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Sample records for avestruz struthio camelus

  1. Histologia do intestino do avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

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    Gisele Saviani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de o avestruz (Struthio camelus compartilhar muitas adaptações evolucionárias presentes em outras aves, estes animais apresentam algumas características anatômicas peculiares, como é o caso do seu tubo digestivo em que o cólon é maior que o ceco. Há algum tempo, essa ave tem sido explorada econômicamente e principalmente como fonte alternativa de proteína animal na alimentação humana. O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos histológicos do intestino de avestruzes produzidos em boas condições de manejo ambiental e nutricional. Foram utilizados 13 avestruzes, com 18 a 30 meses de idade, provenientes da empresa Brasil Ostrich, e encaminhados para o abate no Abatedouro Escola da Universidade de São Paulo, Campus Administrativo de Pirassununga. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria e evisceração, foram colhidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do intestino: duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco duplo. Os materiais foram processados, corados pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E e examinados em microscopia de campo claro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as vilosidades estão presentes no duodeno, porém, não existem no ceco. Dos quatro segmentos intestinais examinados, o ceco foi o que apresentou maior número de células caliciformes. Os nódulos linfáticos e os linfócitos foram observados em todos os segmentos examinados. No ceco, os nódulos linfáticos se agregam para constituir a placa de Peyer. O plano histológico dos segmentos intestinais examinados seguiu o padrão observado nos mamíferos domésticos e em outras aves. O conhecimento da histologia dos intestinos desses animais pode oferecer subsídios para a avaliação comparativa de procedimentos de manejo ambiental e nutricional que possam aumentar os níveis de produção e produtividade dessa atividade pecuária.

  2. Artérias das glândulas adrenais em avestruzes (Struthio camelus

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    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p125 O crescimento da criação racional de avestruz e seus subprodutos têm despertado interesse dos pesquisadores em ampliar os estudos com esse animal. Assim, áreas de pesquisa básicas, como a morfologia, tornam-se necessárias para dar subsídios às áreas aplicadas. Com o intuito de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares das glândulas adrenais, utilizaram-se 30 avestruzes (Struthio camelus, de quatro dias de vida, tendo seus contingentes arteriais marcados com solução aquosa corada de Neoprene Látex “450” a 50% e fixados em solução diluída de formol a 10%. A cavidade celomática foi exposta para a identificação das referidas glândulas, que são órgãos pares e encontram-se recobertas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo, disposto simetricamente nos dois antímeros, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e cranio-medialmente aos lobos craniais dos rins. O aporte sanguíneo arterial, em ambos os antímeros, é proveniente das artérias adrenais direita e esquerda, dos ramos das artérias renais craniais direita e esquerda e dos ramos diretos da aorta descendente. Independentemente da origem, os números de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variaram de um a dois e de um a três respectivamente para os antímeros esquerdo e direito.

  3. Histologia do fígado de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

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    Gisele Saviani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A criação de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758 é uma atividade de grande potencial, porém não existem padrões definidos sobre a histologia do seu fígado, que é um órgão de grande importância no metabolismo. O conhecimento de sua histologia pode contribuir para a detecção de doenças e deficiências nutricionais no animal. Para este estudo foram utilizados 24 avestruzes com idades entre 12 e 18 meses (com peso médio em torno de 80 a 100 kg, provenientes do abatedouro Don Pig, em Botucatu no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria, as amostras do fígado foram processadas e observadas em microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. A hematoxilina e eosina (H.E, picrossírius, Gordon e Sweets, Sudan black e o ácido peródico de Schiff (PAS são colorações usadas respectivamente para observar a morfologia do fígado, colágeno, fibras reticulares, gordura e glicogênio. Foram encontrados os espaços portahepáticos.O glicogênio mostrou média de 5,68%, o conteúdo lipídico, média de 9,83%, o colágeno média de 14,71% e as fibras reticulares média de 5,96%. Quanto à MET notou-se no citoplasma dos hepatócitos, numerosas mitocôndrias, glicogênio, muitas gotas de gordura, alguns lisossomos, retículo endoplasmático granular ao redor das mitocôndrias, algumas células estreladas, célula em degeneração e o canalículo biliar ao centro. Provavelmente o quadro sugestivo de esteatose é resultante do estado nutricional dos animais. Estes resultados demonstraram que os hepatócitos dos avestruzes são muito similares às outras aves, como também muito semelhantes à estrutura e ultraestrutura das células do fígado de mamíferos.

  4. Análise histológica do trato gastrintestinal de avestruzes jovens (Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p149 Aspectos histológicos do trato gastrintestinal do avestruz (Struthio camelus são pouco estudados, portanto, é de interesse desta pesquisa ampliar tais estudos. Para isso foram obtidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do tubo digestório de cinco avestruzes jovens, com idade entre 20 a 30 dias. Com base nos resultados obtidos pudemos concluir que os diferentes segmentos do tubo digestório do avestruz jovem apresenta a mesma estrutura geral de outras aves e mamíferos domésticos, com pequenas diferenças, como ausência de inglúvio e vesícula biliar, intestino grosso maior que o intestino delgado e ceco com propriedades fisiológicas semelhantes ao estômago de ruminantes.  Estas variações são inerentes à espécie ou podem ser decorrentes da idade e hábito alimentar. Esperamos que esta análise contribua para uma melhor compreensão dos processos fisiológicos relacionados à nutrição e ao manejo do avestruz durante seu crescimento.

  5. Poblaciones bacterianas utilizadoras de hidrógeno presentes en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz (Struthio camelus Var. Domesticus

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    J. M. Miramontes-Carrillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tres grupos de bacterias compiten por hidrógeno en diferentes ecosistemas anaerobios, y junto con CO 2 , producen metano, sulfuro dehidrógeno y acetato. Estas reacciones representan ganancia de energía al animal. Motivo por el cual, el presente trabajo pretende evaluar la presencia y tamaño de poblaciones de bacterias utilizadoras de hidrógeno en el tracto gastrointestinaldel avestruz. Para ello se utilizaron medios AC11 para acetogénicas, Potgate para sulfato-reductoras y Fosfato buffer para metanogénicas. Las poblaciones se determinaron por el método del número más probable (NMP. El diseño fue completamente al azar, con arreglo factorial, A = porciones del tracto digestivo y B = microorganismo. El NMP, de acetogénicas y metanogénicas fue cero. Las bacterias sulfato-reductoras están presentes en todo el tracto gastrointestinal. Las poblaciones fueron 544.00; 532.00; 157.20; 155.32 y 76.48 x 10/ 6 para el intestino grueso, ciegos, intestino delgado, proventrículo y ventrículo, respectivamente. Los resultados confirman presencia y predominio de las sulfato-reductoras en todas las porciones del tracto gastrointestinal del Struthio camelus. La producción de AGV en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz, es producto del metabolismo y reutilización del hidrógeno por bacterias sulfato-reductoras.

  6. Prevalência de anticorpos anti - Toxoplasma gondii em avestruzes (Struthio camelus de criatórios comerciais no estado de São Paulo

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    Ana Paula Angelucci Contente

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose cosmopolita causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii, podendo acometer mamíferos e aves. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em avestruzes (Struthio camelus de criatórios comerciais do estado de São Paulo, como forma de auxiliar no conhecimento do comportamento e importância do parasito nesta espécie animal. Foram colhidas 195 amostras de soro de avestruzes, provenientes de Sorocaba, Campinas, São Carlos, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Vale do Ribeira, Botucatu e São José do Rio Preto, estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram analisadas pela Técnica de Aglutinação Direta Modificada (MAT, para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti - Toxoplasma gondii. Os exames sorológicos revelaram 14,36% de animais sororreagentes ao T. gondii. A titulação mínima considerada foi a diluição maior ou igual a 1:16, e a maior diluição encontrada foi 1:16384. Não foi constatada diferença significativa entre os sexos. Apenas duas regiões (São Paulo e São José do Rio Preto não apresentaram animais sororreagentes. Esses resultados salientam a importância de um estudo mais aprofundado sobre a infecção em avestruzes, e também sobre as práticas de manejo que venham a minimizar o risco de transmissão da toxoplasmose para essas aves e, por conseqüência, para o consumidor final.

  7. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus: estudo ao microscópio de luz Mechanoreceptors of the palatine mucosa of ostrich (Struthio camelus: light microscope study

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    Juliana P. Guimarães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas.Herbst corpuscles of the palatine mucosa of ostrich were studied by light microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of an outer core, inner core and central nerve terminal. The outer core presents numerous lamellae, while the inner core shows compact structure of cytoplasm sheets. The corpuscles are elongate or oval in shape and are surrounded by bundles of collagen fibers. Each lamella is composed of a dense network of thick fibrils. The terminal axons are located along the axis and form a bulb terminal. The fibers of external core stained by Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed to be green in color like type I collagen fibers, and at the periphery is a large amount of collagen type III. The corpuscles are surrounded by flat cells and dense collagen fibers at the periphery.

  8. Determinação da microbiota presente na cloaca e orofaringe de avestruzes (Struthio camelus clinicamente sadios

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    Melville Priscilla Anne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da microbiota que compõe as diferentes áreas do organismo tem importância reconhecida para a compreensão de doenças infecciosas que podem acometer os avestruzes, embora se disponha de dados limitados acerca deste assunto na literatura. Foi objetivo deste estudo determinar as espécies de microrganismos (bactérias aeróbias e fungos que compõem a microbiota normal de avestruzes. Para tanto, foram coletadas amostras de cloaca (N=50 e orofaringe (N=50 de avestruzes hígidos de um criadouro. Das amostras de cloaca, foram isolados Escherichia coli (76% das amostras positivas, Bacillus spp. (60%, Streptococcus spp. (18%, Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (16%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, Rhodotorula spp. (8%, dentre outros microrganismos isolados em cultura pura ou em associação com outras bactérias e/ou fungos. Das amostras de orofaringe, foram isolados E. coli (74% das amostras positivas, Candida albicans (44%, Bacillus spp. (38%, Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (32%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (32%, Rhodotorula spp. (8%, Criptococcus spp. (4%, dentre outros microrganismos isolados em cultura pura ou em associação com outras bactérias e/ou fungos. Verificou-se predominância de bactérias Gram negativas em relação às Gram positivas, nas microbiotas da cloaca e orofaringe. Verificou-se freqüência de ocorrência semelhante entre bactérias Gram negativas nas microbiotas da cloaca e orofaringe, bem como de bactérias Gram positivas nestes mesmos sítios. Observou-se maior ocorrência de leveduras em amostras de orofaringe quando comparadas com as de cloaca.

  9. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  10. AVALIAÇÃO BIOLÓGICA E FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DA CARE DE AVESTRUZ (Struthio camelus) E SEU EFEITO OS PARAMÊTROS BIOQUÍMICOS EM RATOS

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    Tiffany Prokopp Hautrive

    2008-01-01

    A carne de avestruz está sendo introduzida no mercado das carnes como uma alternativa mais saudável quando comparada com outras carnes, pois tem baixo teor de lipídios totais, de ácidos graxos saturados e calorias. Apesar desses benefícios relatados na literatura científica sobre a carne de avestruz, existem poucos trabalhos, em relação à qualidade protéica e o efeito do consumo desta carne sobre o metabolismo de humanos e animais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a avaliação bi...

  11. Fermentative digestion in the ostrich ( Struthio camelus var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentative digestion in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus ), a large avian species that utilizes cellulose1. D Swart, RI Mackie, JP Hayes. Abstract. The production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was studied in vitro to assess the possible contribution of microbial fermentation to the energy economy of growing ostrich ...

  12. Sex Determination in Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Using PCR Technique

    OpenAIRE

    M Alipanah; .H Taghavi; A Torkamanzehi; M Yosefelahi

    2011-01-01

    The important of ostrich breeding have been increased in the Iran as other country around the world. Lack of sexual dimorphism in many species of birds including Ostrich (Struthio camelus), making it difficult to differentiate between males and females, especially in young birds. This can be problematic for breeding programs. Blood samples from randomly chicks in the first days were collected and then DNA was extracted from blood. For sex typing used PCR by OSFES primer that produced a 423 fr...

  13. Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infestando avestruzes (Struthio camelus em uma criação no Município de Três Rios, RJ Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ

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    Thais F. Fagundes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a criação de avestruzes foi iniciada no final do Século XX, para suprir o mercado internacional de carne, plumas e couro. As plumas têm importância econômica nos setores industrial e artesanal. Os piolhos podem causar prurido intenso, que, dependendo da intensidade de infestação, pode levar à depreciação das plumas. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, são desconhecidas as espécies de piolhos que infestam avestruzes. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os piolhos que ocorrem nas aves pertencentes a um criatório comercial no Município de Três Rios. Nos anos de 2003 a 2006, mensalmente, as avestruzes foram examinadas, para verificar a presença de ectoparasitos. Quando constatada a infestação, algumas plumas foram retiradas, colocadas em sacos plásticos e enviadas ao laboratório para exame. Após serem coletados das plumas, os ectoparasitos foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópio, clarificados em hidróxido de potássio a 10%, desidratados em álcool etílico e montados em lâmina com balsamo do Canadá natural, para observação em microscópio óptico. Baseando-se na observação das características, foi possível determinar os espécimes coletados como pertencentes à espécie Struthiolipeurus rheae.In Brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th Century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. Feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. Lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. In Rio de Janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. Thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the Municipality of Três Rios. From 2003 to 2006 ostriches were monthly examined for the presence of ectoparasites. When infestations were detected some feathers were removed, placed into plastic bags and sent to the

  14. Sex Determination in Ostrich (Struthio camelus Using PCR Technique

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    M Alipanah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The important of ostrich breeding have been increased in the Iran as other country around the world. Lack of sexual dimorphism in many species of birds including Ostrich (Struthio camelus, making it difficult to differentiate between males and females, especially in young birds. This can be problematic for breeding programs. Blood samples from randomly chicks in the first days were collected and then DNA was extracted from blood. For sex typing used PCR by OSFES primer that produced a 423 fragment. Our results shown that sex determination using PCR method for chicks in the first days is useful, easy and inexpensive.

  15. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  16. Anatomical description of the ostrich (Struthio camelus skeleton: case report

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    Ana Greice Borba Leite

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich (Struthio camelus is a bird characterized by its large size, it can achieve 2.8m in height and weight over 150kg. It has an Egyptian origin and then spread throughout Africa. Commercial breeding began about 150 years ago, with the domestication of native animals from South Africa, country which holds the first position in meat supply. Several musculoskeletal diseases were observed in fast-growing birds, such as ostrich. High body weight, associated to a developing bone structure, is indicated as the main cause of disorders of the locomotor system. In this study, an adult male specimen was used, from an ostrich production farm located at the town of Paranatama, Pernambuco, Brazil. After removing soft tissues, bone measurements were performed with caliper and tape measure, and each bone was photographed for documentation and described. This study aims to contribute to increase knowledge on the ostrich skeletal system, as well as provide a basis for muscle development, one of the main targets of commercial exploitation with regard to this species.

  17. Soroepidemiologia da doença de Newcastle em plantéis de avestruzes dos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,Lia Muniz Barretto; Silva,Priscila Sousa da; Ramos,Izabella; Sales,Tatiane Santana; Herval,Elen Fabiane Guimarães; Batinga,Thaís de Brito; Maia,Paulo César Costa; César,André Eduardo Rocha; Doretto Júnior,Luciano; Meyer,Roberto; Freire,Songeli Menezes

    2010-01-01

    Estudos sorológicos em Avestruzes (Struthio camelus) são ferramentas úteis para analisar os riscos relacionados à Doença de Newcastle nesses plantéis e à avicultura nacional. No presente estudo, amostras de sangue foram obtidas de avestruzes de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e sem apresentação de sintomatologia clínica, criadas nos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle por meio de ELISA indireto. ...

  18. Histological analysis of the gastrointestinal tracts of young ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The histological aspects of the gastrointestinal tract of the ostrich (Struthio camelus have been little studied, so this research is focused on such analysis. To this end, samples were obtained from different segments of the digestive tubes of five young ostriches aged 20 to 30 days. Based on the results, the authors conclude that the different segments of the digestive tube of the young ostrich presents the same general structure as that of other domestic birds and mammals, with some differences that may be due to age, the species involved, or feeding habits. It is hopes that this analysis will contribute to a better understanding of the physiological processes related to the nutrition and management of ostriches during their growth.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TIBIOTARSAL, TARSOMETATARSAL AND PHALANGEAL MUSCLES IN OSTRICH (Struthio camelus

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    Rizah Avdić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich (Struthio camelus is the largest living bird not indiginious in our climate, but with a currently increasing trend of farm breeding in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the purposes of food and leather industry.Beside the standard laboratory methods for meat specification, it is also necessary to be familiar with morphological characteristics of the ostrich musculature, in order to be able to specify the meat on the market, i.e. to determinate authenticity of the meat declaration.The research was conducted on three mature female African Black ostriches in the age range between 3 to 7 years.By dissecting tibiotarsal, tarsometatarsal and phalangeal region, 15 muscles were identified with their basic morphometric and functional characteristics established.Key words: ostrich, musculature, topography, extensors, flexors

  20. Microstructure and thermal change of texture of calcite crystals in ostrich eggshell Struthio camelus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, A.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, A.G.; Lozano, L.F.; Pena-Rico, M.A.; Velazquez, R.; Basiuk, V.A.; Bucio, L.

    2005-01-01

    Eggshell from ostrich Struthio camelus, pristine and thermally treated in the range from room temperature to 550 deg. C, was investigated with low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). Different zones of the eggshell were analysed, including the protein-related, non-crystalline, inner organic membrane. After the high-temperature treatment (>500 deg. C), only crystallised calcite phase was found showing two main textures depending on the shell zone and the treatment temperature. In the crystal layer of the untreated samples, nanosized calcite crystals are organized with their c crystallographic axes highly aligned normal to eggshell surface (a very sharp gaussian angular distribution, σ=0.14, was obtained by using the Rietveld method to model the preferred orientation function in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern). Elemental analysis revealed more Mg 2+ in the crystal layer than in cone layer of the eggshell. A high nitrogen content in the organic membrane is associated to a proteinaceous phase. The cone and palisade layers are composed of needle-shaped calcite crystals, which are more crystallized than in the crystal layer and in average with their c crystallographic axes oriented in all directions except for the one perpendicular to the eggshell surface. Due to the complex structure and the amorphous/crystal phase interactions, the heating at about 500 deg. C texturizes the crystals orienting them mainly along the c-axes normal to the inner eggshell surface

  1. Analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich Struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.

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    Tian Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To better understand the Ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the Ig genes in the ostrich (Struthio camelus, which is one of the most primitive birds. Similar to the chicken and duck, the ostrich expressed only three IgH chain isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgY and λ light chains. The IgM and IgY constant domains are similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. Although conventional IgM, IgA and IgY cDNAs were identified in the ostrich, we also detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound form of IgA (lacking the last two C(H exons that was undetectable at the protein level. No IgD or κ encoding genes were identified. The presence of a single leader peptide in the expressed heavy chain and light chain V regions indicates that gene conversion also plays a major role in the generation of antibody diversity in the ostrich. Because the ostrich is one of the most primitive living aves, this study suggests that the distinct features of the bird Ig genes appeared very early during the divergence of the avian species and are thus shared by most, if not all, avian species.

  2. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana and ostriches (Struthio camelus from farms of different Brazilian regions

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    Amanda Brentano Almeida

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the occurrence of antibodies againstToxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana and ostriches (Struthio camelus commercially breeding in Brazil. Blood samples from 20 rheas and 46 ostriches (young and adults were serologically tested using a technique known as modified agglutination test (MAT at an initial titration of 1:16 for ostriches and 1:25 for rheas. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 50% (10/20 of the rheas, with titers ranging from 1:25 to 1:6,400. The incidence of antibodies against T. gondii in ostriches was 17.4% (8/46 with titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. Birds showing titers higher than 1:200 forT. gondii were mainly the young ones. Therefore, rheas and ostriches may be parasitized by T. gondii, showing high levels of antibodies against this parasite.

  3. Gender effect on the metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Di Meo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to better define the effect of the sex on the metabolic profile of young ostriches (Struthio camelus domesticus, forty birds were divided into two groups by sex (20 males vs20 females. The animals were fed ad libitumnatural pasture and corn silage. The daily ration was completed by administering 1200 g/head of a commercial concentrate with the following chemical composition expressed as a percentage of dry mat- ter: crude protein 18.8, crude fibre 8.4, ether extract 3.6, ash 7.5. After about 12 h of fasting, in the mor- ning the blood was collected from the wing vein. The following biochemical parameters were determined: glu- cose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate (LAC, total protein (TP, uric acid, total bilirubin (Tbil, creatinine (CREA, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, natrium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, iron (Fe, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (AP, choline- sterase (ChE; α-amylase (Amyl, lipase (LIPA; γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT. Sex significantly affected only some haematic parameters: in the females total protein and calcium were higher than in the males (TP, 43.3 vs38.9 g/l, respectively for females and males, P< 0.05; Ca, 2.99 vs2.59 mmol/l, respectively for females and males, P< 0.01. The other haematic parameters did not show signifi- cant differences by sex, and the average values were: glucose (9.87 mmol/l, cholesterol (1.96 mmol/l, triglycerides (1.56 mmol/l, LAC (6.60 mmol/l, uric acid (361 mmol/l, CREA (31.95 µmol/l, Na (144.8 mmol/l, K (3.27 mmol/l, Cl (109.7 mmol/l, P (1.47 mmol/l, Mg (1.10 mmol/l, Fe (9.22 µmol/l, Tbil (9.28 µmol/l, AST (341.3 U/l, ALT (11.42 U/l, AP (75.8 U/l, GGT (10.07 U/l, Amyl (6.97 U/l, LIPA (241.2 U/l, ChE (385.1 U/l. The results of our study, in agreement with previous findings, contribute to enhance the knowledge on the metabolic profile of ostriches in function of the sex.

  4. Soroepidemiologia da doença de Newcastle em plantéis de avestruzes dos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Lia Muniz Barretto; Silva, Priscila Sousa da; Ramos, Izabella; Sales, Tatiane Santana; Herval, Elen Fabiane Guimarães; Batinga, Thaís de Brito; Maia, Paulo César Costa; César, André Eduardo Rocha; Doretto Júnior, Luciano; Nascimento, Roberto José Meyer; Freire, Songeli Menezes

    2010-01-01

    p.135-140 Estudos sorológicos em Avestruzes (Struthio camelus) são ferramentas úteis para analisar os riscos relacionados à Doença de Newcastle nesses plantéis e à avicultura nacional. No presente estudo, amostras de sangue foram obtidas de avestruzes de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e sem apresentação de sintomatologia clínica, criadas nos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle por meio de ELI...

