances manatees made consecutive dives to the bottom while traveling, even in areas >14 m, possibly to conserve energy. This is the first documentation of potential cost-efficient diving behavior in manatees. Manatees were at higher risk of being within striking depth in shallow water (water the probability of a manatee being within striking depth was 0.96 (CI = 0.93–0.98) and decreased as water depth increased. The probability was greater over seagrass (Pt = 0.96, CI = 0.93–0.98) than over other substrates (Pt = 0.73, CI = 0.58–0.84). Quantitative approaches to assessing risk can improve the effectiveness of manatee conservation measures by helping identify areas for protection.

  16. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  17. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  18. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  19. Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Aims and Scope Avian Research is an open access,peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality research and review articles on all aspects of ornithology from all over the world.It aims to report the latest and most significant progress in ornithology and to encourage exchange of ideas among international ornithologists.As an Open Access journal,

  20. Linking turbine collision risks with population models to assess cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms on threatened birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smales, Ian; Muir, Stuart; Meredith, Charles; Baird, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Assessment of the effects on birds of wind turbine collisions has generally been focussed on the number of individuals that might be killed at a particular facility. However, this measure, of itself, may have little relevance to evaluating the potential or real effects on conservation status of threatened species. Determination of the overall effect any such mortality may have on the functioning of these populations will provide a better basis for decisions that have a strong foundation in ecology. For species with sufficient demographic information, we have developed and applied an approach combining collision risk modelling for all wind farms within the range of a threatened species with population modelling. This permits population-level evaluation of potential cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms. In Australia, regulatory authorities are increasingly interested in the cumulative risk to threatened species that may be posed by multiple wind energy facilities within a species. range. The approach outlined here has been applied in the pre-construction approval stage using collision risk modelling, and can be applied to operational facilities using data on actual mortalities. Cumulative modelling of risk posed by multiple wind farms requires different approaches for sedentary and migratory species. For sedentary species the cumulative effect will be the sum of the impact experienced by those parts of the population whose range intersects with wind farms. Cumulative impact is derived for migratory species by assessing the probability of birds surviving encounters with one wind farm after another on the migratory route and is thus the product of their survivorship rates for the relevant wind farms. The collision risk modelling used will be outlined along with the method in which it is integrated with a population model. Case studies for a crane (Brolga Grus rubicundus) and a parrot (orange- bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster) species will be

  1. Intervention strategies to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza viruses: scientific basis, challenges and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Leslie D

    2013-09-01

    A range of measures has been recommended and used for the control and prevention of avian influenza. These measures are based on the assessment of local epidemiological situations, field observations and other scientific information. Other non-technical factors are (or in some cases should be) taken into account when developing and recommending control measures. The precise effects under field conditions of most individual interventions applied to control and prevent avian influenza have not been established or subjected to critical review, often because a number of measures are applied simultaneously without controls. In most cases, the combination of measures used results in control or elimination of the virus although there are some countries where this has not been the case. In others, especially those with low poultry density, it is not clear whether the link between the adoption of a set of measures and the subsequent control of the disease is causative. This article discusses the various measures recommended, with particular emphasis on stamping out and vaccination, examines how these measures assist in preventing zoonotic infections with avian influenza viruses and explores gaps in knowledge regarding their effectiveness.

  2. Assessment of biosecurity measures against highly pathogenic avian influenza risks in small-scale commercial farms and free-range poultry flocks in the northcentral Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Odetokun, I A

    2011-04-01

    There is considerable global concern over the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) that has affected domestic poultry flocks in Nigeria and other parts of the world. There have been little investigations on the proposition that free-range flocks are potentially at higher risk of HPAI than confined small-scale commercial enterprises. The objective is to analyse the biosecurity measures instituted in the small-scale commercial poultry farms and established free-range bird flocks owned by households in the rural areas and qualitatively assess the risk status at the two levels of poultry management systems in northcentral Nigeria. We used data collected through questionnaire administration to farms and flock owners and subjected them to a traffic light system model to test for relative risks of HPAI infection based on the biosecurity measures put in place at the farm and flock levels. The results indicate that free-range flocks are at lower risk compared to small-scale commercial operations. These findings are plausible as birds from free-range flocks have more opportunities to contact wild bird reservoirs of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains than small-scale commercial poultry, thus providing them with constant challenge and maintenance of flock immunity. The development of efficient and effective biosecurity measures against poultry diseases on small-scale commercial farms requires adequate placement of barriers to provide segregation, cleaning and disinfection, while concerted community-led sanitary measures are required for free-range poultry flocks in the developing topical and subtropical economies.

  3. Driving with pets as a risk factor for motor vehicle collisions among older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.26) nor at-fault MVC rates (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.57-1.24) were elevated. However, those who reported always driving with a pet in the vehicle had an elevated MVC rate (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.25), as compared to those who did not drive with a pet. The MVC rate was not increased for those reporting only sometimes or rarely driving with a pet in the vehicle. The current study demonstrates an increased risk of MVC involvement in those older drivers who always take a pet with them when they drive a vehicle. When confronted with an increased cognitive or physical workload while driving, elderly drivers in prior studies have exhibited slower cognitive performance and delayed response times in comparison to younger age groups. Further study of pet-related distracted driving behaviors among older drivers as well as younger populations with respect to driver safety and performance is warranted to appropriately inform the need for policy regulation on this issue.

  4. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... illness. Top of Page Avian Influenza in Wild Birds Avian influenza A viruses have been isolated from ...

  5. Flying over an infected landscape: distribution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in South Asia and satellite tracking of wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Loth, Leo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Prosser, Diann J.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Rao, Mandava Venkata Subba; Mundkur, Taej; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Tseveenmayadag, Natsagdorj; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus persists in Asia, posing a threat to poultry, wild birds, and humans. Previous work in Southeast Asia demonstrated that HPAI H5N1 risk is related to domestic ducks and people. Other studies discussed the role of migratory birds in the long distance spread of HPAI H5N1. However, the interplay between local persistence and long-distance dispersal has never been studied. We expand previous geospatial risk analysis to include South and Southeast Asia, and integrate the analysis with migration data of satellite-tracked wild waterfowl along the Central Asia flyway. We find that the population of domestic duck is the main factor delineating areas at risk of HPAI H5N1 spread in domestic poultry in South Asia, and that other risk factors, such as human population and chicken density, are associated with HPAI H5N1 risk within those areas. We also find that satellite tracked birds (Ruddy Shelduck and two Bar-headed Geese) reveal a direct spatio-temporal link between the HPAI H5N1 hot-spots identified in India and Bangladesh through our risk model, and the wild bird outbreaks in May,June,July 2009 in China(Qinghai Lake), Mongolia, and Russia. This suggests that the continental-scale dynamics of HPAI H5N1 are structured as a number of persistence areas delineated by domestic ducks, connected by rare transmission through migratory waterfowl.

  6. Evaluation of the risk of neighbourhood infection of H7N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Italy using Q statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatti, Paolo; Kitron, Uriel; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Mannelli, Alessandro; Marangon, Stefano

    2010-07-01

    Exposure to the risk of neighbourhood infection was estimated for the H7N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) epidemic that affected Northern Italy between 1999 and 2000. The two most affected regions (Lombardy and Veneto) were analyzed and the epidemic was divided into three phases. Q statistics were used to evaluate exposure to the risk of neighbourhood infection using two measures. First, a local Q statistic (Qikt) assessed daily exposure for each farm as a function of the number of neighbouring infected farms that were in their infectious period, weighted by the distance between farms. This allowed us to identify the daily time course of risk for each farm and, at any given time, local groups of farms defined by high risk. Second, for each farm a summary statistic of exposure risk within each phase (Qiph) was obtained by summing Qikt over the duration of each phase. This allowed identification of farms defined by persistent, high exposure risk within each phase of the epidemic. Statistical significance was evaluated using conditional Monte Carlo simulation, and significant values of Qiph were mapped to assess the variation of the risk of neighbourhood infection through the phases. Qikt was larger for farms in Lombardy and the reduction of exposed farms was more marked for Veneto. Although the highest value of Qiph was observed in Veneto, in each phase most of the significant values were in Lombardy. In the last phase of the epidemic, a large reduction in the number of farms significantly exposed to the risk of neighbourhood infection was observed in the Veneto region, along with generally low values of Qiph. This may be explained by differences in control measures in the two regions, including pre-emptive slaughtering of farms considered at high risk of infection. The Q statistic allowed us to quantify geographic, time-dynamic variations in exposure to neighbourhood infection, and to generate hypotheses on the efficacy of control measures.

  7. Predicting Risk of Motor Vehicle Collisions in Patients with Glaucoma: A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina P B Gracitelli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ability of longitudinal Useful Field of View (UFOV and simulated driving measurements to predict future occurrence of motor vehicle collision (MVC in drivers with glaucoma.Prospective observational cohort study.117 drivers with glaucoma followed for an average of 2.1 ± 0.5 years.All subjects had standard automated perimetry (SAP, UFOV, driving simulator, and cognitive assessment obtained at baseline and every 6 months during follow-up. The driving simulator evaluated reaction times to high and low contrast peripheral divided attention stimuli presented while negotiating a winding country road, with central driving task performance assessed as "curve coherence". Drivers with MVC during follow-up were identified from Department of Motor Vehicle records.Survival models were used to evaluate the ability of driving simulator and UFOV to predict MVC over time, adjusting for potential confounding factors.Mean age at baseline was 64.5 ± 12.6 years. 11 of 117 (9.4% drivers had a MVC during follow-up. In the multivariable models, low contrast reaction time was significantly predictive of MVC, with a hazard ratio (HR of 2.19 per 1 SD slower reaction time (95% CI, 1.30 to 3.69; P = 0.003. UFOV divided attention was also significantly predictive of MVC with a HR of 1.98 per 1 SD worse (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.57; P = 0.022. Global SAP visual field indices in the better or worse eye were not predictive of MVC. The longitudinal model including driving simulator performance was a better predictor of MVC compared to UFOV (R2 = 0.41 vs R2 = 0.18.Longitudinal divided attention metrics on the UFOV test and during simulated driving were significantly predictive of risk of MVC in glaucoma patients. These findings may help improve the understanding of factors associated with driving impairment related to glaucoma.

  8. Anthropogenic factors and the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1: prospects from a spatial-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Abrial, David; Gasqui, Patrick; Charras-Garrido, Myriam; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius; Roger, Francois; Ducrot, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread across Southeast Asia, causing unprecedented epidemics. Thailand was massively infected in 2004 and 2005 and continues today to experience sporadic outbreaks. While research findings suggest that the spread of HPAI H5N1 is influenced primarily by trade patterns, identifying the anthropogenic risk factors involved remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated which anthropogenic factors played a role in the risk of HPAI in Thailand using outbreak data from the "second wave" of the epidemic (3 July 2004 to 5 May 2005) in the country. We first performed a spatial analysis of the relative risk of HPAI H5N1 at the subdistrict level based on a hierarchical Bayesian model. We observed a strong spatial heterogeneity of the relative risk. We then tested a set of potential risk factors in a multivariable linear model. The results confirmed the role of free-grazing ducks and rice-cropping intensity but showed a weak association with fighting cock density. The results also revealed a set of anthropogenic factors significantly linked with the risk of HPAI. High risk was associated strongly with densely populated areas, short distances to a highway junction, and short distances to large cities. These findings highlight a new explanatory pattern for the risk of HPAI and indicate that, in addition to agro-environmental factors, anthropogenic factors play an important role in the spread of H5N1. To limit the spread of future outbreaks, efforts to control the movement of poultry products must be sustained.

  9. Avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals which crossed the species barrier to infect humans and gave a quite impact on public health in the world since 2004, especially due to the threat of pandemic situation. Until 1st March 2006, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in seven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Iraq and Turkey with a total of 174 cases and 94 dead (54.02%. Indonesia has 27 cases, 20 were dead (74.07%. AI cases in Indonesia are more in male (62.5% and all have a symptom of fever. An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Impact of the pandemic could include high rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:125-8Keywords: Avian Influenza, Pandemic

  10. Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-05-01

    Hydrokinetic energy technologies have been proposed as renewable, environmentally preferable alternatives to fossil fuels for generation of electricity. Hydrokinetic technologies harness the energy of water in motion, either from waves, tides or from river currents. For energy capture from free-flowing rivers, arrays of rotating devices are most commonly proposed. The placement of hydrokinetic devices in large rivers is expected to increase the underwater structural complexity of river landscapes. Moore and Gregory (1988) found that structural complexity increased local fish populations because fish and other aquatic biota are attracted to structural complexity that provides microhabitats with steep flow velocity gradients (Liao 2007). However, hydrokinetic devices have mechanical parts, blades, wings or bars that move through the water column, posing a potential strike or collision risk to fish and other aquatic biota. Furthermore, in a setting with arrays of hydrokinetic turbines the cumulative effects of multiple encounters may increase the risk of strike. Submerged structures associated with a hydrokinetic (HK) project present a collision risk to aquatic organisms and diving birds (Cada et al. 2007). Collision is physical contact between a device or its pressure field and an organism that may result in an injury to that organism (Wilson et al. 2007). Collisions can occur between animals and fixed submerged structures, mooring equipment, horizontal or vertical axis turbine rotors, and structures that, by their individual design or in combination, may form traps. This report defines strike as a special case of collision where a moving part, such as a rotor blade of a HK turbine intercepts the path of an organism of interest, resulting in physical contact with the organism. The severity of a strike incidence may range from minor physical contact with no adverse effects to the organism to severe strike resulting in injury or death of the organism. Harmful effects

  11. Avian influenza protection knowledge, awareness, and behaviors in a high-risk population in Suphan Buri Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Tavorn; Butraporn, Piyarat; Kaewkangwal, Jaranit; Fungladda, Wijitr

    2007-05-01

    Avian influenza (Al) had outbreaks in Thailand from January 2004 to December 2005, which resulted in 22 human cases, and 14 deaths. Three confirmed cases were reported in Suphan Buri Province in 2004, one of whom died. A cross-sectional study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices about AI in Song Phi Nong District of Suphan Buri Province. Most of the respondents had moderate levels of knowledge. Most of their attitudes towards and practices of the prevention and control of AI were also appropriate. However, the peoples' knowledge about major signs and symptoms of AI was limited. The study suggested that those who had received information from media had better attitudes towards and practices of AI prevention and control, compared with those who had not received information from media. Therefore, the media played an important role in improving knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; but for the better protection from AI, continuing health education will be necessary in Thailand.

  12. Characteristics of commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Traoré, Idrissa; Kamissoko, Badian; Diakité, Adama; Sidibé, Maimouna Sanogo; Sissoko, Kadiatou Diarra; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-10-01

    We aimed at characterizing commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali, with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Surveys were conducted in 2009-2011 in a study area covering approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population. Among the 282 commercial farms investigated, of which 64 had not been known by the government authorities, 83% were located within a 50km radius from the capitals of the country and regions and 54% had low biosecurity standard. Among the 152 randomly selected village household flocks investigated, characteristics were overall similar to those in other African countries but some differences were notable including a large flock size (median 44 poultry), a low presence of ducks and geese (11% and 1.1% of flocks, respectively), vaccination against Newcastle disease being common (49% of flocks), a low proportion of households selling sick and dead birds (0.7% and 0%, respectively) and limited cohabitation between poultry and humans at night. Our recommendations to limit the risk of disease transmission include (1) for commercial farms, to introduce compulsory farm registration and accreditation, to increase technical proficiency and access to credit for farms with low biosecurity, and to support poultry producer associations; (2) for village poultry, to promote better quarantine and management of sick and dead birds. Such detailed knowledge of country-specific characteristics of poultry production systems is essential to be able to develop more efficient disease risk management policies.

  13. Determinants of Knowledge and Biosecurity Preventive Behaviors for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Risk Among Chinese Poultry Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bin; Liu, Zong Ping

    2016-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are the first line of defense against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) on farms. It is generally recognized that an individual's behavior can be influenced by the knowledge they possess. However, empirical study has not reported an association between poultry producers' awareness of HPAI symptoms and their actual biosecurity actions. The aim of this study is to classify knowledge items of HPAI by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and to examine the determinants of different types of knowledge and the effect of different types of knowledge on biosecurity preventive behaviors (BPBs). The survey (n = 297) was conducted using a questionnaire to measure the level of awareness of items related to HPAI and the actual adoption of BPBs among poultry farmers in the Chinese province of Jiangsu. The EFA revealed three main types of knowledge, which were categorized as avian influenza (AI) epidemic characteristics, primary biosecurity preventive knowledge (basic biosecurity preventive knowledge against AI), and essential biosecurity preventive knowledge (crucial biosecurity preventive knowledge against infection of AI). Multivariate regression showed that only poultry farmers' awareness of essential biosecurity preventive knowledge was positively associated with their actual BPBs. Additionally, educational attainment, number of years of experience raising poultry, farming operation size, and training were associated both with BPB and most of the knowledge factors or knowledge items. Training of existing poultry farmers is probably a feasible scheme; furthermore, the training should focus on the essential biosecurity preventive knowledge. On the other hand, policy initiatives to encourage large-scale poultry farming while discouraging small-scale backyard poultry husbandry would be an effective method of improving the management standards of rural poultry farming.

  14. The Risk of Avian Influenzaand and Salmonellosis Transmission from Pigeon in the Holy Shrine of Fatima Masooma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Pigeons are potential resources of spreading many zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella and avian influenza.Therefore the presence of these species of birds which was exposed with human population would result in spreading of Salmonellosis and avian influenza within people. One of the prominent characteristics of religious places is the presence of pigeons, so pilgrims and service providers are highly exposed to these birds and their feces. Pigeons as reservoir of these agents would transmit these diseases to pilgrims and public as a whole. Materials and methods: In this survey which was conducted in 2009,cloaca swabs and blood samples of 220 pigeons were taken in the holy shrine of Fatima Masooma.Serum samples were examined with haemagglutination inhibition test by using H7, H5 and H9N2 antigens and cloaca swabs were cultivated to detect salmonella spp. Results: It was founded that none of the serum samples had antibodies titers against H5 and H7 antigens.However in 2 cases (1/8%,1 and 3 titers of antibodies were detected against H9N2. Moreover, none of feces’ samples were positive in salmonella culture. Conclusion: Because these pigeons haven’t had any history of influenza vaccination, the low titers of antibodies against this virus could represent infection by wild virus. Although the results of cultivating feces were negative,however because of the presence of Iranian and foreign pilgrims in the holy shrine and the important role of pigeons in maintenance and transmission of these pathogens, health and hygiene controls must be considered for the population of these birds as a reservoir of potential infection.

  15. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  16. Avian influenza : a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalda

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu and specific information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1, that has caused infections in birds in Asia and Europe and in human in Asia. The main materials in this report are based on the World Health Organization (WHO , world organization for animal health (OIE , food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO information and recommendations and review of the published literature about avian influenza. Since December 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have swept through poultry populations across Asia and parts of Europe. The outbreaks are historically unprecedented in scale and geographical spread. Their economic impact on the agricultural sector of the affected countries has been large. Human cases, with an overall fatality rate around 50%, have also been reported and almost all human infections can be linked to contact with infected poultry. Influenza viruses are genetically unstable and their behaviour cannot be predicted so the risk of further human cases persists. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a re-assortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic.

  17. Elements of Risk Analysis for Collision and Grounding of a RoRo Passenger Ferry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Samuelidis, M.

    2002-01-01

    frequency was calculated for an artificial obstacle located close to the traffic route. The consequences of collision and grounding scenarios were estimated by introducing damage criteria that link the calculated distribution of damage size and damage location to monetary units. Loss of human life...

  18. 基于碰撞危险度的仿人机器人动态避碰博弈策略%Game Strategy of Dynamic Collision Avoidance for Humanoid Robots based on the Collision Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光日; 黄强; 徐乾; 李国栋; 李敬; 李敏

    2012-01-01

    According to the motion characters of humanoid robot, we design a collision prediction and a collision risk assessment method, and present a game strategy for dynamic collision avoidance based on the collision risk.By choosing appropriate game model, the humanoid robot collision problem is transformed to the partial game process with other robots under limited communication conditions%针对面向协同的仿人机器人避碰运动策略进行研究.设计了一种仿人机器人碰撞预测及碰撞危险度评估方法,提出了一种基于碰撞危险度的仿人机器人动态避碰博弈策略.该方法通过动态博弈模型,将仿人机器人避碰运动问题转化为机器人在有限通信辅助下与其他机器人进行博弈的过程.

  19. Evaluation of minimum coverage size and orbital accuracy at different orbital regimes for one order of magnitude reduction of the catastrophic collision risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Domínguez-González, Raúl; Krag, Holger

    2015-03-01

    One of the main objectives of Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) systems is to support space collision avoidance activities. This collision avoidance capability aims to significantly reduce the catastrophic collision risk of space objects. In particular, for the case of the future European SST, the objective is translated into a risk reduction of one order of magnitude whilst keeping a low number of false alarm events. In order to translate this aim into system requirements, an evaluation of the current catastrophic collision risk for different orbital regimes is addressed. The reduction of such risk depends on the amount of catalogued objects (coverage) and the knowledge of the associated orbits in the catalogue (accuracy). This paper presents an analysis of the impact of those two aspects in the capability to reduce the catastrophic collision risk at some orbital regimes. A reliable collision avoidance support depends on the accuracy of the predicted miss-events. The assessment of possible conjunctions is normally done by computing the estimated miss-distances between objects (which is compared with a defined distance threshold) or by computing the associated collision risk (which is compared with the corresponding accepted collision probability level). This second method is normally recommended because it takes into account the reliability of the orbits and allows reducing false alarm events. The collision risk depends on the estimated miss-distance, the object sizes and the accuracy of the two orbits at the time of event. This accuracy depends on the error of the orbits at the orbit determination epoch and the error derived from the propagation from that epoch up to the time of event. The modified DRAMA ARES (Domínguez-González et al., 2012, 2013a,b; Gelhaus et al., 2014) provides information on the expected number of encounters for a given mission and year. It also provides information on the capacity to reduce the risk of collision by means of avoidance

  20. Risk assessment of the introduction of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza as a tool to be applied in prevention strategy plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, L G; Pellegrini, D C P; Dias, R A; Reckziegel, A; Todeschini, B; Bencke, G A

    2012-04-01

    Risks of the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 through migratory birds to the main wintering site for wild birds in southern Brazil and its consequences were assessed. Likelihoods were estimated by a qualitative scale ranging from negligible to high. Northern migrants that breed in Alaska and regularly migrate to South America (primary Charadriiformes) can have contact with birds from affected areas in Asia. The likelihood of the introduction of HPAI H5N1 through migratory birds was found to be very low as it is a probability conditioned to successful transmission in breeding areas and the probabilities of an infected bird migrating and shedding the virus as far as southern Brazil. The probability of wild species becoming exposed to H5N1-infected birds is high as they nest with northern migrants from Alaska, whereas for backyard poultry it is moderate to high depending on proximity to wetlands and the presence of species that could increase the likelihood of contact with wild birds such as domestic duck. The magnitude of the biological and economic consequences of successful transmission to poultry or wild birds would be low to severe depending on the probability of the occurrence of outbreak scenarios described. As a result, the risk estimate is greater than negligible, and HPAI H5N1 prevention strategy in the region should always be carefully considered by the veterinary services in Brazil.

  1. Poultry-handling Practices during Avian Influenza Outbreak, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja J Olsen; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Pattanasin, Sarika; Prapasiri, Prabda; Scott F Dowell

    2005-01-01

    With poultry outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 continuing in Thailand, preventing human infection remains a priority. We surveyed residents of rural Thailand regarding avian influenza knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results suggest that public education campaigns have been effective in reaching those at greatest risk, although some high-risk behavior continues.

  2. Rivers and flooded areas identified by medium-resolution remote sensing improve risk prediction of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerapong Thanapongtharm

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thailand experienced several epidemic waves of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 between 2004 and 2005. This study investigated the role of water in the landscape, which has not been previously assessed because of a lack of high-resolution information on the distribution of flooded land at the time of the epidemic. Nine Landsat 7- Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes covering 174,610 km2 were processed using k-means unsupervised classification to map the distribution of flooded areas as well as permanent lakes and reservoirs at the time of the main epidemic HPAI H5N1 wave of October 2004. These variables, together with other factors previously identified as significantly associated with risk, were entered into an autologistic regression model in order to quantify the gain in risk explanation over previously published models. We found that, in addition to other factors previously identified as associated with risk, the proportion of land covered by flooding along with expansion of rivers and streams, derived from an existing, sub-district level (administrative level no. 3 geographical information system database, was a highly significant risk factor in this 2004 HPAI epidemic. These results suggest that water-borne transmission could have partly contributed to the spread of HPAI H5N1 during the epidemic. Future work stemming from these results should involve studies where the actual distribution of small canals, rivers, ponds, rice paddy fields and farms are mapped and tested against farm-level data with respect to HPAI H5N1.

  3. Rivers and flooded areas identified by medium-resolution remote sensing improve risk prediction of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Xiao, Xiang-Ming; Gilbert, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Thailand experienced several epidemic waves of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 between 2004 and 2005. This study investigated the role of water in the landscape, which has not been previously assessed because of a lack of high-resolution information on the distribution of flooded land at the time of the epidemic. Nine Landsat 7 - Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes covering 174,610 km(2) were processed using k-means unsupervised classification to map the distribution of flooded areas as well as permanent lakes and reservoirs at the time of the main epidemic HPAI H5N1 wave of October 2004. These variables, together with other factors previously identified as significantly associated with risk, were entered into an autologistic regression model in order to quantify the gain in risk explanation over previously published models. We found that, in addition to other factors previously identified as associated with risk, the proportion of land covered by flooding along with expansion of rivers and streams, derived from an existing, sub-district level (administrative level no. 3) geographical information system database, was a highly significant risk factor in this 2004 HPAI epidemic. These results suggest that water-borne transmission could have partly contributed to the spread of HPAI H5N1 during the epidemic. Future work stemming from these results should involve studies where the actual distribution of small canals, rivers, ponds, rice paddy fields and farms are mapped and tested against farm-level data with respect to HPAI H5N1.

  4. Perceptions on the risk communication strategy during the 2013 avian influenza A/H7N9 outbreak in humans in China: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richun Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the general public’s perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in humans in 2013. Methods: Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide. The interviews were audio recorded and were transcribed verbatim. The constant comparative method was used to identify trends and themes. Results: A total of nine focus group interviews, with 94 participants recruited from nine communities, were conducted. Most participants received H7N9 information via television and the Internet. A majority of the participants appreciated the transparency and timeliness of the information released by the government. They expressed a sense of trust in the recommended public health advice and followed most of them. The participants suggested that the government release more information about clinical treatment outcomes, have more specific health recommendations that are practical to their settings and expand the use of new media channels for risk communication. Conclusion: The public perceived the overall risk communication strategy by the Chinese public health agencies as effective, though the moderator had a governmental agency title that might have biased the results. There is a need to expand the use of social media for risk communication in the future.