  5. Evaluation of the Sedative Effects of Diazepam, Midazolam, and Xylazine After Intranasal Administration in Juvenile Ostriches ( Struthio camelus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mostafa; Azizi, Saeed; Vesal, Nasser; Dalir-Naghade, Bahram

    2016-09-01

    The sedative effects of diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine after intranasal administration were evaluated in 72 (36 male and 36 female) juvenile healthy ostriches ( Struthio camelus ), weighing 50-61 kg and aged 4-5 months. The birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 24), then each group was further subdivided to 4 subgroups (n = 6). For each drug, 4 different doses were chosen and the total calculated dose was equally administered into either naris of the individual bird. The appropriate dose of each drug to produce standing chemical restraint or sternal recumbency was evaluated based on the onset time, the duration of maximum effect, and the duration of sedation. Midazolam showed significantly shorter onset time (2.9 ± 1.2 minutes) compared with xylazine (4.4 ± 1 minute) and diazepam (4.3 ± 0.4 minutes). Longer duration of sedation was also achieved with midazolam compared with xylazine and diazepam. Moderate sedation was achieved with diazepam (0.8 mg/kg), midazolam (0.4 mg/kg), and xylazine (2 mg/kg) for standing chemical restraint, with the maximum duration effects of 7.0 ± 1.4, 17.7 ± 4.1, and 9.2 ± 2.5 minutes, respectively. Deep sedation was also achieved with midazolam (0.8 mg/kg) and xylazine (4 mg/kg), with sternal recumbency duration of 21.7 ± 4.9 and 13.5 ± 2.6 minutes, respectively. The results of the present study show that intranasal administration can be an effective route for delivery of sedatives in juvenile ostriches. Intranasal midazolam and xylazine could be suggested for standing chemical restraint or inducing sternal recumbency in juvenile ostriches.

  6. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  7. Soroepidemiologia da doença de Newcastle em plantéis de avestruzes dos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo Serologic occurrence of Newcastle disease in ostriches raised in Bahia and São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Muniz Barretto Fernandes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sorológicos em Avestruzes (Struthio camelus são ferramentas úteis para analisar os riscos relacionados à Doença de Newcastle nesses plantéis e à avicultura nacional. No presente estudo, amostras de sangue foram obtidas de avestruzes de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e sem apresentação de sintomatologia clínica, criadas nos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle por meio de ELISA indireto. Foram testadas 339 amostras provenientes do Estado da Bahia e 105 amostras do Estado de São Paulo. Apesar de os proprietários afirmarem que não foi utilizada vacina em seus animais, foi verificada positividade na Bahia de 17,9% e de 4,7% em São Paulo, em avestruzes, sugerindo contato com vírus vacinal ou de campo.Serological studies in ostriches (Struthio camelus are important tools to assess the risk of Newcastle disease in these herds and to the national poultry industry. In the present study blood samples were obtained from male and female ostriches without symptoms of the disease, raised in Bahia and São Paulo in order to evaluate the presence of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus using an indirect ELISA. There were collected 339 samples in Bahia and 105 samples in São Paulo. Although the owners guarantee that animals were not vaccinated, it was verified the presence 17,9% positives in Bahia and 4,7% in São Paulo, suggesting contact with vaccinal or field strain.

  8. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Hutchinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  9. Struthio camelus var

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14429640

    Abstract. This study describes changes occurring in the live weight and body composition of male and female. South African Black ostriches over a growing period of 285 days. Forty-five birds were given four diets with different protein (ca. 180 and ca. 120 g/kg feed) and energy (ca. 8.5 and ca. 13.5 MJ ME/kg feed) levels on ...

  10. Diagnóstico microbiológico e histopatológico de mortalidade em avestruzes (Struthio camelus Microbiological and histological diagnosis in mortality of ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vieira-da-Motta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several young ostrich, including nestlings, with lassitude and inappetence followed by death or victim of sudden death were immediately brought to diagnosis at an Animal Health Laboratory. At necropsy, animals presented hemorrhage and altered content of the vitelline sac, and necrotic foci in the small intestine; one animal showed necrotic pleuropneumonia with psammomatosus bodies in the lung parenchyma. The cultures from different samples revealed Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Pseudomonas mendocina. It was suggested one case of septicemia in an animal with exclusive growth of K. pneumoniae isolated from samples of small intestine, lung, and liver.

  11. Biochemical characterization of a novel antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from Struthio camelus egg white protein hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Asoodeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A peptide from ostrich (Struthio camelus egg white protein hydrolysate (OEWPH was purified, characterized, and its antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties were evaluated. The OEWPH was prepared using pepsin and pancreatin, and then fractionated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the WG-9 peptide was investigated based on its scavenging capacity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,20-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, superoxide (O2•−, hydroxyl (OH•−, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity and kinetic parameters of the peptide were determined using N-[3-(2-Furylacryloyl]-L-phenylalanyl-glycyl-glycine (FAPGG as a substrate. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the purified peptide revealed a sequence of WESLSRLLG (MW: 1060 Da; WG-9. This peptide inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and acted as a DPPH (IC50 = 15 ± 0.4 μg/mL, ABTS (IC50 = 130 ± 4.5 μg/mL, superoxide (IC50 = 160 ± 6.4 μg/mL, and hydroxyl (IC50 = 150 ± 6.7 μg/mL radical scavenger. The ACE-inhibitory activity and kinetic parameters of the WG-9 peptide were determined, showing an ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 of 46.7 ± 1.4 μg/mL. The parameters of peptide/ACE interactions were investigated by molecule docking. Furthermore, viability assays showed that the identified peptide had no cytotoxicity against an HFLF-PI-5 cell line. In conclusion, the WG-9 peptide showed potent antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity.

  12. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in

  13. Short communications: Comments concerning Ostrich Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications: Comments concerning Ostrich Struthio camelus populations in Kenya. D A Turner. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  14. Características físico-químicas de embutido curado fermentado com adição de carne de avestruz associada à de suíno Physico-chemical characteristics of fermented cured sausage with the addition of ostrich meat associated to pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e determinar as características físico-químicas e a composição centesimal de um embutido curado fermentado contendo carne de avestruz (Struthio camelus e carne suína. Para isso, utilizaram-se quatro formulações, e em uma não foi utilizada carne de avestruz (controle e nas outras foram utilizados 19, 38,3 e 57,6% dessa carne, em associação com a carne suína. Os produtos foram avaliados durante o processamento diariamente, na primeira semana e nos dias 14, 21 e 28, para análise de pH; nos dias zero, três, sete, 14, 21 e 28 foram avaliados quanto à atividade de água; e, após concluída a fabricação, foram avaliados quanto à quebra de peso e à composição centesimal (28 dias. Os resultados mostraram que os embutidos apresentaram um pH mais ácido do que o ideal. Peças com maior quantidade de carne de avestruz apresentaram uma maior perda de peso ao final do processamento, sendo a diferença entre o tratamento 3 e o tratamento controle de 8,2%. O teor de carne de avestruz alterou significativamente as peças em relação ao teor de umidade final. Com exceção do nível de gordura, todos os outros quesitos avaliados atendem ao Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Qualidade do Ministério da Agricultura.The aim of this research was to develop and to determine the physic-chemical characteristics and centesimal composition of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four different formulations were developed: one with no ostrich meat (control and others with levels of 19, 38.3 and 57.8%, respectively, in association with pork meat. The products were evaluated daily in the first week and in days 14, 21 and 28 for pH analysis and days zero, three, seven, 14, 21 and 28 for water activity analysis. After manufacturing was completed, weight loss and centesimal composition (28 days were evaluated. The results showed that the sausages presented p

  15. Fertility of female ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irek Malecki

    Abstract. In two experiments, one carried in South Africa and the other in Western Australia, the duration of sperm storage and the fertile period following separation of sexes were investigated by egg break-out and by counting the sperm in the perivitelline membrane (spermOPVL) above the germinal disc (GD) region.

  16. Declawing ostrich ( Struthio camelus domesticus ) chicks to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 140 day-old ostriches was declawed and a second group of 138 chicks served as the control. The two groups were reared separately to slaughter, but were rotated monthly between adjacent feedlot paddocks to minimize possible paddock effects. Overall, the declawed group had fewer scratch and kick marks on ...

  17. Phalangeal joints kinematics during ostrich (Struthio camelus locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich is a highly cursorial bipedal land animal with a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint supported by only two toes. Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running ostriches have been examined, these studies have been largely limited to above the metatarsophalangeal joint. In this study, kinematic data of all major toe joints were collected from gaits with double support (slow walking to running during stance period in a semi-natural setup with two selected cooperative ostriches. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of locomotor gait on toe joint kinematics. The MTP3 and MTP4 joints exhibit the largest range of motion whereas the first phalangeal joint of the 4th toe shows the largest motion variability. The interphalangeal joints of the 3rd and 4th toes present very similar motion patterns over stance phases of slow walking and running. However, the motion patterns of the MTP3 and MTP4 joints and the vertical displacement of the metatarsophalangeal joint are significantly different during running and slow walking. Because of the biomechanical requirements, osctriches are likely to select the inverted pendulum gait at low speeds and the bouncing gait at high speeds to improve movement performance and energy economy. Interestingly, the motions of the MTP3 and MTP4 joints are highly synchronized from slow to fast locomotion. This strongly suggests that the 3rd and 4th toes really work as an “integrated system” with the 3rd toe as the main load bearing element whilst the 4th toe as the complementary load sharing element with a primary role to ensure the lateral stability of the permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint.

  18. Phalangeal joints kinematics in ostrich (Struthio camelus) locomotion on sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dianlei; Wan, Haijin; Li, Xiujuan; Luo, Gang; Xue, Shuliang; Ma, Songsong; Yang, Mingming; Li, Jianqiao

    2018-01-01

    In ostriches, the toes are the only body parts that contact loose sand surfaces. Thus, toe interphalangeal joint motions may play vital biomechanical roles. However, there is little research on ostrich phalangeal joint movements while walking or running on sand. The results from the three-dimensional motion track analysis system Simi Motion show that gait pattern has no significant effect on the key indicators (angles at touch-down, mid-stance, lift-off and range of motion) of the toe joint angles. The motion of the toe phalanges when walking and running on sand is basically the same. The ground medium is the key factor that changes the toe postures adopted by ostriches during the stance phase in slow to fast locomotion. The 3rd toe and the 4th toe are connected by the interphalangeal ligament, and the motions of the MTP3 and MTP4 joints are highly synchronized on a loose sand substrate. The 3rd toe and 4th toe are coupled to maintain static balance in slow locomotion and dynamic balance in fast locomotion. In addition, the gait pattern has a marked effect on the range of forward displacement of the toenail (YTN). The ostrich toenail plays an important role in preventing slip and provides traction at push-off in a sandy environment. The metatarsophalangeal joint plays an important role in energy saving during fast locomotion on loose sand substrates. Simulation reveals that the particle velocity field, particle force field and sand particle disturbance in the running gait are denser than those in the walking gait. PMID:29489844

  19. Conjunctival mucinous adenocarcinoma in an ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Kathryn L.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Bartholin, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    . Gross examination revealed a botryoid mass attached to the inferior palpebral conjunctiva and extending onto the palpebral aspect of the nictitating membrane. Euthanasia was selected, and the histological diagnosis of the second mass was a mixed mucinous adenocarcinoma; however, no acid-fast bacteria...

  20. Declawing ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) to minimize skin damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anel

    2Klein Karoo Agricultural Development Centre, PO Box 351, Oudtshoorn 6620, South Africa. 3Elsenburg Agricultural Development Centre, Private Bag X1, Elsenburg 7607, South Africa. 4University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. 5Mosstrich ... Fixed effects were locality on skin, age, year of.

  1. Fermentative digestion in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    each ostrich was given a gelatine capsule containing 12 ~Ci-. [U)4C] -labelled cellulose (Nicotiana tobacum 34.5 ..... The presence of the L-isomer as the predomi- nant fonn in the small intestine indicates that the ... If one assumes that bacteria produce the D- and L- forms in equimolar amounts, microbial fermentation would.

  2. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  3. Comments concerning Ostrich Struthio camelus populations in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Gallus gallus). Bird Conservation International 9: 387–394. Roberge, C., Normandeau, E., Einum, S., Guderley, H. & Bernatchez, L. 2008. Genetic consequences of interbreeding between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon: insights from the transcriptome. Molecular Ecology 17: 314-324. Whelan, R.J., Roberts, D.G., England, ...

  4. Aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in an ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the most common mycotic infection in a wide variety of bird and causes significant economic losses. The present study described concurrent occurrence of aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in a 4-year-old male ostrich. The bird had respiratory problems, coughing and anorexia. Postmortem examination revealed numerous greenish-white caseous foci, 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter distributed on the surfaces of the air sacs and throughout the lungs. In histopathological study, multifocal areas of caseous necrosis that surrounded by inflammatory cells including heterophils, lymphocytes and macrophages were present. Long branching septated hyphae were visible in the necrotic areas with hematoxylin and eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Thrombi were present in the blood vessels. The proventriculus was full of gravel.

  5. Serologic occurrence of Newcastle disease in ostriches raised in Bahia and São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Lia Muniz Barretto; Silva, Priscila Sousa da; Ramos, Izabella; Sales, Tatiane Santana; Herval, Elen Fabiane Guimarães; Batinga, Thaís de Brito; Maia, Paulo César Costa; César, André Eduardo Rocha; Doretto Júnior, Luciano; Meyer, Roberto; Freire, Songeli Menezes

    2009-01-01

    Estudos sorológicos em Avestruzes (Struthio camelus) são ferramentas úteis para analisar os riscos relacionados à Doença de Newcastle nesses plantéis e à avicultura nacional. No presente estudo, amostras de sangue foram obtidas de avestruzes de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e sem apresentação de sintomatologia clínica, criadas nos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle por meio de ELISA indireto. ...

  6. Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canário, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo doméstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infecção experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R.S. Martins

    2006-06-01

    ornithogaster (megabacteria foram diagnosticados no Setor de Doenças das Aves (Escola de Veterinária da UFMG. A doença clínica foi caracterizada por emagrecimento, prostração, perda do apetite, caquexia e morte, em curso crônico, embora com forma mais aguda em canários e periquitos. O microrganismo grande, em forma de bastão, visível a partir de 100 aumentos sem e com coloração, pode também ser detectado em aves de aspecto clínico normal, principalmente galinhas, perus, codornas e pombos. Em emas (Rhea, avestruzes (Struthio camelus, canários, mandarins, galinhas da Angola (Numida meleagris e periquitos Australianos (Melopsittacus undulatus, a severidade da doença foi sempre maior, ocasionando até 100% de mortalidade em alguns plantéis. Na maioria das espécies a doença foi detectada em aves com endo e/ou ectoparasitismo. O cultivo de M. ornithogaster foi obtido em meio sólido (ágar para fungos patogênicos e subcultivado em meio líquido (thioglicolato, do proventriculo de galinha, galinha da Angola, perdiz de chuckar e canário. O resultado mais surpreendente na microscopia de M. ornithogaster foi a presença de motilidade, detectada tanto de cultivos in vitro quanto de preparações úmidas de in vivo. Diferenças nos aspectos das colônias foram notadas entre os isolados. Infecções experimentais em galinha (SPF e codorna japonesa permitiram a detecção do organismo nos proventrículos das aves de aspecto normal. Nas codornas, à necropsia notaram-se hemorragias hepáticas. A infecção experimental em camundongos via intraperitoneal resultou em 100% de mortalidade, também com lesões hepáticas. Aspectos do cultivo, a importância da doença, as espécies de aves susceptíveis e seu papel na epidemiologia são discutidos.

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Struthio+camelus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NS ...

  8. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium baileyi in ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Zhengzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongjun; Qi, Meng; Jingjing, Zhu; Sun, Dong; Ning, Changshen; Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-01-10

    Few data are available on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in ostriches. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species or genotypes in ostriches. A total of 452 fecal samples from five farms, a zoo, and an animal rescue center in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy of wet mount of fecal materials concentrated by the Sheather's sugar flotation technique. Fifty-three samples were Cryptosporidium-positive from four farms, with an overall prevalence of 11.7%. The percentage of animals shedding oocysts was 0, 16.2%, 7.2%, and 0 in 1-3 weeks, 4-8 weeks, 3-12 months, and more than 12 months ostriches, respectively (χ(2)=17.74; ρ<0.01). PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of the 53 Cryptosporidium-positive samples showed the presence of only Cryptosporidium baileyi, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA PCR products from 16 positive samples. Cross-transmission studies demonstrated that the C. baileyi isolate could infect chickens and quails. Thus, ostriches are commonly infected with C. baileyi that is genetically and biologically similar to C. baileyi found in other birds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.G. Kubba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders.

  10. Libyostrongylus douglassii (Strongylida: Trichostrongylidae) in ostrich (Struthio camelus) farms from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-González, Guillermo A; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A

    2017-02-15

    Ostrich farming is an important livestock industry in different world regions with a diverse offer of products and services. In Colombia, as in other countries, this market led the importation of animals from countries like Canada, United States of America and South Africa for breeding objectives. With the animals, specific pathogens for these ratites could be introduced. Libyostrongylus spp. is a strongylid nematode with worldwide distribution, which can induce a severe disease and mortality in infected animals. Limited studies in Colombia have identified parasites in ostrich farming systems. The aim of this study was to identify parasites of the genus Libyostrongylus to a species level in faecal samples from ostrich farms in three departments of Colombia. Five ostrich farms from Boyacá, Meta and Tolima were sampled in 2011 and in 2013 to obtain fresh faecal samples which were further processed by flotation tests for egg visualization and faecal culture for infective larvae identification by morphological and morphometric parameters. One from the five farms, located in Meta department, was positive for strongylid eggs in both sampling periods. After faecal culture, infective larvae were identified as Libyostrongylus douglassii. These results corroborate previous records of Libyostrongylus in ostrich farms from Meta and confirms, for the first time, infection by L. douglassii in ratites from this region. Further studies must identify associated determinants for infection and its effects on the flock health and production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the biomechanics and motor control of avian bipedalism.

  12. Do Ostriches Struthio camelus reject parasitic eggs by making use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ostrich communal breeding system involves several females laying in a single nest. Only the 'major' female and the territorial male, however, provide parental care from incubation to fledging of chicks. Eggs are turned and displaced frequently upon the onset of incubation, and the major female evicts excess eggs out of ...

  13. Ontogenetic scaling of locomotor kinetics and kinematics of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola C; Jespers, Karin J; Wilson, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    Kinematic and kinetic parameters of running gait were investigated through growth in the ostrich, from two weeks up to 10 months of age, in order to investigate the effects of increasing body size. Ontogenetic scaling relationships were compared with published scaling relationships found to exist with increasing body size between species to determine whether dynamic similarity is maintained during growth. During the study, ostrich mass (M(b)) ranged from 0.7 kg to 108.8 kg. Morphological measurements showed that lengths scaled with positive allometry during growth (hip height proportional to M(b)(0.40); foot segment length proportional to M(b)(0.40); tarsometatarsus length proportional to M(b)(0.41); tibiotarsus length proportional to M(b)(0.38); femur length proportional to M(b)(0.37)), significantly exceeding the close to geometric scaling observed between mammalian and avian species of increasing body size. Scaling of kinematic variables largely agreed with predicted scaling for increasing size and demonstrated relationships close to dynamic similarity and, as such, ontogenetic scaling of locomotor parameters was similar to that observed with increasing body mass between species. However, the ways in which these scaling trends were achieved were very different, with ontogenetic scaling of locomotor mechanics largely resulting from simple scaling of the limb segments rather than postural changes, likely to be due to developmental constraints. Small deviations from dynamic similarity of kinematic parameters and a reduction in the predicted scaling of limb stiffness (proportional to M(b)(0.59)) were found to be accounted for by the positive allometric scaling of the limb during growth.

  14. Declawing Ostrich (Struthio camelus domesticus) Chicks to Minimize Skin Damage During Rearing.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chris; Meyer, A.; Cloete, S.W.P.; Van Schalkwyk, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Leather is one of the main products derived from ostrich farming. Current rearing practices lead to a high incidence of skin damage, which decreases the value of ostrich skins. In the emu and poultry industry, declawing is commonly practiced to reduce skin damage and injuries. We consequently investigated declawing of ostrich chicks as a potential management practice to minimize skin lesions that result from claw injuries. A group of 140 day-old ostriches was declawed and a second group of 13...

  15. Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Wagner

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.

  16. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manvell, R.J.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5, One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly pat...

  17. Gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches, Struthio camelus, in different regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Brand Ederli

    Full Text Available The ratite group is composed of ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis. Little research has been done on parasitism in these birds. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this, fecal samples were collected from 192 on 13 farms. From each sample, four grams of feces were used to determine the eggs per gram of feces (EPG count, by means of the McMaster technique. Part of the feces sample was used for fecal cultures, to identify 100 larvae per sample. The results were subjected to descriptive central trend and dispersion analysis, using confidence intervals at the 5% error probability level in accordance with the Student t distribution, and Tukey’s test with a 95% confidence interval. The mean EPG in the state was 1,557, and the municipality of Três Rios had the lowest average (62. The city of Campos dos Goytacazes presented the highest mean EPG of all the municipalities analyzed. The northern region presented the highest mean EPG, followed by the southern, metropolitan, coastal lowland and central regions. Libyostrongylus species were observed on all the farms: L. douglassii predominated, followed by L. dentatus and Codiostomum struthionis.

  18. Mineral profiling of ostrich (Struthio camelus) seminal plasma and its relationship with semen traits and collection day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M J; Bonato, M; Dzama, K; Malecki, I A; Cloete, S W P

    2018-04-06

    Successful assisted reproduction techniques, with specific focus on in vitro semen storage for artificial insemination, are dependent on certain key elements which includes the biochemical profiling of semen. The objective of this study was to complete an ostrich seminal plasma (SP) evaluation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) among seven males at different daily intervals (day 1, 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28) for a period of 28 days during spring (August to September) for mineral profiling. The effect of collection day and male on sperm concentration, semen volume and seminal plasma volume, was explored as well as the relationships amongst these specific sperm traits and SP minerals. Variation amongst SP mineral concentrations, accounted for by the fixed effects of sperm concentration, semen volume, seminal plasma volume, collection day and male, ranged from 18% to 77%. Male had the largest effect on variation in SP minerals, namely: phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), boron (B), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), barium (Ba), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). Sperm concentration instigated fluctuations of P, magnesium (Mg), B, zinc (Zn), Fe, aluminium (Al), Se, manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb). Semen volume had an effect on Na, K, B, Pb and Ba while seminal plasma volume only influenced variation in Na. There were fluctuations among collection days of specific micro minerals, Ni and Mo, with initial Ni concentrations being relatively greater and Mo at lesser concentrations. Semen volume, seminal plasma volume and sperm concentration varied amongst males. Sperm concentrations during the initial collection days, 1 and 3, were less than that for days 7 to 28. Significant variation of SP minerals and sperm characteristics among ejaculates and males suggest an association of these specific elements with sperm function and are, therefore, considered to be of potential importance to success of assisted reproduction technology for the ostrich. The relationship amongst sperm concentration and collection day confirms the need to conduct an initial period of collection to stabilise a greater sperm concentration to optimise sperm numbers for artificial insemination purposes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CRITICAL QUALITY PARAMETERS VEGETABLE FEED FOR OSTRICHES (STRUTHIO CAMELUS DOMESTICUS ON AN ARTIFICIAL PASTURE IN TcChR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of studying nutrition African ostriches for different ages in zoos, nurseries and small farms evaluated the nutritional value and balance of each of the components of plant feed, providing the needs for normal growth of poultry, development and productivity, to increase body weight, to increase egg production, quality hatching eggs, meat quality, output and quality of the young. Currently, in most cases, bird feed by copying the natural food, but it is the species, age and seasonal specifics, ensure that in the conditions of the zoo, nursery and farm problematic. Therefore, to solve this problem, we proposed the formulation of plant feed for feeding African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms that promote bird health, increase the rate of feeding, increase egg production, increase their survival, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw mat erials at cheaper developed using the optimization program "Food Optima Expert". To sustain ostriches exchange energy feed should be not less than 260 kcal / 100 g, protein content not less than 16 %. The complex research to develop formulations of plant feed for African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms and the quality of their analysis may be of interest in the full feeding African ostriches. The proposed formulation can extend its range of multi-component feed with a sufficiently high biological, energy value, the balanced composition of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals adapted for ostriches, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw materials at lower cost.

  20. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvell, R J; Jørgensen, P H; Nielsen, O L; Alexander, D J

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5. One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly pathogenic for chickens causing 5/5 deaths by each route of inoculation. The other virus, A/ostrich/Denmark-Q/72420/96 (H5N2) (72420/96), isolated from ostriches in quarantine in Denmark during 1996, was of low pathogenicity for chickens, causing no clinical signs by either route of inoculation. No significant clinical signs were seen in any of the ostriches infected with either of the viruses by either route of infection. Both viruses were recoverable from both species up to 12 days post-infection, and low serological responses were detected in surviving infected ostriches and chickens at 21 days after inoculation.

  1. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manvell, R.J.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5, One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly...... pathogenic for chickens causing 5/5 deaths by each route of inoculation, The other virus, A/ostrich/Denmark-Q/72420/96 (H5N2) (72420/96), isolated from ostriches in quarantine in Denmark during 1996, was of low pathogenicity for chickens, causing no clinical signs by either route of inoculation....... No significant clinical signs mere seen in any of the ostriches infected with either of the viruses by either route of infection. Both viruses were recoverable from both species up to 12 days post-infection, and low serological responses were detected in surviving infected ostriches and chickens at 21 days after...

  2. Ultrastructural features of the uterus in the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus during periods of ovarian inactivity and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-C. Madekurozwa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the surface epithelium and tubular glands of the uterus in the immature ostrich is described. In ostriches with inactive ovaries the uterus is lined by a non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium, with basally located heterochromatic nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these non-ciliated cells have a dense microvillous cover. A simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar epithelium, comprised of non-ciliated and ciliated cells, lines the uterus in birds with active ovaries. The ciliated cells possess a wide luminal region, which contains a nucleus and various organelles. An accumulation of secretory granules was observed in the apical regions of the non-ciliated cells, as well as in a few ciliated cells. In addition to non-ciliated and ciliated cells, a cell type with rarefied cytoplasm was also identified. These cells appear to correspond to calcium secreting cells identified in other avian species. The results of this study indicate that, although uterine differentiation is present in immature ostriches with active ovaries, the production of secretory product appears to occur mainly in non-ciliated epithelial cells.

  3. Metabolismo oxidativo de heterófilos de avestruzes jovens Oxidative metabolism by heterophils from young ostriches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cellone Trevelin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a hipótese que, à semelhança dos neutrófilos de mamíferos, a produção de superóxido pelos heterófilos de avestruzes está associada com a maturidade funcional dessas células. Foram utilizados 20 avestruzes de ambos os sexos, divididos em dois grupos: 1-|30 dias (n=10 e 180-|240 dias (n=10 de idade. Para avaliação do metabolismo oxidativo dos heterófilos, estimou-se a produção de superóxido, utilizando o teste citoquímico não estimulado de redução do tetrazólio de nitroazul (NBT. A porcentagem média de redução heterofílica do NBT de avestruzes com até 30 dias de idade (0,7±1,3 foi menor (PIt was valuated the hypothesis that, like the neutrophils of mammals, the superoxide production by avian heterophils is associated with functional maturity of these cells. Were used twenty ostriches of both sexes, divided into two groups: 1-|30 days (n=10 and 180-|240 days (n=10 of age. The oxidative metabolism by heterophils was estimated by superoxide production in not stimulated cytochemic test of nitroblue terazolium (NBT. The average percentage of heterophilic NBT reduction in ostriches with up to 30 days of age (0.7±1,3 was lower (P<0,001 than that observed in those aged between six and eight months (6,2±2,7. It was concluded that the oxidative metabolism by ostriches' heterophils increases with age, suggesting that lower superoxide production reduces the ability bactericide and may contribute to high mortality in the first three moths of life.

  4. Genetic variability of camel ( Camelus dromedarius ) populations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camelus dromedarius) are poorly documented in Saudi Arabia. The present study was conducted to address some of these genetics using four Saudi Arabian camel populations namely; Magaheem (MG), Maghateer (MJ), Sofr (SO) and Shual (SH) ...

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DA COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL, COLESTEROL E PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS DE CORTES CÁRNEOS COMERCIAIS DE AVESTRUZ, SUÍNO, BOVINO E FRANGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Prokopp HAUTRIVE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A carne de avestruz é uma carne exótica, com coloração avermelhada, maciez e sabor semelhante à carne bovina. É rica em proteínas, cálcio e ferro e possui baixos teores de gordura total e ácidos graxos saturados. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a composição centesimal, perfil de ácidos graxos e o colesterol da carne de avestruz e comparar com cortes de carne bovina, suína e frango. As carnes apresentaram percentuais semelhantes de umidade, proteína e cinzas, porém a carne de avestruz foi a que apresentou menor quantidade de lipídio (0,58%, sendo 7,34% de ácidos graxos saturados, 45,37% de monoinsaturados e 27,20% de poli-insaturados. A carne de avestruz apresentou uma boa relação de ácidos graxos poli- insaturados/saturados e n-6/n-3. A carne de avestruz poderia ser incluída em uma dieta equilibrada, pois apresenta nutrientes semelhantes a outras carnes e com diferenciais, baixo conteúdo de lipídios e calorias e rica em ferro-heme.

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication Diet preferences of sub-species of ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus and Struthio camelus molybdophanes) at Langano Ostrich Farm, Abijata Shalla Lakes National Park, Ethiopia Abstract · Vol 13, No 1 (2014) - Articles A comparative study of Ethiopian wolf interactions with humans, domestic dogs ...

  7. Plan de comercialización de zapatos de cuero de avestruz producido por Avestrulandia dirigido al público femenino de Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Cevallos Jácome, Andrés Fernando; Marques Cassagne, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    La ciudad de Guayaquil es la más poblada del Ecuador, mueve gran parte de la economía del país, su mercado es grande con muchas personas con necesidades por satisfacer, para Avestrulandia complejo ubicado en Chongón la oportunidad de ofrecer sus productos elaborados en cuero de avestruz, en especial del calzado es única, ya que el sector al cual se dirige tiene mucha demanda cada año. El calzado de cuero para dama tiene gran acogida en la ciudad de Guayaquil, debido a que muchas señoras o...

  8. Pattern of tick infestation on one humped camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of tick infestation in one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) was assessed in Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, Sokoto State, Nigeria where an average of 10 to 15 camels were slaughtered per day on an open concrete slaughter slab. A total of 200 randomly selected camels made up of 124 males and 76 ...

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study Of Mastitis In Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camelus dromedarius) were examined in Somali Region, southeastern Ethiopia to study the prevalence and bacterial causes of mastitis between Nov. 2002 – April 2003. Out of the 137 lactating camels, 10.2% (14/137) were positive for clinical ...

  10. Linguiças frescais elaboradas com carne de avestruz: características físico-químicas Ostrich Brazilian sausage: physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Soares Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A carne de avestruz por apresentar baixos conteúdos de colesterol, gordura intramuscular e altas percentagens de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados ômega-3 é considerada uma carne vermelha saudável e de grande aceitação junto aos consumidores. Considerando que os recortes resultantes da desossa das carcaças de avestruz são partes consideradas menos nobres, desenvolveu-se a produção de três formulações de linguiça frescal tendo como base a carne de avestruz (recortes e aparas, promovendo as análises físico-químicas e colorimétricas com o objetivo caracterizar o perfil físico-químico e colorimétrico dessas diferentes formulações. As três formulações se encontraram dentro dos padrões físico-químicos estipulados pela legislação brasileira (BRASIL, 2000 e não apresentaram diferença significativa entre si, com exceção do teor de cinzas, mais alto nas linguiças mistas. Na análise do teor de pH, observou-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, com pH maior nas linguiças puras em relação às mistas. As linguiças puras foram mais escuras e vermelhas que as mistas, sendo que a mista de avestruz, suína e frango foi a mais clara. As linguiças frescais puras ou mistas elaboradas com carne de avestruz são uma opção viável de produção e comercialização, podendo concorrer no mercado com as linguiças tradicionais com perspectiva de êxito.Ostrich's meat has low contents of colestherol and intramuscular fat and high percentages of poliunsaturated fat acid -3 so it's known as a healthy red meat with consumer great acceptability. Considering that ostrich trim (meat resulting from boning is considered a less noble part, three formulations of ostrich (trim Brazilian sausage were produced. Physicochemical analyses and color evaluation (L*, a*, b* were made to determine formulations' physicochemical characteristics and colorimetric profile. The physicochemical results of all formulations were in accord with the

  11. Comparative morphology of the species of Libyostrongylus and Codiostomum, parasites from ostriches, Struthio camelus, with a identification key to the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Brand Ederli

    Full Text Available One of the most common problems in breeding of ostriches in captivity is the control of parasitic diseases. This work presents keys for the identification of adult nematodes and infective larvae by morphologic and morphometric characteristics. These keys will allow the scientific community to identify the species that infect the ostriches either based on the characteristics of the posterior end of the infective larvae found through a simple fecal exam or by observing the morphology and morphometry of adult worms recovered during necropsies. These keys will facilitate ecological and systematic studies, as well as increase the understanding of the epidemiology of these parasitosis in ostriches.

  12. A comparative study on the histological structure of the spleen in the ostrich (Struthio camelus), the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlu, Tolunay; Karadag Sari, Ebru; Akaydin Bozkurt, Yesim; Altunay, H

    2011-06-01

    The spleen structurally and functionally belongs to the hematopoietic organs and is also an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is known to play a major role in host defense. The histological structure of the spleen was investigated in the ostrich, a non-flying bird, the kestrel, a raptor, and the osprey, a fish-eating bird of prey (fish eagle). For this purpose, Mallory's modified triple stain, methyl green-pyronin and silver stain were used. Germinal centers were not present in the spleen of the osprey. In the spleen of the kestrel, penicillar arterioles and the surrounding lymphoid tissue were markedly dense. Compared to the other two birds, the red and white pulps were clearly distinguishable in the spleen of the ostrich.

  13. Nodular trombiculinosis caused by Apolonia tigipioensis, Torres and Braga (1938), in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) and a house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Almeida, Maria Angela; de Oliveira, Flávio Ramos Bastos; da Silva, Alessandra Estrela; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; Maia, Paulo César Costa; de Fátima Cardoso Duarte, Larissa; Murphy, Gleeson; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribe

    2007-12-25

    Nodular trombiculinosis has been reported in Brazil in chickens [Torres, S., Braga, W., 1939. Apolonia tigipioensis, g. e sp. n. (Trombiculinae) parasito de Gallus gallus dom. Chave para determinação de gêneros. Boletim da S.A.I.C. 4, 37-44] and humans [Carneiro, L.S., 1952. Uma nova acaríase humana - Contribuição ao seu estudo. Imprensa Industrial, Recife. Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Recife, Tese Livre Docência, p. 56]. In this report, a juvenile ostrich and a house sparrow, both originating from a riverside property in the town of Petrolina in the state of Pernambuco, presented 87 and eight nodules, respectively, on various locations of their bodies. Physical expression of the nodules liberated parasites that were morphologically identified as mites from the family Trombiculidae. The mites were further identified as Apolonia tigipioensis by the presence of an elongated body form and transversely striated, three pairs of long legs each with seven segments, primary coxae with a single seta, each tarsus terminating with three claws, and a scutum with an anteromedian projection and paired anteromedian setae. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies from these birds, stained with hematoxilin-eosin, revealed acute parasitic cystic lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis.

  14. Role of His101 in the Protein Folding/Unfolding of a Goose-Type Lysozyme from Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Egg White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonpatarakun, Chalermchai; Fukamizo, Tamo; Araki, Tomohiro; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2016-12-01

    To understand the role of His101 in protein structure stabilization of goose-type (G-type) lysozyme, we conducted thermal unfolding/refolding experiments using native G-type lysozyme from ostrich egg white (nOEL), the recombinant G-type lysozyme (rOEL), and the mutant lysozyme, in which His101 is mutated to alanine (H101A-OEL). Thermal stability on lytic activity and in-gel refolding experiments provided similar profiles for all three OELs. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to determine the secondary structure of three OELs as a function of temperature. Unfolding/refolding experiments (30-90 °C) monitored by CD spectroscopy revealed an unfolding transition at 65-67 °C and a complete refolding at almost the same temperature. Notably, a slightly lower thermal stability was observed for H101A-OEL, corresponding to the calculated difference in transition free energy of thermal unfolding (∆∆G m ) between rOEL and H101A-OEL of -0.63 kcal/mol. To assess the effects of H101A mutation on the electrostatic behavior, we examined the pH-activity profile of the three OELs. nOEL and rOEL exhibit bimodal relationship between pH and lytic activity showing optima at pH 3.0 and 7.0, while optima for H101A-OEL activity were pH 4.0 and 6.0. Electrostatic environment surrounding His101 was affected by the H101A mutation resulting in the slightly lower thermal stability.

  15. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.

    1998-01-01

    During a 95-day study period in 1995 in Denmark, 18 ostriches in a flock of 77 ostriches and four emus held in quarantine died, Clinical and pathological observations did not indicate the presence of transmissible infectious disease in the hock. Management failures and indoor housing were believed...... of Newcastle disease in back yard poultry ire Denmark. Blood samples were taken from all live birds in the flock after 25 and 95 days of quarantine and all were negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. All samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were also negative...

  16. Análise físico-química e sensorial de hambúrguer elaborado com carne de avestruz Physicochemical and sensorial analyses of ostrich hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Prokopp Hautrive

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar um hambúrguer com carne de avestruz, para possibilitar o aproveitamento total da carne de avestruz, utilizando cortes considerados menos nobres como recortes resultantes da desossa. Avaliar sua aceitação entre potenciais consumidores, como apreciadores de carnes e hambúrgueres, bem como sugerir a industrialização e comercialização pelas indústrias como um novo produto de conveniência. Foram elaboradas três formulações de hambúrgueres com diferentes percentuais de carne de avestruz e bovina. As amostras foram analisadas por 50 provadores não treinados, escolhidos em função de gostarem e serem consumidores de hambúrgueres. O hambúrguer de formulação 2, composto por carne bovina (50% e carne de avestruz (50% obteve maior aceitação em relação aos demais. Os teores de lipídios e proteínas das amostras de hambúrgueres encontram-se dentre os valores exigidos pela legislação. Sendo assim, os hambúrgueres formulados com carne de avestruz foram bem aceitos pelos julgadores. O hambúrguer misto, o qual obteve maior aceitação, seria uma alternativa de um produto para a industrialização e comercialização, pois agregado com a carne bovina o custo dos hambúrgueres de avestruz são mais acessíveis.The objective of this study was to prepare a hamburger with ostrich meat, making use of the ostrich meat cuts that are considered less noble such as those resulting form boning. This study also aimed at evaluating its acceptance among potential clients such meat and hamburger consumers as well as suggesting its industrialization as a new product. Three types of hamburgers were prepared with different percentage of ostrich and bovine meat. The samples were tested by 50 tasters without training, but who were hamburger consumers. The hamburger of formulation 2, composed by bovine meat (50% and ostrich meat (50%, obtained better acceptance than the others. The contents of lipids and proteins of

  17. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Wang, Y H; Meng, P; Ye, Q; Zhang, D L

    2013-02-18

    Camel is important to the economy of many countries. We report Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus), first for this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in sera of 7 of 234 C. bactrianus from Qinghai Province, northwestern China. Sera were tested by a commercial indirect hemagglutination test at a cut-off of 1:64. Age or the gender of the camel did not significantly affect the seroprevalence. Results are of public health and economic importance because camel milk and meat are used for human consumption in many countries, including China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Scrotal granulomatous aspergillosis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Peano, Andrea; Piga, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Background This report describes a case of primary subcutaneous aspergillosis in a 7-year-old neutered male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Case presentation The animal developed a large nodular lesion in the right scrotum two years after surgical intervention for neutering. The mass had...... was not performed, but a panel of mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera identified the hyphae as Aspergillus sp. Conclusions The occurrence of subcutaneous lesions is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in animals, and this appears to be the first case reported in the dromedary...

  19. Evaluation of triflupromazine as a sedative in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshin, P K; Sharifi, D; Patil, D B; Singh, S; Singh, H; Singh, J; Singh, A P; Murthy, D K

    1991-10-01

    Effects of administration of triflupromazine were evaluated in 11 adult domesticated camels (Camelus dromedarius) weighing 403 +/- 29.5 kg (Mean +/- SE). Six camels were used to evaluate sedative properties of the drug and its effects on haematological and blood biochemical parameters. In the remaining 5 camels, effects on haemodynamics, acid base status and blood gases were studied. In all the animals triflupromazine was administered intramuscularly in the gluteal region at the rate of 2 mg/kg. Camels voluntarily sat down 48.9 +/- 5.4 min after administration of the drug but stood up again if disturbed. Drowsiness, drooping of lower lip and salivation were evident. The animals stood on their own and started walking with ataxia after 159 +/- 7 min and recovered completely from the effect of drug within 259 +/- 23 min. The drug caused a significant tachycardia and a moderate hypotension. The decrease in central venous pressure was also significant. Rectal temperature, respiratory rate, acid base status, blood gases, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count, total leucocyte count, differential leukocyte count, blood urea nitrogen, plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose and plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride and inorganic phosphate were not significantly affected by triflupromazine.

  20. Proteomics of the milk fat globule membrane from Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Besma; Henry, Céline; Khorchani, Touhami; Mars, Mohamed; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2013-04-01

    Camel milk has been widely characterized with regards to casein and whey proteins. However, in camelids, almost nothing is known about the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), the membrane surrounding fat globules in milk. The purpose of this study was thus to identify MFGM proteins from Camelus dromedarius milk. Major MFGM proteins (namely, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and adipophilin) already evidenced in cow milk were identified in camel milk using MS. In addition, a 1D-LC-MS/MS approach led us to identify 322 functional groups of proteins associated with the camel MFGM. Dromedary MFGM proteins were then classified into functional categories using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) bioinformatics resources. More than 50% of MFGM proteins from camel milk were found to be integral membrane proteins (mostly belonging to the plasma membrane), or proteins associated to the membrane. Enriched GO terms associated with MFGM proteins from camel milk were protein transport (p-value = 1.73 × 10(-14)), translation (p-value = 1.08 × 10(-11)), lipid biosynthetic process (p-value = 6.72 × 10(-10)), hexose metabolic process (p-value = 1.89 × 10(-04)), and actin cytoskeleton organization (p-value = 2.72 × 10(-04)). These findings will help to contribute to a better characterization of camel milk. Identified MFGM proteins from camel milk may also provide new insight into lipid droplet formation in the mammary epithelial cell. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-01-01

    Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius) were examined three times (beginning, mid and end) in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn) for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the me...

  2. E FFECTS OF AGE AND SEX ON SE RUM RETINOL LEVELS IN MOROCCAN CAMELS (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Y. LYAKTINI; N. GHALIM; B. YAACOUBI

    2013-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effects of age and sex on the serum levels of retinol in 200 clinically healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). Camels were divided according to sex into males (n= 99) and females (n= 101) and according to age into 4groups (6 to 12, 12 to 36, 36 to 60 and 60 to 84 months). The study was carried out during the dry season of 2011-2012 in south Moroccan region of Guelmim.Camels used in this trial were grazing naturally on trees and shrubs of Morocca...

  3. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  4. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddas, E; Borji, H; Naghibi, A; Shayan, P; Razmi, G R

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of genotyping Echinococcus granulosus cysts found in Iranian dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius), 50 cysts of E. granulosus were collected from five geographical regions in Iran. Cysts were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Morphological criteria using rostellar hook dimensions were also undertaken. The present results have shown that 27 out of 50 E. granulosus cysts (54%) were determined as the G1 strain, and the other (46%) were determined as the G6 strain. The molecular analysis of the ITS1 region of ribosomal DNA corresponded with the morphological findings. Because of its recognized infectivity in humans, the G1 genotype is a direct threat to human health and its presence in Iranian dromedaries is of urgent public health importance.

  5. Yoghurt production from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk fortified with samphire molasses and different colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Kavas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, yoghurt was produced from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk with whey protein isolate (3 % w/v and fortified with 3 % (w/v traditional samphire molasses (TSM (YTSM, 3 % (w/v TSM+0.1% (w/v κ-carrageenan (YTSMC or 3 % (w/v TSM+0.05 % (w/v xanthan gum (YTSMX. In yoghurt samples, physical-chemical properties, texture, color and sensory analysis were determined on the 1st, 5th, 10th and 14th days of storage, while total phenolics (TF levels were determined on the 14th, 24th, 32nd, 48th, 72nd, 120th, 240th and 336th hours of storage. In all samples during storage, hardness and viscosity increased along with the acidity increase, although the increases in YTSM and YTSMC were lower than in YTSMX. In YTSMX, in spite of the increase in acidity after the 1st day, serum separation was very low while viscosity and hardness values were higher compared to the other samples. YTSMX was found to be superior to the other samples in terms of physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory properties. Total phenolic contents and L*a*b* levels increased in all samples throughout storage, the highest values of which were in YTSMX. After the 5th day of the storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus became the dominant microbial flora. After the 5th day of storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus levels were highest in YTSMX.