  5. Spatial environmental risk factors for pedestrian injury collisions in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2008-2009): implications for urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Cesar Mario; Hernandez, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the spatial distribution of pedestrian injury collisions and analyse the environmental (social and physical) risk factors in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. More specifically, this study investigates the influence of land use, density, traffic and socio-economic characteristics. This cross sectional study is based on pedestrian injury collision data that were collected by the Municipal Transit Police during 2008-2009. This research presents an analysis of vehicle-pedestrian collisions and their spatial risk determinants using mixed methods that included (1) spatial/geographical information systems (GIS) analysis of pedestrian collision data and (2) ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to explain the density of pedestrian collisions data. In our model, we found a higher probability for pedestrian collisions in census tracts with population and employment density, large concentration of commercial/retail land uses and older people (65 and more). Interventions to alleviate this situation including transportation planning such as decentralisation of municipal transport system, investment in road infrastructure - density of traffic lights, pedestrian crossing, road design, improves lane demarcation. Besides, land use planning interventions should be implemented in commercial/retail areas, in particular separating pedestrian and vehicular spaces.

  6. Brief literature review for the WHO global influenza research agenda--highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D

    2013-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses remain a significant health threat to humans given the continued rare occurrence of human cases with a high case fatality rate. This brief literature review summarizes available evidence of risk factors for H5N1 infection in humans and updates a recent systematic review published in early 2011. Several epidemiologic studies have been published to evaluate the risk factors for H5N1 infection in humans, including contact with poultry and poultry products and non-poultry-related contact such as from H5N1-contaminated water. While most H5N1 cases are attributed to exposure to sick poultry, it is unclear how many may be due to human-to-human transmission. The collective results of published literature suggest that transmission risk of H5N1 from poultry to humans may be highest among individuals who may have been in contact with the highest potential concentrations of virus shed by poultry. This suggests that there may be a threshold of virus concentration needed for effective transmission and that circulating H5N1 strains have not yet mutated to transmit readily from either poultry to human or from human to human. However, the mode of potential transmission can be quite varied throughout different countries and by study with exposures ranging from visiting a wet market, preparing infected poultry for consumption, to swimming or bathing in ponds frequented by poultry. Several important data gaps remain in the understanding of the epidemiology of H5N1 in humans and limit our ability to interpret the results of the available H5N1 seroepidemiologic studies.

  7. Prioritizing live bird markets at risk of avian influenza H5N1 virus contamination for intervention: a simple tool for low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, Gina; Indriani, Risa; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Lokuge, Kamalini; Cook, Alex R; Kelly, Paul M; Adjid, Rma

    2012-12-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) are at risk of contamination with the avian influenza H5N1 virus. There are a number of methods for prioritizing LBMs for intervention to curb the risk of contamination. Selecting a method depends on diagnostic objective and disease prevalence. In a low resource setting, options for prioritization are constricted by the cost of and resources available for tool development and administration, as well as the resources available for intervention. In this setting, tools can be developed using previously collected data on risk factors for contamination, and translated into prediction equations, including decision trees (DTs). DTs are a graphical type of classifier that combine simple questions about the data in an intuitive way. DTs can be used to develop tools tailored to different diagnostic objectives. To demonstrate the utility of this method, risk factor data arising from a previous cross-sectional study in 83 LBMs in Indonesia were used to construct DTs. A DT with high specificity was selected for the initial stage of an LBM intervention campaign in which authorities aim to focus intervention resources on a small set of LBMs that are at near-certain risk of contamination. Another DT with high sensitivity was selected for later stages in an intervention campaign in which authorities aim to detect and prioritize all LBMs with the risk factors for virus contamination. The best specific DT achieved specificity of 77% and the best sensitive DT achieved sensitivity of 90%. The specific DT had two variables: the size of the duck population in the LBM and the human population density in the LBM's district. The sensitive DT had three variables: LBM location, whether solid waste was removed from the LBM daily and whether the LBM was zoned to separate the bird holding, slaughtering and sale areas. High specificity or sensitivity will be preferred by authorities depending on the stage of the intervention campaign. The study demonstrates that simple

  8. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for CubeSat Deployments to Minimize Collision Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, J.; Aviles, J.; Myers, R.; Parris, J.; Corley, B.; Hehn, G.; Pascucci, J.

    2016-09-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe global precipitation, extending the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was launched by H-IIA from Tanegashima in Japan on February 28TH, 2014 directly into its 407km operational orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an international human research facility operated jointly by Russia and the USA from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston Texas. Mission priorities lowered the operating altitude of ISS from 415km to 400km in early 2015, effectively placing both vehicles into the same orbital regime. The ISS has begun a program of deployments of cost effective CubeSats from the ISS that allow testing and validation of new technologies. With a major new asset flying at the same effective altitude as the ISS, CubeSat deployments became a serious threat to GPM and therefore a significant indirect threat to the ISS. This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for CubeSat Deployments to Minimize Collision Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe global precipitation, extending the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was launched by H-IIA from Tanegashima in Japan on February 28TH, 2014 directly into its 407km operational orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an international human research facility operated jointly by Russia and the USA from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston Texas. Mission priorities lowered the operating altitude of ISS from 415km to 400km in early 2105, effectively placing both vehicles into the same orbital regime. The ISS has begun a program of deployments of cost effective CubeSats from the ISS that allow testing and validation of new technologies. With a major new asset flying at the same effective altitude as the ISS, CubeSat deployments became a serious threat to GPM and therefore a significant indirect threat to the ISS. This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  10. Reassortment ability of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus with circulating human and avian influenza viruses: public health risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stincarelli, Maria; Arvia, Rosaria; De Marco, Maria Alessandra; Clausi, Valeria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Cotti, Claudia; Delogu, Mauro; Donatelli, Isabella; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2013-08-01

    Exploring the reassortment ability of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/H1N1pdm09) influenza virus with other circulating human or avian influenza viruses is the main concern related to the generation of more virulent or new variants having implications for public health. After different coinfection experiments in human A549 cells, by using the A/H1N1pdm09 virus plus one of human seasonal influenza viruses of H1N1 and H3N2 subtype or one of H11, H10, H9, H7 and H1 avian influenza viruses, several reassortant viruses were obtained. Among these, the HA of H1N1 was the main segment of human seasonal influenza virus reassorted in the A/H1N1pdm09 virus backbone. Conversely, HA and each of the three polymerase segments, alone or in combination, of the avian influenza viruses mainly reassorted in the A/H1N1pdm09 virus backbone. Of note, A/H1N1pdm09 viruses that reassorted with HA of H1N1 seasonal human or H11N6 avian viruses or carried different combination of avian origin polymerase segments, exerted a higher replication effectiveness than that of the parental viruses. These results confirm that reassortment of the A/H1N1pdm09 with circulating low pathogenic avian influenza viruses should not be misjudged in the prediction of the next pandemic.

  11. Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-05-01

    Hydrokinetic energy technologies have been proposed as renewable, environmentally preferable alternatives to fossil fuels for generation of electricity. Hydrokinetic technologies harness the energy of water in motion, either from waves, tides or from river currents. For energy capture from free-flowing rivers, arrays of rotating devices are most commonly proposed. The placement of hydrokinetic devices in large rivers is expected to increase the underwater structural complexity of river landscapes. Moore and Gregory (1988) found that structural complexity increased local fish populations because fish and other aquatic biota are attracted to structural complexity that provides microhabitats with steep flow velocity gradients (Liao 2007). However, hydrokinetic devices have mechanical parts, blades, wings or bars that move through the water column, posing a potential strike or collision risk to fish and other aquatic biota. Furthermore, in a setting with arrays of hydrokinetic turbines the cumulative effects of multiple encounters may increase the risk of strike. Submerged structures associated with a hydrokinetic (HK) project present a collision risk to aquatic organisms and diving birds (Cada et al. 2007). Collision is physical contact between a device or its pressure field and an organism that may result in an injury to that organism (Wilson et al. 2007). Collisions can occur between animals and fixed submerged structures, mooring equipment, horizontal or vertical axis turbine rotors, and structures that, by their individual design or in combination, may form traps. This report defines strike as a special case of collision where a moving part, such as a rotor blade of a HK turbine intercepts the path of an organism of interest, resulting in physical contact with the organism. The severity of a strike incidence may range from minor physical contact with no adverse effects to the organism to severe strike resulting in injury or death of the organism. Harmful effects

  12. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  13. Food risks and consumer trust. Avian influenza and the knowing and non-knowing on UK shopping floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Irrespective of major food crises in the 2000s consumer trust in food seems to remain high in Western Europe. Transparent information provision to consumers on food risks is a central strategy of the EU, its Member States and private food providers to build food trust among consumers. But can the in

  14. Risk-based surveillance for avian influenza control along poultry market chains in South China: The value of social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Marshall, Edith; Jia, Beibei; Fusheng, Guo; FrancoDixon, Mary Ann; DeHaan, Nicoline; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the poultry sector in China went through a phase of tremendous growth as well as rapid intensification and concentration. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong province, South China and started spreading throughout Asia in early 2004. Since then, control of the disease in China has relied heavily on wide-scale preventive vaccination combined with movement control, quarantine and stamping out. This strategy has been successful in drastically reducing the number of outbreaks during the past 5years. However, HPAIV H5N1 is still circulating and is regularly isolated in traditional live bird markets (LBMs) where viral infection can persist, which represent a public health hazard for people visiting them. The use of social network analysis in combination with epidemiological surveillance in South China has identified areas where the success of current strategies for HPAI control in the poultry production sector may benefit from better knowledge of poultry trading patterns and the LBM network configuration as well as their capacity for maintaining HPAIV H5N1 infection. We produced a set of LBM network maps and estimated the associated risk of HPAIV H5N1 within LBMs and along poultry market chains, providing new insights into how live poultry trade and infection are intertwined. More specifically, our study provides evidence that several biosecurity factors such as daily cage cleaning, daily cage disinfection or manure processing contribute to a reduction in HPAIV H5N1 presence in LBMs. Of significant importance is that the results of our study also show the association between social network indicators and the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in specific network configurations such as the one represented by the counties of origin of the birds traded in LBMs. This new information could be used to develop more targeted and effective control interventions.

  15. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics and risk factors for death of patients with avian influenza A H7N9 virus infection from Jiangsu Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A novel avian influenza A (H7N9 virus has caused great morbidity as well as mortality since its emergence in Eastern China in February 2013. However, the possible risk factors for death are not yet fully known. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients with H7N9 virus infection between March 1 and August 14, 2013 in Jiangsu province were enrolled. Data were collected with a standard form. Mean or percentage was used to describe the features, and Fisher's exact test or t-test test was used to compare the differences between fatal and nonfatal cases with H7N9 virus infection. A total of 28 patients with H7N9 virus infection were identified among whom, nine (32.1% died. The median age of fatal cases was significant higher than nonfatal cases (P<0.05. Patients with older age were more strongly associated with increased odds of death (OR = 30.0; 95% CI, 2.85-315.62. Co-morbidity with chronic lung disease and hypertension were risk factors for mortality (OR = 14.40; 95% CI, 1.30-159.52, OR = 6.67; 95% CI, 1.09-40.43, respectively. Moreover, the presence of either bilateral lung inflammation or pulmonary consolidation on chest imaging on admission was related with fatal outcome (OR = 7.00; 95%CI, 1.10-44.61. Finally, dynamic monitoring showed that lymphopenia was more significant in fatal group than in nonfatal group from day 11 to week five (P<0.05. The decrease in oxygenation indexes were observed in most cases and more significantly in fatal cases after week three (P<0.05, and the value of nearly all fatal cases were below 200 mmHg during our evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS: Among cases with H7N9 virus infection, increased age accompanied by co-morbidities was the risk of death. The severity of lung infection at admission, the persistence of lymphocytopenia, and the extended duration of lower oxygenation index all contributed to worsened outcomes of patients with H7N9 virus infection.

  16. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Avian and other zoonotic influenza Fact sheet Updated November 2016 Key ... A(H3) subtypes. Clinical features of avian and other zoonotic influenza infections in humans Avian and other ...

  17. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  18. Mercury and selenium contamination in waterbird eggs and risk to avian reproduction at Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Josh T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Isanhart, John P.; Herring, Garth; Vaughn, Sharon; Cavitt, John F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Browers, Howard; Cline, Chris; Vest, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem are recognized regionally, nationally, and hemispherically for their importance as breeding, wintering, and migratory habitat for diverse groups of waterbirds. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and provides critical breeding habitat for more than 60 bird species. However, the Great Salt Lake ecosystem also has a history of both mercury and selenium contamination, and this pollution could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of mercury and selenium contamination to birds breeding within Great Salt Lake, especially at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, and to identify the waterbird species and areas at greatest risk to contamination. We sampled eggs from 33 species of birds breeding within wetlands of Great Salt Lake during 2010 ̶ 2012 and focused on American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) for additional studies of the effects of contaminants on reproduction.

  19. Mercury in birds of San Francisco Bay-Delta, California: trophic pathways, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk to avian reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heinz, Gary; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A. Keith; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Herzog, Mark P.; Bluso-Demers, Jill D.; Demers, Scott A.; Herring, Garth; Hoffman, David J.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Willacker, James J.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Maurer, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    San Francisco Bay Estuary in northern California has a legacy of mercury contamination, which could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds in the estuary. The goal of this study was to use an integrated field and laboratory approach to evaluate the risks of mercury exposure to birds in the estuary. We examined mercury bioaccumulation, and other contaminants of concern, in five waterbird species that depend heavily on San Francisco Bay Estuary for foraging and breeding habitat: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). These species have different foraging habitats and diets that represent three distinct foraging guilds within the estuary’s food web. In this report, we provide an integrated synthesis of the primary findings from this study and results are synthesized from 54 peer-reviewed publications generated to date with other unpublished results.

  20. Antibody response and risk factors for seropositvity in backyard poultry following mass vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaws, M.; Priyono, W.; Bett, B.; Al-Qamar, S.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.; Widiastuti, T.; Poole, J.; Schoonman, L.; Jost, C.; Mariner, J.

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale mass vaccination campaign was carried out in Java, Indonesia in an attempt to control outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in backyard flocks and commercial smallholder poultry. Sero-monitoring was conducted in mass vaccination and control areas to assess the proportio

  1. Avian Chlamydiosis Zoonotic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This review presents recent data about avian chlamydiosis. Chlamydia psittaci has been considered to be the main causative agent of chlamydiosis in birds; however, two new Chlamydia species have been detected recently-C. gallinacea in breeding birds and C. avium in wild birds. We discuss the zoonotic potential of avian Chlamydia species.

  2. Back-calculation method shows that within-flock transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H7N7) virus in the Netherlands is not influenced by housing risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Marian E H; Nielen, Mirjam; Koch, Guus; Bouma, Annemarie; De Jong, Mart C M; Stegeman, Arjan

    2009-04-01

    To optimize control of an avian influenza outbreak knowledge of within-flock transmission is needed. This study used field data to estimate the transmission rate parameter (beta) and the influence of risk factors on within-flock transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N7 virus in the 2003 epidemic in The Netherlands. The estimation is based on back-calculation of daily mortality data to fit a susceptible-infectious-dead format, and these data were analysed with a generalized linear model. This back-calculation method took into account the uncertainty of the length of the latent period, the survival of an infection by some birds and the influence of farm characteristics. After analysing the fit of the different databases created by back-calculation, it could be concluded that an absence of the latency period provided the best fit. The transmission rate parameter (beta) from these field data was estimated at 4.50 per infectious chicken per day (95% CI: 2.68-7.57), which was lower than what was reported from experimental data. In contrast to general belief, none of the studied risk factors (housing system, flock size, species, age of the birds in weeks and date of depopulation) had significant influence on the estimated beta.

  3. 阜阳机场鸟类多样性及其危险性%Avian diversity and bird strike risk at Fuyang Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永民; 姜双林; 聂传朋; 周厚龙; 李焰焰; 陈乃堂; 赵志华

    2011-01-01

    From June 2008 to January 2010, a survey of avian communities was conducted in five habitats (grassland, farmland, town, wetland, and woodland) at Fuyang Airport and its surrounding areas, with the diversity indices in different seasons and different habitats analyzed.A total of 122 avian species belonging to 15 orders and 40 families were recorded.At Fuyang Airport, the avian species number was significantly higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring, the avian density was the highest in autumn, and the Shannon diversity index and Pielou evenness index were the highest in summer.Among the five habitats at the Airport and its surrounding areas, woodland had the greatest avian species number and density, and the woodland, wetland, and farmland had higher Shannon diversity index than grassland and town.The most dangerous avian species to the airplanes at Fuyang Airport were Passer montanus, Pycnonotus sinensis, Hirundo rustica, Columba livia f.domestica, Pica pica, Streptopelia chinensis, and Sturnus cineraceu.%2008年6月至2010年1月,对阜阳机场及其周围5种生境(草地、农田、城镇、湿地、林地)的鸟类进行调查,并对不同季节、不同生境的鸟类多样性进行分析.结果表明:本次调查共记录到鸟类122种,隶属于15目40科;阜阳机场夏、秋季的鸟类种数显著高于冬、春季,秋季鸟类密度显著高于其他季节,夏季的鸟类多样性指数、均匀度指数均高于其他季节;在阜阳机场及其周边的5种生境中,林地的鸟类种数、密度均显著大于其他生境,林地、湿地、农田的鸟类多样性较高;对阜阳机场鸟击最危险的鸟种是麻雀、白头鹎、家燕、家鸽、喜鹊、珠颈斑鸠、灰椋鸟等.

  4. 2012~2013年南昌县职业暴露人群禽流感风险因素调查%2012~2013 Nanchang County Occupational Exposure Avian Influenza Risk Factor Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红卫; 余振华; 熊淑薇; 雷仁生; 胡衍福; 杜星煌; 王媛媛; 谌苏燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nanchang County occupational groups H5 subtype of avian influenza infection in contacts, explore occupational exposure avian influenza risk factors for the prevention of avian influenza to provide a scientific basis. Methods November 2012 col ected 100 copies of the town of Nanchang County supraspinatus scale poultry farms occupational groups venous blood, in January 2013, May, September supraspinatus were col ected from 120 scale poultry farms in the town of fresh duck manure, cages , manger surface, poultry drinking water, wastewater and other environmental samples for avian influenza H5 subtype antibodies. Results 100 occupational groups and 120 serum samples were fresh poultry scale farms duck manure, cages, manger surface, poultry drinking water, sewage and other environmental samples were not detected H5 subtype antibodies. Conclusion H5 subtype of avian influenza in poultry farm-scale occupational groups found no latent infection, strengthen the monitoring, occupational groups who carry out bird flu health promotion and disease prevention knowledge and take appropriate behavioral interventions for early warning and prevention of avian influenza have very important significance.%目的:了解南昌县职业人群禽流感H5亚型的接触感染情况,探索职业暴露人群禽流感风险因素,为防治人禽流感提供科学依据。方法2012年11月份采集100份南昌县冈上镇家禽规模养殖场职业人群的静脉血,2013年1月、5月、9月共采集120份冈上镇家禽规模养殖场新鲜鸭粪、笼具、食槽物体表面、禽饮用水、污水等环境样进行禽流感 H5亚型抗体检测。结果100份职业人群血清样和120份禽规模养殖场新鲜鸭粪、笼具、食槽物体表面、禽饮用水、污水等环境样均未检出H5亚型抗体阳性。结论禽流感H5亚型在家禽规模养殖场职业人群中未发现隐性感染,加强监测,开展职业人群人禽流感卫生防病知识宣传并

  5. Editorial: Avian Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Wang; Guangmei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    <正>Welcome to Avian Research!This new journal is a continuation and enhancement of Chinese Birds,which has been and continues to be sponsored by the China Ornithological Society and Beijing Forestry University.In the four years since its inception,the original journal—the only one in China focusing on avian research—has published over 130 manuscripts,with authors from all continents across the world,garnering global respect in

  6. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  7. Visual and radar observations of birds in relation to collision risk at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. In 2003 the studies focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging species. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be important for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  8. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Swearingin, Ryan M.; Pullins, Craig K.; Rice, Matthew E.

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  9. Event-based Lateral Collision Risk Modeling Research%基于事件的航空器侧向碰撞危险模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金栋; 聂润兔

    2011-01-01

    Airspace capacity has grown to be one of the major restrictions to the rapid development of aviation industry. Under the present situation with the current equipment, reducing separation minimum is the best way to expand the airspace capacity. Researching the deviation from the planned route of an aircraft and modeling collision risk are the base theory of separation minimum research. This paper analyzes the Reich model, and suggests establishing an event-based collision risk model, which obtains the same result to the Reich model. Meanwhile, it also pays much attention to the factors that exert influence to the model.%空域容量日益成为制约航空业快速发展的瓶颈之一,在现有设备条件下,缩小间隔标准,提高单位空城的容载量是提供空域容量的重要方法.对于飞机航线飞行中偏离航线情况进行研究,建立碰撞危险模型是间隔标准研究的基础理论.本文对Reich碰撞危险模型进行了分析,提出了建立基于事件的碰撞危险模型,获得了与Reich模型类似的效果,同时在影响因素上考虑的更为全面.

  10. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  11. Antibody response and risk factors for seropositivity in backyard poultry following mass vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLAWS, M; Priyono, W; Bett, B; Al-Qamar, S; Claassen, I; Widiastuti, T; Poole, J; Schoonman, L; Jost, C; Mariner, J

    2015-06-01

    A large-scale mass vaccination campaign was carried out in Java, Indonesia in an attempt to control outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in backyard flocks and commercial smallholder poultry. Sero-monitoring was conducted in mass vaccination and control areas to assess the proportion of the target population with antibodies against HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND). There were four rounds of vaccination, and samples were collected after each round resulting in a total of 27 293 samples. Sampling was performed irrespective of vaccination status. In the mass vaccination areas, 20-45% of poultry sampled had a positive titre to H5 after each round of vaccination, compared to 2-3% in the control group. In the HPAI + ND vaccination group, 12-25% of the population had positive ND titres, compared to 5-13% in the areas without ND vaccination. The level of seropositivity varied by district, age of the bird, and species (ducks vs. chickens).

  12. Avian influenza control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control strategies for avian influenza in poultry vary depending on whether the goal is prevention, management, or eradication. Components used in control programs include: 1) education which includes communication, public awareness, and behavioral change, 2) changes to production and marketing sys...

  13. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  14. Identification of potential risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 outbreak occurrence in Lagos and Kano States, Nigeria, during the 2006-2007 epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métras, R; Stevens, K B; Abdu, P; Okike, I; Randolph, T; Grace, D; Pfeiffer, D U; Costard, S

    2013-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI H5N1 was first reported in Africa in 2006, in Nigeria. The country experienced severe outbreaks in 2006 and 2007, strongly affecting the poultry population. Current knowledge on potential risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in poultry farms in Nigeria is limited. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify potential farm-level risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in two areas of the country that were affected by the disease in 2006 and 2007, namely the States of Lagos and Kano. A case-control study was conducted at the farm level. A convenience sample of 110 farms was surveyed. Data on farm characteristics, farm management and trade practices were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with farms that confirmed positive for HPAI. Having a neighbouring poultry farm was identified as a potential risk factor for disease occurrence [OR, 5.23; 95% CI, (0.88-30.97); P-value = 0.048]. Farm staff washing their hands before handling birds was a protective factor [OR, 0.14; 95% CI, (0.05-0.37); P-value prevention in Kano and Lagos States. Despite the limitations owing to the sampling strategy, these results are consistent with other risk factor studies previously conducted on HPAI H5N1 in both Africa and other regions, suggesting similar risk factor patterns for HPAI H5N1 virus spread and substantiating current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of the disease. Finally, this study generated information from areas where data are difficult to obtain.

  15. Collision Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Servis, D.P.; Zhang, Shengming;

    1999-01-01

    The first section of the present report describes the procedures that are being programmed at DTU for evaluation of the external collision dynamics. Then follows a detailed description of a comprehensive finite element analysis of one collision scenario for MS Dextra carried out at NTUA. The last...

  16. Study on boiler farmers’ perception of vaccine effect under the risk of avian influenza%禽流感风险下肉鸡养殖户对疫苗作用认知研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽颖; 王济民; 王晨; 刘春芳

    2016-01-01

    养殖户是农村动物疫情的防控主体,他们的防疫认知程度直接影响着防疫的结果。基于全国331个肉鸡养殖户的调查,采用多元有序的Logistic模型,分析2011年后我国全面免疫效率降低,禽流感疫情反弹的问题,探讨养殖户对疫苗作用认知及其影响因素。结果表明,大部分养殖户对疫苗作用有一定的了解,但仍有大约20%的养殖户对疫苗认识一般,尤其是不了解。对疫病作用认知的影响因素很多,但正向影响最为显著的因素为养殖户的疫病风险认知、禽流感联防联控系统参与意愿,即具有较高疫病风险认知和禽流感联防联控系统参与意愿的养殖户对疫苗作用的认知较高。因此,相关部门应力求提高农户的疫病风险意识和培训养殖户对禽流感联防联控系统的参与意愿。%Farmers’ perception of epidemic prevention directly affects the result of the epidemic prevention since they are the main body of animal epidemic prevention and control in the countryside. Based on the questionnaire survey data of 331 broiler farmers nationwide and applying the multi-order logistic model, this paper analyzed the low efifciency problem of comprehensive immunity and explored farmers’ perception of vaccine effect and its inlfuencing factors. Results show that most farmers understood the vaccine effect to some extent. However, there were still about 20%of farmers having very limited basic understanding of the vaccine effect. This paper also identiifed some inlfuencing factors of farmers’ perception of vaccine effect. The most signiifcant positive factors were farmers’ understanding of disease risk and their willingness of participation in the joint prevention and control avian inlfuenza, meaning that if farmers have high level of understanding of disease risk and willingness of participation in the joint prevention and control avian inlfuenza, his or her understanding of the

  17. Risk Assessment of Highly Pathogenic Avian Inlfuenza in the Chagan Lake Areas of Jilin Province%吉林省查干湖地区高致病性禽流感风险评估报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋; 李印; 谢仲伦; 张衍海; 郑增忍

    2014-01-01

    The Chagan Lake is located in Songyuan,northwest of Jilin province,an ideal place for birds to migrate and inhabit,every year nearly ten millions of migratory birds move to the lake areas,and with the development of animal husbandry in this region,there are a high HPAI virus release and exposure risks. The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza(HPAI)in this area would have a huge impact on economy,society,environment and other aspects. The risk status of HPAI in the Chagan Lake areas is analyzed in the paper,and a series of risk management measures are proposed to reduce the HPAI spread and occurrence risks,providing references to improve the HPAI prevention and control system in the Chagan Lake areas.%查干湖位于吉林省西北部松原市境内,是鸟类栖息及迁徙的理想场所,每年有近千万只候鸟迁徙至此,加之该地区养殖业发达,因此存在较高的禽流感病毒释放和暴露风险。一旦暴发高致病性禽流感疫情,将对该地区经济、社会、环境等多方面造成巨大影响。本文深入分析了查干湖地区高致病性禽流感风险状态,提出一系列降低禽流感发生和传播的风险管理措施,以期为完善查干湖地区高致病性禽流感防控体系的提供参考。

  18. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens.