  6. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  7. Management of tendon haemangiosarcoma in a Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kvapil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old intact female Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus was suffering from lameness due to a mass on the right dorsal metacarpal region that caused acute swelling and local skin necrosis. Histology examination and immunohistochemistry of the biopsy material of a mass revealed haemangiosarcoma of the extensor tendons. Three weeks after the biopsy, the tumour was enlarged to 6 cm in diameter and the animal became disabled. The tumour with its associated tendon were resected and the tendon’s edges were bridged with a synthetic polytape graft. The camel was fully weight-bearing after the surgery. Two weeks later, the graft was removed due to widespread necrosis. Since the wound was positive for Corynebacterium sp., Acinetobacter iwoffii, Micrococcus sp., Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus sp., the post-operative antibiotic treatment was prolonged for 28 days. Four months later, the wound healed using daily irrigation and bandaging and the camel walked normally. Nine months after diagnosis, the camel suddenly died without any clinical signs. Metastases of the haemangiosarcoma were found in the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, meninges, and mediastinum. Exsanguination due to rupture of a liver metastasis was determined as the cause of the death. Haemangiosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm that arises from endothelial cells of blood vessels and tends to be very aggressive. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of a metastasizing haemangiosarcoma arising from the lateral extensor tendon in a Bactrian camel.

  8. Serosurvey of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Laikipia County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, A S; Fèvre, E M; Kinnaird, M; Muloi, D M; Wang, C A; Larsen, P S; O'Brien, T; Deem, S L

    2017-11-01

    Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are an important protein source for people in semi-arid and arid regions of Africa. In Kenya, camel populations have grown dramatically in the past few decades resulting in the potential for increased disease transmission between humans and camels. An estimated four million Kenyans drink unpasteurized camel milk, which poses a disease risk. We evaluated the seroprevalence of a significant zoonotic pathogen, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), among 334 camels from nine herds in Laikipia County, Kenya. Serum testing revealed 18.6% positive seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (n = 344). Increasing camel age was positively associated with C. burnetii seroprevalence (OR = 5.36). Our study confirmed that camels living in Laikipia County, Kenya, have been exposed to the zoonotic pathogen, C. burnetii. Further research to evaluate the role of camels in disease transmission to other livestock, wildlife and humans in Kenya should be conducted. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Characterization of the complete genomes of Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, A E; Elfadl, A K; Khalafalla, A I; Gameel, A A R; Dillner, J; Forslund, O

    2011-08-01

    Camel papillomatosis has been described previously, but the genome of the suspected papillomavirus (PV) has not been identified. An outbreak of papillomatosis occurred in a dromedary farm of 55 animals in Sudan during August 2009. The disease was only present in young animals aged about 3-7 months, of which 44 % (11/25) were affected with lesions, mainly on the lips and lower jaw. This study reports for the first time the complete genomes of Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 (CdPV1) and 2 (CdPV2), isolated from a cauliflower-like nodule and a round oval raised nodule, respectively. Pairwise comparisons of their L1 nucleotide sequences revealed 69.2 % identity, and phylogenetic analyses suggested that these two PV types are grouped within the genus Deltapapillomavirus. Both viruses were isolated from fibropapillomas, although no putative E5 proteins homologous to that of bovine papillomavirus type 1 were identified. The genetic information will be useful for evolutionary studies of the family Papillomaviridae, as well as for the development of diagnostic methods for surveillance of the disease in dromedaries.

  10. Purification and characterization of deoxyribonuclease from small intestine of camel Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somia S. Abdel-Gany

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The chromatography of deoxyribonuclease (DNase from small intestine of camel Camelus dromedarius by DEAE-Sepharose separated three isoforms DNase 1, DNase 2 and DNase 3. The DNase 3 was purified to homogeneity by chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. The molecular weight of DNase 3 was 30 kDa using gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum of DNase 3 was reported at 7.0 using Tris-HCl buffer. The temperature optimum of DNase 3 was found to be 50 °C. The enzyme was stable up to 50 °C for one h incubation. The Km value was 28.5 µg DNA, where this low value indicated the high affinity of enzyme toward DNA as substrate. No activity of DNase 3 was determined in the absence of metal cations. Mg2+ and Ca2+ caused significant enhancement in the enzyme activity by 90 and 75%, respectively. The mixture of Mg2+ and Ca2+ caused 100% of enzyme activity. Ni2+, Co2+, Ba2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ showed very strong inhibitory effect on enzyme activity. In conclusion, the characterization of DNase 3 indicated that the enzyme is considered as a member of DNase I family. The low Km value of the DNA suggested that the high digestion of DNA of camel forage by small intestine DNase 3.

  11. Milk production and feeding behavior in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) during 4 watering regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, T; Lundeheim, N; Dahlborn, K

    2011-03-01

    Camels survive and produce milk during recurrent prolonged hot and dry periods. The objective was to evaluate how different watering intervals affected milk production and feeding. Eight lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) were recruited and subjected to 4 watering regimens in a Latin square design experiment performed at Haramaya University in Ethiopia. Each regimen lasted 16 d with 5 d of daily watering between periods: water was offered at 1,315 h once daily (W1); on d 4, 8, 12, and 16 (W4); on d 8 and 16 (W8); and on d 16 (W16). One camel became sick in the second period and its results were excluded. Camels were kept in a pen with minimal shade and a noon temperature of 30.9±0.1°C. They had free access to hay and were offered 2 kg of concentrates 3 times daily. At noon on d 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16, a blood sample was taken from the jugular vein before watering. All calves were kept together in a separate pen. Morning and afternoon calves stimulated milk let-down before the camels were hand-milked, after which the calves suckled, emptying the udder. Camels maintained the milk volume during water deprivation for about 1 wk, but they produced less milk during the second week during W16. Morning milk osmolality increased from 315±3 on d 1 to 333±3 mosm/kg on d 4 during W4 and from 321±3 on d 1 to 342±3 mosm/kg on d 8 during W8. After watering at 1315 h, milk osmolality decreased to 316±3 and 323±3 mosm/kg, respectively, the same afternoon and then increased during recurrent water deprivation to 338±3 (W4) and 347±3 mosm/kg (W8) on d 16, respectively. During W16, osmolality increased from 318±3 to 336±3 mosm/kg during the first 4 d of water deprivation, but during the remaining 12 d the further rise in osmolality was not higher compared with that on d 4. The change in milk osmolality was linearly correlated to plasma osmolality (r=0.8), but milk lactose content did not increase. Contrary to widespread belief, camels did not dilute their milk when

  12. Cholesterol addition aids the cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Billah, M; Skidmore, Julian A

    2015-01-15

    The cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) sperm has proved challenging with little success reported. The routine application of artificial insemination with frozen semen would assist the flow of valuable genetic material nationally and internationally. The current study sought to examine the effects of cholesterol (cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin [CLC]) preloading on camel sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates (n = 3 males; 3 ejaculates per male) were collected using an artificial vagina during the breeding season and extended in HEPES-buffered Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP) and allowed to liquefy in the presence of papain (0.1 mg/mL) before removal of the seminal plasma by centrifugation. Sperm pellets were resuspended (120 million/mL) in fresh TALP and incubated (15 minutes; 37 °C) with 0, 1.5, or 4.5 mg CLC/mL. Sperm suspensions were then centrifuged and reconstituted in INRA-96 containing 20% (v:v) egg yolk and 2.5% (v:v) methylformamide, loaded in 0.5-mL plastic straws, sealed, and cooled for 20 minutes at 4 °C. Straws were frozen over liquid nitrogen (4 cm above liquid; 15 minutes), plunged, and stored. Sperm motility, forward progressive status, and acrosomal integrity were recorded at 0 and 3 hours after thawing and compared with these same parameters before freezing. Aliquots also were stained with chlortetracycline hydrochloride to assess spontaneous sperm capacitation status before freezing and post-thaw. Pretreatment with CLC (1.5 and 4.5 mg/mL) enhanced cryosurvival. Post-thaw sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) in 1.5 mg CLC/mL immediately after thawing (44%) and after 3 hours incubation at room temperature (34%). Highest post-thaw sperm progressive status was also achieved in the presence of 1.5 CLC. Greater proportions of spermatozoa retained acrosomal membrane integrity when cryopreserved in the presence of CLC, but there was no difference between 1.5 and 4.5 CLC. Although thawed spermatozoa underwent spontaneous

  13. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Use of diazepam and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. (P-ISSN 1595-093X: E-ISSN 2315-6201) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v16i1.12. Ogunsola & Adetunji /Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 16(1): 86 - 89. Use of diazepam and ketamine anaesthesia in prevention of capture myopathy in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). J Ogunsola.

  14. Use of diazepam and ketamine anaesthesia in prevention of capture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capture or exertion myopathy (CM) is an attendant complication of manual restraint in ratites, asides physical injuries that handlers may suffer. CM arises from a combination of stress and anaerobic glycolysis during handling. This work was carried out to restrain and immobilize two ostriches (Struthio camelus) in a bid to ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liswaniso, D. Vol 1, No 1 (1997) - Articles Osteology of the distal region of the pelvic limb of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Abstract. ISSN: 1027-4928. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  16. Spatial-temporal variation in sex ratio and group size of ostriches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Struthio camelus) in Serengeti National Park and adjacent partially protected areas in northern Tanzania. Data were collected for two years (2005- 2006), along 388 km of roads. The two areas were compared with respect to ostrich sex ratio (male: ...

  17. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups eac...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turner, D A. Vol 30 (2010) - Articles Short communications: The status and habitats of two closely related and sympatric greenbuls: Ansorge's Andropadus ansorgei and Little Grey Andropadus gracilis. Abstract PDF · Vol 30 (2010) - Articles Short communications: Comments concerning Ostrich Struthio camelus populations ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer, A. Vol 33, No 1 (2003) - Articles The persistence to slaughter age of scars resulting from damage inflicted to ostrich skins during the grow-out phase. Abstract PDF · Vol 32, No 3 (2002) - Articles Declawing ostrich (Struthio camelus domesticus) chicks to minimize skin damage during rearing. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2221- ...

  20. First report of the genus Retortamonas (Sarcomastigophora: Retortamonadidae in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Martínez-Díaz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (Struthio camelus in Spain, trophozoites of Retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. The species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. However, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus Retortamonas in birds.

  1. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the epidemiological survey of Dermatophilus congolensis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitao, C G

    1993-06-01

    The breeding of camels (Camelus dromedarius) is especially important in arid and semi-arid areas of Africa, where drought and famine frequently occur. A number of diseases which impair camel production have recently been described, including dermatophilosis (caused by Dermatophilus congolensis). However, it is not possible to determine the prevalence of infection from clinical cases alone. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has therefore been developed to determine the epidemiological prevalence of D. congolensis infection in sera of camels. Whole-cell antigen was used on microplates and the test serum was added. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated sheep antibodies against heavy and light chains of camel immunoglobulin (Ig)G were then added, followed by substrate. The test was used to trace the antibody profile of twelve experimentally-infected camels. Peak antibody levels in serum occurred within twenty-one days following infection. It is planned to use this test to determine the epidemiological prevalence of D. congolensis infection in camels reared in a pastoral area of Kenya.

  2. Comprehensive phylogenetic reconstructions of Rift Valley fever virus: the 2010 northern Mauritania outbreak in the Camelus dromedarius species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B; Lo, Modou M; Thiongane, Yaya; Diop, Mariame; Isselmou, Katia; Doumbia, Baba; Baba, Mohammed Ould; El Arbi, Ahmed S; Lancelot, Renaud; Kane, Y; Albina, Emmanuel; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Rift valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by RVF virus (RVFV), a phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). RVF is widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa. In September of 2010, an RVF outbreak occurred in northern Mauritania involving mass abortions in small ruminants and camels (Camelus dromedarius) and at least 63 human clinical cases, including 13 deaths. In camels, serological prevalence was 27.5-38.5% (95% confidence interval, n=279). For the first time, clinical signs other than abortions were reported in this species, including hemorrhagic septicemia and severe respiratory distress in animals. We assessed the presence of RVFV in camel sera sampled during this outbreak and generated whole-genome sequences of RVFV to determine the possible origin of this RVFV strain. Phylogenetic analyses suggested a shared ancestor between the Mauritania 2010 strain and strains from Zimbabwe (2269, 763, and 2373), Kenya (155_57 and 56IB8), South Africa (Kakamas, SA75 and SA51VanWyck), Uganda (Entebbe), and other strains linked to the 1987 outbreak of RVF in Mauritania (OS1, OS3, OS8, and OS9).

  3. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus pleuropneumonia and peritonitis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, William B; Gold, Jenifer

    2015-08-01

    A 12-week-old female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf was evaluated because of acute (Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus septicemia as the etiology for the polyserositis (ie, alpaca fever). Treatment with IV broad-spectrum antimicrobials, an NSAID, and pleural drainage was initiated. Clinical signs of pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, and systemic infection improved rapidly 24 hours after initiation of medical treatment. The calf was discharged from the hospital after 11 days, and antimicrobial treatment continued for 2 weeks after discharge. At follow-up approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge (6 weeks after the initial examination), there were no clinical signs suggestive of relapse or any reported complications. S equi subsp zooepidemicus may cause polyserositis in Old World camelids (eg, dromedary camels) with signs similar to those seen in New World camelids (eg, alpaca and llama). The rapid response to medical treatment for the patient described suggested that S equi subsp zooepidemicus-induced polyserositis (alpaca fever) in dromedary camels may respond favorably to appropriate treatment. Reducing stress, reducing overcrowding, and separate housing of equids and camelids are suggested. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiology of alpaca fever in dromedary camels in North America.

  5. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  6. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants.

  7. Camel calves as opportunistic milk thefts? The first description of allosuckling in domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlová, Karolína; Bartoš, Luděk; Haberová, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a 'milk-theft' (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of 'milk theft', being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.

  8. Camel calves as opportunistic milk thefts? The first description of allosuckling in domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolína Brandlová

    Full Text Available Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus and to test whether it can be explained as a 'milk-theft' (opportunistic behaviour of calves or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female. Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of 'milk theft', being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in the serum of camels (Camelus dromedarius) from central Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Oneeb, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad Mazhar; Bibi, Fehmeeda; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Waheed, Abdul; Sajid, Muhammad Afzal; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Yasin, Ghulam; Lindsay, David S

    2017-06-01

    Infection with the Apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum occurs in domestic and wild animals worldwide. This parasite causes significant economic losses in the dairy industry worldwide. The current study was designed to assess the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the sera of camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Rakh Mahni, Bhakkar, Pakistan, to better understand the epidemiology of this important cause of bovine abortion in Pakistan. Eighty-one sera samples collected from apparently healthy camels (male = 19, female = 62) were tested for antibodies against N. caninum by using a commercially available competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay diagnostic kit. Nine (11.1%) of 81 sera samples were found positive for antibodies to N. caninum. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in seroprevalence was observed between male and female camels or between different breeds. An increasing trend of seropositivity to N. caninum was seen with the age of animals indicating postnatal exposure to N. caninum infection. However, this increase in prevalence was not significant (P > 0.05). However, a significant (P < 0.05) difference in seroprevalence was noted among feeding style of animals, i.e., stall feeding, grazing, and mixed (grazing and stall feeding) feeding style. The prevalence was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in female animals 26.1% (6/23) with abortion history that of animals have had no such history 5.1% (2/39). Presence of antibodies to N. caninum in the sera of camels indicates that further studies are required to evaluate the importance of N. caninum as a cause of abortion or neonatal disease in these animals.

  10. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  11. Estimação pelo método Bayesiano de parâmetros genéticos de peso vivo e características de carcaça em avestruzes Estimation by the Bayesian method of genetic parameters of live weight and carcass traits of ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar parâmetros genéticos de características de desempenho e carcaça de avestruzes criados comercialmente, foi utilizado o método Bayesiano, por meio do algoritmo amostrador de Gibbs, disponível no programa MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling for Animal Models. Foram estimadas as herdabilidades e correlações genéticas para: peso vivo ao nascer (PN; peso vivo corrigido aos 190 dias (P190 e aos 360 dias (P360 de idade; peso vivo pré-abate (PVO; perda de peso durante o transporte e jejum (PTA; peso de carcaça (PCA; e rendimento de carcaça (RCA. As herdabilidades respectivas foram 0,11; 0,12; 0,33; 0,05; 0,04; 0,20; 0,05. Para as correlações, foram encontrados os valores de -0,11 entre rendimento de carcaça e peso ao nascer; 0,84 e 0,68 para peso de carcaça com peso aos 190 dias e peso de carcaça com peso aos 360 dias; 0,61 e 0,33 para rendimento de carcaça com peso aos 190 dias e rendimento de carcaça com peso aos 360 dias. Não é viável selecionar para peso ao nascer ou para rendimento de carcaça como é para peso aos 360 dias de idade e peso de carcaça. A seleção para peso aos 360 dias de idade pode melhorar o peso da carcaça, ao passo que a seleção para peso aos 190 dias pode aumentar o rendimento de carcaça.With the objective of estimating genetic parameters of performance and carcass characteristics of commercially reared ostriches in Ourinhos, SP, it was used the Bayesian method, by using Gibbs sampling algorithm, available in the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Models. It was estimated the heritabilities and genetic correlations for: birth live weight (BW, corrected live weight at 190 days (W190 and at 360 days (W360 of age; pre-slaughter live weight (PSW, weight loss during transport and fasting (WLT, carcass weight (CW and carcass dressing (CD. The respective heritabilities were 0.11, 0.12, 0.33, 0.05, 0.04, 0.20, 0.05. For the correlations, it was found values of

  12. Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad Wani

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus and Llama (Llama glama as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers. Serum-starved skin fibroblast cells were injected into the perivitelline space of enucleated mature oocytes, collected from super-stimulated dromedary camels, and fused using an Eppendorf electroporator. After activation with 5μM ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine, they were cultured at 38.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 in air. In experiment 1, Day 7 blastocysts were stained with Hoechst to count their cell numbers, while in experiment 2, they were transferred to synchronized dromedary recipients. A lower number (P < 0.05 of blastocysts were obtained from reconstructs utilizing fibroblast cells from Llama when compared with those reconstructed with dromedary and Bactrian fibroblast cells. However, no difference was observed in their cell numbers. In experiment 2, a higher (P < 0.05 proportion of blastocysts were obtained from the cleaved embryos reconstructed with Bactrian fibroblast cells when compared to those reconstructed with dromedary cells. Twenty-six Day 7 blastocysts reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred to 23 synchronized dromedary recipients with 5 pregnancies established on Day 30, however, only one of the pregnancies developed to term and a healthy calf weighing 33 kgs was born after completing 392 days of gestation. Unfortunately, the calf died on day 7 due to acute septicemia. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using

  14. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica e nutritiva de carnes exóticas

    OpenAIRE

    Sfaciotte, Ricardo Antonio Pilegi; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Vignoto, Vanessa Karla Capoia; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Cardozo, Rejane Machado; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Munhoz, Patrícia Marques; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Pinto, Adriana Aparecida; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Wosiacki, Sheila Rezler; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Ferraro, Gisela Cristiane; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Barbosa, Maria José Baptista; Universidade Estadual de Maringá

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum-packed and frozen of ostrich (Struthio camelus), alligator (Caiman latirostris) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat samples were obtained in an authorized commercial store in Maringá/Paraná. Of each kind meat were analyzed 6 samples, where were studied counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria psichrophilic, coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp., and protein and fat analysis. The results of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged between <1.0 a 3.6 log CFU/g, bein...

  15. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups eac...... of the proventriculus and gizzard, enteritis with stasis and multi-focal necrotic hepatitis....

  16. Milk Somatic Cell Counts and Some Hemato-Biochemical Changes in Sub-Clinical Mastitic Dromedary She-Camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ali, Riaz Hussain, Abdul Qayyum, Shafia Tehseen Gul, Zahid Iqbal and Mohammad Farooque Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The dromedary camels are considered as the best livestock animals in arid, semiarid and desert areas and camel milk is known as the valuable food source in these areas. The present study was aimed to investigate milk somatic cell counts and some biochemical changes in milk due to sub-clinical mastitis in camels. For this purpose milk samples were collected from 33 lactating animals and examined for sub clinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. The chi-square and frequency analysis did not show any significant association with age, lactation stage, parity and quarter involved. The results indicated significant (P<0.01 increase in milk electrical conductivity and milk pH while significantly lower values for milk proteins, lactose and fat contents were recorded. The results revealed that the total milk somatic cell and neutrophil counts were significantly increased while the lymphocytes and macrophages were decreased in infected animals. Moreover, milk enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in mastitic animals as compared to the non-infected animals. The results indicated that milk electrical conductivity and some milk enzymes can be screened to investigate the sub-clinical mastitis in Camelus dromedaries.

  17. Ultrasonographic and macroscopic anatomy of the enucleated eyes of the buffalo (Bos bubalis) and the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, A

    2012-02-01

    The ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of the normal buffalo and camel eye globes were described in 60 buffaloes (Bos bubalis) aged 1 year (28 eyes) and 10 years (32 eyes), and in 51 humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) aged 1 year (26 eyes) and 10 years (24 eyes). Ocular measurements were recorded by A- and B-scan ultrasonographic examination of 40 buffalo eyes (18 young and 22 adult eyes) and 34 camel eyes (14 young and 20 adult eyes) using a KANGH ultrasound scanner equipped with 10 MHz probe. For gross measurements, 20 buffalo and 16 camel eye globes were frozen and dissected and the same measurements were made using fine callipers macroscopically. The aqueous and vitreous humour of the buffalo and camel eyes appeared anechoic. The cornea, anterior and posterior lens capsule and iris appeared hyperechoic. The ocular measurements for the axial length, vitreous chamber depth (VCD), corneal thickness, lens thickness and scleroretinal rim thickness increase with the advance of age in both buffaloes and camels. Except for the anterior chamber depth, VCD and lens thickness, which were larger in adult camels than in adult buffaloes, no other differences between ocular dimensions were observed in both species. The results of this study are valuable for comparative ocular anatomy and will be useful for ultrasonographic evaluation of ocular diseases in buffaloes and camels. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Comparison of effects of age and sex on serum protein electrophoretic pattern in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius in Semnan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadi-hamedani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and sex on the concentration of total serum protein measured by the biuret method and protein fractions determined using cellulose acetate electrophoresis in apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius. Blood samples were collected from 21 camels (12 males and 9 females. The camels were further divided into two groups: 12 young camels at the age of 3 months to 2 years and 9 adult camels at the age of 3-15 years. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins identified five protein fractions in adult camels as young camels, these five protein fractions include albumin, α1 and α2, β and γ-globulins. In adult camels, serum levels (g/l of total protein, albumin, α1-globulins, α2-globulins, β-globulins and γ-globulins were 80.9±3.10, 42.9±3.10, 1.3±0.22, 2.2±0.30, 11.8±0.30 and 22.6±0.20, respectively. However, in young camels, these levels (g/l were 66.8±2.90, 40.2±2.40, 1.0±0.14, 2.6±0.30, 10.6±0.80 and 12.3±1.20, respectively. The albumin/globulin (A/G ratio was 2.08±0.28 in adult camels and 3.77±0.53 in young ones. The mean serum concentrations of total protein and γ-globulins were significantly (P<0.05 higher and the A/G ratio was significantly lower in adult camels compared to young camels. The mean concentrations of γ-globulins were significantly higher and the A/G ratio was significantly (P<0.05 lower in females compared to male camels. The results of the present study indicate a significant effect of age and sex on the concentrations of some of the serum protein fractions in dromedary camels.