  19. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  20. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  1. Surveillance of avian influenza viruses in Papua New Guinean poultry, June 2011 to April 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonduo, Marinjho; Wong, Sook-San; Kapo, Nime; Ominipi, Paskalis; Abdad, Mohammad; Siba, Peter; McKenzie, Pamela; Webby, Richard; Horwood, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the circulation of avian influenza viruses in poultry populations throughout Papua New Guinea to assess the risk to the poultry industry and human health. Oropharyngeal swabs, cloacal swabs and serum were collected from 537 poultry from 14 provinces of Papua New Guinea over an 11-month period (June 2011 through April 2012). Virological and serological investigations were undertaken to determine the prevalence of avian influenza viruses. Neither influenza A viruses nor antibodies were detected in any of the samples. This study demonstrated that avian influenza viruses were not circulating at detectable levels in poultry populations in Papua New Guinea during the sampling period. However, avian influenza remains a significant risk to Papua New Guinea due to the close proximity of countries having previously reported highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the low biosecurity precautions associated with the rearing of most poultry populations in the country.

  2. Deceleration during 'real life' motor vehicle collisions – a sensitive predictor for the risk of sustaining a cervical spine injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Erich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predictive value of trauma impact for the severity of whiplash injuries has mainly been investigated in sled- and crash-test studies. However, very little data exist for real-life accidents. Therefore, the predictive value of the trauma impact as assessed by the change in velocity of the car due to the collision (ΔV for the resulting cervical spine injuries were investigated in 57 cases after real-life car accidents. Methods ΔV was determined for every car and clinical findings related to the cervical spine were assessed and classified according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF. Results In our study, 32 (56% subjects did not complain about symptoms and were therefore classified as QTF grade 0; 25 (44% patients complained of neck pain: 8 (14% were classified as QTF grade I, 6 (10% as QTF grade II, and 11 (19% as QTF grade IV. Only a slight correlation (r = 0.55 was found between the reported pain and ΔV. No relevant correlation was found between ΔV and the neck disability index (r = 0.46 and between ΔV and the QTF grade (r = 0.45 for any of the collision types. There was no ΔV threshold associated with acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the prognosis of a cervical spine injury. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that ΔV is not a conclusive predictor for cervical spine injury in real-life motor vehicle accidents. This is of importance for surgeons involved in medicolegal expertise jobs as well as patients who suffer from whiplash-associated disorders (WADs after motor vehicle accidents. Trial registration The study complied with applicable German law and with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the institutional ethics commission.

  3. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  4. Free-grazing ducks and highly pathogenic avian influenza, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Marius; Chaitaweesup, P.; Parakamawongsa, T.; Premashthira, S.; Tiensin, T.; Kalpravidh, W.; Wagner, H.; Slingenbergh, J.

    2006-01-01

    Thailand has recently had 3 epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); virus was again detected in July 2005. Risk factors need to be identified to better understand disease ecology and assist HPAI surveillance and detection. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of HPAI outb

  5. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 into Europe and North America poses significant risks to poultry industries and wildlife populations and warrants continued and heightened vigilance. First discovered in South Korean poultry and wild birds in early 2014...

  6. Environmental hazard/risk assessment of pesticides used in agriculture for birds and mammals. The Dutch concept. Part 2. Avian food avoidance behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report (the second one of a series in which the methodology for hazard/risk assessment of the use of pesticides for birds and mammals will be presented) is to give a method for taking into account the avoidance behaviour in the evaluation of LC50 studies and to provide a concept

  7. Protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Kathleen L; Delaney, Lisa J; Kullman, Greg; Gibbins, John D; Decker, John; Kiefer, Max J

    2008-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases are of increasing regional and global importance. Preventing occupational exposure to zoonotic diseases protects workers as well as their families, communities, and the public health. Workers can be protected from zoonotic diseases most effectively by preventing and controlling diseases in animals, reducing workplace exposures, and educating workers. Certain avian influenza viruses are potential zoonotic disease agents that may be transmitted from infected birds to humans. Poultry workers are at risk of becoming infected with these viruses if they are exposed to infected birds or virus-contaminated materials or environments. Critical components of worker protection include educating employers and training poultry workers about occupational exposure to avian influenza viruses. Other recommendations for protecting poultry workers include the use of good hygiene and work practices, personal protective clothing and equipment, vaccination for seasonal influenza viruses, antiviral medication, and medical surveillance. Current recommendations for protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses are summarized in this article.

  8. Pedestrian- and driver-related factors associated with the risk of causing collisions involving pedestrians in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to quantify the association between pedestrian- and driver-related factors and the risk of causing road crashes involving pedestrians in urban areas in Spain between 1993 and 2011. From the nationwide police-based registry of road crashes with victims in Spain, we analyzed all 63,205 pairs of pedestrians and drivers involved in crashes in urban areas in which only the pedestrian or only the driver was at fault. Logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios to assess the strength of association between each individual-related variable and the pedestrian's odds of being at fault for the crash (and conversely, the driver's odds of not being at fault). The subgroups of road users at high risk of causing a road crash with a pedestrian in urban areas were young and male pedestrians, pedestrians with psychophysical conditions or health problems, the youngest and the oldest drivers, and drivers with markers of high-risk behaviors (alcohol use, nonuse of safety devices, and driving without a valid license). These subgroups should be targeted by preventive strategies intended to decrease the rate of urban road crashes involving pedestrians in Spain.

  9. Risk factors associated with the avian proventriculitis in an all-in-all-out broiler farm%某肉鸡规模养殖场鸡腺胃炎风险因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨飞; 陈昌海; 董永毅; 王幼明; 刘耀兴

    2014-01-01

    家禽腺胃炎是危害我国家禽养殖业的主要疫病之一,病因多样、未明是目前阻碍该病防治的主要原因。本研究从可能与鸡腺胃炎关联的风险因素着手,通过单因素分析寻找疫病关联因素,并对筛选出的关联因素建立多因素logistics回归模型,分析这些因素与疫病的关联程度。结果显示在发病场,垫料湿度与疫病显著相关,而空气湿度虽与疫病无显著关联,但影响垫料湿度和疫病的关联程度,是后者的混杂因素。%Avian proventriculitis is hard to be prevented due to its complex and unknown etiology. To further understand the mechanism of the disease,a risk analysis as conducted in an all-in-all out broiler farm. Five factors,including air humidity,litter humidity,distance from vent,feed storage time and times of door curtain open,were analyzed using univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. The results suggested that the litter humidity was highly associated with the disease while the other factors were not. However,air humidity was proved to be a confound factor to litter humidity.

  10. Koyukuk NWR 1985 avian checklist

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An avian checklist survey was conducted within the boundaries of the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge and Kaiyuh Flats unit of the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge...

  11. Koyukuk NWR 1986 avian checklist

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An avian checklist survey was conducted within the boundaries of the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge and Kaiyuh Flats unit of the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge in...

  12. Simulating avian wingbeat kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslew, Ben; Crowther, William J

    2010-12-01

    Inverse dynamics methods are used to simulate avian wingbeats in varying flight conditions. A geometrically scalable multi-segment bird model is constructed, and optimisation techniques are employed to determine segment motions that generate desired aerodynamic force coefficients with minimal mechanical power output. The results show that wingbeat kinematics vary gradually with changes in cruise speed, which is consistent with experimental data. Optimised solutions for cruising flight of the pigeon suggest that upstroke wing retraction is used as a method of saving energy. Analysis of the aerodynamic force coefficient variation in high and low speed cruise leads to the proposal that a suitable gait metric should include both thrust and lift generation during each half-stroke.

  13. Avian host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  14. Protection of chickens against avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) infection by immunization with recombinant avian HEV capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X J

    2007-04-12

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is an emerging virus associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens in North America. Avian HEV is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV, the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans. In the lack of a practical animal model, avian HEV infection in chickens has been used as a model to study human HEV replication and pathogenesis. A 32 kDa recombinant ORF2 capsid protein of avian HEV expressed in Escherichia coli was found having similar antigenic structure as that of human HEV containing major neutralizing epitopes. To determine if the capsid protein of avian HEV can be used as a vaccine, 20 chickens were immunized with purified avian HEV recombinant protein with aluminum as adjuvant and another 20 chickens were mock immunized with KLH precipitated in aluminum as controls. Both groups of chickens were subsequently challenged with avian HEV. All the tested mock-immunized control chickens developed typical avian HEV infection characterized by viremia, fecal virus shedding and seroconversion to avian HEV antibodies. Gross hepatic lesions were also found in portion of these chickens. In contrast, none of the tested chickens immunized with avian HEV capsid protein had detectable viremia, fecal virus shedding or observable gross hepatitis lesions. The results from this study suggested that immunization of chickens with avian HEV recombinant ORF2 capsid protein with aluminum as adjuvant can induce protective immunity against avian HEV infection. Chickens are a useful small animal model to study anti-HEV immunity and pathogenesis.

  15. 一起水禽H5N1疫情暴发后人群感染风险评估%Risk assessment of H5N1 human infection after an outbreak of avian influenza in water fowl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉林; 王鸣; 刘于飞; 蒋力云; 柳洋; 杨智聪; 郝爱华; 伍业健; 李海麟; 李铁钢

    2009-01-01

    目的 评估动物禽流感疫情暴发后人群感染的风险,探讨禽流感传播的可能性.方法 采用现场流行病学调查、分子流行病学、血清学研究及应急监测方法 ,对病、死禽的所有密切接触者进行医学观察;采用红细胞凝集抑制实验、实时荧光逆转录-聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)、基因测序方法 ,检测全部密切接触者的血清抗体,采集4个疫点环境标本检测禽流感H5核酸.结果 检测4个疫点环境标本22份,H5核酸阳性1份,序列分析与广州市2006年人禽流感病毒株A/China/GD01/2006(H5N1)的同源性为95.9%;检测疫区及周边2个农贸市场活禽交易场所环境标本62份,H5核酸均阴性;采集密切接触者的血样68份、咽拭子68份,禽流感H9抗体阳性6份,H5抗体、H5核酸均阴性,医学观察7 d,未发现禽流感感染者;应急监测区报告流感样患者337例,经排查未发现可疑禽流感患者.结论 此起水禽H5N1暴发未造成扩散,也未出现人感染病例,表明此次疫情的禽流感病毒H5N1对人的传播能力尚不强,引起人群感染的风险较低.%Objective To evaluate the risk of human infection after the outbreak of avian influenza H5N1 in animals.and probe the possibility for virus transmission.Methods By means of field epidemiological study,molecular epidemiology,serology and emergency surveillance,persons who had ever closely contacted with sick or dead poultry were observed.While,the RT-PCR and gene sequencing method were used to detect H5 nucleic acid from environmental swabs from 4 epidemic spots,and hemagglutination inhibition assay was also used to detect H5 antibody.Results of 22 environmental swabs detected from 4 epidemic spots,one was positive for H5 nucleic acid,and the homogeneity was 95.9% as compared with H5N1 virus A/China,/GD01/2006 (H5N1) found in Guangzhou in 2006 by gene sequence analysis.62 environmental swabs from live poultry stalls of food markets near epidemic spot were detected

  16. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  17. Risk evaluation on H7N9 avian influenza in Guangzhou, China%广州市人感染H7N9禽流感快速风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊; 狄飚; 马晓薇; 刘建平; 陈艺韵; 李魁彪; 刘于飞; 肖新才; 蔡文锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective We conducted both quick surveillance and evaluation programs within one week after the novel H7N9 influenza cases had been released by the Ministry of Health (MOH),to get the basic information on H7N9 virus in Guangzhou.Methods We sampled live birds from food markets and the natural habitat of birds to detect H7N9,H5 and H9 viruses.We interviewed workers from both markets and natural habitats.We also reviewed records on pneumonia patients with unknown causes from the surveillance system,to find clues related to the identification of severe pneumonia.Results We sampled 300 specimens from 49 stalls in 13 food markets and a natural habitat but none showed H7N9 positive result.A chopping block was detected positive of carting H5 avian influenza virus,while another 4 specimens including a chicken cage,a duck cage,a chopping block and a pigeon cage were detected positive of carrying H9 avian influenza virus.In the past month,no sick,dead birds or ILI cases among the workers were discovered.21.2% (7/33) of the stalls did not follow the set regulations for prevention.10.3% (4/39) of the stalls had the cages cleaned,4 days after the inspection.3.7% (2/54) of the workers wore masks and 40.7% (22/54) of them wore gloves during the slaughtering process.102 bird feces specimens were tested negative on H7N9 virus.No pneumonia cases with unknown reason were identified.From April 3rd to 17th,we found 26 severe pneumonia cases but with negative results on influenza A (H7N9).Conclusion According to the data and information from 1)lab tests,2) pneumonia cases with unknown reasons under the surveillance system,3) the identification of severe pneumonia cases,and 4) preventive measures and actions taken by the workers,we inferred that no H7N9 virus or related cases were found prior to April in Guangzhou.However,the risk of H7N9 epidemic does exist because of the following reasons:1) improper market management process,2)negligent behavior of the workers and 3) potential

  18. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhang

    Full Text Available Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  19. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; Zheng, Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Li, Wenhua; Hu, Mailing; Zhong, Jinhui; Chen, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  20. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  1. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  2. Broiler Farmers’ Disinfecting Drinking Water Behaviors under Risk of Avian Influenza%禽流感风险下肉鸡养殖户的饮水消毒行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽颖; 王济民; 刘春芳

    2016-01-01

    The quality of livestocks and poultries’ drinking water is related to breeding safety of livestocks and poultries.Disinfecting drinking water is an effective way to prevent the spread of bird flu virus. In order to guarantee broilers’healthy drinking,it is necessary to learn farmers’ disinfecting behaviors and their influence factors.It was found from questionnaires of 331 broiler farmers that 44 percent of them do not disinfect drinking water for livestocks and poultries,which increases the disease risk of broilers.Breeding scale,proportion of breed⁃ing income,willingness to participate in joint prevention and control of avian influenza,and district farmers are from were significant and positive factors influencing their disinfecting behaviors.It is helpful for farmers to adopt disinfection of drinking water by advocating scaled breeding and joint prevention and control.%畜禽饮水质量关系到畜禽养殖安全,饮水消毒是防止禽流感等疾病传播的有效方法。为保障肉鸡的饮水健康,有必要了解养殖户饮水消毒行为及其影响因素。通过收集全国331个肉鸡养殖户的调查问卷发现,44%的养殖户畜禽饮用水不加消毒处理,加大了肉鸡的患病风险。采用Logit模型研究发现,养殖规模、养殖收入比重、禽流感联防联控系统参与意愿、地区差异等因素显著且正向影响养殖户的饮水消毒行为。提倡规模化养殖和联合防控,将有助于推动养殖户采用饮水消毒。

  3. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  4. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    of bicyclists and risk situations. The findings should make a basis for preventive programmes in order to decrease the number and severity of bicyclists collision accidents. Data from the emergency room in a 2 year period was combined with data from questionnaires. The study group consisted of 1021 bicyclists...... group of accidents were the collisions with the 'soft' road users (bicyclists, mopeds, and pedestrians) and another group were the collisions with the 'hard' road users (motor vehicles, motorcycles). Preventive measures have to be directed at both these groups of accidents. To decrease the number...... of collision accidents with motor vehicles it is necessary to separate the bicyclists from the 'hard road traffic' especially at crossings. Preventive measures must also be directed at the bicyclists. Information must be given to warn the bicyclists against the risks, not only for collisions with motor...

  5. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy.

  6. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  7. Variation in bird-window collision mortality and scavenging rates within an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual avian mortality from collisions with windows and buildings is estimated to range from a million to a billion birds in the United States alone. However, estimates of mortality based on carcass counts suffer from bias due to imperfect detection and carcass scavenging. We stu...

  8. Molecular characterization of Indonesia avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza outbreaks in poultry have been reported in Java island since August 2003. A total of 14 isolates of avian influenza virus has been isolated from October 2003 to October 2004. The viruses have been identified as HPAI H5N1 subtype. All of them were characterized further at genetic level and also for their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis showed all of the avian influenza virus isolates were closely related to avian influenza virus from China (A/Duck/China/E319-2/03(H5N1. Molecular basis of pathogenicity in HA cleavage site indicated that the isolates of avian influenza virus have multiple basic amino acid (B-X-B-R indicating that all of the isolates representing virulent avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  9. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses.

  10. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoom John

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Method Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Results Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65% showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Conclusion Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen

  11. Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek’s disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

  12. Avian Paramyxovirus: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, P; Ganar, K; Kumar, S

    2017-02-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) have been reported from a wide variety of avian species around the world. Avian paramyxoviruses are economically significant because of the huge mortality and morbidity associated with it. Twelve different serotypes of APMV have been reported till date. Avian paramyxoviruses belong to the family Paramyxoviridae under genus Avulavirus. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most characterized members among the APMV serotypes. Complete genome sequence of all twelve APMV serotypes has been published recently. In recent years, APMV-1 has attracted the virologists for its oncolytic activity and its use as a vaccine vector for both animals and humans. The recombinant APMV-based vaccine offers a pertinent choice for the construction of live attenuated vaccine due to its minimum recombination frequency, modular nature of transcription and lack of DNA phase during its replication. Although insufficient data are available regarding other APMV serotypes, our understanding about the APMV biology is expanding rapidly because of the availability of modern molecular biology tools and high-throughput complete genome sequencing.

  13. 粉房湾长江大桥船撞风险分析与设防标准研究%Risk Analysis and Protection Criteria Study of Ship Collision of Fenfangwan Changjiang River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿波; 徐龙

    2012-01-01

    为确定粉房湾长江大桥设防船撞力标准,采用美国AASHTO规范方法和三概率参数积分路径方法对该桥进行船撞风险分析,计算桥梁的碰撞概率和年倒塌频率,并与可接受的风险准则进行比较;确定船撞设计代表船型,采用LS-DYNA软件对船舶碰撞桥梁进行数值模拟分析.分析结果表明:该桥在2010年、2020年和2050年通航密度下的船撞风险分别为4.05×10-6、2.02×10-5、7.06×10-5;P3、P4主墩的船撞设计代表船型均为5 000吨级;近期P3、P4主墩的设防船撞力可分别取38.68 MN和27.57 MN,远期可分别取38.68 MN和24.19 MN,P3、P4主墩抗力均满足船撞设防标准.%To determine the protection criteria for ship collision forces of Fenfangwan Changjiang River Bridge, the ship collision risk of the bridge was analyzed, the collision probability and the annual bridge collapse probability were calculated by the AASHTO method'and the three-probability parameter integral path method, and the analysis and calculation were compared to the acceptable risk criteria. The representative types of ships used for the ship collision design were determined and the software LS-DYNA was used to carry out numerical simulation of the ships colliding against the bridge. The results of the analysis indicate that the ship collision risk of the bridge under the shipping-density in the years 2010, 2020 and 2050 are respectively 4. 05 X 10-6 , 2. 02 × 10-5 and 7. 06 × 10-5. The representative types of the ships colliding against the main piers P3 and P4 of the bridge are of the 5 000 tonnage, the ship collision force protection of the piers in the near future can be determined as 38. 68 MN and 27. 57 MN and in the far future can be 38. 68 MN and 24. 19 MN, which will all satisfy the protection criteria of the ship collision of the piers.

  14. Enhanced virulence of clade 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporadic avian to human transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) viruses necessitates the analysis of currently circulating and evolving clades to assess their potential risk. Following the spread and sustained circulation of clade 2 viruses across multiple continents, num...

  15. Multiobjective Optimization Based Vessel Collision Avoidance Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vessel collision accidents cause a great loss of lives and property. In order to reduce the human fault and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic, collision avoidance strategy optimization is proposed to achieve this. In the paper, a multiobjective optimization algorithm NSGA-II is adopted to search for the optimal collision avoidance strategy considering the safety as well as economy elements of collision avoidance. Ship domain and Arena are used to evaluate the collision risk in the simulation. Based on the optimization, an optimal rudder angle is recommended to navigator for collision avoidance. In the simulation example, a crossing encounter situation is simulated, and the NSGA-II searches for the optimal collision avoidance operation under the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS. The simulation studies exhibit the validity of the method.

  16. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  17. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-05-06

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  18. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated.

  19. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  20. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R

    2014-07-01

    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand.

  1. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  2. Gender determination of avian embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  3. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  4. Correlates of avian building strikes at a glass façade museum surrounded by avian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, L.; Flannery, M.; Dumbacher, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Bird window collisions are the second largest anthropogenic cause of bird deaths in the world. Effective mitigation requires an understanding of which birds are most likely to strike, when, and why. Here, we examine five years of avian window strike data from the California Academy of Sciences - a relatively new museum with significant glass façade situated in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. We examine correlates of window-killed birds, including age, sex, season, and migratory or sedentary tendencies of the birds. We also examine correlates of window kills such as presence of habitat surrounding the building and overall window area. We found that males are almost three times more likely than females to mortally strike windows, and immature birds are three times more abundant than adults in our window kill dataset. Among seasons, strikes were not notably different in spring, summer, and fall; however they were notably reduced in winter. There was no statistical effect of building orientation (north, south, east, or west), and the presence of avian habitat directly adjacent to windows had a minor effect. We also report ongoing studies examining various efforts to reduce window kill (primarily external decals and large electronic window blinds.) We hope that improving our understanding of the causes of the window strikes will help us strategically reduce window strikes.

  5. Evidence of infection with H4 and H11 avian influenza viruses among Lebanese chicken growers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Kayali

    Full Text Available Human infections with H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses are well documented. Exposure to poultry is the most important risk factor for humans becoming infected with these viruses. Data on human infection with other low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses is sparse but suggests that such infections may occur. Lebanon is a Mediterranean country lying under two major migratory birds flyways and is home to many wild and domestic bird species. Previous reports from this country demonstrated that low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses are in circulation but highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses were not reported. In order to study the extent of human infection with avian influenza viruses in Lebanon, we carried out a seroprevalence cross-sectional study into which 200 poultry-exposed individuals and 50 non-exposed controls were enrolled. We obtained their sera and tested it for the presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses types H4 through H16 and used a questionnaire to collect exposure data. Our microneutralization assay results suggested that backyard poultry growers may have been previously infected with H4 and H11 avian influenza viruses. We confirmed these results by using a horse red blood cells hemagglutination inhibition assay. Our data also showed that farmers with antibodies against each virus type clustered in a small geographic area suggesting that unrecognized outbreaks among birds may have led to these human infections. In conclusion, this study suggests that occupational exposure to chicken is a risk factor for infection with avian influenza especially among backyard growers and that H4 and H11 influenza viruses may possess the ability to cross the species barrier to infect humans.

  6. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  7. Mechanisms of avian songs and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2008-01-01

    The avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is a specialized structure located rather inaccessibly in an air sac close to the heart where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi. The syrinx of different avian taxa varies so much in position and morphology that it has been used for taxonomy. It...

  8. A Synthesis of Human-related Avian Mortality in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many human activities in Canada kill wild birds, yet the relative magnitude of mortality from different sources and the consequent effects on bird populations have not been systematically evaluated. We synthesize recent estimates of avian mortality in Canada from a range of industrial and other human activities, to provide context for the estimates from individual sources presented in this special feature. We assessed the geographic, seasonal, and taxonomic variation in the magnitude of national-scale mortality and in population-level effects on species or groups across Canada, by combining these estimates into a stochastic model of stage-specific mortality. The range of estimates of avian mortality from each source covers several orders of magnitude, and, numerically, landbirds were the most affected group. In total, we estimate that approximately 269 million birds and 2 million nests are destroyed annually in Canada, the equivalent of over 186 million breeding individuals. Combined, cat predation and collisions with windows, vehicles, and transmission lines caused > 95% of all mortality; the highest industrial causes of mortality were the electrical power and agriculture sectors. Other mortality sources such as fisheries bycatch can have important local or species-specific impacts, but are relatively small at a national scale. Mortality rates differed across species and families within major bird groups, highlighting that mortality is not simply proportional to abundance. We also found that mortality is not evenly spread across the country; the largest mortality sources are coincident with human population distribution, while industrial sources are concentrated in southern Ontario, Alberta, and southwestern British Columbia. Many species are therefore likely to be vulnerable to cumulative effects of multiple human-related impacts. This assessment also confirms the high uncertainty in estimating human-related avian mortality in terms of species

  9. Molecular patterns of avian influenza A viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; LEI FuMin; WANG ShengYue; ZHOU YanHong; LI TianXian

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses could get across the species barrier and be fatal to humans. Highly patho-genic avian influenza H5N1 virus was an example. The mechanism of interspecies transmission is not clear as yet. In this research, the protein sequences of 237 influenza A viruses with different subtypes were transformed into pseudo-signals. The energy features were extracted by the method of wavelet packet decomposition and used for virus classification by the method of hierarchical clustering. The clustering results showed that five patterns existed in avian influenza A viruses, which associated with the phenotype of interspecies transmission, and that avian viruses with patterns C and E could across species barrier and those with patterns A, B and D might not have the abilities. The results could be used to construct an early warning system to predict the transmissibility of avian influenza A viruses to humans.

  10. Immunogenetics and resistance to avian malaria in Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Although a number of factors have contributed to the decline and extinction of Hawai‘i’s endemic terrestrial avifauna, introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relicturn) is probably the single most important factor preventing recovery of these birds in low-elevation habitats. Continued decline in numbers, fragmentation of populations, and extinction of species that are still relatively common will likely continue without new, aggressive approaches to managing avian disease. Methods of intervention in the disease cycle such as chemotherapy and vaccine development are not feasible because of efficient immune-evasion strategies evolved by the parasite, technical difficulties associated with treating wild avian populations, and increased risk of selection for more virulent strains of the parasite. We are investigating the natural evolution of disease resistance in some low-elevation native bird populations, particularly Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens), to perfect genetic methods for identifying individuals with a greater immunological capacity to survive malarial infection. We are focusing on genetic analyses of the major histocompatibility complex, due to its critical role in both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the parasite, we are evaluating conserved ribosomal genes as well as variable genes encoding cell-surface molecules as a first step in developing a better understanding of the complex interactions between malarial parasites and the avian immune system. A goal is to provide population managers with new criteria for maintaining long-term population stability for threatened species through the development of methods for evaluating and maintaining genetic diversity in small populations at loci important in immunological responsiveness to pathogens.

  11. Analysis of Avian Hepatitis E Virus from Chickens, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-01-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  12. Analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chickens, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-09-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  13. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  14. Pathogenesis and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAV) periodically transmit between pigs, people, and birds. If two IAV strains infect the same host, genes can reassort to generate progeny virus with potential to be more infectious or avoid immunity. Pigs pose a risk for such reassortment. Highly pathogenic avian ...

  15. Controlling highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks : An epidemiological and economic model analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, J. A.; van Roermund, H. J W; Fischer, Egil; van Asseldonk, M. A P M; Bergevoet, R. H M

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) can cause large losses for the poultry sector and for animal disease controlling authorities, as well as risks for animal and human welfare. In the current simulation approach epidemiological and economic models are combined to compare different

  16. The pause on avian H5N1 influenza virus transmission research should be ended

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A. García-Sastre (Adolfo); Y. Kawaoka (Yoshihiro)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA voluntary 60-day pause on avian H5N1 influenza virus transmission research was announced in January 2012 by the international community of influenza scientists engaged in this work to provide time to explain the benefits of such work and the risk mitigation measures in place. Subsequen

  17. Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Virus from Wild Birds and Mallards Reared for Shooting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Therkildsen, O. R.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Denmark forms a geographical bottleneck along the migration route of many water birds breeding from northeastern Canada to north Siberia that gather to winter in Europe and Africa. Potentially, the concentration of such large numbers of water birds enhances the risk of avian influenza virus (AIV...

  18. Avian information systems: Developing web-based bird avoidance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Buurma, L.; DeFusco, R.; Dekker, A.; Sierdsema, H.; Sluiter, F.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, H.; van Loon, E.

    2008-01-01

    Collisions between aircraft and birds, so-called "bird strikes," can result in serious damage to aircraft and even in the loss of lives. Information about the distribution of birds in the air and on the ground can be used to reduce the risk of bird strikes and their impact on operations en route and

  19. Evaluation of the DTBird video-system at the Smoela wind-power plant. Detection capabilities for capturing near-turbine avian behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roel, May; Hamre, Oeyvind; Vang, Roald; Nygaard, Torgeir

    2012-07-01

    the software configuration to define the moderate (warning) and high (disuassion) collision risk area. This led to a high rate of triggered warning/disuassion signals. The Dissuasion module of DTBird certainly is superior compared to any random activation system, however minimization of habituation necessitates that the system is only triggered by birds during the time they fly near the rotor swept zone of a turbine. Visually assessing the video sequences enables the identification of species (groups), flight behaviour and possible responses to warning/dissuasion signals. The DTBird system, enabling the monitoring of near-turbine flight behaviour in birds, presents a complementary technique to GPS telemetry and avian radar. In addition, the DTBird system may be utilized as a measure for mitigating collisions. (Author)

  20. Landscape attributes driving avian influenza virus circulation in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Guerrini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has been studied throughout Southeast Asia, little is known on the spatial risk factors for avian influenza in Africa. In the present paper, we combined serological data from poultry and remotely sensed environmental factors in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar to explore for any association between avian influenza and landscape variables. Serological data from cross-sectional surveys carried out on poultry in 2008 and 2009 were examined together with a Landsat 7 satellite image analysed using supervised classification. The dominant landscape features in a 1-km buffer around farmhouses and distance to the closest water body were extracted. A total of 1,038 individual bird blood samples emanating from 241 flocks were analysed, and the association between avian influenza seroprevalence and these landcape variables was quantified using logistic regression models. No evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 avian influenza subtypes was found, suggesting that only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI circulated. Three predominant land cover classes were identified around the poultry farms: grassland savannah, rice paddy fields and wetlands. A significant negative relationship was found between LPAI seroprevalence and distance to the closest body of water. We also found that LPAI seroprevalence was higher in farms characterised by predominant wetlands or rice landscapes than in those surrounded by dry savannah. Results from this study suggest that if highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus were introduced in Madagascar, the environmental conditions that prevail in Lake Alaotra region may allow the virus to spread and persist.

  1. Avian Influenza (H5N1) Warning System using Dempster-Shafer Theory and Web Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    Based on Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Reported to World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2011 from 15 countries, Indonesia has the largest number death because Avian Influenza which 146 deaths. In this research, the researcher built a Web Mapping and Dempster-Shafer theory as early warning system of avian influenza. Early warning is the provision of timely and effective information, through identified institutions, that allows individuals exposed to a hazard to take action to avoid or reduce their risk and prepare for effective response. In this paper as example we use five symptoms as major symptoms which include depression, combs, wattle, bluish face region, swollen face region, narrowness of eyes, and balance disorders. Research location is in the Lampung Province, South Sumatera. The researcher reason to choose Lampung Province in South Sumatera on the basis that has a high poultry population. Geographically, Lampung province is located at 103040' to 105050' East Lo...

  2. A Review of Avian Monitoring and Mitigation Information at Existing Utility-Scale Solar Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wendelin, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Souder, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are two basic types of solar energy technology: photovoltaic and concentrating solar power. As the number of utility-scale solar energy facilities using these technologies is expected to increase in the United States, so are the potential impacts on wildlife and their habitats. Recent attention is on the risk of fatality to birds. Understanding the current rates of avian mortality and existing monitoring requirements is an important first step in developing science-based mitigation and minimization protocols. The resulting information also allows a comparison of the avian mortality rates of utility-scale solar energy facilities with those from other technologies and sources, as well as the identification of data gaps and research needs. This report will present and discuss the current state of knowledge regarding avian issues at utility-scale solar energy facilities.

  3. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

  4. Living with avian FLU--Persistence of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njabo, Kevin Yana; Zanontian, Linda; Sheta, Basma N; Samy, Ahmed; Galal, Shereen; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-05-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cross J-function to investigate the degree and spatial temporal nature of the clustering between sightings of infected birds of different types, and the risk of infection associated with direct contact with infected birds. While we found no infection in wild birds, outbreaks occurred year round between 2009 and 2012, with a positive interaction between chickens and ducks. The disease was more present in the years 2010 and 2011 coinciding with the political unrest in the country. Egypt thus continues to experience endemic outbreaks of avian influenza HPAIV in poultry and an increased potential risk of infection to other species including humans. With the current trends, the elimination of the HPAIV infection is highly unlikely without a complete revamp of current policies. The application of spatial statistics techniques to these types of data may help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and may subsequently allow practitioners to explore possible preventive solutions.

  5. Montana 2006 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated a nationwide avian influenza...

  6. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys at...

  7. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  8. Avian protection plan : Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (LNWR) initiated this Avian Protection Plan (APP) in 2003 to protect birds from potential electrocution hazards on the...

  9. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  10. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their saliva, mucous and feces. Human infections with bird flu viruses can happen when enough virus gets into ... Virus (CVV) for a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Virus ” for more information on this process. ...

  11. Aerosolized avian influenza virus by laboratory manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Results Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.

  12. Cell killing by avian leukosis viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, S K; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Infection of chicken cells with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus resulted in the detachment of killed cells from the culture dish. The detached, dead cells contained more unintegrated viral DNA than the attached cells. These results confirm the hypothesis that cell killing after infection with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus is associated with accumulation of large amounts of unintegrated viral DNA. No accumulation of large amounts of integrated viral DNA was found in cells infected with c...

  13. Report of the Avian Development Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The anteroposterior axis of the avian embryo is established before it is laid. Baer's rule states that the cephalic end of the avian embryo will be away from the observer when the pointed end of the shell is on the observer's right. There are experimental data available which indicate gravity has a role in the establishment of the anteroposterior axis while the egg is in the uterus; this results in Baer's rule. The influence of gravity on egg development is studied.

  14. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  15. Probability of Grounding and Collision Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the risks involved in ship traffic, rational criteria for collision and grounding accidents have to be developed. This implies that probabilities as well as inherent consequences have to be analyzed and assessed.The present notes outline a method for evaluation of the probability...

  16. Probability of Grounding and Collision Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the risks involved in ship traffic, rational criteria for collision and grounding accidents are developed. This implies that probabilities as well as inherent consequences can be analysed and assessed. The presnt paper outlines a method for evaluation of the probability of ship...

  17. Antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus among swine farm residents in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiuchen; Yin, Xin; Rao, Baizhong; Xie, Chunfang; Zhang, Pengchao; Qi, Xian; Wei, Ping; Liu, Huili

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was first isolated in pigs in China. Recently, it was reported that a 3-year-old boy was infected with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) in Jiangsu Province, China. To investigate the prevalence of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection among swine farm residents in eastern China, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted on swine farms in this region from May 21, 2010 through April 22, 2012. A total of 1,162 participants were enrolled, including 1,136 persons from 48 pig farms, as well as 26 pig farm veterinarians. A total of 10.7% and 7.8% swine farm residents were positive for antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV by HI and NT assay, respectively, using 40 as the cut-off antibody titer. Meanwhile, all the serum samples collected from a control of healthy city residents were negative against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. As the difference in numbers of antibody positive samples between the swine farm residents and health city residents controls was statistically significant (P = 0.002), these data suggest that occupational exposure to pigs may increase swine farm residents' and veterinarians' risk of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection in eastern China. This study provides the first data on avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infections in humans in China; the potential for avian-like A (H1N1) SIV entering the human population should also be taken into consideration.

  18. Collision Induced Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Schäffer, R

    1997-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical model in which galaxy collisions and strong tidal interactions, both in the field and during the collapse phase of groups and clusters help determine galaxy morphology. From a semi-analytical analysis based on simulation results of tidal collisions (Aguilar & White 1985), we propose simple rules for energy exchanges during collisions that allow to discriminate between different Hubble types: efficient collisions result in the disruption of disks and substantial star formation, leading to the formation of elliptical galaxies; inefficient collisions allow a large gas reservoir to survive and form disks. Assuming that galaxy formation proceeds in a Omega_0=1 Cold Dark Matter universe, the model both reproduces a number of observations and makes predictions, among which are the redshifts of formation of the different Hubble types in the field. When the model is normalized to the present day abundance of X-ray clusters, the amount of energy exchange needed to produce elliptical gal...

  19. Bubble collision with gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study vacuum bubble collisions with various potentials including gravitation, assuming spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry. We use numerical calculations from double-null formalism. Spherical symmetry can mimic the formation of a black hole via multiple bubble collisions. Planar and especially hyperbolic symmetry describes two bubble collisions. We study both cases, when two true vacuum regions have the same field value or different field values, by varying tensions. For the latter case, we also test symmetric and asymmetric bubble collisions, and see details of causal structures. If the colliding energy is sufficient, then the vacuum can be destabilized, and it is also demonstrated. This double-null formalism can be a complementary approach in the context of bubble collisions.

  20. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link......-attribute and event-based approaches, cluster identification, and risk exposure....

  1. Intelligent Sensor Tasking for Space Collision Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Pertica, A J; Henderson, J R

    2010-04-01

    Orbital collisions pose a hazard to space operations. Using a high performance computer modeling and simulation environment for space situational awareness, we explore a new paradigm for improving satellite conjunction analysis by obtaining more precise orbital information only for those objects that pose a collision risk greater than a defined threshold to a specific set of satellites during a specified time interval. In particular, we assess the improvement in the quality of the conjunction analysis that can be achieved using a distributed network of ground-based telescopes.

  2. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  3. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  4. 不同职业暴露人群感染H5N1禽流感病毒风险性分析%Risk analysis ot avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype Infection in different occupation groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洁; 贺锋; 苏良; 叶文

    2011-01-01

    Aim To ssurvey the antibody level of highly pathongenic avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype infection in different kinds of poultry employees in Changsha City. Methods The blood samples of the poultry retailing workers in food markets and polultry breeding workers in large scale enterprises and rural individual farms were collected,H5N1 antibody level were detected by single PIA technique diffusion hemolysis (SRH). Results The H5N1 antibody positive rate of retailers in food markets was 25%, 1% in individual farms and 1.92% in polultry breeding workers in large scale enterprises. The H5N1 antibody positive rate was 10% and 23.88% in male and female employees respectively. Conclusion There is a higher risk of avian influenza virus infection among poultry retailing workers than that of poultry workers in large scale enterprises and rural individual farms. The H5N1 antibody positive rate in female is higher than male employees.%目的 了解长沙地区不同类型禽类职业暴露人群高致病性禽流感H5N1亚型病毒的抗体分布状况,分析不同职业暴露人群H5N1感染的风险性.方法 采集菜市场家禽屠宰零售人员、大型家禽饲养企业工人和农村个体家禽散养人员的血清标本,用单放射免疫扩散溶血技术(SRH)检测 H5N1抗体.结果市场零售人员、农村个体家禽散养人员、企业饲养人员H5N1感染率分别为25%、1%和1.92%,男性从业人员H5N1抗体阳性率为10%,女性为23.88%.结论市场零售人员感染H5N1风险性远高于农村散养人员和企业饲养人员,不同职业人员中女性H5N1抗体阳性率高于男性从业人员.

  5. Determination and analysis of the complete genomic sequence of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) and attempts to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F F; Sun, Z F; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Shivaprasad, H L; Pierson, F W; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2004-06-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), recently identified from a chicken with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States, is genetically and antigenically related to human and swine HEVs. In this study, sequencing of the genome was completed and an attempt was made to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. The full-length genome of avian HEV, excluding the poly(A) tail, is 6654 bp in length, which is about 600 bp shorter than that of human and swine HEVs. Similar to human and swine HEV genomes, the avian HEV genome consists of a short 5' non-coding region (NCR) followed by three partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and a 3'NCR. Avian HEV shares about 50 % nucleotide sequence identity over the complete genome, 48-51 % identity in ORF1, 46-48 % identity in ORF2 and only 29-34 % identity in ORF3 with human and swine HEV strains. Significant genetic variations such as deletions and insertions, particularly in ORF1 of avian HEV, were observed. However, motifs in the putative functional domains of ORF1, such as the helicase and methyltransferase, were relatively conserved between avian HEV and mammalian HEVs, supporting the conclusion that avian HEV is a member of the genus Hepevirus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that avian HEV represents a branch distinct from human and swine HEVs. Swine HEV infects non-human primates and possibly humans and thus may be zoonotic. An attempt was made to determine whether avian HEV also infects across species by experimentally inoculating two rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. Evidence of virus infection was not observed in the inoculated monkeys as there was no seroconversion, viraemia, faecal virus shedding or serum liver enzyme elevation. The results from this study confirmed that avian HEV is related to, but distinct from, human and swine HEVs; however, unlike swine HEV, avian HEV is probably not transmissible to non-human primates.

  6. Crash and burn? Vehicle, collision, and driver factors that influence motor vehicle collision fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, T L; Slavova, S; Robertson, M

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective population-based case-control study was performed to determine the association between vehicle fires, and vehicle, collision, and driver factors on highways with a posted speed limit of at least 55mph. Data were obtained from the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic files for 2000-2009 from the Kentucky State Police Records Sections. The results from the final multiple logistic regression show that large trucks were at a higher risk for a collision involving a fire than passenger vehicles and pickup trucks. When controlling for all other variables in the model, vehicles 6 years old and older, driving straight down the highway, and single vehicle collisions were also identified as factors that increase the risk of motor vehicle collision fires on roadways with a posted speed limit of ≥55mph. Of the 2096 vehicles that caught fire, there were 632 (30%) non-fatally injured drivers and 224 (11%) fatally injured drivers. The results of this study have the potential to inform public health messages directed to the transportation industry, particularly semi truck drivers, in regard to fire risk.

  7. Contact variables for exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, P; Perdue, M; Mumford, E

    2010-06-01

    Although the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to cause infections in both avian and human populations, the specific zoonotic risk factors remain poorly understood. This review summarizes available evidence regarding types of contact associated with transmission of H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface. A systematic search of the published literature revealed five analytical studies and 15 case reports describing avian influenza transmission from animals to humans for further review. Risk factors identified in analytical studies were compared, and World Health Organization-confirmed cases, identified in case reports, were classified according to type of contact reported using a standardized algorithm. Although cases were primarily associated with direct contact with sick/unexpectedly dead birds, some cases reported only indirect contact with birds or contaminated environments or contact with apparently healthy birds. Specific types of contacts or activities leading to exposure could not be determined from data available in the publications reviewed. These results support previous reports that direct contact with sick birds is not the only means of human exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus. To target public health measures and disease awareness messaging for reducing the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza H5N1 virus, the specific types of contacts and activities leading to transmission need to be further understood. The role of environmental virus persistence, shedding of virus by asymptomatic poultry and disease pathophysiology in different avian species relative to human zoonotic risk, as well as specific modes of zoonotic transmission, should be determined.

  8. Collisions of Random Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, Martin T; Sousi, Perla

    2010-01-01

    A recurrent graph $G$ has the infinite collision property if two independent random walks on $G$, started at the same point, collide infinitely often a.s. We give a simple criterion in terms of Green functions for a graph to have this property, and use it to prove that a critical Galton-Watson tree with finite variance conditioned to survive, the incipient infinite cluster in $\\Z^d$ with $d \\ge 19$ and the uniform spanning tree in $\\Z^2$ all have the infinite collision property. For power-law combs and spherically symmetric trees, we determine precisely the phase boundary for the infinite collision property.

  9. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  10. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  11. USGS role and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  12. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  13. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Puño-Sarmiento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%, three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%, 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%, but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  14. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2014-12-01

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period.

  15. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from avian organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-08-28

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  16. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F; Galvani, Alison P; Wickelgren, Abraham L; Malani, Anup

    2013-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers.

  17. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per W; Nejsum, Peter; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-03-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy and subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings are of concern and, particularly, the presence of the potentially neuro-pathogenic species, T. regenti, in Danish freshwaters calls for attention.

  18. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  19. Avian influenza outbreak in Turkey through health personnel's views: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbaydar Tugrul

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza threatens public health worldwide because it is usually associated with severe illness and, consequently, a higher risk of death. During the first months of 2006, Turkey experienced its first human avian influenza epidemic. A total of 21 human cases were identified, 12 of which were confirmed by the National Institute for Medical Research. Nine of the cases, including the four fatal ones, were from the Dogubeyazit-Van region. This study aims to evaluate the efforts at the avian influenza outbreak control in the Van-Dogubeyazit region in 2006 through the experiences of health personnel. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with seventeen key informants who took active roles during the avian influenza outbreak in East Turkey during the first months of 2006. We gathered information about the initial responses, the progress and management of the outbreak control, and the reactions of the health professionals and the public. The findings of the study are reported according to the topics that appeared through thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. Results Following the first suspected avian influenza cases, a Van Crisis Coordination Committee was formed as the coordinating and decision-making body and played an important role in the appropriate timing of decisions. The health and agriculture services could not be well coordinated owing to the lack of integrated planning in preparation for outbreak and of integrated surveillance programs. Traditional poultry practice together with the low socio-economic status of the people and the lack of health care access in the region seemed to be a major risk for animal to animal and animal to human transmission. The strengths and weaknesses of the present health system – primary health care services, national surveillance and notification systems, human resource and management – affected the inter organizational coordination during the outbreak. Open

  20. A PathWayDiagram for introduction and prevention of Avian Influenza: Application to the Dutch poultry sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) viruses is a continuing threat to the poultry sector. In times of increased risk of introduction (e.g. because of HPAI outbreaks in neighbouring countries or trade partners), decision-makers face the question whether they should intensify

  1. Induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken; implications for development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, de E.D.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Vervelde, L.

    2012-01-01

    The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV, aeroso

  2. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  3. Economic effects of avian influenza on egg producers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Demircan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the economic effects of avian influenza on the egg-production sector of Afyon Province, Turkey. Economic indicators were compared before and during the avian influenza outbreak. A questionnaire was conducted with 75 poultry farmers. Farms were divided into three groups according to their size. The profitability of the three farm size groups was compared during two study periods: before and during the avian influenza outbreak. The results indicate that, as compared to previous levels, farms experienced significantly reduced incomes during the avian influenza episode. While net income and profit margin were found to be negative in all three farm groups during the avian influenza period, only group I showed economic loss prior to avian influenza. Average net income per group was -19,576.14, -39,810.11, and -112,035.33 YTL respectively during the avian influenza outbreak, compared with prior incomes of -5,665.51, 8,422.92, and 16,3873.71 YTL (1 USD=1.43 YTL. The profit margin per egg during avian influenza was -0.029, -0.016, -0.010 YTL in group I, II, III, respectively, as compared to -0.007, 0.003, and 0.014 YTL/egg before avian influenza. It was found that, whereas larger farms were more profitable than small farms prior to the avian influenza period, larger farms suffered greater economic losses than small farms during avian influenza outbreak in the participating farms.

  4. Experience in control of avian influenza in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, L D

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have been circulating in Asia for over ten years, providing considerable experience on which to base appropriate long-term strategies for their control. Experience in Hong Kong SAR demonstrates that existing production and marketing practices should be changed and a range of parallel measures used. It also shows the extent of surveillance required to ensure continuing freedom from infection. Certain high-risk practices should be changed or otherwise overcome in order to control and prevent disease, including intensive rearing of large numbers of poultry in premises without biosecurity commensurate with the level of risk for exposure; complex market chains involving many smallholders selling poultry through large numbers of transporters and middlemen in poorly regulated live poultry markets; and rearing of large numbers of ducks outdoors. These high-risk practices are compounded by weak veterinary services and poor reporting systems. In many parts of Asia, these methods of rearing and marketing are an integral way of life, support the poorest members of the community or cannot be changed quickly without severe socioeconomic consequences. The gains made so far will be ephemeral unless there is a shift from an emergency focus to one of consolidation in which these high-risk practices are identified and sustainable measures implemented to minimize the risks they pose, taking account of the socioeconomic effects of interventions. Vaccination will play a key role, as it currently does in China and Viet Nam.

  5. Toxicological perspectives on perfluorinated compounds in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, J.; Jones, P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals have been widely used in commerce for the last few decades. Until recently little was known about their environmental fate and even less was known about their potential environmental effects. Since Giesy and co-workers first demonstrated the widespread occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in wildlife there has been renewed interest in determining the biological and possible ecological effects of these compounds. The assessment of possible effects of these chemicals has been hampered by a limited understanding of their mode of action and by a lack of toxicological data for wildlife species. Here we summarize recently obtained toxicological studies available for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in two avian species and use this information and environmental concentration data to evaluate the potential for environmental risk that these compounds pose.

  6. Prevention and control of avian influenza in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Hon Keong; Goh, Cheryl S; Chew, Siang Thai; Lim, Chee Wee; Lin, Yueh Nuo; Chang, Siow Foong; Yap, Him Hoo; Chua, Sin Bin

    2008-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong, China. Since 2003, H5N1 outbreaks have been reported in parts of Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. It is currently entrenched among poultry in parts of Asia and poses a major challenge to animal and human health. Singapore is free from HPAI. Given Singapore's need to import food, the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) has adopted a pro-active risk management system to prevent the introduction of HPAI. AVA's approach maybe described as a multi-layered control strategy for the prevention and control of HPAI. The strategy includes control measures at source, border control measures, local control measures and emergency preparedness.

  7. Prevalence of Antibodies to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Backyard Chickens around Maharlou Lake in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour*, Gholamhossein Habibi and Amir Vosoughi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backyard chickens play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 500 backyard chickens from villages around Maharlou lake in Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 7.73 and 81.6%, respectively.

  8. Integration and Validation of Avian Radars (IVAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    operations; 1-year visual census; multiple eBirdRad radars; fiber- optic wired LAN (planned) NAS Patuxent River, MD X B X Medium-sized air station...introduced a multibeam avian radar antenna that purports to double the beam width (from 4° to 8°), while at the same time increasing the precision of the

  9. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  10. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan;

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  11. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, N; Groothuis, TGG; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  12. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  13. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  14. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  15. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  16. [Avian influenza and oseltamivir; a retrospective view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The outbreak of avian influenza A due to an H7N7 virus in Dutch poultry farms turned out to have public-health effects for those who were involved in the management of the epidemic and who were thus extensively exposed to contaminated excreta and dust. An outbreak-management team (OMT) of experts in

  17. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  18. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hadipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. Overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.

  19. Ion Collision, Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Anil K.

    2013-09-11

    The outcome of a collision between an ion and neutral species depends on the chemical and physical properties of the two reactants, their relative velocities, and the impact parameter of their trajectories. These include elastic and inelastic scattering of the colliding particles, charge transfer (including dissociative charge transfer), atom abstraction, complex formation and dissociation of the colliding ion. Each of these reactions may be characterized in terms of their energy-dependent rate coefficients, cross sections and reaction kinetics. A theoretical framework that emphasizes simple models and classical mechanics is presented for these processes. Collision processes are addressed in two categories of low-energy and high-energy collisions. Experiments under thermal or quasi-thermal conditions–swarms, drift tubes, chemical ionization and ion cyclotron resonance are strongly influenced by long-range forces and often involve collisions in which atom exchange and extensive energy exchange are common characteristics. High-energy collisions are typically impulsive, involve short-range intermolecular forces and are direct, fast processes.

  20. Long-range consequences of interplanetary collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Ostro, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    As Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 races toward its mid-July collision with the planet Jupiter, considerable public attention is focused on catastrophic impacts with the Earth -- in the past and in the future. In recent years calls have been made to develop technologies that could deflect any asteroid or comet on a collision course. Careful consideration must be given to the nature and time scale of the risk and to the cost-effectiveness and possible problems in the suggested solutions. Risk assessment, threat removal, and resources misuse are examined. The greatest concern is to have a poorly informed public -- exerting pressure for means to mitigate even non-existent threats. The only foreseeable solution is a combination of accurate orbit estimation, realistic threat assessment, and effective public education.

  1. Environmental and demographic determinants of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl across the contiguous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of avian influenza in North American poultry have been linked to wild waterfowl. A first step towards understanding where and when avian influenza viruses might emerge from North American waterfowl is to identify environmental and demographic determinants of infection in their populations. Laboratory studies indicate water temperature as one determinant of environmental viral persistence and we explored this hypothesis at the landscape scale. We also hypothesized that the interval apparent prevalence in ducks within a local watershed during the overwintering season would influence infection probabilities during the following breeding season within the same local watershed. Using avian influenza virus surveillance data collected from 19,965 wild waterfowl across the contiguous United States between October 2006 and September 2009 We fit Logistic regression models relating the infection status of individual birds sampled on their breeding grounds to demographic characteristics, temperature, and interval apparent prevalence during the preceding overwintering season at the local watershed scale. We found strong support for sex, age, and species differences in the probability an individual duck tested positive for avian influenza virus. In addition, we found that for every seven days the local minimum temperature fell below zero, the chance an individual would test positive for avian influenza virus increased by 5.9 percent. We also found a twelve percent increase in the chance an individual would test positive during the breeding season for every ten percent increase in the interval apparent prevalence during the prior overwintering season. These results suggest that viral deposition in water and sub-freezing temperatures during the overwintering season may act as determinants of individual level infection risk during the subsequent breeding season. Our findings have implications for future surveillance activities in waterfowl and domestic

  2. An evaluation of biosecurity compliance levels and assessment of associated risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection of live-bird-markets, Nigeria and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanmi, Olubunmi G; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem U; Oladele-Bukola, Mutiu O; El-Tahawy, Abdelgawad S; Elbestawy, Ahmed R; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2016-12-01

    Live bird market (LBM) is integral component in the perpetuation of HPAI H5N1, while biosecurity is crucial and key to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Biosecurity compliance level and risk factor assessments in 155LBMs was evaluated in Nigeria and Egypt through the administration of a 68-item biosecurity checklist, scored based on the modifications of previous qualitative data, and analysed for degree of compliance. LBMs were scored as "complied with a biosecurity item" if they had good-very good scores (4). All scores were coded and analysed using descriptive statistics and risk or protective factors were determined using univariable and multivariable logistic regression at p≤0.05. Trading of wild birds and other animal in the LBMs (Odd Ratio (OR)=34.90; p=0.01) and claims of hand disinfection after slaughter (OR=31.16; p=0.03) were significant risk factors while mandatory routine disinfection of markets (OR=0.13; p≤0.00), fencing and gates for live bird market (OR=0.02; p≤0.01) and hand washing after slaughter (OR=0.41; p≤0.05) were protective factors for and against the infection of Nigerian and Egyptian LBMs with the HPAI H5N1 virus. Almost all the LBMs complied poorly with most of the variables in the checklist (p≤0.05), but pathways to improved biosecurity in the LBMs existed. We concluded that the LBM operators play a critical role in the disruption of transmission of H5N1 virus infection through improved biosecurity and participatory epidemiology and multidisciplinary approach is needed.