  19. Ostrich (Struthio camellus carcass yield and meat quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Balog

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at compiling recent studies on the main factors that influence ostrich meat quality and carcass yield. Few articles investigated the effect of subspecies, which generally are not even mentioned. There are important dietary effects, particularly those caused by dietary protein to energy ratio. Rigor mortis follow-up studies showed that there are no losses in meat quality when carcasses are hot-deboned. Age at slaughter influences some meat quality traits, such as tenderness and lipid content. Few effects of gender have been observed, and at the same age at slaughter, both male and female present the same meat quality traits.

  20. Sperm storage and duration of fertility in female ostriches ( Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the duration of sperm storage and the fertile period following separation of sexes were investigated by egg break-out and by counting the sperm in the perivitelline membrane (spermOPVL) above the germinal disc (GD) region. Fertilisation ...

  1. Review of ostrich ( Struthio carmelis ) production and its adaptability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can digest high levels of fiber. During breeding season, onset of which depends on location, females lay about 50-100 eggs of 2.0-3.0 kg depending on type of habitat. In the wild, female and male both incubate the eggs during the day and night respectively, for about 42 days. Good number of ostrich can be found living in ...

  2. Growth, feed intake and body composition of ostriches (Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slaughter experiment, were utilized to describe patterns of efficiency of feed utilization, deposition rates of protein, fat and body energy, as well as patterns of energy intake over the live mass interval 10-30 kg, by employing the empirical, allometric autoregression growth model. The ratio of daily energy storage in protein ...

  3. Aproveitamento de vísceras não comestíveis de aves para elaboração de farinha de carne The use of non-edible poultry viscera to produce meat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pinheiro Soncini Costa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, estudou-se o processamento das vísceras de frango (Gallus domesticus e das ratitas avestruz (Struthio camellus e ema (Rhea americana, processadas da mesma forma, com o objetivo de elaborar farinhas. A qualidade e controle de produção dessas farinhas foram avaliados por meio de parâmetros tecnológicos exigidos pela legislação vigente. Basicamente, a matéria-prima foi cozida e esterilizada, filtrada em peneira (para a separação do óleo, moída, seca em estufa e analisada. Foram obtidos dados de rendimentos de produção, de composição de nutrientes, de digestibilidade em pepsina, do valor calórico, determinados os teores de cálcio e fósforo, e realizados estudos da estabilidade da farinha durante o armazenamento (Salmonella, pH, índice de acidez e TBA. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de farinha pelo processamento das vísceras de avestruz e ema é viável, seus parâmetros de qualidade atendem, em grande parte, às exigências, mas, para um emprego imediato (uso regular na elaboração de rações, necessita de alguns ajustes (correções de parâmetros físico-químicos (nutrientes.This work studied the processing of the viscera of chicken (Gallus domesticus and of the ratites ostrich (Struthio camellus and great rhea (Rhea americana, processed in the same manner, with the objective of producing flours. The quality and control of the production of these flours were evaluated through technological parameters required by the current legislation. Basically, raw material was cooked and sterilized, sieve filtered (for oil separation, ground, dried in an oven and analyzed. Production yield, nutrient composition, pepsin digestibility and caloric value data were obtained. Calcium and phosphorus levels and flour stability during storage (Salmonella, pH, acid value and TBA were also determined. The results indicated that the production of flour by processing the viscera of ostrich and great rhea is viable

  4. Characterization of recombinant Arabian camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with human insulin sequences. Camel proinsulin is 5.8 kDa in size and includes 87 amino acids with highly conserved domains. Proinsulins are highly conserved enzymes in many mammals; camel proinsulin possesses 87.5% homology to human proinsulin by amino acid sequences. The C peptide chain is made up of a ...

  5. Brucellosis in camels ( Camelus dromedaries ) slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... season recorded the highest prevalence of 15.07% among the seasons. Since brucellosis is a zoonotic disease, it is important to include camels in vaccination programs against the disease. Keywords: Sero-prevalence; brucellosis; Camels; Zoonotic; Brucella abortus; Nigeria Animal Production Research Advances Vol.

  6. ( Camelus dromedarius ) Milk In Khartoum State, Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 112 individual camel milk samples were collected during the period from. December 2004 to June 2005 to evaluate the hygienic quality of raw camel milk in two locations of Khartoum State, Sudan. To achieve this the following microbiological counts were done: total bacterial counts, mesophilic counts, ...

  7. Craniocervical myology and functional morphology of the small-headed therizinosaurian theropods Falcarius utahensis and Nothronychus mckinleyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Smith

    Full Text Available Therizinosaurs represent a highly unusual clade of herbivorous theropods from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia. Following descriptions of the basicrania of the North American therizinosaurs Falcarius utahenisis and Nothronychus mckinleyi, the craniocervical musculature in both taxa is reconstructed using Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, and some extant birds as models. These muscles are subdivided into functional groups as dorsiflexors, lateroflexors, and ventroflexors. Lateroflexors and dorsiflexors in Nothronychus, but not Falcarius, are reduced, from the plesiomorphic theropod condition, but are still well developed. Attachments in both genera are favorable for an increase in ventroflexion in feeding, convergent with Allosaurus fragilis. Falcarius and Nothronychus are both characterized by a flat occipital condyle, followed by centra with shallow articular facets suggesting neck function very similar to that of an ostrich Struthio camelus. Neck movement was a combined result of minimal movement between the individual cervical vertebrae.

  8. Craniocervical myology and functional morphology of the small-headed therizinosaurian theropods Falcarius utahensis and Nothronychus mckinleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David K

    2015-01-01

    Therizinosaurs represent a highly unusual clade of herbivorous theropods from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia. Following descriptions of the basicrania of the North American therizinosaurs Falcarius utahenisis and Nothronychus mckinleyi, the craniocervical musculature in both taxa is reconstructed using Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, and some extant birds as models. These muscles are subdivided into functional groups as dorsiflexors, lateroflexors, and ventroflexors. Lateroflexors and dorsiflexors in Nothronychus, but not Falcarius, are reduced, from the plesiomorphic theropod condition, but are still well developed. Attachments in both genera are favorable for an increase in ventroflexion in feeding, convergent with Allosaurus fragilis. Falcarius and Nothronychus are both characterized by a flat occipital condyle, followed by centra with shallow articular facets suggesting neck function very similar to that of an ostrich Struthio camelus. Neck movement was a combined result of minimal movement between the individual cervical vertebrae.

  9. Age-related Changes in some Blood Parameters of Ostrich (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodaei Motlagh M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating some blood parameters of blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus with 4 months old after feeding a diet containing 3% sunflower oil for two months. In the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, some blood samples were collected from the wing vein of ostriches at the beginning and 60 days of study in department of animal sceince Arak university . The plasma was harvested and analyzed to measure cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-Cholesrerol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C, Very low density lipoproyein-Cholesterol (VLDL_C, total protein, albumin, total immunoglobulin, the activity of AST and ALT. From days 0 to 60, HDL-C concentration decreased (P

  10. Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flocking and predator surveillance in House Sparrows: test of a hypothesis. Animal Behaviour 29: 868–872. Fernández-Juricic, e., SmiTh, r. & kaceLnik, a. 2005. Increasing the costs of conspecific scanning in socially foraging starlings affects vigilance and foraging behaviour. Animal Behaviour 69: 73–81. Fernández-Juricic ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  13. Purification and characterization of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Serour, Ehab A; Abdelrahman, Aref M; Haroun, Bakry M; Redwan, El-Rashdy M

    2009-01-01

    Skimmed camel milk contains 59,900 U/L amylase, which is 39,363 times less than serum and plasma amylase. Camel milk beta-amylase was purified as a 61 KDa band using DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 and yielded 561 U/mg. The optimum working pH, Km and temperature were 7.0, 13.6 mg/Lstarch, 30-40 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme has been shown higher affinity toward amylose and soluble starch than glycogen, amylopectin, dextrin, or pullulan. Magnesium chloride, CaCl(2) and NaCl activated the amylase, while EDTA and EGTA decreased its activity. While its activity was increased in the presence of Triton X-100 and Triton X-114. Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride did not show any effect on enzyme activity. However, the enzyme activity was inhibited by urea, SDS, DTNB, iodoacetamide, N-ethylmalimide, aprotinin, and trypsin inhibitor. It worked on starch to yield a maltose. Scanning electron microscope images demonstrated a nano-degrading ability on starch granules from various sources (potato, corn, cassava, and rice).

  14. Natural Dermatophilus congolensis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitao, C G; Evans, J O; Atkins, D J

    1990-10-01

    Natural Dermatophilus congolensis infection is found in many species of livestock and wild animals. It is, however, rarely described in camels and there are no details of bacterial isolation. In an investigation of both arid and semi-arid areas in Kenya, an outbreak of dermatophilosis was observed in camel calves being reared on a commercial farm in a semi-arid area. Histopathology and bacterial isolation were used to diagnose the diseases. The potential impact of the disease in camels is discussed.

  15. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  16. Surgery of the Dulaa in the Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan O. Ramadan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 45 native adult dromedary camels suffering from disorders of the dulaa. Clinical signs were those of dysphagia and or dyspnoea. Twenty-four camels (53.33% were unable to inflate or extrude their dulaas. These signs were associated with pharyngeal swelling. Therefore the animals were examined radiographically. Fifteen (33.33% camels suffered from collapsed and persistent protrusion of the dulaas. Four (8.9% camels had previous episodes of dysfunction of the dulaa and the owner requested elective surgical excision. The remaining 2 (4.44% animals had previous excision by healers and developed granulation tissue. Surgical management was achieved after light sedation using xylazine (2% Rompun, Bayer supplemented with local infiltration analgesia or followed by induction of anaesthesia using ketamine hydrochloride (Ketamidore. The operations were carried out either through the oral cavity or following a pharyngostomy incision at the inter-mandibular region. In the latter instances, temporary tracheotomy was needed. The prevalent surgical affections were impaction with food material associated with ulcer or echymosis or abscesses. Less severe maladies were those of persistent protrusion accompanied with edema, haematoma, lacerations, small foci of abscesses and gangrene. The prognosis was favourable. The study included surgical anatomy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, as well as radiography of the dulaa in health and disease.

  17. Characterization of partially purified catalase from camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liver of camel has high level of catalase (32,225 units/g tissue) as commercially used bovine liver catalase. For the establishment of the enzyme, the rate of catalase activity was linearly increased with increase of the catalase concentration and incubation time. The procedure of partial purification of catalase from camel ...

  18. Evaluation of halothane as an anaesthetic in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Peshin, P K; Patil, D B; Sharda, R; Singh, J; Singh, A P; Sharifi, D

    1994-06-01

    Halothane as an anaesthetic was evaluated in 12 adult camels, thiopentone being used as an induction agent. In six camels, clinical signs and haematological and blood biochemical changes were investigated while in other six haemodynamic, acid base and blood gas changes were monitored. The dose of thiopentone required to ensure intubation for halothane anaesthesia was 7.25 +/- 0.33 mg/kg. A modified technique of tracheal intubation was found to be safe and quick. During halothane administration all anaesthetic effects were predictable. Complete recovery occurred in 39.5 +/- 9.8 min after discontinuation of halothane administration. Halothane moderated the thiopentone-induced tachycardia. The mean arterial pressure decreased significantly. There was an increase in the arterial carbon dioxide and venous oxygen tension during halothane anaesthesia and development of hypoxaemia after its discontinuation. The alanine aminotransferase values increased during recovery, while plasma sodium, potassium and calcium decreased. Halothane appears to be safe for camels. However, to avoid hypoxaemia in the immediate post-anaesthetic period, oxygen administration should be continued.

  19. Survey of Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Infesting Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...

  20. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Camelus dromedarius (Hachi) fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. • Optimization of key reaction parameters were performed. • Some fuel properties of biodiesel were measured and compared with biodiesel standards. • Ten of the properties that were evaluated for the diesel conform to the ASTM and EN standards values. - Abstract: Recently, biodiesel has been gaining market share against fossil-origin diesel due to its ecological benefits and because it can be directly substituted for traditional diesel oils. However, the high cost of the raw materials required to produce biodiesel make it more expensive than fossil diesel. Therefore, low-priced raw materials, such as waste cooking oil and animal fats, are of interest because they can be used to drive down the cost of biodiesel. We have produced biodiesel from camel fat using a transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The experimental variables investigated in this study were the temperature (30–75 °C), reaction time (20–160 min), catalyst concentration (0.25–1.5%), and methanol/fat molar ratio (4:1–9:1). A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.6% was obtained. The fuel properties of biodiesel, such as iodine value, saponification value, density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, sulfur content, carbon residue, water and sediment, high heating value, refractive index, cloud point, pour point, and distillation characteristics, were measured. The properties were compared with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards, and an acceptable level of agreement was obtained

  1. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  2. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in camels ( Camelus dromedarius ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a prélevé du sang à 3.218 dromadaires âgés de deux ans et plus. Tous les échantillons de sérum étaient examinés à l'aide du Test d'agglutination sur lame au Rose Bengal (RBPT). Les échantillons de sérum positifs étaient ensuite analysés avec le Test de fixation du complément (CFT) pour confirmation.

  3. The genetic characterisation of Camelus dromedarius in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ben

    1 Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa. 2 ARC Animal Improvement Institute, P. Bag ... (H), average number of alleles (A) and the percentage of animals that classified to the correct population in an assignment test. Southern African populations marked with an ...

  4. ( Camelus dromedarius ) of North east sahel region of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values for red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and erythrocyte indices were similar to those obtained from camels in Sokoto (North West Region) Nigeria; and also in accord with values published in the literature for Indian camels. Total leucocyte counts were relatively higher but within ...

  5. Variation of the platelet indices of dromedary camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematological parameters showed breed, age and intersex differences in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Sex and agerelated differences were also found in red cell distribution width in addition to age-related differences in hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Platelet ...

  6. Composition, Quality and Health Aspects of the Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius and Bactrian (Camelus bacterianus Camel Meats: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam T. Kadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dromedary and bactrian camels are good sources of high quality protein especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the survival of other livestock. The camel has unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high and low temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. Camels are mostly produced under traditional systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at old ages after completing a career in work, racing or milk production. In general, camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore-quarters (cranial to rib 13 significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for growing human populations. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than other meat animals, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisciplinary research into efficient production systems and improved meat technology and marketing.

  7. Ostrich eggshell as an alternative raw material for hydroxyapatite synthesis; Sintese e caracterizacao de hidroxiapatita a partir da casca de ovo de avestruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliman, L.B.; Gouvea, D., E-mail: orenabatistacaliman@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica; Della, V.P. [Institutlo Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), ES (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of ostrich eggshell for hydroxyapatite synthesis, a biomaterial of great medical importance due to its high biocompatibility. The eggshell was used as calcium ions source due its great containing of CaCO3. For its utilization, the eggshell was calcined and the obtained oxide (CaO) was transformed into Ca(OH){sub 2}. Hydroxyapatite synthesis consisted in a wet precipitation reaction between Ca(OH){sub 2} and commercial H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The X ray Diffraction analysis has shown that the precipitated Hydroxyapatite calcined at 800°C resulted in a bifasic powder of Hydroxyapatite and β-Tricalcium Phosphate, which proves that this precipitated Hydroxyapatite was deficient in calcium. The Infrared Spectroscopy, showed the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions, result of carrying out the reaction in open atmosphere. By Scanning Electron Microscopy nanometric particles arranged in agglomerates were observed and Specific Surface Area measurement resulted in 11,70 m²/g. Following this procedure, the ostrich eggshell gets a technological profitable reuse also environmentally friendly, being transformed in a new product of high aggregate value. (author)

  8. Ancient DNA Reveals Late Pleistocene Existence of Ostriches in Indian Sub-Continent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Jain

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA analysis of extinct ratite species is of considerable interest as it provides important insights into their origin, evolution, paleogeographical distribution and vicariant speciation in congruence with continental drift theory. In this study, DNA hotspots were detected in fossilized eggshell fragments of ratites (dated ≥25000 years B.P. by radiocarbon dating using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. DNA was isolated from five eggshell fragments and a 43 base pair (bp sequence of a 16S rRNA mitochondrial-conserved region was successfully amplified and sequenced from one of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequence revealed a 92% identity of the fossil eggshells to Struthio camelus and their position basal to other palaeognaths, consistent with the vicariant speciation model. Our study provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of ostriches in India, complementing the continental drift theory of biogeographical movement of ostriches in India, and opening up a new window into the evolutionary history of ratites.

  9. Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Cobley

    Full Text Available The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50. This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.

  10. A fossil protein chimera; difficulties in discriminating dinosaur peptide sequences from modern cross-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Michael; Warwood, Stacey; van Dongen, Bart; Kitchener, Andrew C; Manning, Phillip L

    2017-05-31

    A decade ago, reports that organic-rich soft tissue survived from dinosaur fossils were apparently supported by proteomics-derived sequence information of exceptionally well-preserved bone. This initial claim to the sequencing of endogenous collagen peptides from an approximately 68 Myr Tyrannosaurus rex fossil was highly controversial, largely on the grounds of potential contamination from either bacterial biofilms or from laboratory practice. In a subsequent study, collagen peptide sequences from an approximately 78 Myr Brachylophosaurus canadensis fossil were reported that have remained largely unchallenged. However, the endogeneity of these sequences relies heavily on a single peptide sequence, apparently unique to both dinosaurs. Given the potential for cross-contamination from modern bone analysed by the same team, here we extract collagen from bone samples of three individuals of ostrich, Struthio camelus The resulting LC-MS/MS data were found to match all of the proposed sequences for both the original Tyrannosaurus and Brachylophosaurus studies. Regardless of the true nature of the dinosaur peptides, our finding highlights the difficulty of differentiating such sequences with confidence. Our results not only imply that cross-contamination cannot be ruled out, but that appropriate measures to test for endogeneity should be further evaluated. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. A test of the validity of range of motion studies of fossil archosaur elbow mobility using repeated-measures analysis and the extant phylogenetic bracket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel D; Hutson, Kelda N

    2012-06-15

    Recent studies have presented range of motion (ROM) data in degrees for dinosaur forelimb joints, usually via physical manipulation of one individual. Using these data, researchers have inferred limb orientations, postures, gaits, ecological functions and even phylogenetic trends within clades. However, important areas of concern remain unaddressed; for example, how does ROM at a forelimb joint change after soft tissues are lost in archosaurs? And are fossil ROM methodologies amenable to reproducibility and statistical analysis? Here, we investigated these questions using the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs. Repeated measures of elbow joint ROM from Struthio camelus and Alligator mississippiensis forelimbs were statistically analyzed as they were sequentially dissected through five levels of tissue removal treatment. Our data indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in repeated measures of ROM between observers who use the same techniques. Extrinsic soft tissues, such as integument, muscles and ligaments were found to impede ROM at the elbow joint. Intrinsic soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, may increase ROM. The hypothesis that the articular surfaces of the bones within the elbow joints of archosaurs provide a general approximation of mobility is supported. Final ROMs were less than the initial ROMs in both taxa, which suggests that prior reports of elbow joint ROMs in degrees for nonavian dinosaurs may represent conservative estimates. We conclude that if observer bias and other variables are controlled for, ROM studies of fossil archosaur limbs can obtain useful degree data for inferring joint mobility in vivo.

  12. Morphological and histochemical observations of the organic components of ostrich eggshell

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    P.D.G. Richards

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic component of the avian eggshell can be divided into 3 portions, the shell membranes, the matrix and the cuticle. These have been well characterised in the chicken but little has been published with regard to the ostrich (Struthio camelus. A number of recent studies have indicated that the cause of intra-shell embryonic deaths in the ostrich is similar to intra-shell embryonic deaths that occur in the chicken. These deaths in the chicken are associated with the loss of or damage to the waxy cuticle and other organic components of the eggshell, which is reported to be absent in the ostrich eggshell. In this study, preliminary morphological and histochemical analyses, at the level of the light and electron microscope, have characterised the various organic components of the ostrich eggshell. The results of the histochemical and electron microscopical analyses suggest that there mayonly be 1 shell membrane in this species, which could play a major role in the limitation of bacterial penetration to the embryonic chamber. The shell membrane has a distinct elemental profile as determined by EDSanalysis. The matrix is shown to decrease in mesh size from the mammillary layer to the vertical crystal layer. The closer packing of the mesh may indicate the presence of a morphologically discernible termination signal to calcification or the remnants of an evolutionary calcified cuticle. The matrix of the pores may also forma defensive barrier against bacterial invasion, which could be damaged as a result of dipping the eggs before incubation.

  13. Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition

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    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.

  14. The effect of dietary energy and protein levels on body weight, size, and microflora of ostrich chicks.

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    Nikravesh-Masouleh, Tahereh; Seidavi, Alireza; Kawka, Magdalena; Dadashbeiki, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dietary energy and protein supplements on performance, weekly body sizes or body frame size, and microbiota of ostrich chicks during 2-9 weeks of age. Two metabolic energy levels of 2400 and 2600 kcal/kg live weight and three protein levels of 20, 22, and 24% were used. A total of 36 ostrich chickens (Struthio camelus) of the blue and black African breed were used. Body weight, 12 body measurements (i.e., circumference of the head, neck, breast, abdomen, thigh, body height, length of tail, list the other 5 here) and excretion of microbial population (Escherichia coli, Coliforms bacteria, and Lactobacillus bacteria) were measured. Mean body weight in each week of the experiment was generally the lowest when chicks were offered 2600 kcal/kg dietary energy and 24% protein. Of the 12 body measurements, the breast, abdomen, and thigh circumference and also body length were greater at the lower energy (2400 kcal/kg) and higher protein (24%) levels. Total Aerobic bacteria excretion was generally lower in response to the diet containing the higher level of energy. We conclude that ostrich chickens during 2-9 weeks of age can grow on diets that contain lower energy levels.

  15. Evaluation of microbiology and nutritive quality of exotic meats

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    Ricardo Antonio Pilegi Sfaciotte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum-packed and frozen of ostrich (Struthio camelus, alligator (Caiman latirostris and wild boar (Sus scrofa meat samples were obtained in an authorized commercial store in Maringá/Paraná. Of each kind meat were analyzed 6 samples, where were studied counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria psichrophilic, coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp., and protein and fat analysis. The results of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged between <1.0 a 3.6 log CFU/g, being the biggest counting in ostrich meat. The meat that had the biggest counting of micro-organisms psychrotrophs was also the ostrich, but even so, it was not considered high, ranging between 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/g. There were no counting for coliforms and E. coli on wild boar and alligator meats (except sample 4 of wild boar meat that had a count of 1.0 log CFU/g of coliforms but, all ostrich meat had count, ranged between 1.3 a 2.7 log CFU/g. In generally, the literature shows that wild animals meats have higher protein values (19.5 to 22.8% CP than domestic animals, this values agree with the values found in this work, 19.9 to 29.9% CP.