  3. Gyrokinetic linearized Landau collision operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The full gyrokinetic electrostatic linearized Landau collision operator is calculated including the equilibrium operator, which represents the effect of collisions between gyrokinetic Maxwellian particles. First, the equilibrium operator describes energy exchange between different plasma species...

  4. Control and prevention of avian influenza in an evolving scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, Ilaria; Marangon, Stefano

    2007-07-26

    Continuing outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) across Eurasia and in Africa, caused by a type A influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype appear out of control and represent a serious risk for animal and public health worldwide. It is known that biosecurity represents the first line of defence against AI, although in certain circumstances strict hygienic measures appear to be inapplicable for social and economic conditions. The option of using vaccination against AI viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes, has made its way in recent times--primarily as a tool to maximise the outcome of a series of control measures in countries that are currently infected, but also as a means of reducing the risk of introduction in areas at high risk of infection. In developing countries vaccination programmes in avian species have been recommended recently, however it will require concurrent management of local husbandry practices and industry compliance to eradicate the disease rather than the establishment of an endemic situation. Other key deliverables expected for this control strategy include maintaining a major source of food for rural communities and the preservation of the commercial viability of the local poultry industry. In developed countries vaccination is being used as a means of increasing resistance of susceptible animals to reduce the risk of introduction from the reservoir host or to reduce secondary spread in densely populated poultry areas. The recent joint OIE/FAO summits recommended applying vaccination, using the differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy when there is risk of major spread and depopulation is not feasible or desirable. Particularly in developing countries, stamping out of infected animals does not seem to be an appropriate means of reducing the spread of infection, if food supplies are to be guaranteed and economic consequences minimised. Crucial points to the success of a vaccination campaign are the

  5. The Knowledge Level of Interns of Medical Faculty in Ondokuz Mayis University about Avian Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Terzi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: It is predictable that our country, especially Samsun city will be affect by a probable avian influenza epidemic because of is location that takes place in the region of wild birds migration way. The aim of this study is to ascertain the knowledge level of interns of medical faculty about avian influenza. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted on 175 (81.7% of 214 intern of medical faculty between 1 and 30 May 2008. A questionnaire included six questions related with the agent, group of the agent and therapy of avian influenza and source of information about avian influenza, was applied to the participants. The questionnaire also included 10 questions, which should be answered as true/false for each the following subjects transmission ways, risk groups, symptoms and protection methods of the disease. Each correct answer is scored as one point and a knowledge score was calculated for each subject. RESULTS: In all, 79 students (45.1% were girls, 96(54.9% were boys. The median age was 24.6±1.1 years. While the proportion of true response was 73.7% about the avian influenza agent, 55.3% of the whole group knew the group of the agent. The median points for knowing the transmission ways of virus, risk groups and prevention were 7.0, 6.0 and 7.0 respectively. The median point of the participants was 9,0 for the question related with the symptoms of the disease and this question was the most correctly answered one. Although 56.4% of the participants knew the treatment of the disease, 33.5% of them stated that vaccination is protective. The information sources about disease were television (74.2%, newspapers/magazine (46.8% and the internet (36.0%. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it’s found that interns have a medium level of knowledge about avian influenza. Lessons about, the diseases those can cause epidemics and important health problems in the future should be integrated in to the education programs to improve the knowledge level of interns

  6. Biological features of novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfang; Wang, Dayan; Gao, Rongbao; Zhao, Baihui; Song, Jingdong; Qi, Xian; Zhang, Yanjun; Shi, Yonglin; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wenfei; Bai, Tian; Qin, Kun; Lan, Yu; Zou, Shumei; Guo, Junfeng; Dong, Jie; Dong, Libo; Zhang, Ye; Wei, Hejiang; Li, Xiaodan; Lu, Jian; Liu, Liqi; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Xiyan; Huang, Weijuan; Wen, Leying; Bo, Hong; Xin, Li; Chen, Yongkun; Xu, Cuilin; Pei, Yuquan; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Shiwen; Feng, Zijian; Han, Jun; Yang, Weizhong; Gao, George F; Wu, Guizhen; Li, Dexin; Wang, Yu; Shu, Yuelong

    2013-07-25

    Human infection associated with a novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus has recently been identified in China. A total of 132 confirmed cases and 39 deaths have been reported. Most patients presented with severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the first epidemic has subsided, the presence of a natural reservoir and the disease severity highlight the need to evaluate its risk on human public health and to understand the possible pathogenesis mechanism. Here we show that the emerging H7N9 avian influenza virus poses a potentially high risk to humans. We discover that the H7N9 virus can bind to both avian-type (α2,3-linked sialic acid) and human-type (α2,6-linked sialic acid) receptors. It can invade epithelial cells in the human lower respiratory tract and type II pneumonocytes in alveoli, and replicated efficiently in ex vivo lung and trachea explant culture and several mammalian cell lines. In acute serum samples of H7N9-infected patients, increased levels of the chemokines and cytokines IP-10, MIG, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-α were detected. We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and current seasonal vaccination could not provide protection.

  7. Deteksi Antibodi Serum Terhadap Virus Avian influenza pada Ayam Buras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi Darmawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection on Serum Antibodies of Native Chickens to Avian influenza Virus ABSTRACT.  An important approach of controlling against Avian Influenza should be determined to detect the antibody titres of bird flu caused by Influenza virus H5N1 in Indonesia. The aim of the present study was to detect the antibodies to Avian Influenza in serum of native chickens. This study utilized 123 serum samples collected from the axilaris vein (left or right of native chickens. Antibody titres were examined using Hemaglutination Inhibition (HI. The result showed that indication of natural infection by Avian Influenza (H5N1 in native chickens, as shown that out of 123 serum samples, 16 (13,01% were tested positive by HI, while only 10 (8,13% were tested protective to Avian influenza infection. Based on the results we obtained, a conclusion that natural infection by Avian influenza virus stimulated variety level of formation antibody titres in native chickens.

  8. Elementary Collisions with HADES

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, I; Agakichiev, G; Agodi, C; Balanda, A; Bellia, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Daz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, Paulo J R; Friese, J; Galatyuk, T; Garzn, J A; Gernhuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Grosse, E; Guber, F; Heilmann, M; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kmpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Kozuch, A; Krizek, F; Krcken, R; Khn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lopes, L; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Marn, J; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Mishra, D; Morinire, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, Lutz; Novotny, R; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Prez Cavalcanti, T; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Simon, R; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Strbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlustý, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Veretenkin, I; Wagner, V; Wen, H; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y; Zumbruch, P

    2007-01-01

    The "High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer" (HADES) at GSI, Darmstadt, is investigating the production of e+e- pairs in A+A, p+A and N+N collisions. The latter program allows for the reconstruction of individual sources. This strategy will be roughly outlined in this contribution and preliminary pp/pn data is shown.

  9. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Collisions in soccer kicking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Bull; Dörge, Henrik C.; Thomsen, Franz Ib

    1999-01-01

    An equation to describe the velocity of the soccer ball after the collision with a foot was derived. On the basis of experimental results it was possible to exclude certain factors and only describe the angular momentum of the system, consisting of the shank, the foot and the ball, leading...

  11. Droplet collisions in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, G.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid droplets occur in many natural phenomena and play an important role in a large number of industrial applications. One of the distinct properties of droplets as opposed to solid particles is their ability to merge, or coalesce upon collision. Coalescence of liquid drops is of importance in for

  12. Outbreak patterns of the novel avian influenza (H7N9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ya-Nan; Lou, Jing-Jing; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2014-05-01

    The attack of novel avian influenza (H7N9) in East China caused a serious health crisis and public panic. In this paper, we empirically analyze the onset patterns of human cases of the novel avian influenza and observe several spatial and temporal properties that are similar to other infectious diseases. More specifically, using the empirical analysis and modeling studies, we find that the spatio-temporal network that connects the cities with human cases along the order of outbreak timing emerges two-regime-power-law edge-length distribution, indicating the picture that several islands with higher and heterogeneous risk straggle in East China. The proposed method is applicable to the analysis of the spreading situation in the early stage of disease outbreak using quite limited dataset.

  13. Avian wildlife mortality events due to salmonellosis in the United States, 1985-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A.J.; Saito, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella spp. has long been recognized in avian wildlife, although its significance in causing avian mortality, and its zoonotic risk, is not well understood. This study evaluates the role of Salmonella spp. in wild bird mortality events in the United States from 1985 through 2004. Analyses were performed to calculate the frequency of these events and the proportional mortality by species, year, month, state, and region. Salmonellosis was a significant contributor to mortality in many species of birds; particularly in passerines, for which 21.5% of all mortality events involved salmonellosis. The proportional mortality averaged a 12% annual increase over the 20-yr period, with seasonal peaks in January and April. Increased salmonellosis-related mortality in New England, Southeastern, and Mountain-Prairie states was identified. Based on the results of this study, salmonellosis can be considered an important zoonotic disease of wild birds. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  14. Outbreak Patterns of the Novel Avian Influenza (H7N9)

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Ya-Nan; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2013-01-01

    The outbreak of novel avian influenza (H7N9) in east China attracted much attention in the spring of 2013. The detection and estimation of spreading situations of H7N9 faces some difficulties since the birds' symptom of H7N9 usually is inapparent. In this paper, we empirically analyze the statistical outbreak patterns of the novel avian influenza and observed several spatial and temporal properties that are similar to the infective diseases. More deeply, using the empirical analysis and modeling studies, we find that the spatio-temporal network that connects the cities with human cases along the order of outbreak timing emerges two-section-power-law edge-length distribution, indicating the picture that several islands with higher and heterogeneous risk straggle in east China. The proposed method is applicable to the analysis on the spreading situation in early stage of disease outbreak using quite limited dataset.

  15. Use of vaccination in avian influenza control and eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, S; Cecchinato, M; Capua, I

    2008-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) infections caused by viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes has been used in several occasions in recent years with the general objective of controlling and in some cases eradicating the disease. To contain AI infections effectively, vaccination should only be used as part of a comprehensive control strategy that also includes biosecurity, quarantine, surveillance, education, and elimination of infected and at-risk poultry. Although properly used, potent AI vaccines can prevent disease and death, increase resistance to infection, reduce virus replication and shedding, and reduce viral transmission, they cannot completely prevent AI virus replication. A wide variety of vaccines against AI has been developed and tested in experimental conditions, but only inactivated whole AI virus vaccines and recombinant H5-AI vaccines have been licensed and widely used in various countries. AI vaccination programmes should be adapted to local conditions to guarantee efficacy and sustainability. In particular, vaccination programmes should be modulated in diverse situations according to the virus strain involved, the characteristics of the poultry producing sector, the capacity of the veterinary infrastructure, and the availability of adequate resources. Based on the eco-epidemiological situation in the affected region/area/compartment and the assessment of the risk of AI introduction, different vaccination strategies could be implemented to control AI: (i) routine vaccination performed in endemic areas; (ii) emergency vaccination in the face of an epidemic; and (iii) preventative vaccination carried out whenever a high risk of virus incursion is identified.

  16. Session: Avian migration and implications for wind power development in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabey, Sarah; Cooper, Brian

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The session was arranged to convey what is known about avian migration, particularly in the eastern US. The first presentation ''Migration Ecology: Issues of Scale and Behavior'' by Sarah Mabey frames the issue of migratory bird interactions with wind energy facilities from an ecological perspective: when, where, and why are migrant bird species vulnerable to wind turbine collision. The second presentation ''Radar Studies of Nocturnal Migration at Wind Sites in the Eastern US'' by Brian Cooper reported on radar studies conducted at wind sites in the eastern US, including Mount Storm, Clipper Wind, and others.

  17. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  18. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  19. Seasonal change in the avian hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds.

  20. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of I...

  1. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  2. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Hanneke J M

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  3. Seroprevalence of avian hepatitis E virus and avian leucosis virus subgroup J in chicken flocks with hepatitis syndrome, China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Liu, Baoyuan; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Chen, Yiyang; Li, Huixia; Wang, Xinjie; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2014 to 2015 in China, many broiler breeder and layer hen flocks exhibited a decrease in egg production and some chickens developed hepatitis syndrome including hepatomegaly, hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage. Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) both cause decreasing in egg production, hepatomegaly and hepatic hemorrhage in broiler breeder and layer hens. In the study, the seroprevalence of avian HEV and ALV-J in these flocks emerging the di...

  4. Predicating risk area of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus by using early warning model in China%中国人感染H7N9禽流感危险区域预警识别的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾豪高; 张王剑; 徐浩; 李鹏媛; 吴洛林; 郭貔; 郝元涛; 陆家海; 张定梅

    2015-01-01

    目的 建立人感染H7N9禽流感发病危险预警模型,识别禽流感暴发高危险区域并提出预警.方法 收集2013年2月至2014年6月中国地市级人感染H7N9禽流感病例数据及同期地理、气象数据,通过空间自回归(SAR)模型和广义相加模型(GAM)拟合并量化地理和气象因素对发病的影响,综合两模型的预测结果建立发病危险预警地图.结果 2014年2月中国人感染H7N9禽流感的实际发病地区全部位于研究构建的发病危险预测区域内;模型预测了疾病的空间移动趋势,对2014年4、5月北方地区的新发疫情有准确的预警.结论 建立的模型短期预测准确度和精确度较好,可应用于疫情监测和预警领域,有助于早期区域预防疫情的流行及暴发.%Objective To establish a risk early warning model of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and predict the area with high risk of the outbreak of H7N9 virus infection.Methods The incidence data of human infection with H7N9 virus at prefecture level in China from February 2013 to June 2014 were collected,and the geographic and meteorological data during the same period in these areas were collected too.Spatial auto regression (SAR) model and generalized additive model (GAM) were used to estimate different risk factors.Afterwards,the risk area map was created based on the predicted value of both models.Results All the human infections with H7N9 virus occurred in the predicted areas by the early warning model in February 2014.The early warning model successfully predicted the spatial moving trend of the disease,and this trend was verified by two outbreaks in northern China in April and May 2014.Conclusion The established early warning model showed accuracy and precision in short-term prediction,which might be applied in the active surveillance,early warning and prevention/control of the outbreak of human infection with H7N9 virus.

  5. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes. Intriguingly, chickens are capable of mounting potent innate immune responses upon various stimuli in the absence of essential components of IFN pathways including retinoic acid-inducible gene I, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and possibility IRF9. Understanding these unique properties of the chicken IFN system would propose valuable targets for the development of potential therapeutics for a broader range of viruses of both veterinary and zoonotic importance. This review outlines recent developments in the roles of avian IFNs and ISGs against viruses and highlights important areas of research toward our understanding of the antiviral functions of IFN effectors against viral infections in birds. PMID:28197148

  6. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Wigley

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  7. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes. Intriguingly, chickens are capable of mounting potent innate immune responses upon various stimuli in the absence of essential components of IFN pathways including retinoic acid-inducible gene I, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and possibility IRF9. Understanding these unique properties of the chicken IFN system would propose valuable targets for the development of potential therapeutics for a broader range of viruses of both veterinary and zoonotic importance. This review outlines recent developments in the roles of avian IFNs and ISGs against viruses and highlights important areas of research toward our understanding of the antiviral functions of IFN effectors against viral infections in birds.

  8. Collision Probability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Friis; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1998-01-01

    It is the purpose of this report to apply a rational model for prediction of ship-ship collision probabilities as function of the ship and the crew characteristics and the navigational environment for MS Dextra sailing on a route between Cadiz and the Canary Islands.The most important ship and crew...... characteristics are: ship speed, ship manoeuvrability, the layout of the navigational bridge, the radar system, the number and the training of navigators, the presence of a look out etc. The main parameters affecting the navigational environment are ship traffic density, probability distributions of wind speeds...... probability, i.e. a study of the navigator's role in resolving critical situations, a causation factor is derived as a second step.The report documents the first step in a probabilistic collision damage analysis. Future work will inlcude calculation of energy released for crushing of structures giving...

  9. An Approach Toward Understanding Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvaitis, John A.; Tash, Jeffrey P.

    2008-10-01

    Among the most conspicuous environmental effects of roads are vehicle-related mortalities of wildlife. Research to understand the factors that contribute to wildlife-vehicle collisions can be partitioned into several major themes, including (i) characteristics associated with roadkill hot spots, (ii) identification of road-density thresholds that limit wildlife populations, and (iii) species-specific models of vehicle collision rates that incorporate information on roads (e.g., proximity, width, and traffic volume) and animal movements. We suggest that collision models offer substantial opportunities to understand the effects of roads on a diverse suite of species. We conducted simulations using collision models and information on Blanding’s turtles ( Emydoidea blandingii), bobcats ( Lynx rufus), and moose ( Alces alces), species endemic to the northeastern United States that are of particular concern relative to collisions with vehicles. Results revealed important species-specific differences, with traffic volume and rate of movement by candidate species having the greatest influence on collision rates. We recommend that future efforts to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions be more proactive and suggest the following protocol. For species that pose hazards to drivers (e.g., ungulates), identify collision hot spots and implement suitable mitigation to redirect animal movements (e.g., underpasses, fencing, and habitat modification), reduce populations of problematic game species via hunting, or modify driver behavior (e.g., dynamic signage that warns drivers when animals are near roads). Next, identify those species that are likely to experience additive (as opposed to compensatory) mortality from vehicle collisions and rank them according to vulnerability to extirpation. Then combine information on the distribution of at-risk species with information on existing road networks to identify areas where immediate actions are warranted.

  10. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E; Stevens, Martin

    2016-01-25

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island. This suggests that P. erhardii make background choices that heighten individual-specific concealment. In achromatic camouflage, this effect was more evident in females and was less distinct in an island population with lower predation risk. This suggests that behavioural enhancement of camouflage may be more important in females than in sexually competing males and related to predation risk. However, in an arena experiment, lizards did not choose the background that improved camouflage, most likely due to the artificial conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence that behavioural preferences for substrates can enhance individual camouflage of lizards in natural microhabitats, and that such adaptations may be sexually dimorphic and dependent on local environments. This research emphasizes the importance of considering links between ecology, behaviour, and appearance in studies of intraspecific colour variation and local adaptation.

  11. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  12. 9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Pox Vaccine. 113.326 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.326 Avian Pox Vaccine. Fowl Pox Vaccine and Pigeon Pox Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... this section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  13. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  14. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, ...

  15. Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-01-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  16. Putative novel genotype of avian hepatitis E virus, Hungary, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-08-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  17. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  18. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Dodman, Tim; Caron, Alexandre; Balança, Gilles; Desvaux, Stephanie; Goutard, Flavie; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lamarque, François; Hagemeijer, Ward; Monicat, François

    2007-01-01

    We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa.

  19. Avian Test Battery for the Evaluation of Developmental Abnormalities of Neuro- and Reproductive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Ahmed, Walaa M. S.; Nagino, Koki; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the currently used toxicity assays for environmental chemicals use acute or chronic systemic or reproductive toxicity endpoints rather than neurobehavioral endpoints. In addition, the current standard approaches to assess reproductive toxicity are time-consuming. Therefore, with increasing numbers of chemicals being developed with potentially harmful neurobehavioral effects in higher vertebrates, including humans, more efficient means of assessing neuro- and reproductive toxicity are required. Here we discuss the use of a Galliformes-based avian test battery in which developmental toxicity is assessed by means of a combination of chemical exposure during early embryonic development using an embryo culture system followed by analyses after hatching of sociosexual behaviors such as aggression and mating and of visual memory via filial imprinting. This Galliformes-based avian test battery shows promise as a sophisticated means not only of assessing chemical toxicity in avian species but also of assessing the risks posed to higher vertebrates, including humans, which are markedly sensitive to nervous or neuroendocrine system dysfunction. PMID:27445667

  20. The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, W D; Toth, D J A; Gundlapalli, A V

    2015-12-01

    In March 2013 the first cases of human avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported to the World Health Organization. Since that time, over 650 cases have been reported. Infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly within certain demographic groups. This rapid increase in cases over a brief time period is alarming and has raised concerns about the pandemic potential of the H7N9 virus. Three major factors influence the pandemic potential of an influenza virus: (1) its ability to cause human disease, (2) the immunity of the population to the virus, and (3) the transmission potential of the virus. This paper reviews what is currently known about each of these factors with respect to avian influenza A(H7N9). Currently, sustained human-to-human transmission of H7N9 has not been reported; however, population immunity to the virus is considered very low, and the virus has significant ability to cause human disease. Several statistical and geographical modelling studies have estimated and predicted the spread of the H7N9 virus in humans and avian species, and some have identified potential risk factors associated with disease transmission. Additionally, assessment tools have been developed to evaluate the pandemic potential of H7N9 and other influenza viruses. These tools could also hypothetically be used to monitor changes in the pandemic potential of a particular virus over time.

  1. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  2. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis): Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Krysta H; Girard, Yvette A; Woods, Leslie; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-12-01

    Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina) in California during 2011-2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis). The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  3. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  4. Influenza viruses and the evolution of avian influenza virus H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeik, Nedaa; Jabr, Fadi I

    2008-05-01

    Although small in size and simple in structure, influenza viruses are sophisticated organisms with highly mutagenic genomes and wide antigenic diversity. They are species-specific organisms. Mutation and reassortment have resulted in newer viruses such as H5N1, with new resistance against anti-viral medications, and this might lead to the emergence of a fully transmissible strain, as occurred in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. Influenza viruses are no longer just a cause of self-limited upper respiratory tract infections; the H5N1 avian influenza virus can cause severe human infection with a mortality rate exceeding 50%. The case death rate of H5N1 avian influenza infection is 20 times higher than that of the 1918 infection (50% versus 2.5%), which killed 675000 people in the USA and almost 40 million people worldwide. While the clock is still ticking towards what seems to be inevitable pandemic influenza, on April 17, 2007 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first vaccine against the avian influenza virus H5N1 for humans at high risk. However, more research is needed to develop a more effective and affordable vaccine that can be given at lower doses.

  5. 江西省2004~2005年禽流感(H5N1)高危暴露人群感染状况调查%INVESTIGATION ON AVIAN INFLUENZA (H5N1) INFECTION OF HIGH-RISK EXPOSURE GROUPS IN JIANGXI PROVINCE FROM 2004-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程慧健; 袁辉; 宗俊; 王健; 潘欢弘

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To know avian influenza HSN1 infection of close contacts. [Methods] We found 204 close contacts with animal and human avian influenza from 2004-2005, surveyed their exposure ways, and collected 5ml venous blood from every close contact to test avian influenza H5N1 antibody through horse blood hemagglutination inhibition test and the micro-neutralization test [Results] In close contacts, there were 66.2% fanners, 13.2% students and 1.9% medical staffs. 73% of persons contacted with live poultry of the place that occurred animal avian influenza, 54.4% of persons contacted sick and dead poultry, 12.7% had history of exposure to human avian influenza. During contact process, these close contacts were up to only 16.2% of person taking some protective measures, and the protection was not standardized. Through testing their serum specimens, all these close contacts' H5N1 antibodies were negative. [Conclusion] All close contacts with animal and human avian influenza are not been infected with H5N1 in Jiangxi province from 2004-2005.%[目的]了解江西省H5N1禽流感密切接触者感染状况.[方法]调查2004~2005年禽流感和人禽流感疫情的密切接触者204人的暴露方式,采集静脉血5ml,进行马血球血凝抑制试验和微量中和试验,检测禽流感H5N1抗体水平.[结果]被调查的密切接触者农民占66.2%,学生占13.2%,医护人员占1.9%.73%的人接触过疫点内活禽,54.4%的人接触过病死禽,12.7%的人有禽流感患者接触史,接触过程中,最多只有16.2%的人采取了一些防护措施,且防护不规范.经检测,所有密切接触者血清标本禽流感H5N1抗体阴性.[结论]该省2004~2005年间禽流感和人间禽流感疫情的密切接触者均未感染H5N1.

  6. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  7. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, David W; Taylor, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study.

  8. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the proliferative skin lesions and oral diphtheritic lesions. Infection of the avian pox virus was confirmed by PCR using primers specific to the 4b core protein gene of avian pox virus. All cases were diagnosed with avian pox virus infection. This is believed to be the first description on natural infection of avian pox in Oriental Turtle-doves in Korea.

  9. Topics in atomic collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A

    1969-01-01

    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  10. When animal viruses attack: SARS and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul J; Krilov, Leonard R

    2005-01-01

    SARS and avian influenza have many common features. They both arose in Asia and originated from animal viruses. They both have the potential to become pandemics because human beings lack antibodies to the animal-derived antigens present on the viral surface and rapid dissemination can occur from the relative ease and availability of high speed and far-reaching transportation methods. Pediatricians, in particular, should remain alert about the possibility of pandemic illnesses in their patients. Annual rates of influenza in children may be 1.5 to 3 times those in the adult population, and infection rates during a community epidemic may exceed 40% in preschool-aged children and 30% in school-aged children. Infected children also play a central role in disseminating influenza, as they are the major point of entry for the virus into the household, from which adults spread disease into the community. Of course, children younger than 24 months also are at high risk for complications from influenza. A 1999 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention projection of an influenza pandemic in the US paints a grim picture: 89,000 to 207,000 deaths, 314,000 to 734,000 hospitalizations, 18 million to 42 million outpatient visits, and 20 million to 47 million additional illnesses, at a cost to society of at least dollars 71.3 billion to dollars 166.5 billion. High-risk patients (15% of the population) would account for approximately 84% of all deaths. Although SARS has been kind to the pediatric population so far, there are no guarantees that future outbreaks would be as sparing. To aid readers in remaining up-to-date with SARS and avian influenza, some useful websites are listed in the Sidebar. Two masters of suspense, Alfred Hitchcock and Stephen King, may have been closer to the truth than they ever would have believed. Both birds and a super flu could bring about the end of civilization as we know it. But all is not lost--to paraphrase Thomas Jefferson, the price of health is

  11. Current genomic editing approaches in avian transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Sub; Kang, Kyung Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    The chicken was domesticated from Red Jungle Fowl over 8000years ago and became one of the major food sources worldwide. At present, the poultry industry is one of the largest industrial animal stocks in the world, and its economic scale is expanding significantly with increasing consumption. Additionally, since Aristotle used chicken eggs as a model to provide remarkable insights into how life begins, chickens have been used as invaluable and powerful experimental materials for studying embryo development, immune systems, biomedical processes, and hormonal regulation. Combined with advancements in efficient transgenic technology, avian models have become even more important than would have been expected.

  12. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  13. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...... on the penalty parameter value. Furthermore, the Lagrange approach shows poor results with regard to instantaneous contact force estimation. This motivates the use of an Augmented Lagrange approach to regularize the Lagrange contact force solution. Finally, the effect of the interpenetration volume on contact...

  14. Molecular collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Child, M S

    2010-01-01

    This high-level monograph offers an excellent introduction to the theory required for interpretation of an increasingly sophisticated range of molecular scattering experiments. There are five helpful appendixes dealing with continuum wavefunctions, Green's functions, semi-classical connection formulae, curve-crossing in the momentum representation, and elements of classical mechanics.The contents of this volume have been chosen to emphasize the quantum mechanical and semi-classical nature of collision events, with little attention given to purely classical behavior. The treatment is essentiall

  15. Collision of two Hopfions

    CERN Document Server

    Arrayás, M

    2016-01-01

    We study the collision of two hopfions or Hopf-Ra\\~nada electromagnetic fields. The superposition of two of such fields, travelling in opposite directions, yields different topology for the electric and magnetic field lines. Controlling the angular momentum of such fields, we can control the topology of the flow associated to the field lines, and the energy distribution. The concept of electromagnetic helicity and the exchange between its magnetic and electric components are used to explain the different behaviours observed when the angular momentum is reversed.

  16. Review and Application of Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure for which these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human...

  17. Ship collisions against wind turbines, quays and bridge piers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2013-01-01

    expressions are derived for the maximum values of collision forces and energy released for local crushing. The expressions are derived for arbitrary impact locations and they are well suited for application in risk analysis procedures. Numerical results show that for piled towers the structural flexibility...

  18. Observations from a live bird market in Indonesia following a contained outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naysmith, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Live bird markets are considered high-risk environments facilitating viral transfer and replication of influenza A H5N1. In Indonesia, these markets have been the source for multiple human infections of H5N1 resulting in death, and thus have been the focus of government-led interventions. This paper examines the aftermath of an intervention in one market in Bali, Indonesia. It highlights the social and economic factors influencing the adoption of risk prevention behaviour and concludes by arguing for further qualitative research to understand why at-risk individuals fail to adopt biosecurity measures, even after recently experiencing an outbreak of avian influenza.

  19. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hager

    Full Text Available Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22% species (34 total carcasses recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52. These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird

  20. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  1. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  2. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F

    2008-01-22

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of 'avian' characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  3. Application of Species Distribution Modeling for Avian Influenza surveillance in the United States considering the North America Migratory Flyways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhiria, Jaber; Alkhamis, Moh A.; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-09-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has recently (2014–2015) re-emerged in the United States (US) causing the largest outbreak in US history with 232 outbreaks and an estimated economic impact of $950 million. This study proposes to use suitability maps for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) to identify areas at high risk for HPAI outbreaks. LPAI suitability maps were based on wild bird demographics, LPAI surveillance, and poultry density in combination with environmental, climatic, and socio-economic risk factors. Species distribution modeling was used to produce high-resolution (cell size: 500m x 500m) maps for Avian Influenza (AI) suitability in each of the four North American migratory flyways (NAMF). Results reveal that AI suitability is heterogeneously distributed throughout the US with higher suitability in specific zones of the Midwest and coastal areas. The resultant suitability maps adequately predicted most of the HPAI outbreak areas during the 2014–2015 epidemic in the US (i.e. 89% of HPAI outbreaks were located in areas identified as highly suitable for LPAI). Results are potentially useful for poultry producers and stakeholders in designing risk-based surveillance, outreach and intervention strategies to better prevent and control future HPAI outbreaks in the US.

  4. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds.

  5. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis.

  6. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  7. Collisions in young triple systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2011-01-01

    We perform N-body simulations of young triple systems consisting of two low-mass companions orbiting around a significantly more massive primary. We find that, when the orbits of the companions are coplanar and not too widely separated, the chance of a collision between the two companions can be as high as 20 per cent. Collisions between one of the companions (always the less massive) and the primary can also occur in systems with unequal-mass companions. The chance of collisions is a few per cent in systems with more realistic initial conditions, such as with slightly non-coplanar orbits and unequal-mass companions. If the companions start widely separated then collision are very rare except in some cases when the total mass of the companions is large. We suggest that collisions between members of young multiple systems may explain some unusual young multiple systems such as apparently non-coeval companions.

  8. Experimental challenge and pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in dunlin (Calidris alpina), an intercontinental migrant shorebird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Franson, J. Christian; Gill, Robert E.; Meteyer, Carol U.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate from wintering areas in central and eastern Asia, where HPAIV H5N1 is endemic, across the Bering Sea to breeding areas in Alaska. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus has been previously detected in dunlin, and thus, dunlin represent a potential risk to transport HPAIV to North America. To date no experimental challenge studies have been performed in shorebirds.

  9. Mutations in the Cyp51A gene and susceptibility to itraconazole in Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from avian farms in France and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong Ying; Gricourt, Marine; Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Seguin, Dominique; Chermette, René; Huang, Wei Yi; Dannaoui, Eric; Botterel, Françoise; Guillot, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Azole resistance in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem and may develop during azole therapy in humans and animals or exposure to azole fungicides in the environment. To assess the potential risk of azole-resistance emergence in avian farms where azole compounds are used for the control of avian mycoses, we conducted a drug susceptibility study including A. fumigatus isolates from birds and avian farms in France and Southern China. A total number of 175 isolates were analyzed: 57 isolates were collected in France in avian farms where chemoprophylaxis with parconazole was performed; 51 isolates were collected in southern China in avian farms where no chemoprophylaxis was performed; and 67 additional isolates came from the collection of a mycology laboratory. No resistant isolate was detected, and the distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations was similar for isolates collected in farms with or without azole chemoprophylaxis. For 61 randomly selected isolates, the full coding sequence of the Cyp51A gene was determined to detect mutations. Nine amino acid alterations were found in the target enzyme, 3 of which were new.

  10. Methods to detect avian inlfuenza virus for food safety surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ping; Shu Geng; LI Ting-ting; LI Yu-shui; FENG Ting; WU Hua-nan

    2015-01-01

    Avian inlfuenza (AI), caused by the inlfuenza A virus, has been a global concern for public health. AI outbreaks not only impact the poultry production, but also give rise to a risk in food safety caused by viral contamination of poultry products in the food supply chain. Distinctions in AI outbreak between strains H5N1 and H7N9 indicate that early detection of the AI virus in poultry is crucial for the effective warning and control of AI to ensure food safety. Therefore, the establishment of a poultry surveilance system for food safety by early detection is urgent and critical. In this article, methods to detect AI virus, including current methods recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (Ofifce International des Epizooties, OIE) and novel techniques not commonly used or commercialized are reviewed and evaluated for feasibility of use in the poultry surveillance system. Conventional methods usualy applied for the purpose of AI diagnosis face some practical chalenges to establishing a comprehensive poultry surveilance program in the poultry supply chain. Diverse development of new technologies can meet the speciifc requirements of AI virus detec-tion in various stages or scenarios throughout the poultry supply chain where onsite, rapid and ultrasensitive methods are emphasized. Systematic approaches or integrated methods ought to be employed according to the application scenarios at every stage of the poultry supply chain to prevent AI outbreaks.

  11. Use of sentinel mallards for epizootiologic studies of avian botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were used as sentinels to study the epizootiology of avian botulism at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Willows, California (USA) from 1986 to 1989. Sentinel mallards were wing-clipped, and 40 to 50 birds were confined in 1.6-ha enclosures in 11 selected wetlands (pools). Enclosures were searched intensively three to four times weekly from July through October. Sick and dead wild and sentinel birds were collected, necropsied, and tested for type C botulism toxin. Botulism epizootics occurred in sentinel mallards in 1986, 1987, and 1989, but only a few isolated cases of botulism were detected in 1988. In most epizootics, botulism also was detected simultaneously in wild birds using the same pool outside the enclosure. Epizootics in sentinels were initiated and perpetuated in the absence of vertebrate carcasses. A sex-specific trend in the probability of intoxication was detected, with males contracting botulism at a higher rate than females. Daily mortality rates of sentinels during botulism epizootics ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0600, with a mean of 0.0190. These rates would result in the daily loss of 0.6 to 60 birds per thousand at risk. The use of sentinel birds provided an effective means of gathering site-specific epizootiologic data.

  12. Sixteenth International Conference on the physics of electronic and atomic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgarno, A.; Freund, R.S.; Lubell, M.S.; Lucatorto, T.B. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report contains abstracts of papers on the following topics: photons, electron-atom collisions; electron-molecule collisions; electron-ion collisions; collisions involving exotic species; ion- atom collisions, ion-molecule or atom-molecule collisions; atom-atom collisions; ion-ion collisions; collisions involving rydberg atoms; field assisted collisions; collisions involving clusters and collisions involving condensed matter.

  13. Consumers’ Collision Insurance Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (2007......), which refines EU theory to incorporate income and predicts that property insurance is a normal good; (b) a mental accounting model based on the idea that consumers budget their income across consumption categories (Thaler, 1985); and (c) the baseline, classic EU theory, which predicts that insurance...... is an inferior good (Mossin, 1968). The behaviour reported by subjects in our study suggests that insurance is a normal good, while their verbal reports reveal desires to balance two conflicting goals in deductible decisions, keeping premiums “affordable” and keeping deductibles “affordable,” which suggests...

  14. Ground squirrel shooting and potential lead exposure in breeding avian scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wagner, Mason T.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding’s ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson’s hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling’s mass, energy needs

  15. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  16. The Helper Activities of Different Avian Viruses for Propagation of Recombinant Avian Adeno-Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.

  17. Agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza circulation: a multisite study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde C Paul

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1 lower-Northern Thailand, where H5N1 circulated in 2004-2005, (2 the Red River Delta in Vietnam, where H5N1 is circulating widely, (3 the Vietnam highlands, where sporadic H5N1 outbreaks have occurred, and (4 the Lake Alaotra region in Madagascar, which features remarkable similarities with Asian agro-ecosystems and where low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been found. We analyzed H5N1 outbreak data in Thailand in parallel with serological data collected on the H5 subtype in Vietnam and on low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar. Several agro-environmental covariates were examined: poultry densities, landscape dominated by rice cultivation, proximity to a water body or major road, and human population density. Relationships between covariates and AIV circulation were explored using spatial generalized linear models. We found that AIV prevalence was negatively associated with distance to the closest water body in the Red River Delta, Vietnam highlands and Madagascar. We also found a positive association between AIV and duck density in the Vietnam highlands and Thailand, and with rice landscapes in Thailand and Madagascar. Our findings confirm the important role of wetlands-rice-ducks ecosystems in the epidemiology of AI in diverse settings. Variables influencing circulation of the H5 subtype in Southeast Asia played a similar role for low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar, indicating that this area may be at risk if a highly virulent strain is introduced.

  18. Reversible Simulations of Elastic Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Consider a system of N identical hard spherical particles moving in a d-dimensional box and undergoing elastic, possibly multi-particle, collisions. We develop a new algorithm that recovers the pre-collision state from the post-collision state of the system, across a series of consecutive collisions, with essentially no memory overhead. The challenge in achieving reversibility for an n-particle collision (where, n << N) arises from the presence of nd-d-1 degrees of freedom during each collision, and from the complex geometrical constraints placed on the colliding particles. To reverse the collisions in a traditional simulation setting, all of the particular realizations of these degrees of freedom during the forward simulation must be saved. This limitation is addressed here by first performing a pseudo-randomization of angles, ensuring determinism in the reverse path for any values of n and d. To address the more difficult problem of geometrical and dynamic constraints, a new approach is developed whic...

  19. Assessment of national strategies for control of high-pathogenicity avian influenza and low-pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza in poultry, with emphasis on vaccines and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Pavade, G; Hamilton, K; Vallat, B; Miyagishima, K

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-nine distinct epizootics of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred since 1959. The H5N1 HPAI panzootic affecting Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe has been the largest among these, affecting poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. A stamping-out programme achieved eradication in 24 of these epizootics (and is close to achieving eradication in the current H5N2 epizootic in South African ostriches), but vaccination was added to the control programmes in four epizootics when stamping out alone was not effective. During the 2002 to 2010 period, more than 113 billion doses of avian influenza (AI) vaccine were used in at-risk national poultry populations of over 131 billion birds. At two to three doses per bird for the 15 vaccinating countries, the average national vaccination coverage rate was 41.9% and the global AI vaccine coverage rate was 10.9% for all poultry. The highest national coverage rate was nearly 100% for poultry in Hong Kong and the lowest national coverage was less than 0.01% for poultry in Israel and The Netherlands. Inactivated AI vaccines accounted for 95.5% and live recombinant virus vaccines for 4.5% of the vaccines used. Most of these vaccines were used in the H5N1 HPAI panzootic, with more than 99% employed in the People's Republic of China, Egypt, Indonesia and Vietnam. Implementation of vaccination in these four countries occurred after H5N1 HPAI became enzootic in domestic poultry and vaccination did not result in the enzootic infections. Vaccine usage prevented clinical disease and mortality in chickens, and maintained rural livelihoods and food security during HPAI outbreaks. Low-pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) became reportable to the World Organisation for Animal Health in 2006 because some H5 and H7 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses have the potential to mutate to HPAI viruses. Fewer outbreaks of LPNAI have been reported than of HPAI and only six countries used vaccine in control

  20. The avian tectorial membrane: Why is it tapered?

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasa, Kuni H

    2015-01-01

    While the mammalian- and the avian inner ears have well defined tonotopic organizations as well as hair cells specialized for motile and sensing roles, the structural organization of the avian ear is different from its mammalian cochlear counterpart. Presumably this difference stems from the difference in the way motile hair cells function. Short hair cells, whose role is considered analogous to mammalian outer hair cells, presumably depends on their hair bundles, and not motility of their cell body, in providing the motile elements of the cochlear amplifier. This report focuses on the role of the avian tectorial membrane, specifically by addressing the question, "Why is the avian tectorial membrane tapered from the neural to the abneural direction?"

  1. Historical review of avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review historical information on avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. This report includes incidental reports of...

  2. Region 6 Avian Health Program FY2011 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities and fund allocations of the Region 6 Avian Health Program in FY2011. Activities include morbidity and mortality monitoring, disease...

  3. Avian influenza surveillance sample collection and shipment protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for mortality collection and shipment of avian influenza (AI) live bird surveillance sample collections. AI sample collections will include...

  4. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity, Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian seasonal fecundity is of interest from evolutionary, ecological, and conservation perspectives. However, direct estimation of seasonal fecundity is difficult, especially with multibrooded birds, and models representing the renesting and quitting processes are usually requi...

  5. Avian Point Transect Survey; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian point-transect survey data and habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We...

  6. The 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    正Invited participants on the 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism, sponsored by Hainan Normal University (HNU), China, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway, the Research Council of Norway, and China Ornithological Society (COS).

  7. Migratory Bird Avian Influenza Sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species common...

  8. Avian populations and habitat use in interior Alaska taiga

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian community structure, habitat occupancy levels, and species habitat use patterns were examined in the woody habitats of interior Alaska taiga. Some birds...

  9. Avian Flu (H7N9) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Avian Flu (H7N9) in China Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Warning - Level ... of H7N9 have been reported outside of mainland China but most of these infections have occurred among ...

  10. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their saliva, mucous and feces. Human infections with bird flu viruses can happen when enough virus gets into ... Virus (CVV) for a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Virus ” for more information on this process. ...

  11. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  12. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  13. Brachyspira pilosicoli-induced avian intestinal spirochaetosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline I. Le Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon, which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, the number of outbreaks of AIS has dramatically increased in the UK resulting in significant economic losses. This review summarises the current knowledge about AIS infection caused by B. pilosicoli and discusses various treatments and prevention strategies to control AIS.

  14. 禽流感%Avian influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学工; 龙云铸

    2005-01-01

    禽流感(avian influenza)是禽类流行性感冒的简称,是由甲型流感病毒株的某些亚型引起的急性呼吸道传染病。通常情况下,禽流感病毒并不感染人类,但自1997年禽甲型流感病毒H5N1感染人类之后,相继有H9N2、H7N7.亚型感染人类和H5N1再次感染人类的报道,引起了世人的广泛关注。

  15. 禽流感病%Avian Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先志

    1999-01-01

    @@ 禽流感病(avian influenza)是由甲型流感病毒引起的一种禽类疾病综合征.1997年5月,我国香港特别行政区1例3岁儿童死于不明原因的多器官功能衰竭,同年8月经美国疾病预防和控制中心以及WHO荷兰鹿特丹国家流感中心鉴定为禽甲型流感病毒H5N1[A(H5N1)]引起的人类流感[1~3].这是世界上首次证实A(H5N1)感染人类,因而引起医学界的广泛关注.

  16. Ribonucleoprotein of avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, H A; Dourmashkin, R R; Macnaughton, M R

    1981-03-01

    The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was examined by electron microscopy after shadowing with carbon/platinum. Linear RNP strands up to 6.7 microns in length, from three IVB strains, were sensitive to both pancreatic RNase and to proteases. These strands were obtained from spontaneously disrupted complete particles but not from disrupted incomplete particles that lacked RNP. They were also released from Nonidet P40-disrupted particles and could be isolated on sucrose density gradients at a density of 1.27 g/ml. In some cases, helical RNP complexes associated with virus particles were observed that were similar to RNPs of human coronavirus strain 229E and mouse hepatitis virus strain 3.

  17. Seroprevalence of avian pneumovirus in Minnesota turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Friendshuh, Keith; Halvorson, David A

    2003-01-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes respiratory tract infection in turkeys and was first seen in the United States in Colorado in late 1996. In early 1997, the disease was recognized in Minnesota and caused estimated losses of up to 15 million dollars per year. This virus has not been reported in the other turkey producing states. We here report the seroprevalence of APV in Minnesota from August 1998 to July 2002. The average rate of seroprevalence has been 36.3% (range = 14.2%-64.8%). A seasonal bias was observed, with peak incidences in the fall and spring. A higher rate of seropositivity was observed in counties with the highest concentration of turkeys.

  18. Collision Geometry and Flow in Uranium+Uranium Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Goldschmidt, Andy; Shen, Chun; Heinz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Using event-by-event viscous fluid dynamics to evolve fluctuating initial density profiles from the Monte-Carlo Glauber model for U+U collisions, we report a "knee"-like structure in the elliptic flow as a function of collision centrality, located around the 0.5% most central collisions as measured by the final charged multiplicity. This knee is due to the preferential selection of tip-on-tip collision geometries by a high-multiplicity trigger. Such a knee structure is not seen in the STAR data. This rules out the two-component MC-Glauber model for initial energy and entropy production. Hence an enrichment of tip-tip configurations by triggering solely on high-multiplicity in the U+U collisions does not work. On the other hand, by using the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) coupled with event-shape engineering such a selection is possible. We identify the selection purity of body-body and tip-tip events in full-overlap U+U collisions. By additionally constraining the asymmetry of the ZDC signals we can further ...

  19. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  20. History of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

    2009-04-01

    The most widely quoted date for the beginning of the recorded history of avian influenza (AI) is 1878, when researchers first differentiated a disease of poultry (initially known as fowl plague but later renamed highly pathogenic avian influenza) from other diseases with high mortality rates. Current evidence indicates that highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses arise through mutation after low pathogenicity AI viruses of H5 or H7 subtype are introduced into poultry. Between 1877 and 1958, a number of epizootics of HPAI occurred in most parts of the world. From 1959 to 1995, the emergence of HPAI viruses was recorded on 15 occasions, but losses were minimal. In contrast, between 1996 and 2008, HPAI viruses emerged at least 11 times and four of these outbreaks involved many millions of birds. Events during this recent period are overshadowed by the current epizootic of HPAI due to an H5N1 virus that has spread throughout Asia and into Europe and Africa, affecting over 60 countries and causing the loss of hundreds of millions of birds. All sectors of the poultry population have been affected, but free-range commercial ducks, village poultry, live bird markets and fighting cocks seem especially significant in the spread of the virus. The role of wild birds has been extensively debated but it is likely that both wild birds and domestic poultry are responsible for its spread. Even without these H5N1 outbreaks, the period 1995 to 2008 will be considered significant in the history of HPAI because of the vast numbers of birds that died or were culled in three of the other ten epizootics during this time.

  1. Environmental sampling for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriani, Risa; Samaan, Gina; Gultom, Anita; Loth, Leo; Irianti, Sri; Indryani, Sri; Adjid, Rma; Dharmayanti, Ni Luh Putu Indi; Weaver, John; Mumford, Elizabeth; Lokuge, Kamalini; Kelly, Paul M; Darminto

    2010-12-01

    To identify environmental sites commonly contaminated by avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets in Indonesia, we investigated 83 markets in 3 provinces in Indonesia. At each market, samples were collected from up to 27 poultry-related sites to assess the extent of contamination. Samples were tested by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and virus isolation. A questionnaire was used to ascertain types of birds in the market, general infrastructure, and work practices. Thirty-nine (47%) markets showed contamination with avian influenza virus in ≥ 1 of the sites sampled. Risk factors were slaughtering birds in the market and being located in West Java province. Protective factors included daily removal of waste and zoning that segregated poultry-related work flow areas. These results can aid in the design of evidence-based programs concerning environmental sanitation, food safety, and surveillance to reduce the risk for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) transmission in live-bird markets.

  2. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  3. Model to track wild birds for avian influenza by means of population dynamics and surveillance information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alba

    Full Text Available Design, sampling and data interpretation constitute an important challenge for wildlife surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV. The aim of this study was to construct a model to improve and enhance identification in both different periods and locations of avian species likely at high risk of contact with AIV in a specific wetland. This study presents an individual-based stochastic model for the Ebre Delta as an example of this appliance. Based on the Monte-Carlo method, the model simulates the dynamics of the spread of AIV among wild birds in a natural park following introduction of an infected bird. Data on wild bird species population, apparent AIV prevalence recorded in wild birds during the period of study, and ecological information on factors such as behaviour, contact rates or patterns of movements of waterfowl were incorporated as inputs of the model. From these inputs, the model predicted those species that would introduce most of AIV in different periods and those species and areas that would be at high risk as a consequence of the spread of these AIV incursions. This method can serve as a complementary tool to previous studies to optimize the allocation of the limited AI surveillance resources in a local complex ecosystem. However, this study indicates that in order to predict the evolution of the spread of AIV at the local scale, there is a need for further research on the identification of host factors involved in the interspecies transmission of AIV.

  4. Model to Track Wild Birds for Avian Influenza by Means of Population Dynamics and Surveillance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Anna; Bicout, Dominique J.; Vidal, Francesc; Curcó, Antoni; Allepuz, Alberto; Napp, Sebastián; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Costa, Taiana; Casal, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Design, sampling and data interpretation constitute an important challenge for wildlife surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV). The aim of this study was to construct a model to improve and enhance identification in both different periods and locations of avian species likely at high risk of contact with AIV in a specific wetland. This study presents an individual-based stochastic model for the Ebre Delta as an example of this appliance. Based on the Monte-Carlo method, the model simulates the dynamics of the spread of AIV among wild birds in a natural park following introduction of an infected bird. Data on wild bird species population, apparent AIV prevalence recorded in wild birds during the period of study, and ecological information on factors such as behaviour, contact rates or patterns of movements of waterfowl were incorporated as inputs of the model. From these inputs, the model predicted those species that would introduce most of AIV in different periods and those species and areas that would be at high risk as a consequence of the spread of these AIV incursions. This method can serve as a complementary tool to previous studies to optimize the allocation of the limited AI surveillance resources in a local complex ecosystem. However, this study indicates that in order to predict the evolution of the spread of AIV at the local scale, there is a need for further research on the identification of host factors involved in the interspecies transmission of AIV. PMID:22952962

  5. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...... of illustrative examples are presented. The procedure presented in the paper is well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic calculation model for damage of ship structures due to collisions....

  6. Radiative collision-induced photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Payne, M.G.

    1978-05-01

    Semiclassical expressions of two-photon ionization of atoms induced by radiative collisions are derived. The dependence of the ionization yield on the atomic forces, field intensity, and energy gap is derived. Although absorption tends to decrease as the field intensity rises due to stimulated emission at the second crossing, the two-photon ionization yield can be nearly saturated at the first crossing, thus enhancing the absorption. Both regions, ionization in single collisions and ionization between collisions, are treated. In the latter we find that saturation of the ionization can be achieved at much reduced intensities. This process promises an extremely sensitive method for studying radiative collisions, especially when absorption or fluorescence becomes extremely weak.

  7. Collisions of Vortex Filament Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banica, Valeria; Faou, Erwan; Miot, Evelyne

    2014-12-01

    We consider the problem of collisions of vortex filaments for a model introduced by Klein et al. (J Fluid Mech 288:201-248, 1995) and Zakharov (Sov Phys Usp 31(7):672-674, 1988, Lect. Notes Phys 536:369-385, 1999) to describe the interaction of almost parallel vortex filaments in three-dimensional fluids. Since the results of Crow (AIAA J 8:2172-2179, 1970) examples of collisions are searched as perturbations of antiparallel translating pairs of filaments, with initial perturbations related to the unstable mode of the linearized problem; most results are numerical calculations. In this article, we first consider a related model for the evolution of pairs of filaments, and we display another type of initial perturbation leading to collision in finite time. Moreover, we give numerical evidence that it also leads to collision through the initial model. We finally study the self-similar solutions of the model.

  8. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using biologically-inspired neuromorphic optic flow algorithms is a novel approach in collision avoidance for UAS. Traditional computer vision algorithms rely on...

  9. DROPLET COLLISION AND COALESCENCE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; CAI Ti-min; HE Guo-qiang; HU Chun-bo

    2006-01-01

    A new droplet collision and coalescence model was presented, a quick-sort method for locating collision partners was also devised and based on theoretical and experimental results, further advancement was made to the droplet collision outcome.The advantages of the two implementations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)method were used to limit the collision of droplets to a given number of nearest droplets and define the probability of coalescence, numerical simulations were carried out for model validation. Results show that the model presented is mesh-independent and less time consuming, it can not only maintains the system momentum conservation perfectly, but not susceptible to initial droplet size distribution as well.

  10. collision zone of an ISR

    CERN Document Server

    This is a collision region from the world’s first proton collider, the Intersecting Storage Rings. The ISR was used at CERN from 1971-84 to study proton-proton collisions at the highest energy then available (60GeV). When operational, ISR collision regions were surrounded by detectors as shown in the photo. In 1972, the surprising discovery of fragments flying out sideways from head-on proton-proton collisions was the first evidence of quark-quark scattering inside the colliding protons . This was similar to Rutherford’s observation in 1911 of alpha particles scattering off the tiny nucleus inside atoms of gold. The ISR beamtubes had to be as empty as outer space, a vacuum 100 000 times better than other CERN machines at the time.

  11. collision region of the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    This is a collision region from the world’s first proton collider, the Intersecting Storage Rings. The ISR was used at CERN from 1971-84 to study proton-proton collisions at the highest energy then available (60GeV). When operational, ISR collision regions were surrounded by detectors as shown in the photo. In 1972, the surprising discovery of fragments flying out sideways from head-on proton-proton collisions was the first evidence of quark-quark scattering inside the colliding protons . This was similar to Rutherford’s observation in 1911 of alpha particles scattering off the tiny nucleus inside atoms of gold. The ISR beamtubes had to be as empty as outer space, a vacuum 100 000 times better than other CERN machines at the time.

  12. Avian hepatitis E virus, vaccines and methods of protecting against avian hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome and mammalian hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel isolated avian hepatitis E virus having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or its complementary strand. The invention further concerns immunogenic compositions comprising this new virus or recombinant products such as the nucleic acid and vaccines that protect an avian or mammalian species from viral infection or hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome caused by the hepatitis E virus. Also included in the scope of the invention is a method for prop...

  13. Do speed cameras reduce collisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubic, Jeffrey; Johnson, Steven B; Salvino, Chris; Vanhoy, Steven; Hu, Chengcheng

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of speed cameras along a 26 mile segment in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Motor vehicle collisions were retrospectively identified according to three time periods - before cameras were placed, while cameras were in place and after cameras were removed. A 14 mile segment in the same area without cameras was used for control purposes. Five cofounding variables were eliminated. In this study, the placement or removal of interstate highway speed cameras did not independently affect the incidence of motor vehicle collisions.