  16. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

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    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-03

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis).

  17. Influenza Aviária: Uma Revisão dos Últimos Dez Anos Avian Influenza: A Review of the Last Ten Years

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    NRS Martins

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A influenza aviária é doença exótica no Brasil. O sistema de vigilância implementado pelo Programa Nacional de Sanidade Avícola (PNSA mantém monitoração permanente das aves das principais espécies domésticas, tanto do material genético importado para a indústria avícola, por exemplo, da espécie das galinhas (Gallus gallus formadomestica, perus (Meleagris gallopavo formadomestica, codornas (Coturnix coturnix japonica, patos (Anas, primários (elite, bisavós e avós para postura ou corte, como aves de espécies de exploração mais recente, exóticas, por exemplo avestruzes (Struthio camelus ou nativas, por exemplo emas (Rhea americana. Os plantéis de reprodutores em produção são também acompanhados por amostragens periódicas, conforme previsto no PNSA, além da monitoração das respostas aos programas de vacinação, por exemplo, contra bronquite infecciosa e doença infecciosa bursal. O PNSA estabelece as normas de atuação para o controle e erradicação da doença de Newcastle (ND e Influenza Aviária (AI (Projeto de Vigilância, 2001, a saber: I - Notificação de focos da doença (e confirmação laboratorial no LARA-Campinas; II - Assistência a focos; III - Medidas de desinfecção; IV - Sacrifício sanitário; V - Vazio sanitário; VI - Vacinação dos plantéis ou esquemas emergenciais; VII - Controle e fiscalização dos animais susceptíveis; VIII - Outras medidas sanitárias; A vigilância e atenção ao foco exige o diagnóstico laboratorial e diferencial de AI e ND, que segue as normas do PNSA, conforme o sumário abaixo: 1- Interdição e coleta de materiais para exame laboratorial oficial; 2- Registro das aves: espécie(s, categoria(s, número(s, manutenção de aves; utensílios e produtos no local; proibição de trânsito de e para a(s propriedade(s em um raio de 10 km; controle de todos os animais e materiais possíveis fontes de propagação; desinfecção de vias de entradas e saídas à(s propriedade

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  19. A repeated-measures analysis of the effects of soft tissues on wrist range of motion in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs: Implications for the functional origins of an automatic wrist folding mechanism in Crocodilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel David; Hutson, Kelda Nadine

    2014-07-01

    A recent study hypothesized that avian-like wrist folding in quadrupedal dinosaurs could have aided their distinctive style of locomotion with semi-pronated and therefore medially facing palms. However, soft tissues that automatically guide avian wrist folding rarely fossilize, and automatic wrist folding of unknown function in extant crocodilians has not been used to test this hypothesis. Therefore, an investigation of the relative contributions of soft tissues to wrist range of motion (ROM) in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs, and the quadrupedal function of crocodilian wrist folding, could inform these questions. Here, we repeatedly measured wrist ROM in degrees through fully fleshed, skinned, minus muscles/tendons, minus ligaments, and skeletonized stages in the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis and the ostrich Struthio camelus. The effects of dissection treatment and observer were statistically significant for alligator wrist folding and ostrich wrist flexion, but not ostrich wrist folding. Final skeletonized wrist folding ROM was higher than (ostrich) or equivalent to (alligator) initial fully fleshed ROM, while final ROM was lower than initial ROM for ostrich wrist flexion. These findings suggest that, unlike the hinge/ball and socket-type elbow and shoulder joints in these archosaurs, ROM within gliding/planar diarthrotic joints is more restricted to the extent of articular surfaces. The alligator data indicate that the crocodilian wrist mechanism functions to automatically lock their semi-pronated palms into a rigid column, which supports the hypothesis that this palmar orientation necessitated soft tissue stiffening mechanisms in certain dinosaurs, although ROM-restricted articulations argue against the presence of an extensive automatic mechanism. Anat Rec, 297:1228-1249, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

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    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  1. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesku, John A; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Rattenborg, Niels C

    2011-01-01

    Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or 'ancient') group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus), a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  2. Preferred gait and walk-run transition speeds in ostriches measured using GPS-IMU sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Monica A; Channon, Anthony J; Nolan, Grant S; Hall, Jade

    2016-10-15

    The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is widely appreciated as a fast and agile bipedal athlete, and is a useful comparative bipedal model for human locomotion. Here, we used GPS-IMU sensors to measure naturally selected gait dynamics of ostriches roaming freely over a wide range of speeds in an open field and developed a quantitative method for distinguishing walking and running using accelerometry. We compared freely selected gait-speed distributions with previous laboratory measures of gait dynamics and energetics. We also measured the walk-run and run-walk transition speeds and compared them with those reported for humans. We found that ostriches prefer to walk remarkably slowly, with a narrow walking speed distribution consistent with minimizing cost of transport (CoT) according to a rigid-legged walking model. The dimensionless speeds of the walk-run and run-walk transitions are slower than those observed in humans. Unlike humans, ostriches transition to a run well below the mechanical limit necessitating an aerial phase, as predicted by a compass-gait walking model. When running, ostriches use a broad speed distribution, consistent with previous observations that ostriches are relatively economical runners and have a flat curve for CoT against speed. In contrast, horses exhibit U-shaped curves for CoT against speed, with a narrow speed range within each gait for minimizing CoT. Overall, the gait dynamics of ostriches moving freely over natural terrain are consistent with previous lab-based measures of locomotion. Nonetheless, ostriches, like humans, exhibit a gait-transition hysteresis that is not explained by steady-state locomotor dynamics and energetics. Further study is required to understand the dynamics of gait transitions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P milk samples were 2.51 ± 0.03%, 2.60 ± 0.01%, 4.03 ± 0.03%, 9.98 ± 0.03% and 7.56 ± 0.03%, respectively. Lactation period, average daily milk production and morning vs. evening milking significantly influenced milk chemical composition. For the 470 camels in the breeding programme, end-of-season pregnancy rate and birth rate were 87.0% and 82.6%, respectively, after natural mating. We have demonstrated that sustainable milk production is possible from a traditional species, the dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  4. Antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk on spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Mohammed A; Alhaj, Omar A; Al-Khalifah, Abdullrahman S

    2017-03-30

    Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in worldwide, thus prevention of hypertension is important in reducing the risks of cardiovascular disease. Milk contains bioactive peptides released during milk fermentation which lead to exhibit angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on rats and compared with unfermented skim camel milk as control. The antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on thirty six male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was carried out for (short-term) and (long-term) using different doses (80, 240 and 1200 mg/kg body weight). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was also measured using ACE Kit. The blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in short term administration (24 hours) of 1200 mg/kg body weight fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk for long-term (20 days) decreased and affected the heart rate (beats/min). The lowest record of systolic (41 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (19 mmHg) were at dose of 1200 mg/kg body weight of fermented skim camel milk at 15 days of administration. Likewise, ACE activity in plasma of SHR administered fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk by L. helveticus and S. thermophillus in SHR rats depends on the high dose of fermented skim camel milk in short and long-term. The ACE activity inhibitory was clear with fermented skim camel milk.

  5. Chemical characterization of the oligosaccharides in Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) milk and colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, K; Yamamoto, A; Ganzorig, K; Khuukhenbaatar, J; Senda, A; Saito, T; Urashima, T

    2010-12-01

    Bactrian camel milk and colostrum are commonly used as foods in Mongolia, whose people believe that these products promote human health. It has been hypothesized that milk oligosaccharides are biologically significant components of human milk, acting as receptor analogs that inhibit the attachment of pathogenic microorganisms to the colonic mucosa, and as prebiotics, which stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria within the infant colon. To evaluate their biological significance, we studied the oligosaccharides present in samples of Bactrian camel milk and colostrum. Using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified and characterized the following oligosaccharides of camel colostrum: Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]Glc (3-fucosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc (6'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc (6'-sialyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl-3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyllacto-N-tetraose c), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyllacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyllacto-N-novopentaose b); and Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (monosialyllacto-N-neohexaose). The oligosaccharides in the mature camel milk were characterized as 3'-galactosyllactose, Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I), and 3'-sialyllactose. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological change in camel milk composition (Camelus dromedarius) 1. Effect of lactation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuspayeva, Gaukhar; Faye, Bernard; Loiseau, Gérard; Narmuratova, Meiramkul; Ivashchenko, Anatoly; Meldebekova, Aliya; Davletov, Sydyk

    2010-03-01

    The change in the composition of camel milk in four dromedaries was studied by including the common measured parameters: protein, total fat, lactose, main minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and iron), and vitamin C. The fat matter varied from 4.34% to 7.81% with a slight decrease all along the lactation and a minimal value at the 14th week corresponding to the lactation peak. Those variations were less important for protein content (from 2.58% to 3.64%), but the minimal value was observed at the 14th week also. The lactose varied slightly around its mean of 3.46%. The vitamin C concentration varied from 48 to 256 mg/l with a tendency of increasing all along the lactation. Calcium and phosphorus concentrations were quite parallel and their ratio Ca/P was constant. The minimal values (1.43 g/l for calcium and 1.16 g/l for phosphorus) were observed at the beginning of the lactation. The iron concentrations varied around the mean of 1.73 mg/l.

  7. Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faigl, V; Reiczigel, J; Juhasz, J

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284±21.5d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2α to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n=4), pregnant camels (group 2; n=3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n=4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28±7 and 35±3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30±4 and 48±4d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production was decreased by 1,532 (31.6%) and 2,151 kg (44.3%) in pregnant compared with nonpregnant camels in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. We concluded that the calving interval can be shortened by mating during midlactation. However, pregnancy has a strong negative effect on milk production as dromedaries stop lactating by the fourth month of gestation. Following embryonic mortality within 3mo of conception, milk production is restored. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Outbreaks of Dermatophilus congolensis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the Butana region in eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitao, C G; Agab, H; Khalifalla, A J

    1998-12-01

    Natural Dermatophilus congolensis infection of camels has been reported in Kenya in semi-arid areas. Research is being conducted to discover how widespread the condition is in neighbouring countries with similar eco-climatic conditions. Severe skin infections of camels from the Butana region of Eastern Sudan were examined. The infections were first found in two herds of adult camels, of which 50%-75% of the animals were affected. In the other thirteen herds examined, camel calves were more likely to be infected (34%) than adults (8.9%), and lesions were more severe and involved most parts of the body. The lesions began as hair matting and later developed into hard crusts. The case fatality rate ranged from 10% to 30%. D. congolensis was isolated from the scabs. Camel dermatophilosis was found to be among the most serious problems faced by camel herders in the Butana region.

  9. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  10. The First Record of Linguatula serrata Infection of Two-Humped Camel (Camelus bactrinus In Iran

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    B Hajimohammadi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nLinguatula serrata, is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasite. Adult of L. serrrata parasitize the nasopharynx of canids. Con­suming raw glandular material of infected intermediate hosts (camel, sheep, cattle, goat, etc. can infect human. In Iran, two-humped camel is merely found in cold regions (Ardabil and East Azarbijan provinces and is in danger of extinc­tion. A seven-year-old two-humped male camel, due to car accident injury was sent to slaughterhouse of Tabriz, Iran. In meat inspection practice, the visceral organs were taken out. A small red nodule having a white center was observed at the surface of the left lobe of lung. To study more, the whole of the left lobe of lung was sent to the parasitology labora­tory. One nymph of L. serrata was separated from the specimen. This is the first report of infection with L. serrate of two-humped camel in Iran.

  11. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius

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    A. Benkirane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3 and B (n=3 consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10 consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12 composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 x 109 colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels.

  12. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

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    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  13. Effect of gender on quality and nutritive value of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius longissimus lumborum muscle

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    O.M.A. Abdelhadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of gender on nutritive value of dromedary camel longissimus lumborum (collagen content, amino acids and fatty acids. Fourteen longissimus lumborum (LL muscles (from 7 males and 7 females were collected from 2 to 3 year old camels. Animals were fattened by herders and slaughtered following commercial slaughterhouse procedures in Sudan. Samples were collected between the 1st and 5th lumbar vertebrae of the right carcass side. There was no effect of gender on intramuscular fat content, insoluble OH proline and total OH proline (μg/DM. Additionally no significant differences were found in amino acid composition between genders. However, muscles from female camels had significantly (P < 0.05 higher arginine content (1460 mg/100 g than males (1460 mg/100 g. The results showed no significant differences between genders for total saturated fatty acid (SFA, mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA proportions in camel meat. In contrast significant differences were revealed for some specific MUFA and PUFA (18:1 delta 10–11 trans, × 1.51, (P = 0.05, CLA (trans 11, cis 9 18:2, × 1.33% (P = 0.11 and trans 10, cis 12 18:2, × 5.7, (P = 0.03 in female muscles. PUFA/SFA ratio was found closer to the recommended value for human nutrition (0.45. Also the n-6/n-3 ratio was lower than the recommended values for healthy human diets (4.0. Altogether, these results indicated high nutritive value of dromedary camel meat compared to meat from other farm animals.

  14. SEQUENCING AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF MYOSTATIN GENE IN THE EXON 1 OF THE CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    M. G. SHAH, A. S. QURESHI1, M. REISSMANN2 AND H. J. SCHWARTZ3

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, also called growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8, is a member of the mammalian growth transforming family (TGF-beta superfamily, which is expressed specifically in developing an adult skeletal muscle. Muscular hypertrophy allele (mh allele in the double muscle breeds involved mutation within the myostatin gene. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambelpuri were used for sequencing. For PCR amplification of the gene, a primer pair was designed from homolog regions of already published sequences of farm animals from GenBank. Results showed that camel myostatin possessed more than 90% homology with that of cattle, sheep and pig. Camel formed separate cluster from the pig in spite of having high homology (98% and showed 94% homology with cattle and sheep as reported in literature. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplified part of exon 1 (256 bp of the camel myostatin was identical among six camel breeds.

  15. Detection of Candida species by nested PCR method in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Parin, Ugur; Erbas, Goksel; Kirkan, Sukru; Savasan, Serap; Tugba Yuksel, H; Balat, Gamze

    2018-02-01

    Systemic fungal diseases are the infections caused by false treatment protocols and generally are not taken into consideration especially in the veterinary field. One-humped camels are found in the western side of the Aegean region of our country and bred for wrestling. The aim of this study is the application of diagnosing systemic fungi infection from camel blood samples by the PCR method. In this study, specific primers for DNA topoisomerase II gene sequences were used. As a result, a systemic fungal infection was detected by the nested PCR method from 10 (20%) out of 50 DNA samples taken from camels located on the western side of the Aegean region. In this study, 3 (30%) samples were identified as Candida albicans, 3 (30%) samples were identified as C. glabrata, and 4 (40%) samples were identified as C. parapsilosis. In conclusion, the 20% positive systemic fungal infection rate in one-humped camels observed in the present study showed that the systemic fungal infections are not taken into considerations in veterinary medicine. Further studies are suggested in order to obtain and to maintain extensive data for systemic fungal diseases in our country for one-humped camels.

  16. Molecular Identification of Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Camels (Camelus dromedarius of Iran

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    Alireza SAZMAND

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. The aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from Iran by molecular tools.Methods: From June to July 2014, 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from asymptomatic one-humped camels in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan- va-Baloochestan in central and southeastern Iran. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA® cards for further analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR was carried out for the detection of piroplasms and trypanosomes, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples.Results: One sample was positive Trypanosoma spp. trypomastigotes in light microscopy. PCR results revealed one positive sample each with Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi.Conclusion: Camels were identified as hosts for bovine Mediterranean theileriosis in the investigated area. The presence of Tr. evansi, the causative agent of surra disease, was also confirmed in camels of Iran. Further studies are recommended in order to investigate their impact on the health and productivity of camels and other livestock in this region.

  17. Proteomics of old world camelid (Camelus dromedarius: Better understanding the interplay between homeostasis and desert environment

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    Mohamad Warda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life is the interplay between structural–functional integrity of biological systems and the influence of the external environment. To understand this interplay, it is useful to examine an animal model that competes with harsh environment. The dromedary camel is the best model that thrives under severe environment with considerable durability. The current proteomic study on dromedary organs explains a number of cellular mysteries providing functional correlates to arid living. Proteome profiling of camel organs suggests a marked increased expression of various cytoskeleton proteins that promote intracellular trafficking and communication. The comparative overexpression of α-actinin of dromedary heart when compared with rat heart suggests an adaptive peculiarity to sustain hemoconcentration–hemodilution episodes associated with alternative drought-rehydration periods. Moreover, increased expression of the small heat shock protein, α B-crystallin facilitates protein folding and cellular regenerative capacity in dromedary heart. The observed unbalanced expression of different energy related dependent mitochondrial enzymes suggests the possibility of mitochondrial uncoupling in the heart in this species. The evidence of increased expression of H+-ATPase subunit in camel brain guarantees a rapidly usable energy supply. Interestingly, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in camel liver has a renovation effect on high energy phosphate with possible concomitant intercession of ion homeostasis. Surprisingly, both hump fat tissue and kidney proteomes share the altered physical distribution of proteins that favor cellular acidosis. Furthermore, the study suggests a vibrant nature for adipose tissue of camel hump by the up-regulation of vimentin in adipocytes, augmenting lipoprotein translocation, blood glucose trapping, and challenging external physical extra-stress. The results obtained provide new evidence of homeostasis in the arid habitat suitable for this mammal.

  18. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

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    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different ( p protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  19. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E.; Eltom, Kamal H.; Musa, Nasreen O.; Ali, Ibtisam A.; Elamin, Fatima M.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Aradaib, Imadeldin E.

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic

  20. The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus of the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius: Cytoarchitecture and Neurochemical Anatomy

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    Khalid El Allali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy. Relevant neuropeptides involved in the circadian system were investigated, including arginine-vasopressin (AVP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, met-enkephalin (Met-Enk, neuropeptide Y (NPY, as well as oxytocin (OT. The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT and the enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC were also studied. The camel SCN is a large and elongated nucleus, extending rostrocaudally for 9.55 ± 0.10 mm. Based on histological and immunofluorescence findings, we subdivided the camel SCN into rostral/preoptic (rSCN, middle/main body (mSCN and caudal/retrochiasmatic (cSCN divisions. Among mammals, the rSCN is unusual and appears as an assembly of neurons that protrudes from the main mass of the hypothalamus. The mSCN exhibits the triangular shape described in rodents, while the cSCN is located in the retrochiasmatic area. As expected, VIP-immunoreactive (ir neurons were observed in the ventral part of mSCN. AVP-ir neurons were located in the rSCN and mSCN. Results also showed the presence of OT-ir and TH-ir neurons which seem to be a peculiarity of the camel SCN. OT-ir neurons were either scattered or gathered in one isolated cluster, while TH-ir neurons constituted two defined populations, dorsal parvicellular and ventral magnocellular neurons, respectively. TH colocalized with VIP in some rSCN neurons. Moreover, a high density of Met-Enk-ir, 5-HT-ir and NPY-ir fibers were observed within the SCN. Both the cytoarchitecture and the distribution of neuropeptides are unusual in the camel SCN as compared to other mammals. The presence of OT and TH in the camel SCN suggests their role in the modulation of circadian rhythms and the adaptation to photic and non-photic cues under desert conditions.

  1. Prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir, Iran.

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    Moshaverinia, Ali; Moghaddas, Elham

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. Since April 2012 through March 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. Out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % CI 54-64) was calculated. The higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the summer that prevalence rate was the highest. A total of 1,122 ticks were collected from the infested camels and identified by stereomicroscopy. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and comprised 70.76 % of the collected ticks. The frequency of other species was as follows: H. excavatum (19.25 %), H. anatolicum (4.81 %), H. asiaticum (4.72 %), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.17 %), H. detritum (0.09 %), H. impeltatum (0.09 %) and H. schulzei (0.09 %). Based on the results of present study, it is concluded that camels mostly harbor Hyalomma spp. The species of this genus are the most notorious ticks for transmission of human and animal diseases. Therefore, appropriate tick control measures need to be employed and pour-on method for acaricide application is suggested because this method is fast, easy and suitable for use by camel owners in deserts.

  2. A Quantitative Study of Hunter-Schreger Brands in the Tooth Enamel of Camelus Dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Radhi, Ameera

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hunter-Schreger Bands (HSBs) are an optical phenomenon seen in mammalian tooth enamel related to orientation changes in the enamel prisms. HSBs are considered a factor in the development and progress of certain clinical conditions, including tooth wear, the resistance of enamel to fracture, cracked tooth syndrome, enamel bonding, abfraction, and vital tooth bleaching. They can also be used for personal identification in automated systems. No previous investigations have descr...

  3. Serological evidence of natural exposure of camels (Camelus dromedaries to foot and mouth disease virus

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    M R Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE Code chapter on FMD includes camelids as being susceptible species to FMD similar to cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. A total of 376 field camel sera, collected from different regions of Riyadh and Al-Qassim Province in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were screened for the presence of antibodies produced against 3ABC non-structural proteins (NSP of FMDV using a commercially available kit , PrioCHECK® FMDV NS. Sera that tested positive on NSP were screened for serotype-specific antibodies towards the seven serotypes of FMD virus using liquid phase blocking ELISA. Only 24 out of 376 (6.3% serum samples were positive for antibodies against NSP. All sera that tested positive on NSP and screened for antibodies against all the seven FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were found positive for antibodies against serotype O. This lower seroprevalence of (6.3% reveals that dromedaries appear however as being susceptible to infection with FMDV serotype O, but they are unlikely to play any significant role in the natural epidemiology of FMD. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 197-200

  4. Hybridizing Old and New World camelids: Camelus dromedarius x Lama guanicoe.

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    Skidmore, J A; Billah, M; Binns, M; Short, R V; Allen, W R

    1999-01-01

    Thirty female dromedary camels were inseminated on a total of 50 occasions with 2-4 ml of fresh guanaco semen diluted with an equal volume of commercially available camel semen extender. Similarly, nine female guanacos were inseminated on 34 occasions with 4-6 ml of fresh, diluted camel semen. Only two of the dromedary females conceived; one aborted a female foetus on day 260 of gestation and the other gave birth to a stillborn female calf on day 365. Six conceptions occurred in the female guanacos. Two of these conceptuses, diagnosed by ultrasound, were resorbed between days 25 and 40 of gestation, one female foetus was aborted on day 291, another female foetus was aborted on day 302, and one female calf was stillborn on day 365 of gestation. The sixth foetus, a male, was born prematurely but alive after a 328-day gestation. It had a phenotypic appearance intermediate between that of a camel and a guanaco and its hybrid parentage was confirmed by the DNA fingerprinting of eight llama microsatellites. To our knowledge, this is the first viable hybrid ever to be produced between Old World and New World camelids, which have been reproductively isolated from one another for at least 11 million years. The preponderance of female hybrids is in accordance with Haldane's law. Histological examination of their ovaries revealed a failure of meiosis, with only an occasional abnormal oocyte surrounded by follicle cells. Although the diploid chromosone number of camels and guanacos is the same (2n = 74), sufficient genetic change has taken place to make the pairing of homologous chromosomes no longer possible. PMID:10331286

  5. A comprehensive analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus

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    Zuoxiang LIANG,Tao WANG,Yi SUN,Wenlong YANG,Zhihong LIU,Jing FEI,Ying GUO,Qingwei MA,Qingjie PAN,Liming REN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy chain only antibodies (HCAbs represent a rare type of antibody that is devoid of light chains and the CH1 domain that have been reported in cartilaginous fish and camelids. By analyzing transcript data and genome sequences, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of Bactrian camel immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Based on the transcript data, one μ gene, five γ genes, one α gene and one ε gene were found. Additionally, the variable region of HCAbs (VHH and the conventional antibodies (VH sequences associated with the γ3, γ1a/b and μ genes were amplified. Based on these genome sequences, seven DH, six JH, μ, γ2a, γ2c, α, and ε genes and a portion of a γ3 gene were observed. Different Kozak sequences within different VH families were found in our analysis, and the variability index differed between the VHH3 and VH3 families. Phylogenetic analysis of the constant regions of the camelid immunoglobulin genes indicates that these genes appeared before the evolutionary divergence of Bactrian camels and dromedaries.