  14. Airborne Collision Avoidance System X

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    avoidance system on behalf of the Federal Aviation Adminis- tration (FAA). The current Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II...transformations to the National Airspace System are being imple- mented through the FAA’s Next-Genera- tion Air Transportation System (NextGen). With the goal...weighted states to provide a single, optimal action. If a collision avoidance This work is sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration under Air

  15. The Effect of Buffer Bow Structures on Collision Damages of Oil Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of buffer bow structures on prevention of oil spills in tanker collisions, probabilistic collision damage analyses were performed using a newly developed Simplified Ship Collision Analysis Tool (SSCAT). Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) was carried out using...... the striking ships use conventional bulbous bows. The probability of oil spill from the VLCC, given a collision, is estimated and the risk reducing effect of introducing buffer bow structures is discussed....... SSCAT for collision scenarios where striking ships at various speeds, sizes and bulb shapes collide perpendicularly with a VLCC in fully loaded condition. The probability of oil spill from the struck VLCC in cases where all the striking ships use buffer bulbous bows was compared with the case where all...

  16. Investigation on awareness rate of prevention knowledge of H7N9 avian influenza among partial high-risk occupation population in Nanning City%南宁市部分高危职业人群H7N9型禽流感预防知识知晓率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤洪洋; 闭志友; 林健燕; 黄世美; 曾毅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the awareness situation of prevention knowledge and individual protection about H7N9 avian influenza among parts of wader practitioners in Nanning,so as to provide background data for formulating health education.Methods A self-designed H7N9 avian influenza prevention knowledge questionnaire was conducted,and 68 poultry farm workers and market wader staff were investigated.Results The awareness rate of wader staff was 82.4%,and the utilization rate of protective equipment was 42.6%.There were statistical differences of H7N9 avian influenza prevention knowledge awareness rate among different cultural level of wader personnel (P < 0.05).There were statistical differences of H7N9 avian influenza prevention knowledge awareness rate among different workplaces of waders personnel (P < 0.05).Conclusions Parts of waders practitioners possess some knowledge of the H7N9 avian influenza prevention in Nanning city,but still has a gap with the actual requirement,thus it is necessary to strengthen health education and occupation protection to waders practitioners.%目的 了解南宁市部分涉禽从业人员H7N9型禽流感预防知识及个人防护状况,为制定健康教育提供本底数据.方法 采用自行设计的H7N9型禽流感预防知识问卷调查,调查禽养殖场从业人员及农贸市场涉禽人员共68人.结果 涉禽人员知晓率为82.4%,防护用品使用率为42.6%.不同工作场所涉禽人员H7N9型禽流感预防知识知晓率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同文化程度涉禽人员H7N9型禽流感预防知识知晓率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同工作场所涉禽人员个人防护用品使用情况差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 南宁市部分涉禽从业人员具有一定的H7N9型禽流感预防知识,但与实际要求仍有差距,应加强涉禽从业人员健康教育及职业防护.

  17. Avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus antibodies among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Cao, Zhenpeng; Tan, Likai; Fu, Xinliang; Lu, Gang; Qi, Wenbao; Ke, Changwen; Wang, Heng; Sun, Lingshuang; Zhang, Guihong

    2014-01-01

    Infection of human with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) occasionally occurs in China, suggesting a potential risk of cross-species transmission of the swine influenza H1N1 virus from pigs to humans, particularly to those having direct contact with pigs. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to assess the prevalence of antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China to evaluate the risk of infection to swine farm workers. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays revealed that 11.17% (61/546) of the sera samples from swine farm residents in southern China were positive for antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. The difference in numbers of antibody-positive samples obtained from swine farm residents and a control group of healthy city residents was statistically significant (P = 0.031). In addition, 219 of the 1,180 serum samples from pigs were positive for the antibodies against an avian-like A (H1N1) SIV, A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2013(H1N1), as assessed by HI. The data suggest that occupational exposure of swine farm residents and veterinarians in southern China to pigs may increase their risk of acquiring avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection. According to a special pig farming model in southern China, the staff and residents are in close contact with infected pigs and may be among the first to become infected.

  18. [A brief update on avian influenza and the protection of workers in view of the implementation of the new EU directive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Sbardella, Daniele; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus A(H5N1), since its first appearance in Hong Kong in 1997 killing six people, has continuously recorder by 2003 both new cases and deaths between these. Although the media and social attention received in the years between 2006 and 2008, mainly in Italy is not currently present, the same is not true for the avian flu that still exists in some countries. At the regulatory level, at the beginning of 2006 the Ministry of Health indicated the measures to be taken in the national preparedness and response to a pandemic flu, and the national Legislative Decree 25 January 2010, n. 9 makes implementing the EU Directive 2005/94/CE on Community measures to combat avian flu. Moreover, an article published in June 2010 show a new route of transmission of avian viruses by birds. The topic on avian flu, especially aimed at the protection of workers potentially exposed, has been long the subject of studies, and in particular for operators belonging to the Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco (C.N.VV.F.). In particular, in the context of the measures taken to address any outbreak of avian flu, were carried out one manual addressed to operators by C.N.VV.F. and to so-called managers/operators of the emergency public service workers represented by the operators of the C.N.VVF. and of Police, Civil Protection, and Voluntary Organisations of rescue enclosed in Civil Protection Service. It is necessary to reiterate the importance of continued and growing of the preparation and information for workers, brought to the operators themselves useful about the adoption of preventive and protective measures by the workers belonging to groups at risk of potential exposure to avian influenza viruses.

  19. 长沙市家禽市场环境中H5N1亚型禽流感病毒传播风险研究%Risk related to the transmission of H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus in the environment of poultry markets in Changsha, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如胜; 欧新华; 宋克云; 袁洁; 陈田木; 肖姗; 孙边成

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of H5Nl subtype avian influenza virus (AIV)transmission in the poultry market environment in Changsha city.H5N1 antibody levels among the groups related occupational exposure and AIV nucleic acid in the environment of poultry markets were detected.The characteristics of hamagglutinin (HA) genes of H5N1 AIV in the environment were analyzed.Methods One district and one county from Changsha city were selected randomly and two poultry markets at inner city or township levels were selected in the same district or county respectively.H5N1 antibody of the occupational exposure groups in the poultry market was tested and AIV nucleic acid in the poultry market environnent monitored.One hundred and two blood samples of the occupational exposure groups were tested for H5N1 antibody with single radioimmunoassay diffusion hemolysis (SRH) while 160 environment samples(from sewage,birds stools,feathers and smearing samples of poultry cages) in the poultry market were also detected for AIV nucleic acid with real-time PCR method.Four sewage samples of H5N1 subtype AIV were collected from poultry markets in Changsha,and the HA genes of H5N1 subtype AIV amplified by RT-PCR and then sequenced with TA cloning.Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis were conducted by Lasergene and Mega 5.0 software.Results The results through H5N1 antibody monitoring program showed that H5N1 antibody positive rates from workers were 25.5% (26/102),50.0% (9/18) and 25.4% (17/67) respectively in the poultry markets of township and inner cities.H5N1 antibody positive rate in the township poultry markets was higher than in the inner cities poultry markets.Results from the surveillance on AIV nucleic acid showed that the overall H5 subtype positive rate in Changsha poultry markets was 31.3% (50/160),and the positive rate of townships poultry markets was 37.3% (31/83 ),which were both higher than those from the inner cities poultry markets (24

  20. A Habitat-based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forcey, Greg, M.

    2012-08-28

    Most previous studies on collision impacts at wind facilities have taken place at the site-specific level and have only examined small-scale influences on mortality. In this study, we examine landscape-level influences using a hierarchical spatial model combined with existing datasets and life history knowledge for: Horned Lark, Red-eyed Vireo, Mallard, American Avocet, Golden Eagle, Whooping Crane, red bat, silver-haired bat, and hoary bat. These species were modeled in the central United States within Bird Conservation Regions 11, 17, 18, and 19. For the bird species, we modeled bird abundance from existing datasets as a function of habitat variables known to be preferred by each species to develop a relative abundance prediction for each species. For bats, there are no existing abundance datasets so we identified preferred habitat in the landscape for each species and assumed that greater amounts of preferred habitat would equate to greater abundance of bats. The abundance predictions for bird and bats were modeled with additional exposure factors known to influence collisions such as visibility, wind, temperature, precipitation, topography, and behavior to form a final mapped output of predicted collision risk within the study region. We reviewed published mortality studies from wind farms in our study region and collected data on reported mortality of our focal species to compare to our modeled predictions. We performed a sensitivity analysis evaluating model performance of 6 different scenarios where habitat and exposure factors were weighted differently. We compared the model performance in each scenario by evaluating observed data vs. our model predictions using spearmans rank correlations. Horned Lark collision risk was predicted to be highest in the northwestern and west-central portions of the study region with lower risk predicted elsewhere. Red-eyed Vireo collision risk was predicted to be the highest in the eastern portions of the study region and in

  1. Collision Geometry and Flow in Uranium+Uranium Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Goldschmidt, Andy; Shen, Chun; Heinz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Using event-by-event viscous fluid dynamics to evolve fluctuating initial density profiles from the Monte-Carlo Glauber model for U+U collisions, we report a "knee"-like structure in the elliptic flow as a function of collision centrality, located near 0.5% centrality as measured by the final charged multiplicity. This knee is due to the preferential selection of tip-on-tip collision geometries by a high-multiplicity trigger. Such a knee structure is not seen in the STAR data. This rules out the two-component MC-Glauber model for initial energy and entropy production. An enrichment of tip-tip configurations by triggering solely on high-multiplicity in the U+U collisions thus does not work. On the other hand, using the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) coupled with event-shape engineering, we identify the selection purity of body-body and tip-tip events in the full-overlap U+U collisions. With additional constraints on the asymmetry of the ZDC signals one can further increases the probability of selecting tip-ti...

  2. Manipulation of male attractiveness induces rapid changes in avian maternal yolk androgen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Sjouke A.; Komdeur, Jan; Vedder, Oscar; Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Korsten, Peter; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain maternal androgens that may adjust offspring development to environmental conditions. We review evidence and functional explanations for the relationship between androgen concentrations in avian eggs and male attractiveness. Experimental studies in captive birds show generally pos

  3. [Detection and description of avian hepatitis E virus isolated in China--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Zhou, Enmin

    2012-03-04

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), a member of Hepeviridae family, is genetically and antigenically related with human and swine HEV in the family. Since its discovery, avian HEV infection has been investigated in many countries from serology and molecular epidemiology studies. At present, five complete or near complete genomes of avian HEV isolates were reported in GenBank and were divided into three genotypes. The complete genome of avian HEV contains 3 ORFs of which ORF2 gene encodes capsid protein containing the primary epitopes of viral particles and is target gene for serodiagnostic antigen and vaccine candidate. Because avian HEV infection has significant impact on the poultry industry and potential zoonotic transmission, the researches on avian HEV have been given much attention. We here give a broad review of the research update on the aetiology, pathogenesis and the antigenicity of capsid protein of avian HEV based on identification of Chinese avian HEV isolate.

  4. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) contingency plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Disease contingency plan to reduce avian mortality from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HAPI) outbreaks at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  5. FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tara; Capua, Ilaria; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Donis, Ruben; Fouchier, Ron; Mumford, Elizabeth; Peiris, Malik; Swayne, David; Thiermann, Alex

    2010-05-01

    For the past 10 years, animal health experts and human health experts have been gaining experience in the technical aspects of avian influenza in mostly separate fora. More recently, in 2006, in a meeting of the small WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the Human Animal Interface (Meeting report available from: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_EPR_GIP_2006_3/en/index.html) in Geneva allowed influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to discuss together the most recent avian influenza research. Ad hoc bilateral discussions on specific technical issues as well as formal meetings such as the Technical Meeting on HPAI and Human H5N1 Infection (Rome, June, 2007; information available from: http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/conferences/june2007/index.html) have increasingly brought the sectors together and broadened the understanding of the topics of concern to each sector. The sectors have also recently come together at the broad global level, and have developed a joint strategy document for working together on zoonotic diseases (Joint strategy available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/ajl37e/ajl37e00.pdf). The 2008 FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human Animal Interface described here was the first opportunity for a large group of influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to gather and discuss purely technical topics of joint interest that exist at the human-animal interface. During the consultation, three influenza-specific sessions aimed to (1) identify virological characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) important for zoonotic and pandemic disease, (2) evaluate the factors affecting evolution and emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and identify existing monitoring systems, and (3) identify modes of transmission and exposure sources for human zoonotic influenza infection (including discussion of specific exposure risks by affected countries). A

  6. Dynamics of Vector-Host Interactions in Avian Communities in Four Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Foci in the Northeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarz Molaei

    2016-01-01

    empirically informed mathematical model for EEE virus transmission using Cs. melanura abundance and preferred and non-preferred avian hosts. To our knowledge this is the first mathematical model for EEE virus, a pathogen with many potential hosts, in the northeastern U.S. We measured strong feeding preferences for a number of avian species based on the proportion of mosquito blood meals identified from these bird species in relation to their observed frequencies. These included: American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Common Grackle, Wood Thrush, Chipping Sparrow, Black-capped Chickadee, Northern Cardinal, and Warbling Vireo. We found that these bird species, most notably Wood Thrush, play a dominant role in supporting EEE virus amplification. It is also noteworthy that the competence of some of the aforementioned avian species for EEE virus has not been established. Our findings indicate that heterogeneity induced by mosquito host preference, is a key mediator of the epizootic transmission of vector-borne pathogens.Detailed knowledge of the vector-host interactions of mosquito populations in nature is essential for evaluating their vectorial capacity and for assessing the role of individual vertebrates as reservoir hosts involved in the maintenance and amplification of zoonotic agents of human diseases. Our study clarifies the host associations of Cs. melanura in four EEE virus foci in the northeastern U.S., identifies vector host preferences as the most important transmission parameter, and quantifies the contribution of preference-induced contact heterogeneity to enzootic transmission. Our study identifies Wood Thrush, American Robin and a few avian species that may serve as superspreaders of EEE virus. Our study elucidates spatiotemporal host species utilization by Cs. melanura in relation to avian host community. This research provides a basis to better understand the involvement of Cs. melanura and avian hosts in the transmission and ecology of EEE virus and the risk of human

  7. Supersonic Cloud Collision-II

    CERN Document Server

    Anathpindika, S

    2009-01-01

    In this, second paper of the sequel of two papers, we present five SPH simulations of fast head-on cloud collisions and study the evolution of the ram pressure confined gas slab. Anathpindika (2008) (hereafter paper I) considered highly supersonic cloud collisions and examined the effect of bending and shearing instabilities on the shocked gas slab. The post-collision shock here, as in paper I, is also modelled by a simple barotropic equation of state (EOS). However, a much stiffer EOS is used to model the shock resulting from a low velocity cloud collision. We explore the parameter space by varying the pre-collision velocity and the impact parameter. We observe that pressure confined gas slabs become Jeans unstable if the sound crossing time, $t_{cr}$, is much larger than the freefall time, $t_{ff}$, of putative clumps condensing out of them. Self gravitating clumps may spawn multiple/larger $N$-body star clusters. We also suggest that warmer gas slabs are unlikely to fragment and may end up as diffuse gas c...

  8. 76 FR 67017 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Avian Radar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Avian Radar Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Avian Radar Systems... waivers to foreign manufacturers of airport avian radar systems that meet the requirements of FAA...

  9. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  10. Planning and executing a vaccination campaign against avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, S; Cristalli, A; Busani, L

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza infection caused by H5 or H7 virus subtypes has been used on several occasions in recent years to control and in some cases eradicate the disease. In order to contain avian influenza infection effectively, immunization should be combined with a coordinated set of control and monitoring measures. The outcome of an immunization campaign depends on the territorial strategy; whereas the capacity of the veterinary services in developed countries permits enforcement of strategies aimed at eradicating avian influenza, many countries currently affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have a limited veterinary infrastructure and a limited capacity to respond to such epidemics. In these countries, resources are still insufficient to conduct adequate surveillance for identification and reaction to avian influenza outbreaks when they occur. When properly applied in this scenario, immunization can reduce mortality and production losses. In the long term, immunization might also decrease the prevalence of infection to levels at which stamping-out and surveillance can be applied. Countries should adapt their immunization programmes to local conditions in order to guarantee their efficacy and sustainability. In the initial emergency phase, human resources can be mobilized, with reliance on personal responsibility and motivation, thus compensating for potential shortcomings in organization. A more appropriate allocation of resources must be pursued in the long term, remembering that biosecurity is the main component of an exit strategy and must always be improved.

  11. Avian influenza survey in migrating waterfowl in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J

    2011-02-01

    A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health.

  12. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  13. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Waite

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbour diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfil crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study.

  14. Research progress in avian dispersal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang LIU; Zhengwang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal, defined as a linear spreading move-ment of individuals away from others of the population is a fundamental characteristic of organisms in nature. Dispersal is a central concept in ecological, behavioral and evolutionary studies, driven by different forces such as avoidance of inbreeding depression, density-dependent competition and the need to change breeding locations. By effective dispersal, organisms can enlarge their geo-graphic range and adjust the dynamic, sex ratio and gen-etic compositions of a population. Birds are one of the groups that are studied intensively by human beings. Due to their diurnal habits, diverse life history strategies and complex movement, birds are also ideal models for the study of dispersal behaviors. Certain topics of avian dispersal including sex-biased, asymmetric dispersal caused by differences in body conditions, dispersal pro-cesses, habitat selection and long distance dispersal are discussed here. Bird-ringing or marking, radio-telemetry and genetic markers are useful tools widely applied in dispersal studies. There are three major challenges regard-ing theoretical study and methodology research of dis-persal: (1) improvement in research methodology is needed, (2) more in-depth theoretical research is neces-sary, and (3) application of theoretical research into the conservation efforts for threatened birds and the manage-ment of their habitats should be carried out immediately.

  15. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  16. Avian Influenza: Mixed Infections and Missing Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Wentworth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture.

  17. What's missing from avian global diversification analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushma

    2014-08-01

    The accumulation of vast numbers of molecular phylogenetic studies has contributed to huge knowledge gains in the evolutionary history of birds. This permits subsequent analyses of avian diversity, such as how and why diversification varies across the globe and among taxonomic groups. However, available genetic data for these meta-analyses are unevenly distributed across different geographic regions and taxonomic groups. To comprehend the impact of this variation on the interpretation of global diversity patterns, I examined the availability of genetic data for possible biases in geographic and taxonomic sampling of birds. I identified three main disparities of sampling that are geographically associated with latitude (temperate, tropical), hemispheres (East, West), and range size. Tropical regions, which host the vast majority of species, are substantially less studied. Moreover, Eastern regions, such as the Old World Tropics and Australasia, stand out as being disproportionately undersampled, with up to half of communities not being represented in recent studies. In terms of taxonomic discrepancies, a majority of genetically undersampled clades are exclusively found in tropical regions. My analysis identifies several disparities in the key regions of interest of global diversity analyses. Differential sampling can have considerable impacts on these global comparisons and call into question recent interpretations of latitudinal or hemispheric differences of diversification rates. Moreover, this review pinpoints understudied regions whose biota are in critical need of modern systematic analyses.

  18. Avian influenza: mixed infections and missing viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, LeAnn L; Kelly, Terra R; Plancarte, Magdalena; Schobel, Seth; Lin, Xudong; Dugan, Vivien G; Wentworth, David E; Boyce, Walter M

    2013-08-05

    A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes) were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture.

  19. Molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of an avian leukosis virus isolated from avian neurofibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Akihiro; Ochiai, Kenji; Nakamura, Sayuri; Kobara, Akiko; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are rare in chickens and their etiology remains to be elucidated. In this study, a naturally occurring PNST in a Japanese native fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) was pathologically examined and the strain of avian leukosis virus (ALV) isolated from the neoplasm was characterized by molecular biological analysis. The fowl presented with a firm subcutaneous mass in the neck. The mass, connected to the adjacent spinal cord (C9-14), was microscopically composed of highly cellular tissue of spindle cells arranged in interlacing bundles, streams, and palisading patterns with Verocay bodies and less cellular tissue with abundant collagen. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were divided into two types: perineurial cells positive for vimentin, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and claudin1; and Schwann cells positive for vimentin, occasionally positive for S-100 alpha/beta but negative for GLUT1. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of neurofibrosarcoma was made. The complete nucleotide sequence of an ALV strain, CTS_5371, isolated from the neoplasm was determined and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain was a novel recombinant virus from avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses previously reported. Additionally, experimental infection revealed that CTS_5371 induced the proliferation of Schwann cells and perineurial cells. These results suggest that this ALV strain has the ability to induce PNSTs in chickens.

  20. Evidence of widespread infection of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) in chickens from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Bibiana; Biarnés, Mar; Ordóñez, Germán; Porta, Ramón; Martín, Marga; Mateu, Enric; Pina, Sonia; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2009-05-28

    In the present work, 262 serum samples and 29 faeces pools from chickens coming from 29 healthy flocks were analysed by RT-PCR for detection of avian HEV and by ELISA using an aHEV derived antigen for detection of anti-HEV IgG. Additionally, other 300 randomly selected serum samples were also analysed by RT-PCR. Seven serum samples were positive to RNA detection. Sequence analysis of both the helicase and the capsid genes revealed that the Spanish isolates were clustered together and close related to those strains from the United States isolated from farms with HSS. On the serology study, 26/29 flocks had at least one positive animal (89.7%) and chickens older than 40 weeks were found to have higher seropositivities compared to the rest of age groups. Within positive farms, the proportion of positive animals ranged from 20% to 80%. This is the first report of aHEV sequences in chickens from Europe. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical significance of avian HEV infections in Europe.

  1. The avian and mammalian host range of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Webby, Richard J

    2013-12-05

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species. Despite intensive control measures the number of human and animal cases continues to increase. A more complete understanding of susceptible species and of contributing environmental and molecular factors is crucial if we are to slow the rate of new cases. H5N1 is currently endemic in domestic poultry in only a handful of countries with sporadic and unpredictable spread to other countries. Close contact of terrestrial bird or mammalian species with infected poultry/waterfowl or their biological products is the major route for interspecies transmission. Intra-species transmission of H5N1 in mammals, including humans, has taken place on a limited scale though it remains to be seen if this will change; recent laboratory studies suggest that it is indeed possible. Here we review the avian and mammalian species that are naturally susceptible to H5N1 infection and the molecular factors associated with its expanded host range.

  2. Avian Information Systems: Developing Web-Based Bird Avoidance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer van Belle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between aircraft and birds, so-called “bird strikes,” can result in serious damage to aircraft and even in the loss of lives. Information about the distribution of birds in the air and on the ground can be used to reduce the risk of bird strikes and their impact on operations en route and in and around air fields. Although a wealth of bird distribution and density data is collected by numerous organizations, these data are not readily available nor interpretable by aviation. This paper presents two national efforts, one in the Netherlands and one in the United States, to develop bird avoidance nodels for aviation. These models integrate data and expert knowledge on bird distributions and migratory behavior to provide hazard maps in the form of GIS-enabled Web services. Both models are in operational use for flight planning and flight alteration and for airfield and airfield vicinity management. These models and their presentation on the Internet are examples of the type of service that would be very useful in other fields interested in species distribution and movement information, such as conservation, disease transmission and prevention, or assessment and mitigation of anthropogenic risks to nature. We expect that developments in cyber-technology, a transition toward an open source philosophy, and higher demand for accessible biological data will result in an increase in the number of biological information systems available on the Internet.

  3. Safety Evaluation of Traffic Flow Operation Based on Fuzzy Inference of Risk Perception of Rear-end Collision%基于追尾危险感知模糊推理的交通流运行安全评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆斯文; 方守恩; 王俊骅

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively surrogate the traditional evaluation method based on the accident data, the calculation method of car-following safety distance including the membership function of weather condition in the microscopic fuzzy inference system for risk perception was improved.The whole road risk perception index was put forward to measure the total driving environment and the average risk evaluation indicator of rear-end collision was developed for macroscopic traffic flow.The value of the average risk indicator could be achieved by simulation of AIMSUN software.Then, the Fuzzy c-means cluster method was used to develop the criterion of the indicator.Therefore, the research results can provide a support for the early warning technology of traffic accidents.%为了有效替代基于事故数据的传统追尾风险评价方法,对微观驾驶员追尾危险感知模糊推理中的跟驰安全距离计算方法,包括影响驾驶员反应时间的天气状况隶属度函数进行了改进.以此为基础,提出可评价整个行车环境安全的道路行车危险总体感知度指标;构建了一个衡量宏观交通流的平均追尾风险评价指标,并通过Aimsun仿真软件得到不同交通条件下的平均追尾风险评价指标值,采用通过模糊聚类方法对该指标进行等级划分,可为道路交通事故预警技术提供支持.

  4. Identification of B-cell epitopes in the capsid protein of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) that are common to human and swine HEVs or unique to avian HEV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhou, E-M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X-J; Halbur, P G

    2006-01-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) was recently discovered in chickens from the USA that had hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome. The complete genomic sequence of avian HEV shares about 50 % nucleotide sequence identity with those of human and swine HEVs. The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) protein of avian HEV has been shown to cross-react with human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, but the B-cell epitopes in the avian HEV ORF2 protein have not been identified. Nine synthetic peptides from the predicted four antigenic domains of the avian HEV ORF2 protein were synthesized and corresponding rabbit anti-peptide antisera were generated. Using recombinant ORF2 proteins, convalescent pig and chicken antisera, peptides and anti-peptide rabbit sera, at least one epitope at the C terminus of domain II (possibly between aa 477-492) that is unique to avian HEV, one epitope in domain I (aa 389-410) that is common to avian, human and swine HEVs, and one or more epitopes in domain IV (aa 583-600) that are shared between avian and human HEVs were identified. Despite the sequence difference in ORF2 proteins between avian and mammalian HEVs and similar ORF2 sequence between human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, rabbit antiserum against peptide 6 (aa 389-399) recognized only human HEV ORF2 protein, suggesting complexity of the ORF2 antigenicity. The identification of these B-cell epitopes in avian HEV ORF2 protein may be useful for vaccine design and may lead to future development of immunoassays for differential diagnosis of avian, swine and human HEV infections.

  5. Time Dependence of Collision Probabilities During Satellite Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Doyle T.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team has recently implemented updated software to calculate the probability of collision (P (sub c)) for Earth-orbiting satellites. The algorithm can employ complex dynamical models for orbital motion, and account for the effects of non-linear trajectories as well as both position and velocity uncertainties. This “3D P (sub c)” method entails computing a 3-dimensional numerical integral for each estimated probability. Our analysis indicates that the 3D method provides several new insights over the traditional “2D P (sub c)” method, even when approximating the orbital motion using the relatively simple Keplerian two-body dynamical model. First, the formulation provides the means to estimate variations in the time derivative of the collision probability, or the probability rate, R (sub c). For close-proximity satellites, such as those orbiting in formations or clusters, R (sub c) variations can show multiple peaks that repeat or blend with one another, providing insight into the ongoing temporal distribution of risk. For single, isolated conjunctions, R (sub c) analysis provides the means to identify and bound the times of peak collision risk. Additionally, analysis of multiple actual archived conjunctions demonstrates that the commonly used “2D P (sub c)” approximation can occasionally provide inaccurate estimates. These include cases in which the 2D method yields negligibly small probabilities (e.g., P (sub c)) is greater than 10 (sup -10)), but the 3D estimates are sufficiently large to prompt increased monitoring or collision mitigation (e.g., P (sub c) is greater than or equal to 10 (sup -5)). Finally, the archive analysis indicates that a relatively efficient calculation can be used to identify which conjunctions will have negligibly small probabilities. This small-P (sub c) screening test can significantly speed the overall risk analysis computation for large numbers of conjunctions.