  6. Developmental competence of Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes selected using brilliant cresyl blue staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Mohamed; Ashry, Mohamed; Salama, Ali; Badr, Magdy R

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of the present studies were to investigate the developmental capacity of dromedary camel oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and to investigate the expression of select transcripts in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes. These transcripts included BMP15 and GDF9 as important transcripts for folliculogenesis and oocyte development, Zar1 and Mater as maternal transcripts required for embryonic development, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 as cell cycle regulators and Oct4 and STAT3 as transcription factors. Dromedary camel oocytes were retrieved from ovaries collected at a local slaughterhouse. After exposure to BCB staining, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from BCB+, BCB- and control (selected based on morphological criteria) groups were subjected to in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture. For gene expression studies, after BCB staining cumulus cells were stripped off and the completely denuded GV stage oocytes were used for RT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts. BCB+ oocytes showed higher maturation, and fertilization rates compared with BCB- and control groups. Indices of early embryonic development, namely, cleavage at 48 hours post insemination (hpi), and development to morula at day 5 and day 7 blastocyst rates were also significantly higher in the BCB+ group. RT-PCR revealed a higher expression of BMP15, GDF9, Zar1, Mater, Cyclin B1, CDK1, OCT4 and STAT3 in good quality oocytes that stained positively for BCB (BCB+). Collectively, results provide novel information about the use of BCB screening for selecting good quality oocytes to improve in vitro embryo production in the dromedary camel.

  7. Detailed Anatomy of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Biglari, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    The detailed morphology and topography of the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) with its surrounding structures were studied in 10 sides of five heads of adult one-humped camel to determine its general arrangement as well as its differences and similarities to other animals. The following detailed descriptions were obtained: (1) the bilateral CCG was constantly present caudal to cranial base at the rostroventral border of the occipital condyle over the caudolateral part of nasopharynx; (2) the CCG was always in close relations medially with the longus capitis muscle, rostrolaterally with the internal carotid artery, and caudally with the vagus nerve; and (3) the branches of the CCG were the internal carotid and external carotid nerves, jugular nerve, cervical interganglionic branch, laryngopharyngeal branch, carotid sinus branch and communicating branches to the vagus, and first spinal nerves. In conclusion, there was no variation regarding topography of dromedary CCG among the specimens, in spite of typical variations in number, and mainly in origin of nerve branches ramifying from the CCG. In comparative anatomy aspect, the close constant relations, and presence of major nerves (internal/external carotid and jugular nerves) of dromedary CCG exhibited a typical reported animal's pattern. However, the shape, structures lateral to the CCG, the origin and course pattern of external carotid and jugular nerves, the number of the major nerves branches, the communicating branches of the CCG to the spinal and cranial nerves, and the separation of most rostral parts of vagosympathetic trunk of dromedary were different from those of most reported animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Toxoplasmosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Borana zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia: seroprevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Dima, Nura; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Dawo, Fufa; Feyissa, Negassa; Jorga, Edilu; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Vitale, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections of medical and veterinary importance. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in camels from four districts of Borana zone, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. In addition, a questionnaire survey was administered to 124 pastoralists to identify possible risk factors and to assess the awareness level of pastoral communities about toxoplasmosis. A total of 396 serum samples were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT). Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used for data analysis. An overall seroprevalence of 8.33 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 5.60 %, 11.07 %) at animal-level and 37.5 % (95 % CI: 20.1 %, 57.4 %) at herd-level was found. The seroprevalence was significantly high in Moyale district (23.07 %) followed by Yabello (7.20 %), Dirre (3.77 %), and Arero (0.0 %) districts (P 8 years old (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 4.95, 95 % CI 1.68, 14.55; P = 0.004) than camels of ≤4 years old. There was no significant association between herd-level seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and abortion history, herd size, and presence of domestic cats and wild felids (P > 0.05). The majority of interviewees were uneducated (82.25 %), and all had no knowledge of toxoplasmosis. All camel herders drink raw camel milk but consume cooked meat (90.32 %). Of the interviewees, 93.06 % are aware about soil-eating habit of camels and provide salt supplement for their camels. Majority of the respondents practice improper disposal of aborted materials (throw along the way) (88.70 %), and 73 % of the study participants do not wash their hands after handling aborted fetus. The results of the present study confirm relatively lower prevalence of T. gondii infection in camels reared in Borana zone. Age and study district are significant predictors of T. gondii seropositivity. The vast majorities of interviewed pastoralists were uneducated and practice poor biosecurity measures to prevent diseases. Education of pastoralists about biosecurity measures to prevent toxoplasmosis and further studies are warranted to unravel the economic and public health consequences of T. gondii infection.

  9. An outbreak of a mixed infection of Dermatophilus congolensis and Microsporum gypseum in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitao, C G; Agab, H; Khalifalla, A J

    1998-12-01

    Although both Dermatophilus congolensis and Microsporum gypseum infections have been reported separately in camels, mixed infection involving both agents has not been reported to date. The authors describe a mixed infection of D. congolensis and M. gypseum in camels reared on a dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. A total of 131 out of 559 camels (23.4%) were affected. Forty-eight camels less than one year of age had discrete, circumscribed, crusty, hairless lesions, found in particular on the neck and forelegs. Eighty-three camels of varying ages had extensive hair matting with crusty, hairless lesions, especially on the flanks. Camel calves and young camels demonstrated a relatively greater amount of skin lesions. D. congolensis and M. gypseum were diagnosed by direct microscopy, isolation and histopathology.

  10. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

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    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  11. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  12. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  13. Haemodynamics, blood gas and metabolic changes after anaesthesia with chloral hydrate and magnesium sulphate in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Singh, J; Singh, A P; Peshin, P K

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chloral hydrate and magnesium sulphate (1:1, 10 per cent solution) were evaluated in six healthy adult camels. A dose of 1 ml kg-1 was used. These agents produced satisfactory anaesthesia with good muscle relaxation. The changes in the electroencephalogram showed that the anaesthetic effect lasted for 45 to 60 minutes. Tachycardia and hypotension were moderate and within safe limits. Electrocardiogram studies showed ST segment elevation and primary T wave changes. The acid-base status, blood gas tensions, haemoglobin concentration, blood glucose level and the plasma concentration of total protein, sodium, potassium and chloride were not altered.

  14. Morphologic observation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the large intestine of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZhaXi, Yingpai; Wang, Wenhui; Zhang, Wangdong; Gao, Qiang; Guo, Minggang; Jia, Shuai

    2014-07-01

    The structure and distribution of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) throughout the large intestine of 10 Bactrian camels were comparatively studied by anatomical and histological methods. The results showed that Peyer's patches (PPs) were mainly located on the mucosal surfaces of the entire ileocecal orifice, the beginning of the cecum and the first third of the colon. The shape of PPs gradually changed from "scrotiform" to "faviform" along the large intestine with the scrotiform PP as the major type in the ileocecal orifice. The distribution density also gradually decreased from the ileocecal orifice to the colon. The histological observations further revealed that the MALT in the form of PPs or isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) and lamina propria lymphocytes was mainly present in the lamina propria and submucosa from the entire ileocecal orifice, where the muscularis mucosa is usually incomplete, to the colonic forepart. In addition, lymphoid tissue was much more abundant in the lamina propria and submucosa of the ileocecal orifice as compared to the cecum and colon. Statistically, the MALT of the ileocecal orifice contained a higher number of lymphoid follicles (37.7/10 mm(2) ) than that of the cecum, colon, or rectum (P lymphoid follicles were clearly visible. Together, our data suggest that the ileocecal orifice constitutes the main inductive site for the mucosal immunity in the large intestine of the Bactrian camel; and that scrotiform PPs are likely to the result of long-term adaptation of the Bactrian camel to the harsh living environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS) MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    G. Kavas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w) glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours) of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three an...

  16. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude that the muscular coat of the middle and terminal segments is the thickest in spring that may be helpful for powerful ejaculation.

  17. The antigenicity-allergenicity of camel milk proteins (camelus dromedarus) in BALB/c mice after oral sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, R; Youcef, N; Mezemaze, F; Saidi, D; Kheroua, O

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: When the breastfeeding is not possible or not wished, it is usually replaced by cow's milk or by some conventional cow’s milk-based infant formulas. However these proteins can involve at certain subjects pathological manifestations like the cow's milk allergy (CMA). The substitution of cow's milk by other treated milk, called "hypoallergenic", is currently the only alternative. The using of the camel milk, species taxonomically far away from the cow can be considered...

  18. Hydatidosis of camel (Camelus dromedarius) at Jijiga municipal abattoir, Eastern Ethiopia: prevalence, associated risk factors and financial implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debela, Etana; Abdulahi, Buckhary; Megersa, Bekele; Kumsa, Bersissa; Abunna, Fufa; Sheferaw, Desie; Regassa, Alemayehu

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011 to estimate the prevalence of camel hydatidosis, associated risk factors and financial loss in Jijiga municipal abattoir, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia. Accordingly, of the total 400 inspected camel, 92 (23 %) camels and 109 organs were positive for hydatid cyst with the highest proportion recorded in lung (56 %) followed by liver (33.9 %), spleen (7.3 %) and kidneys (2.8 %). The prevalence of hydatidosis significantly varied among age categories (P < 0.05), sex (P < 0.05) and body condition score (P < 0.05) of camels. Hence, there is higher likelihood for occurrence of camel hydatidosis among the older age groups (OR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2, 3.3), in female camels (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7, 4.7) and in poor body conditioned camels (OR 4.1, 95 % CI 2.2, 7.9) than younger camels, males and camels with good body condition score, respectively. Of the total 288 examined cysts for fertility and viability, 59.7 % (172/288) were fertile while the rest 24.0 % (69/288) cysts were sterile. Of the 172 fertile cysts 69.8 % (n = 120) were viable and 30.2 % (n = 52) were non-viable. The rest 16.3 % (47/288) cysts were found dead. It was also observed that the pulmonary and hepatic cysts had fertility rate of 63.7 % (116/182) and 57.4 % (54/94), respectively. The total annual direct financial loss recorded in this study as result of organs condemnation due to hydatid cyst, was 12,147.75 Ethiopian birrs ($714.57 or $7.77/camel). If this value could be extrapolated to the infected camel population of the region, financial loss due to hydatidosis could be enormous. In conclusion, this study showed the importance of hydatidosis and the associated direct financial loss due to the condemnation of organs affected by hydatid cyst in the study area.

  19. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (P<0·0001) than healthy udders. The relationship between UST and CMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; P<0·001), and UST was linearly increased as the CMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; P<0·001]. Additionally, high correlations were obtained between UST and SCC score (r=0·75; P<0·001) and the relationship between UST and SCC was fitted best to a logarithmic equation [UST, °C=33·39+0·88×Log (SCC, ×103 cells/ml), R 2=0·61, P<0·001]. The cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for UST were 35·15 °C, 0·90, 0·98, and 0·95, respectively, when subclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently.

  20. Comparative morphometric and glycohistochemical studies on the epididymal duct in the donkey (Equus asinus) and dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Ebada, Safwat; Rashed, Reda; Attia, Hossam

    2012-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare morphometric and glycohistochemical differences in the epididymal duct of the donkey and the dromedary camel. Paraffin-embedded sections from the different regions of the duct (caput, corpus and cauda) of both species were stained conventionally for general histology and histomorphometry and also with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated lectins for glycohistochemical mapping. Morphometric data (means ± SE) showed that the luminal diameter was widest (1029.76 ± 15.04 μm) in the donkey cauda and narrowest (179.80 ± 3.27 μm) in the camel corpus. The thickness of the peritubular muscle coat had the highest (74.32 ± 1.85 μm) and the lowest (24.32 ± 0.74 μm) values in the donkey cauda and corpus respectively. The greatest (94.44 ± 2.08 μm) and the least (21.48 ± 0.66 μm) values of epithelial height were reported respectively in the camel caput and in the donkey cauda. The length of stereocilia of principal cells in the camel was greatest (21.88 ± 0.57 μm) and lowest (6.68 ± 0.28 μm) in the caput and cauda. Binding sites for only six out of eight lectins could be found. The distribution pattern of binding sites of different lectins showed significant variations in both a species-specific and also region-specific manner. Distinct labeling was found in the Golgi zone, apical cytoplasm and on stereocilia of principal cells in the camel (WGA and DBA) and donkey (DBA) caput region, while other lectins exhibited variable reactivity in the other regions in both species. The basal cells showed variable binding to most of the lectins, however, they displayed distinct binding to WGA and PSA throughout the duct in camel and donkey respectively. In conclusion, both morphometric and glycohistochemical findings displayed regional species-specific and potentially functional relevant characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Azari; Mohammad Mahdi Molaei; Ladan Emadi; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Hamid Sharifi; Sara Mehdizadeh

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters ...

  2. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Emadi, Ladan; Sakhaee, Ehsanollah; Sharifi, Hamid; Mehdizadeh, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline) and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  3. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  4. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.

    2008-01-01

    taken front days 3 to 28 being negative. Examination of mouth swabs indicated a low level of FMDV RNA at days 1-5 pi in four of the five inoculated camels, but no infectious FMDN7 or FMDV RNA was detected in serum, probang or month swab samples front contact-exposed animals (camels and sheep). All...

  5. The CD markers of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk cells during mastitis: the LPAM-1 expression is an indication of possible mucosal nature of the cellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashqar, Roqaya A; Al-Mohammad Salem, Khadim M; Al Herz, Abdul Kareem M; Al-Haroon, Amal I; Alluwaimi, Ahmed M

    2015-04-01

    Studying the cellular populations of the camel mammary glands through the expression pattern of the CD markers and adhesion molecules is a mean to define whether the cellular trafficking pathway is peripheral or mucosal nature. Camel milk cells from 8 Gram-positive and 5 Gram-negative infected camels were examined with flow cytometry using cross-reacting antibodies like, anti-CD4(+), CD8(+), WC+1(+)γδ, CD62L, CD11a(+)/CD18, LPAM-1, CXCR2. The overall results indicated high flow cytometry output of most of the CD makers. The statistical analysis of the mean percentage of the expressed CD markers has shown that CD62L, CXCR-2, LPAM-1, CD11a/CD18, CD8(+), IL-6R and CD20(+) were expressed in significant differences in either type of the infection. The LPAM-1 expression has provided further support to the notion that the lymphocyte trafficking is of the mucosal nature. The mucosal origin of cellular trafficking has important implications on the vaccine design and therapeutical approaches to mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was <10 cfu/mL in most of the samples (709/742, 95.6%). A positive correlation was found between log SCC and log TVC (r=0.32), between log SCC and CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal variation. Log SCC was negatively correlated with TDM (r=-0.35), AMC (r=-0.37), and NMC (r=-0.15) and positively correlated with PPD (r=0.40). Log TVC had a negative correlation with AMC (r=-0.40) but a positive correlation with NMC (r=0.32), TDM (r=0.16), and PPD (r=0.45). The linear mixed model with stepwise variable selection showed that the main sources of log SCC variation were PPD, TDM, PPD × season, and season. For log TVC, the same factors and year contributed to the variation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis and 3D Modeling of a Putative Lysosomal Acid Lipase from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Shokry Ataya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acid lipase belongs to a family of enzymes that is mainly present in lysosomes of different organs and the stomach. It is characterized by its capacity to withstand acidic conditions while maintaining high lipolytic activity. We cloned for the first time the full coding sequence of camel’s lysosomal acid lipase, cLIPA using RT-PCR technique (Genbank accession numbers JF803951 and AEG75815, for the nucleotide and aminoacid sequences respectively. The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1,197 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 399 aminoacids which was similar to that from other related mammalian species. Bioinformatic analysis was used to determine the aminoacid sequence, 3D structure and phylogeny of cLIPA. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the molecular weight of the translated protein to be 45.57 kDa, which could be decreased to 43.16 kDa after the removal of a signal peptide comprising the first 21 aminoacids. The deduced cLIPA sequences exhibited high identity with Equus caballus (86%, Numascus leucogenys (85%, Homo sapiens (84%, Sus scrofa (84%, Bos taurus (82% and Ovis aries (81%. cLIPA shows high aminoacid sequence identity with human and dog-gastric lipases (58%, and 59% respectively which makes it relevant to build a 3D structure model for cLIPA. The comparison confirms the presence of the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole in cLIPA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that camel cLIPA is grouped with monkey, human, pig, cow and goat. The level of expression of cLIPA in five camel tissues was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cLIPA transcript was found in the camel testis (162%, followed by spleen (129%, liver (100%, kidney (20.5% and lung (17.4%.

  8. Influence of dietary chromium yeast supplementation on apparent trace elements metabolism in growing camel (Camelus dromedarius) reared under hot summer conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Alsofi, M A; Abdoun, K A; Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Al-Haidary, A A

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary chromium (Cr) supplementation on the apparent metabolism of some trace elements in camel calves reared under hot summer conditions. The study was conducted on a total of 15 male camel calves (5-6 months old) reared under hot summer conditions for 12 weeks. The animals were housed individually under shelter and divided into three dietary treatment groups (diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0 mg Cr/kg DM), five animals each. At the end of the study, a metabolic trial was conducted on all camels for the evaluation of trace elements metabolism. Cr excretion, absorption, and retention showed an increasing trend with the increasing level of dietary Cr supplementation. Dietary Cr supplementation at 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM to camel calves resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Cu and an increasing trend in Zn and Mn excretion via urine and feces. However, Fe retention increased significantly (P < 0.05) in camel calves fed on diet supplemented with Cr. Dietary Cr supplementation to camel calves resulted in an increasing trend of plasma Cr concentration, while plasma concentration of Cu and Zn tended to decrease and without any effect on plasma Fe concentration. The results of the present study suggests that care should be taken for the negative interaction of Cr with the utilization of other trace elements, in cases where Cr is supplemented to the diet as a feed additive to promote growth and immunity under hot climatic conditions.

  9. Hormonal Profiles in the Serum and Follicular Fluid of Female Camel (Camelus dromedarius During the Peak and the Low Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujait Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Zia-ur-Rahman1 and Maqbool Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Serum and follicular fluid concentrations of some hormones during the low (May to October and the peak (November to April breeding seasons in female camels with small and large Graafian follicles were investigated. Ovaries of 25 adult female camels slaughtered at a local abattoir were collected. Jugular blood samples and follicular fluid aspirated from small (5-9 mm and large (10-20 mm follicles were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, T3, T4 and cortisol concentrations. Serum progesterone and cortisol concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05 during the low than the peak breeding season. However, reverse was true for the serum estradiol, T3 and T4 levels. Animals with small follicles had higher (P<0.05 serum progesterone and cortisol concentrations than those with large follicles, while reverse was true for serum T3 levels. Follicular size had non significant effect on serum estradiol and T4 levels. In the follicular fluid, estradiol concentration was higher (P<0.05 during the low breeding season. However, season had non significant effect on follicular fluid levels of other hormones. Size of the follicle affected only progesterone level in the follicular fluid, which was higher (P<0.05 in large follicles. In conclusion, serum contents of estradiol, T3 and T4 were higher during the peak than the low breeding season; while reverse was true for serum progesterone and cortisol contents. For the follicle fluid, contents of estradiol were higher during the low than the peak breeding season. Follicle size influenced its progesterone contents only, which were higher in large than in small follicles.

  10. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: Transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Hotzel, H.; Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Seidler, T.; Ellenberger, C.; Hetzel, U.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius population in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Benaissa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Query (Q fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2–78.3 and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8–97.8 at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1 age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55–30.41, (2 herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01–19.59 and (3 infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.5. This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro-ecologically and strategically important region of North Africa.

  12. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun

    2010-01-01

    integrin cDNAs encoding alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 and compare them to those of other species, especially to Bactrian camels. The complete coding sequences for the dromedary camel alpha v,beta 1 and beta 6 subunits were found to be 3147, 2397, and 2364 nucleotides in length, encoding 1048, 798......, and 787 amino acids, respectively. The dromedary camel integrin alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunit shares common structural and functional elements with their counterparts from the other species. Phylogenetic trees showed that the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 were clustered...... into the Artiodactyla group, together with those of Bactrian camel, pig, sheep, and cattle that are susceptible to FMDV infection. Compared with the Bactrian camel integrins, 4, 10, and 8 amino acid changes were found in the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunits, respectively. This study...