  6. Cause Relationships of Collisions and Groundings - Research Project Conclusions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    MANOEUVRING DATA- TASKS OF COLLISIONS METHOD SIMULATO RECORDER TASKS: NEAR MISSES ANDD C)GRUNNS DEVELOPMENT i GROUNDINGS DESCRIPTION RE :ERENCE STATISTICS...ACHIEVED GOALS 0 ANALYSIS TOOLS (SIMULATOR/COMPUTER SYSTEM) * PREVENTION SYSTEM (DATA RECORDER ’ NEAR - MISS REPORTING) FIG. 3...risk. NEAR MISS ANALYSIS - The project’s initial step for this sub-task was to propose a near - miss reporting form as shown in Fig. 11. The immediate

  7. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  8. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  9. Collision Rate Monitors for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Burger, S; Byrd, J M; Chow, K; Dutriat, C; Jolliot, M; Lefèvre, T; Matis, H S; Monroy, M; Talanov, V; Turner, W C; Ratti, A; Renet, S

    2007-01-01

    Collision rate monitors are essential in bringing particle beams into collision and optimizing the performances of a collider. In the case of LHC the relative luminosity will be monitored by measuring the flux of small angle neutral particles produced in the collisions. Due to the very different luminosity levels at the four interaction regions (IR) of LHC two different types of monitors have been developed. At the high luminosity IR (ATLAS and CMS) fast ionization chambers will be installed while at the other two (ALICE and LHC-b) solid state polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors will be used. The ionization chambers are being developed by LBNL while the CdTe monitors are being developed by CERN and CEA-LETI.

  10. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2016-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  11. Timescales in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lisa, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The study of high energy collisions between heavy nuclei is a field unto itself, distinct from nuclear and particle physics. A defining aspect of heavy ion physics is the importance of a bulk, self-interacting system with a rich space-time substructure. I focus on the issue of timescales in heavy ion collisions, starting with proof from low-energy collisions that femtoscopy can, indeed, measure very long timescales. I then discuss the relativistic case, where detailed measurements over three orders of magnitude in energy reveal a timescale increase that might be due to a first-order phase transition. I discuss also consistency in evolution timescales as determined from traditional longitudinal sizes and a novel analysis using shape information.

  12. Sustained live poultry market surveillance contributes to early warnings for human infection with avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shisong; Bai, Tian; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Zhu, Wenfei; Wang, Dayan; Cheng, Jinquan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-08-03

    Sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N6) virus have been reported in different provinces in China since April 2014. From June 2015 to January 2016, routine live poultry market (LPM) surveillance was conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. H5N6 viruses were not detected until November 2015. The H5N6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in December 2015, and viruses were detected in LPMs in all districts of the city. Coincidently, two human cases with histories of poultry exposure developed symptoms and were diagnosed as H5N6-positive in Shenzhen during late December 2015 and early January 2016. Similar viruses were identified in environmental samples collected in the LPMs and the patients. In contrast to previously reported H5N6 viruses, viruses with six internal genes derived from the H9N2 or H7N9 viruses were detected in the present study. The increased H5N6 virus-positive rate in the LPMs and the subsequent human infections demonstrated that sustained LPM surveillance for avian influenza viruses provides an early warning for human infections. Interventions, such as LPM closures, should be immediately implemented to reduce the risk of human infection with the H5N6 virus when the virus is widely detected during LPM surveillance.

  13. A Review of the Antiviral Susceptibility of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yuan Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antivirals play an important role in the prevention and treatment of influenza infections, particularly in high-risk or severely ill patients. Two classes of influenza antivirals have been available in many countries over the last decade (2004–2013, the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs. During this period, widespread adamantane resistance has developed in circulating influenza viruses rendering these drugs useless, resulting in the reliance on the most widely available NAI, oseltamivir. However, the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1 viruses in 2008 demonstrated that NAI-resistant viruses could also emerge and spread globally in a similar manner to that seen for adamantane-resistant viruses. Previously, it was believed that NAI-resistant viruses had compromised replication and/or transmission. Fortunately, in 2013, the majority of circulating human influenza viruses remain sensitive to all of the NAIs, but significant work by our laboratory and others is now underway to understand what enables NAI-resistant viruses to retain the capacity to replicate and transmit. In this review, we describe how the susceptibility of circulating human and avian influenza viruses has changed over the last ten years and describe some research studies that aim to understand how NAI-resistant human and avian influenza viruses may emerge in the future.

  14. Prevention and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza with particular reference to H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, Ilaria; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-12-05

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype emerged in Far East Asia in 1996 and spread in three continents in a period of 10 or less years. Before this event, avian influenza infections caused by highly pathogenic viruses had occurred in many different countries, causing minor or major outbreaks, and had always been eradicated. The unique features of these H5N1 viruses combined to the geographic characteristics of the area of emergence, including animal husbandry practices, has caused this subtype to become endemic in several Asian countries, as well as in Egypt. Our aim is to review the direct and indirect control strategies with the rationale for use, advantages and shortcomings - particularly resulting from practicalities linked to field application and economic constraints. Certainly, in low income countries which have applied vaccination, this has resulted in a failure to eradicate the infection. Although the number of infected countries has dropped from over 40 (2006) to under 10 (2012), the extensive circulation of H5N1 in areas with high poultry density still represents a risk for public and animal health.

  15. An Avian Connection as a Catalyst to the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1918 Influenza pandemic was one of the most virulent strains of influenza in history. This strain quickly dispatched previously held theories on influenza. World War One introduced new environmental stresses and speed of dissemination logistics never experienced by humans. In light of new phylogenic evidence the cause of this influenza outbreak is now being considered to have linkage to the avian influenza. Animals act as reservoirs for this influenza virus and research indicates the influenza virus often originates in the intestines of aquatic wildfowl. The virus is shed into the environment, which in turns infects domestic poultry, which in turn infects mammalian hosts. These animals, usually pigs, act as a transformer or converters; creating a strain that can more readily infect humans. Therefore swine can be infected with both avian and human influenza A viruses and serve as a source for infection for a number of species as the incidents of direct infection from birds to humans have been rare. Increased human habitation near poultry and swine raising facilities pose greater influenza outbreak risk. It was this combination of environmental factors that may have contributed to the greatest pandemic of recent times, and, moreover, similar conditions exist throughout Southeast Asia today.

  16. Trending in Probability of Collision Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, J. J.; Hejduk, M. D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    A simple model is proposed to predict the behavior of Probabilities of Collision (P(sub c)) for conjunction events. The model attempts to predict the location and magnitude of the peak P(sub c) value for an event by assuming the progression of P(sub c) values can be modeled to first order by a downward-opening parabola. To incorporate prior information from a large database of past conjunctions, the Bayes paradigm is utilized; and the operating characteristics of the model are established through a large simulation study. Though the model is simple, it performs well in predicting the temporal location of the peak (P(sub c)) and thus shows promise as a decision aid in operational conjunction assessment risk analysis.

  17. Multivalent HA DNA vaccination protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza infection in chickens and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 in avian species increase the risk of reassortment and adaptation to humans. The ability to contain its spread in chickens would reduce this threat and help maintain the capacity for egg-based vaccine production. While vaccines offer the potential to control avian disease, a major concern of current vaccines is their potency and inability to protect against evolving avian influenza viruses. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ability of DNA vaccines encoding hemagglutinin (HA proteins from different HPAI H5N1 serotypes was evaluated for its ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies and to protect against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5N1 strain challenge in mice and chickens after DNA immunization by needle and syringe or with a pressure injection device. These vaccines elicited antibodies that neutralized multiple strains of HPAI H5N1 when given in combinations containing up to 10 HAs. The response was dose-dependent, and breadth was determined by the choice of the influenza virus HA in the vaccine. Monovalent and trivalent HA vaccines were tested first in mice and conferred protection against lethal H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/2004 challenge 68 weeks after vaccination. In chickens, protection was observed against heterologous strains of HPAI H5N1 after vaccination with a trivalent H5 serotype DNA vaccine with doses as low as 5 microg DNA given twice either by intramuscular needle injection or with a needle-free device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DNA vaccines offer a generic approach to influenza virus immunization applicable to multiple animal species. In addition, the ability to substitute plasmids encoding different strains enables rapid adaptation of the vaccine to newly evolving field isolates.

  18. Diffractive Bremsstrahlung in Hadronic Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pasechnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of heavy photons (Drell-Yan, gauge bosons, Higgs bosons, and heavy flavors, which is treated within the QCD parton model as a result of hard parton-parton collision, can be considered a bremsstrahlung process in the target rest frame. In this review, we discuss the basic features of the diffractive channels of these processes in the framework of color dipole approach. The main observation is a dramatic breakdown of diffractive QCD factorisation due to the interplay between soft and hard interactions, which dominates these processes. This observation is crucial for phenomenological studies of diffractive reactions in high energy hadronic collisions.

  19. Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan; Stephanov, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    Using a covariant formalism, we construct a chiral kinetic theory Lorentz invariant to order $\\mathcal O(\\hbar)$ which includes collisions. We find a new contribution to the particle number current due to the side jumps required by the conservation of angular momentum during collisions. We also find a conserved symmetric stress-energy tensor as well as the $H$-function obeying Boltzmann's $H$-theorem. We demonstrate their use by finding a general equilibrium solution and the values of the anomalous transport coefficients characterizing chiral vortical effect.

  20. Avians as a model system of vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Michael; Mikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, philosophers and scientists have turned to the avian embryo with questions of how life begins (Aristotle and Peck Generations of Animals. Loeb Classics, vol. XIII. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1943; Needham, A history of embryology. Abelard-Schuman, New York, 1959). Then, as now, the unique accessibility of the embryo both in terms of acquisition of eggs from domesticated fowl and ease at which the embryo can be visualized by simply opening the shell has made avians an appealing and powerful model system for the study of development. Thus, as the field of embryology has evolved through observational, comparative, and experimental embryology into its current iteration as the cellular and molecular biology of development, avians have remained a useful and practical system of study.

  1. Avian influenza surveillance in backyard poultry of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, C; Espinosa, C; Terrera, M V; De Benedetti, R

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an exotic disease in Argentina. A surveillance program for AI was conducted in backyard poultry during 1998-2005 in two regions: 1) region A, which included the avian population in the provinces that border Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, and 2) region B, which included the rest of the provinces of the country. More than 8000 serum samples were tested for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or agar gel immunodiffusion tests, and more than 18,000 tracheal and cloacal swabs were tested for virus by isolation in embryonated specific-pathogen-free eggs. This study was part of the AI prevention program in Argentina, which includes other avian populations such as commercial poultry and all the controls for importation and exportation of live birds. The results from backyard poultry were negative for AI.

  2. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail.

  3. Microwave or autoclave treatments destroy the infectivity of infectious bronchitis virus and avian pneumovirus but allow detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhafi, G; Naylor, C J; Savage, C E; Jones, R C

    2004-06-01

    A method is described for enabling safe transit of denatured virus samples for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification without the risk of unwanted viable viruses. Cotton swabs dipped in avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) or avian pneumovirus (APV) were allowed to dry. Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza viruses were used as controls. Autoclaving and microwave treatment for as little as 20 sec destroyed the infectivity of all four viruses. However, both IBV and APV could be detected by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR after autoclaving and as long as 5 min microwave treatment (Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza viruses were not tested). Double microwave treatment of IBV and APV with an interval of 2 to 7 days between was tested. After the second treatment, RT-PCR products were readily detected in all samples. Swabs from the tracheas and cloacas of chicks infected with IBV shown to contain infectious virus were microwaved. Swabs from both sources were positive by RT-PCR. Microwave treatment appears to be a satisfactory method of inactivating virus while preserving nucleic acid for PCR identification.

  4. Occupant injury protection in automobile collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G A; Peters, B J

    1999-12-01

    Modern technology has produced automotive vehicles that have become both a luxury and a necessity in modern civilization. They have become highly useful, even more varied in form and function, and capable of high speeds on crowded roadways. One unfortunate consequence is the high frequency of accidents and the greater severity of injuries when collisions do occur. In response, modern technology has produced a variety of safety and health features, devices and designs intended for better occupant protection on in high speed vehicles. Injury reduction has become a prime design objective, but there are residual risks, which, as technology evolves, require effective communication to those risk. There can be little risk avoidance behavior without awareness of the hazards and effective communication to the vehicle occupant, as to what could and should be done for self-protection. For example, one out of three drivers apparently fails to understand the function of head restraints, few understand the 'safe zone' posture required for air bags and many believe safety features should be adjusted only for comfort. Some of the current residual injury producing problems in occupant systems are specifically described here in order to illustrate what is needed in terms of both design remedies and health promotion activities.

  5. Absence of avian pox in wild turkeys in central Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, C E; Stacey, L M; Hurst, G A

    1991-07-01

    Eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) (n = 1,023), obtained during winter, spring, and summer from 1983 to 1988 on Tallahala Wildlife Management Area (TWMA) (Jasper County, Mississippi, USA) were examined for avian pox lesions. Domestic turkey poults (n = 152) maintained on the area for 1 to 2 wk periods from 1987 to 1989 also were examined. Neither wild nor domestic birds showed gross evidence of pox virus infection. This study indicated that avian pox was not endemic in wild turkeys at TWMA.

  6. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  7. Comparative genomic data of the Avian Phylogenomics Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Bo; Li, Cai;

    2014-01-01

    , which include 38 newly sequenced avian genomes plus previously released or simultaneously released genomes of Chicken, Zebra finch, Turkey, Pigeon, Peregrine falcon, Duck, Budgerigar, Adelie penguin, Emperor penguin and the Medium Ground Finch. We hope that this resource will serve future efforts...... in an average N50 scaffold size of about 50 kb. Repetitive elements comprised 4%-22% of the bird genomes. The assembled scaffolds allowed the homology-based annotation of 13,000 ~ 17000 protein coding genes in each avian genome relative to chicken, zebra finch and human, as well as comparative and sequence...

  8. Teaching avian patients and caregivers in the examination room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ellen K

    2012-09-01

    Client education and patient well-being should be primary goals and responsibilities for practicing avian veterinarians. Time is limited in the normal clinical appointment setting. However, this opportunity can still be used to introduce clients to the basics of training with positive reinforcement. These methods build a healthy relationship of trust between caregivers and their birds. Within the allotted appointment time, it is possible to teach clients how to train a simple behavior. This article outlines and demonstrates how training avian patients is successfully applied in a typical clinical practice.

  9. Sensitivity and entanglement in the avian chemical compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P.; Kais, Sabre

    2014-10-01

    The radical pair mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, using a two-stage model, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  10. Sensitivity and Entanglement in the Avian Chemical Compass

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

    2014-01-01

    The Radical Pair Mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, based on a two-stage strategy, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle-dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  11. The challenges of avian influenza virus: mechanism, epidemiology and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George F. GAO; Pang-Chui SHAW

    2009-01-01

    @@ Early 2009, eight human infection cases of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, with 5 death cases, were reported in China. This again made the world alert on a possible pandemic worldwide, probably caused by avian-origin influenza virus. Again H5N1 is in the spotlight of the world, not only for the scientists but also for the ordinary people. How much do we know about this virus? Where will this virus go and where did it come? Can we avoid a possible pandemic of influenza? Will the human beings conquer this devastating agent? Obviously we can list more questions than we know the answers.

  12. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  13. Microbes of the avian cecum: types present and substrates utilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the types and properties of microorganisms found in avian ceca, with special reference to the chicken. Microbial activity in the cecum is primarily fermentative, but there has been little evidence of cellulose fermentation, and the predominant bacterial types are relatively inactive against other high-molecular-weight compounds of dietary origin. In all avian species examined, the consistent presence of large populations of uric acid-degrading bacteria supports the view that microbial populations in the ceca permit reabsorption of water and possibly nonprotein nitrogen from the backflow of urine. These capabilities may be of particular importance to wild birds under conditions of water and food deprivation.

  14. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  15. General characteristics of hadron-hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, E W

    2004-01-01

    Soft multiparticle production in hadron-hadron collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on its role as a standard for heavy-ion collisions at SPS and RHIC energies and as a bridge interpolating between the most simple e **+e**- and the most complex AA collisions.

  16. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) recovered from a clinically healthy chicken in the United States and characterization of its pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyuk Moo; LeRoith, Tanya; Pudupakam, R. S.; Pierson, F. William; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A genetically distinct strain of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV-VA strain) was isolated from a healthy chicken in Virginia, and thus it is important to characterize and compare its pathogenicity with the prototype strain (avian HEV-prototype) isolated from a diseased chicken. Here we first constructed an infectious clone of the avian HEV-VA strain. Capped RNA transcripts from the avian HEV-VA clone were replication-competent after transfection of LMH chicken liver cells. Chickens inoculat...

  17. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  18. An expost economic assessment of the intervention against highly pathogenic avian influenza in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadou L. Fadiga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the intervention against avian influenza in Nigeria. It applied a simple compartmental model to define endemic and burn-out scenarios for the risk of spread of HPAI in Nigeria. It followed with the derivation of low and high mortality risks associated to each scenario. The estimated risk parameters were subsequently used to stochastically simulate the trajectory of the disease, had no intervention been carried out. Overall, the intervention costs US$ 41 million, which was yearly dis- bursed in various amounts over the 2006-2010 period. The key output variables (incremental net benefit, disease cost, and benefit cost ratio were estimated for each randomly drawn risk parameter. With a 12% annual discount rate, the results show that the intervention was economically justified under the endemic scenario with high mortality risk. On average, incremental benefit under this scenario amounted to US$ 63.7 million, incremental net benefit to US$27.2 million, and benefit cost ratio estimated to 1.75.

  19. Dijet imbalance in hadronic collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    The imbalance of dijets produced in hadronic collisions has been used to extract the average transverse momentum of partons inside the hadrons. In this paper we discuss new contributions to the dijet imbalance that could complicate or even hamper this extraction. They are due to polarization of init

  20. High velocity collisions of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald F.; Mattson, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are a unique class of material with highly functionalizable surfaces and exciting applications. With a large surface-to-volume ratio and potentially high surface tension, shocked nanoparticles might display unique materials behavior. Using density functional theory, we have simulated high-velocity NP collisions under a variety of conditions. NPs composed of diamond-C, cubic-BN, and diamond-Si were considered with particle sizes up to 3.5 nm diameter. Additional simulations involved NPs that were destabilized by incorporating internal strain. The initial spherical NP structures were carved out of bulk crystals while the NPs with internal strain were constructed as a dense core (compressive strain) encompassed by a thin shell (tensile strain). Both on-axis and off-axis collisions were simulated at 10 km/s relative velocity. The amount of internal strain was artificially increased by creating a dense inner core with bond lengths compressed up to 8%. Collision dynamics, shock propagation, and fragmentation will be analyzed, but the simulation are ongoing and results are not finalized. The effect of material properties, internal strain, and collision velocity will be discussed.

  1. Cern collisions light up Copenhagen

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Anyone passing by the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, might be startled by some strange moving lights on the facade of the institute's main building. In fact, the dancing beams show, almost in real time, collisions form the Atlas experiment at Cern's Large Hadron Collider (LHC)" (1 paragraph)

  2. Quarkonium production in hadronic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavai, R. [Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Schuler, G.A.; Sridhar, K. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    We summarize the theoretical description of charmonium and bottonium production in hadronic collisions and compare it to the available data from hadron-nucleon interactions. With the parameters of the theory established by these data, we obtain predictions for quarkonium production at RHIC and LHC energies.

  3. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the collidi...

  4. Heterogeneity and Seroprevalence of a Newly Identified Avian Hepatitis E Virus from Chickens in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, F. F.; Haqshenas, G.; Shivaprasad, H L; Guenette, D. K.; Woolcock, P. R.; Larsen, C. T.; Pierson, F.W.; F Elvinger; Toth, T. E.; Meng, X. J.

    2002-01-01

    We recently identified and characterized a novel virus, designated avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HS syndrome) in the United States. Avian HEV is genetically related to but distinct from human and swine HEVs. To determine the extent of genetic variation and the seroprevalence of avian HEV infection in chicken flocks, we genetically identified and characterized 11 additional avian HEV isolates from chickens with HS syndrome and assessed...

  5. Entomological study on transmission of avian malaria parasites in a zoological garden in Japan: bloodmeal identification and detection of avian malaria parasite DNA from blood-fed mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Kim, Kyeong-Soon; Hara, Tatsuko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Imura, Takayuki; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2011-05-01

    Several species of captive and wild birds have been found to be infected with various avian blood protozoa in Japan. We investigated the prevalence and transmission of avian malaria parasite and determined the bloodmeal hosts of mosquitoes collected in a zoological garden in Tokyo, Japan, by using the polymerase chain reaction. In total, 310 unfed and 140 blood-fed mosquitoes of seven species were collected by using sweep nets and CDC traps. Bloodmeal identification indicated that mosquitoes had fed on 17 avian and five mammalian species, including captive animals. The results of avian malaria parasite detection from mosquitoes with avian bloodmeals indicated that Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet is a main vector of avian Plasmodium in the current study site and that some captive and wild birds could be infected with avian malaria parasites. Furthermore, the distances between the collection site of blood-fed mosquitoes and the locations of their blood-source captive animals were estimated. Most females with fresh bloodmeals were found within 40 m of caged animals, whereas half-gravid and gravid females were found between 10 and 350 m from caged host animals. We demonstrated that blood-fed mosquitoes can provide useful information regarding the mosquito vector species of avian malaria parasites and allows for noninvasive detection of the presence of avian malaria parasites in bird populations.

  6. Observation of atomic collisions in crystalline solids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, R S; Gevers, R

    2013-01-01

    The Observation of Atomic Collisions in Crystalline Solids presents a critical account of the more important experiments which have provided the basis for a better understanding of atomic collision phenomena in crystalline solids. Collisions have been divided into two artificial regimes; primary collisions which deal with the interaction of the incident particles with the solid, and secondary collisions which deal with those events which occur as a result of lattice atoms recoiling from primary encounters. Although the book is intended principally for the experimentalist some simple theoretica

  7. Flocking and self-defense: experiments and simulations of avian mobbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2011-03-01

    We have performed motion capture studies in the field of avian mobbing, in which flocks of prey birds harass predatory birds. Our empirical studies cover both field observations of mobbing occurring in mid-air, where both predator and prey are in flight, and an experimental system using actual prey birds and simulated predator ``perch and wait'' strategies. To model our results and establish the effectiveness of mobbing flight paths at minimizing risk of capture while optimizing predator harassment, we have performed computer simulations using the actual measured trajectories of mobbing prey birds combined with model predator trajectories. To accurately simulate predator motion, we also measured raptor acceleration and flight dynamics, well as prey-pursuit strategies. These experiments and theoretical studies were all performed with undergraduate research assistants in a liberal arts college setting. This work illustrates how biological physics provides undergraduate research projects well-suited to the abilities of physics majors with interdisciplinary science interests and diverse backgrounds.

  8. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  9. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.G.; Van Dijk, J.G.B.; Vuong, O.; Lexmond, P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2014-01-01

    Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds, has largel

  10. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); J.G.B. Dijk (Jacintha); O. Vuong (Spronken); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); P. Lexmond (Pascal); M. Klaassen (Marcel); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMigratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds

  11. Investigating Maternal Hormones in Avian Eggs : Measurement, Manipulation, and Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Engelhardt, Nikolaus von

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a surge in studies on steroid hormones of maternal origin present in avian eggs and affecting offspring development. The value of such studies for the understanding of maternal effects and individual differentiation is endorsed and a series of methodological and concept

  12. Investigating maternal hormones in avian eggs : Measurement, manipulation, and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, TGG; Von Engelhardt, N; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a surge in studies on steroid hormones of maternal origin present in avian eggs and affecting offspring development. The value of such studies for the understanding of maternal effects and individual differentiation is endorsed and a series of methodological and concept

  13. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  14. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ... Fourth Epidemic — China, September 2015–August 2016." H7N9 Outbreak Characterization H7N9 infections in people and poultry ...

  15. Developmental imaging: the avian embryo hatches to the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, Paul M; McKinney, Mary C; McLennan, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    The avian embryo provides a multifaceted model to study developmental mechanisms because of its accessibility to microsurgery, fluorescence cell labeling, in vivo imaging, and molecular manipulation. Early two-dimensional planar growth of the avian embryo mimics human development and provides unique access to complex cell migration patterns using light microscopy. Later developmental events continue to permit access to both light and other imaging modalities, making the avian embryo an excellent model for developmental imaging. For example, significant insights into cell and tissue behaviors within the primitive streak, craniofacial region, and cardiovascular and peripheral nervous systems have come from avian embryo studies. In this review, we provide an update to recent advances in embryo and tissue slice culture and imaging, fluorescence cell labeling, and gene profiling. We focus on how technical advances in the chick and quail provide a clearer understanding of how embryonic cell dynamics are beautifully choreographed in space and time to sculpt cells into functioning structures. We summarize how these technical advances help us to better understand basic developmental mechanisms that may lead to clinical research into human birth defects and tissue repair.

  16. Avian Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Organic Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Rocio; Opriessnig, Tanja; Uzal, Francisco; Gerber, Priscilla F

    2015-09-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 141 chickens from 10 organic layer flocks with a history of severe drop in egg production (up to 40%) and slight increased mortality (up to 1% per week) were submitted to the Avian Health and Food Safety Laboratory (Puyallup, WA). At necropsy, the most common finding was pinpoint white foci on the liver and regressed ova without any other remarkable lesions. Histologically, there was multifocal mild-to-severe acute necrotizing hepatitis present. No significant bacteria were recovered from liver samples, and tests for mycotoxins were negative. Twenty-six serum samples from four affected flocks tested were positive for avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin Y antibodies. Avian HEV RNA was detected in 10 livers of chickens from two different affected flocks. The avian HEV was characterized by sequencing and determined to belong to genotype 2. The diagnosis of a clinical manifest HEV was based solely on the demonstration of specific viral RNA and the absence of other causative agents in samples from flocks, as the clinical sings and pathologic lesions were atypical.

  17. Low frequency of paleoviral infiltration across the avian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    of endogenous viral element evolution.Results: Through a systematic screening of the genomes of 48 species sampled across the avian phylogeny we reveal that birds harbor a limited number of endogenous viral elements compared to mammals, with only five viral families observed: Retroviridae, Hepadnaviridae...

  18. First characterization of avian influenza viruses from Greenland 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Ravn Merkel, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    In late February 2014, unusually high numbers of wild birds, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), were found dead at the coast of South Greenland. To investigate the cause of death, 45 birds were submitted for laboratory examinations in Denmark. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with subtypes H11N2...

  19. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielink, van R.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce inf

  20. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Wit (Emmie); Y. Kawaoka (Yoshihiro); M.D. de Jong (Menno); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death.