  13. Computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy of the metatarsus and digits of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and buffalo ( Bos bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafey, A; Kassab, A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed computed tomography (CT) and cross-sectional anatomic reference of the normal metatarsus and digits for the camel and buffalo, as well as to compare between metatarsus and digits in these animals to outstand a basis for diagnosis of their diseases. Advantages, including depiction of detailed cross-sectional anatomy, improved contrast resolution and computer reformatting, make it a potentially valuable diagnostic technique. The hind limbs of 12 healthy adult camel and buffalo were used. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labelled at each level in the corresponding images (CT and anatomic slices). CT images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the metatarsus and digits. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the camel and buffalo metatarsus and digits would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of CT images in these species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Effect of genetic and nongenetic factors on chemical composition of individual milk samples from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Fábri, Zs N; Varga, L; Reiczigel, J; Juhász, J

    2017-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to monitor the changes in gross chemical composition of individual dromedary camel milk over a 5-yr period, to provide reference values, and to determine the effect of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing camel milk composition under intensive management. A total of 1,528 lactating dromedary camels were included in the study. Animals were fed a constant diet and were milked twice a day in a herringbone parlor. Milk samples were collected at monthly intervals using a sampling device and then fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS), and solids-nonfat (SNF) concentrations of raw camel milk were determined with an automatic milk analyzer. For each milk sample, production parameters were recorded and quantities (grams) of milk constituents were calculated. The overall mean quantity and fat, protein, lactose, SNF, and TS concentrations of the morning milk were 4.0 kg, 2.58%, 2.95%, 4.19%, 8.08%, and 10.46%, respectively. Milk quantity showed a positive correlation with lactose and a negative correlation with all other components. Parity exerted a strong effect on all milk parameters. Primiparous dromedaries (n = 60) produced less milk with higher concentrations of components than did multiparous animals (n = 1,468). Milk composition varied among the 7 breeds tested, but none of the genotypes was found to be superior to the others in this respect. We detected a significant, yet small calf sex-biased difference in milk yield and composition. Stage of lactation and season strongly influenced milk yield and all milk components. We also found a significant interaction between month postpartum (mPP) and month of the year. The concentration of all milk components decreased from 1 to 5 mPP. Later, lactose concentration and quantity continued to decrease parallel with decreasing milk production. The concentration of other components showed a temporary increase in mid lactation, from 6 to 11 mPP, and in late lactation, from 18 to 23 mPP. Mean fat, protein, SNF, and TS concentrations showed a high seasonal variation (9.5 to 28.7%), with the lowest and highest values being measured during summer and winter, respectively. This seasonal variation was independent of nutrition and may reflect an endogenous circannual rhythm. We observed a noticeable variation among years. Dromedary camels could provide a useful in vivo model to study the homeorhetic regulation of mammary cell function by endogenous and environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igwe, IR. Vol 4, No 3-4 (2008) - Articles Performance and internal organ quality of broiler chickens fed blood meal as a substitute for synthetic lysine. Abstract · Vol 5, No 2 (2009) - Articles Review of ostrich (Struthio carmelis) production and its adaptability to the Nigerian poultry industry. Abstract · Vol 6, No 1 (2010) - Articles

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain from the camel, Camelus dromedarius. Farid Shokry Ataya, Mohammad Saud Alanazi, Dalia Fouad, Hehsam Mahmoud Saeed, Mohammad Bazzi ...

  17. Lipid oxidation of Dutch style semi-dry fermented sausages prepared with beef and ostrich meat enriched with encapsulated linseed, algal and fish oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Broce, Kathia; Linssen, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    las salchichas fermentadas semi secas tipo Holandesas fueron preparadas con aceites encapsulados de linaza, alga, y pescado, como sustitutos de la grasa dorsal del cerdo, y para aumentar los niveles de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (especialmente los omega 3 o n-3). Las carnes de res y avestruz fueron utilizadas como ingrediente cárnico. La oxidación lipídica fue estudiada hasta los 60 días de almacenamiento del producto a 7 °C en una atmósfera modificada con un contenido de 63 % de oxígeno. ...

  18. Quimeras. Presentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Premat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Si a una cabeza humana,muy peinada a la moda y muy galana,le añadiera un pintor plumas de galloy un pescuezo de burro o de caballo ;si juntando las piezas desigualesde varios animalespor último en el lienzo retratarauna mujer de lindo talle y caracon alas de avestruz o de gallinay cola de merluza o de sardina,¿quién, amigos Pisones,dejara de reírse a borbotones ?Pues a este lienzo semejante fuera,el poema o quimera,cuyas partes sin tino colocadas,no fuesen a una forma conspiradas [...]Félix...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 350 ... Vol 2, No 1 (2006), Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi state, Nigeria, Abstract. D Zahraddeen, ISR ... Vol 2, No 3 (2006), Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered at Kano, Nigeria, Abstract. DJU Kalla, AM ...

  20. Technologically important properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technologically important properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk of three breeds of Algerian dromedary ( Camelus dromedarius ) ... isolated from Algerian dromedary milks that showed potentially important properties suggest that they are good candidate for camels milk processing or other dairy fermentation ...

  1. Taxonomical analysis of the suspended bacterial fraction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of the dominant microbial taxa present in suspension within the rumen fluid from slaughtered one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria was carried out using cultureindependent molecular techniques. The rumen fluid of freshly eviscerated animals was sampled by a syringe and filtered through 0.22 ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chivandi, E. Vol 2, No 1 (2007) - Articles Dietary effects of optizyme P5* on the growth performance of day-old Struthip camelus var. domesticus (ostrich) chicks. Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Sero-prevalence of Bovine brucellosis in the Gokwe Smallholder Dairy Project Herd of Zimbabwe Abstract PDF.

  3. DSC of Milk Fats from Various Animals with High Levels of Medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    fatty acid on milk fat crystallization, than is possible with dietary changes, other species as well as non-ruminant species may be studied. Apart from the commercially exploited mammals, we were only able to locate work on crystallization of camel. (Camelus dromedarius) milk fat.20 It was found that the camel milk.

  4. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 55, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of Hygienic Quality Of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk In Khartoum State, Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ES Shuiep, IE El Zubeir, OA El Owni, HH Mussa, 112-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bahpa.v55i2.32797 ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mussa, HH. Vol 55, No 2 (2007) - Articles Assessment Of Hygienic Quality Of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk In Khartoum State, Sudan Abstract. ISSN: 0378-9721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  6. Effect of subclinical mastitis caused by ss-haemolytic streptococci on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mastitis is a major constraint to milk production in camels. We conducted a survey in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of Kenya to quantify losses in milk yield associated with subclinical mastitis caused by ß-haemolytic Streptococci in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Four hundred and twenty (420) pair wise ...

  7. spatial-temporal variation in sex ratio and group size of ostriches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The sex ratio inside the National. Park was also significantly skewed towards females, whereas that in the partially protected areas was skewed in favour ... camelus) or socially-monogamous mating systems with high female parental care. (Donald .... occur in regions remote from human activities (Nowell and Jackson 1996,.

  8. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Gland of One Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius) found in the. Semi-Arid Region of North Eastern Nigeria ... environments of northern Nigeria playing an important role in the economy of the country. (Maina et al., 2014). ... to 400 with inbuilt camera connected to a laptop (Samsung, South. Korea) for photomicrographs.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 224 of 224 ... Vol 5, No 1 (2004), Status of minerals in the soils, water, forage, blood, milk, urine and faeces of free-ranging camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Northern kenya during the dry season ... Vol 5, No 1 (2004), The productivity of holstein-friesian dairy cattle in different farming systems of Kenya, Abstract.

  10. Growth Changes in Selected Muscles of One-Humped Camel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth Changes in Selected Muscles of One-Humped Camel (camelus Dromedarius). ML Sonfada, HD Kwari, AT Elsa, AA Tadros. Abstract. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 32(3): 2011; 230 - 234. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Gross morphology and morphometry of foetal and adult dromedary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross morphology and morphometry of apparently normal tongues of forty antenatal and ten adult dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) of both sexes, procured from the Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir, were studied. This was with the aim of documenting information on these aspects. The thirteen months dromedary ...

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... lesion, if left unrepaired, causes the transversion of G:C pair to T:A following replication. 8-oxoG is targeted by one of the DNA glycosylases, namely OGG1. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius) is adapted to live in desert climate conditions under direct exposure to endogenous and.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatihu, MY. Vol 9, No 1 (2011) - Articles Influence of pulmonary lesions on some haemotological parameters of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Northwestern Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 2 (2013) - Articles Haematogical changes induced by subchronic glyphosate exposure: Ameliorative effect of zinc in Wistar rats

  14. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiographic studies on the fetal heads of 32 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) with 11 fetuses at the first trimester, 12 at the second trimester and 9 at the third trimester levels were conducted in Sokoto Metropolis. The study involved the radiographic evaluation of calvaria of different fetuses at first, second and ...

  15. Quest for the piroplasms in camels: Identification of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Jordanian dromedaries by PCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qablan, M.; Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Dwairi, S.; Amr, Z. S.; Hořín, P.; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 186, 3/4 (2012), s. 456-460 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Babesia * Theileria * Camelus * Jordan * Host specificity * Diagnosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  16. Dynamic Conservation of Date Palms: The Future of a Genetic Resource at the Nexus of Climate Change, Desertification and Salinity Stress in Oasis Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is the only indigenous, wild desert plant definitely domesticated in its native harsh environment, and along with the camel (Camelus dromedarius), was responsible for opening the vast desert territories for human activity and the development of oasis ecosystems, w...

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 31 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative OGG_N domain from the camel, Camelus dromedarius · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Farid Shokry Ataya, Mohammad Saud Alanazi, Dalia Fouad, Hehsam Mahmoud Saeed, Mohammad Bazzi ...

  18. African Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 16, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prenatal Development of the Kidney of One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius) – A Histomorphometric Study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Bello, UF Lawal, BI Onyeanusi, ML Sonfada, MA Umaru, JE Onu, SA Shehu, AA Umar, 31 - 37 ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aji, T.G.. Vol 37, No 2 (2016) - Articles Gross, histological and histomorphometric studies on the thyroid gland of one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) found in the semi-arid region of North Eastern Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0331-3026. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  20. Comparison of effects of age and sex on serum protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and sex on the concentration of total serum protein measured by the biuret method and protein fractions determined using cellulose acetate electrophoresis in apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). Blood samples were collected from 21 camels (12 ...

  1. The major histocompatibility complex in Old World camelids and low polymorphism of its class II genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasil, Martin; Mohandesan, Elmira; Fitak, Robert R; Musilova, Petra; Kubickova, Svatava; Burger, Pamela A; Horin, Petr

    2016-03-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a genomic region containing genes with crucial roles in immune responses. MHC class I and class II genes encode antigen-presenting molecules expressed on the cell surface. To counteract the high variability of pathogens, the MHC evolved into a region of considerable heterogeneity in its organization, number and extent of polymorphism. Studies of MHCs in different model species contribute to our understanding of mechanisms of immunity, diseases and their evolution. Camels are economically important domestic animals and interesting biomodels. Three species of Old World camels have been recognized: the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and the wild camel (Camelus ferus). Despite their importance, little is known about the MHC genomic region, its organization and diversity in camels. The objectives of this study were to identify, map and characterize the MHC region of Old World camelids, with special attention to genetic variation at selected class MHC II loci. Physical mapping located the MHC region to the chromosome 20 in Camelus dromedarius. Cytogenetic and comparative analyses of whole genome sequences showed that the order of the three major sub-regions is "Centromere - Class II - Class III - Class I". DRA, DRB, DQA and DQB exon 2 sequences encoding the antigen binding site of the corresponding class II antigen presenting molecules showed high degree of sequence similarity and extensive allele sharing across the three species. Unexpectedly low extent of polymorphism with low numbers of alleles and haplotypes was observed in all species, despite different geographic origins of the camels analyzed. The DRA locus was found to be polymorphic, with three alleles shared by all three species. DRA and DQA sequences retrieved from ancient DNA samples of Camelus dromedarius suggested that additional polymorphism might exist. This study provided evidence that camels possess an MHC comparable to

  2. Investigation on papillomavirus infection in dromedary camels in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated two outbreaks of papillomatosis between 2013 and 2015 in Al Ahsa region of eastern Saudi Arabia involving fourteen dromedary camels. The disease affected both young and adult animals and occurred in coincidence with demodectic mange infestation. Diagnosis was made based on gross and histopathological characteristics of the wart lesion and was confirmed by PCR. Rolling circle amplification followed by degenerate primer PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of both Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 and 2, previously identified in infected dromedaries in Sudan.

  3. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931–2017) – a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazmand, Alireza; Joachim, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and 100–300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus) live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium), 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs – Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata – have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels. PMID:28617666

  4. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931–2017 – a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazmand Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius and 100–300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium, 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs – Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata – have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels.

  5. The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pamela Anna

    2016-06-01

    Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological characteristics and capable of providing vital products even under extreme environmental conditions. The evolutionary history of dromedary and Bactrian camels traces back to the middle Eocene (around 40 million years ago, mya), when the ancestors of Camelus emerged on the North American continent. While the genetic status of the two domestic species has long been established, the wild two-humped camel has only recently been recognized as a separate species, Camelus ferus, based on molecular genetic data. The demographic history established from genome drafts of Old World camels shows the independent development of the three species over the last 100,000 years with severe bottlenecks occurring during the last glacial period and in the recent past. Ongoing studies involve the immune system, relevant production traits, and the global population structure and domestication of Old World camels. Based on the now available whole genome drafts, specific metabolic pathways have been described shedding new light on the camels' ability to adapt to desert environments. These new data will also be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids.

  6. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Análise da condição corpórea, biometria externa e das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal de canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul A.S. Siqueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se em canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, apreendidos pelo Cetas-IBAMA/PB e que morreram logo após sua chegada, as medidas biométricas externas, condições corpóreas e de plumagem, medidas biométricas das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal (TGI, assim como a topografia visceral, a fim de fornecer dados morfológicos e caracterizar as condições em esses pássaros chegaram a esse centro de triagem. A topografia visceral estava em consonância com a de periquitos e avestruz, a exceção que essa última espécie apresenta um ceco. Verificou-se que há relação entre as condições corpóreas desfavoráveis e a perda de plumagem. Conclui-se, que S. flaveola braziliensis possui medidas biométricas em consonância á de outros Passeriformes, contudo possui divergências para aves do mesmo gênero e poucas diferenças biométricas entre machos e fêmeas. Através do estudo, verifica-se que as condições corpóreas de animais traficados devem ser consideradas nos centros de triagem, a fim de se fazer um melhor manejo nutricional e/ou clínico, diminuindo a mortalidade.

  8. On the spider genus Thymoites in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Theridiidae): nine new species, complementary descriptions and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Everton Nei Lopes; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2015-06-11

    The theridiid genus Thymoites Keyserling, 1884 is distributed worldwide. Spiders of this genus are mainly known from the Neotropical Region, but are poorly studied in Brazil. In this paper nine new species of Thymoites are described from Brazil, one from the state of Alagoas: Thymoites murici n. sp.; two from São Paulo: T. bocaina n. sp., T. ilhabela n. sp. and T. taiobeiras n. sp. from states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo; one from the state of Santa Catarina: Thymoites tabuleiro n. sp.; and, three from state of Rio Grande do Sul: Thymoites cristal n. sp., T. camaqua n. sp. and T. piratini n. sp., all based on males and females; and one from the state of Rio de Janeiro: T. pinheiral n. sp. based on male. The male of Thymoites puer (Mello-Leitão, 1941) and the female of T. melloleitaoni (Bristowe, 1938) are here described and illustrated for the first time. Additionally, new records from Brazil are provided for Thymoites ilvan Levi, 1964 for state of Santa Catarina; T. iritus Levi, 1964 for state of Goiás; T. piarco (Levi, 1959) for state of Amazonas; and, T. struthio (Simon, 1895) for Bolivia.

  9. The Therapeutic Effects of Camel Milk: A Systematic Review of Animal and Human Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihic, Tamara; Rainkie, Daniel; Wilby, Kyle John; Pawluk, Shane Ashley

    2016-10-01

    The clinical effectiveness and value of camel milk as a therapeutic agent is currently unclear. MEDLINE (1946 to March 2016), EMBASE (1974 to March 2016), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms: milk, bodily secretions, camels, camelus, camelini, camelidae, dromedary, bactrian camel, body fluid, and bodily secretions. Articles identified were reviewed if the study was investigating the use of camel milk for the potential treatment of diseases affecting humans. Of 430 studies, 24 were included after assessment. Identified studies highlighted treatment with camel milk of diseases, including diabetes, autism, cancer, various infections, heavy metal toxicity, colitis, and alcohol-induced toxicity. Although most studies using both the human and animal model do show a clinical benefit with an intervention and camel milk, limitations of these studies must be taken into consideration before widespread use. Based on the evidence, camel milk should not replace standard therapies for any indication in humans. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

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    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  11. Dromedary camels and the transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, Maged G; Elmoslemany, Ahmed; Al-Hizab, Fahad; Alnaeem, Abdulmohsen; Almathen, Faisal; Faye, Bernard; Chu, Daniel KW; Perera, Ranawaka A; Peiris, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an existential threat to global public health. The virus has been repeatedly detected in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Adult animals in many countries in the Middle East as well as in North and East Africa showed high (>90%) sero-prevalence to the virus. MERS-CoV isolated from dromedaries is genetically and phenotypically similar to viruses from humans. We summarise current understanding of the ecology of MERS-CoV in animals and transmission at the animal-human interface. We review aspects of husbandry, animal movements and trade and the use and consumption of camel dairy and meat products in the Middle East that may be relevant to the epidemiology of MERS. We also highlight the gaps in understanding the transmission of this virus in animals and from animals to humans. PMID:26256102

  12. Investigation of the protein osteocalcin of Camelops hesternus: Sequence, structure and phylogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpula, James F.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Gandhi, Hasand; Strahler, John R.; Walker, Angela K.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Smith, James J.; Voorhies, Michael R.; George Corner, R.; Andrews, Phillip C.

    2007-12-01

    Ancient DNA sequences offer an extraordinary opportunity to unravel the evolutionary history of ancient organisms. Protein sequences offer another reservoir of genetic information that has recently become tractable through the application of mass spectrometric techniques. The extent to which ancient protein sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships, however, has not been explored. We determined the osteocalcin amino acid sequence from the bone of an extinct Camelid (21 ka, Camelops hesternus) excavated from Isleta Cave, New Mexico and three bones of extant camelids: bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus); dromedary camel ( Camelus dromedarius) and guanaco ( Llama guanacoe) for a diagenetic and phylogenetic assessment. There was no difference in sequence among the four taxa. Structural attributes observed in both modern and ancient osteocalcin include a post-translation modification, Hyp 9, deamidation of Gln 35 and Gln 39, and oxidation of Met 36. Carbamylation of the N-terminus in ancient osteocalcin may result in blockage and explain previous difficulties in sequencing ancient proteins via Edman degradation. A phylogenetic analysis using osteocalcin sequences of 25 vertebrate taxa was conducted to explore osteocalcin protein evolution and the utility of osteocalcin sequences for delineating phylogenetic relationships. The maximum likelihood tree closely reflected generally recognized taxonomic relationships. For example, maximum likelihood analysis recovered rodents, birds and, within hominins, the Homo-Pan-Gorilla trichotomy. Within Artiodactyla, character state analysis showed that a substitution of Pro 4 for His 4 defines the Capra-Ovis clade within Artiodactyla. Homoplasy in our analysis indicated that osteocalcin evolution is not a perfect indicator of species evolution. Limited sequence availability prevented assigning functional significance to sequence changes. Our preliminary analysis of osteocalcin evolution represents an initial step towards a

  13. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) family: transcripts and gene amplicons in camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Marta; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Klisch, Karl; Olivera, Louis V M; Mamani, Javier M; Abd-Elnaeim, Mahmoud M; Szafranska, Bozena

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the placental localization of PAG-like transcripts and genomic existence of PAG-like amplicons in new-world (Lp, Lama pacos, alpaca) and old-world camelids (Cb, Camelus bactrianus, bactrian; Cd, Camelus dromedarius; dromedary) are reported for the first time. Sections of Lp (150-347 days post coitum), Cd (43-90 cm crown-rump length) and Cb (term) placentas were used for heterologous (ht; cross-species) autoradiographic in situ hybridization (aISH) with single-stranded diagnostic (antisense) or control (sense) [alpha-(35)S]dATP-labeled 323 nt porcine PAG8 (pPAG8) cDNA probes produced by asymmetric PCRs. The aISH with antisense (35)S-pPAG8 probe identified camelid PAG-like (LpPAG, CbPAG and CdPAG) mRNA expression restricted to chorionic epithelium cells within placentas of camelids. In addition, genomic DNA (gDNA), isolated from placental sections were used as templates for camelid PAG-like gene amplicon production by PCR. Specificity of the obtained multiple camelid gDNA PAG-like amplicons was confirmed by double ht-Southern hybridizations with [alpha-(32)P]dATP-labeled 611 bp pPAG5 and pPAG10 double-stranded cDNA probes. The double ht-Southern hybridizations of camelid gDNA amplicons (with pPAG5 and -10 probes) allowed the identification of length-polymorphism of LpPAG, CbPAG and CdPAG genes, coding catalytically active and potentially inactive forms. Such an application of porcine PAG probes may be advantageous for future identification of still undiscovered PAG-like families in other eutherian species.

  14. Análise da condição corpórea, biometria externa e das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal de canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola braziliensis Analysis of body condition and external and gastrointestinal biometry of saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola braziliensis

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    Raul A.S. Siqueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se em canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, apreendidos pelo Cetas-IBAMA/PB e que morreram logo após sua chegada, as medidas biométricas externas, condições corpóreas e de plumagem, medidas biométricas das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal (TGI, assim como a topografia visceral, a fim de fornecer dados morfológicos e caracterizar as condições em esses pássaros chegaram a esse centro de triagem. A topografia visceral estava em consonância com a de periquitos e avestruz, a exceção que essa última espécie apresenta um ceco. Verificou-se que há relação entre as condições corpóreas desfavoráveis e a perda de plumagem. Conclui-se, que S. flaveola braziliensis possui medidas biométricas em consonância á de outros Passeriformes, contudo possui divergências para aves do mesmo gênero e poucas diferenças biométricas entre machos e fêmeas. Através do estudo, verifica-se que as condições corpóreas de animais traficados devem ser consideradas nos centros de triagem, a fim de se fazer um melhor manejo nutricional e/ou clínico, diminuindo a mortalidade.Forty-one saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, were studied regarding the external biometry, corporeal and plumage conditions, gastrointestinal tract (GIT biometry, and the visceral topography, in order to provide morphological data and to characterize the condition in which these birds came to the wild animal screening Center. The visceral topography was similar to the found in parakeets and ostriches; however the last have a cecum. There was also relationship between the unfavorable body conditions and the loss of feathers. It was concluded that S. flaveola braziliensis has biometric measurements similar to other Passeriformes, however with differences to birds of the same gender, and few biometric differences among males and females. The results demonstrate that the corporal conditions of trafficked animals should be considered in wild

  15. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  16. Purification and quantification of heavy-chain antibodies from the milk of bactrian camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongqiang; Zhang, Min; Li, Yi; Yao, Jirimutu; Meng, He; Yu, Siriguleng

    2017-09-01

    Camel milk has a unique composition with naturally occurring heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs), which exert rehabilitating potencies in infection and immunity. To characterize HCAb in camel milk, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was isolated from the milk of Camelus bactrianus by a combination of affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to purify and size-fractionate protein A and protein G, which were further identified by Western blotting, and were quantified by bicinchoninic acid (BCA) and ELISA. The results indicated that IgG 1 fraction contains molecules of 50 kDa heavy chains and 36 kDa light chains. The HCAbs (IgG 2 and IgG 3 fractions) devoid of light chains, contain heavy chains of 45 kDa and 43 kDa, respectively, the amounts of which were significantly higher than that of the IgG 1 in the milk of bactrian camels. Above all, we revealed the considerable amounts of HCAbs in the milk of bactrian camels, and developed a novel method for their purification and quantification. These findings provide the basis for developing potential effects of camel milk and its interface with the dairy industry, as well as future investigations of HCAb and its roles in human health and diseases. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Reproduction in Camel

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    A.V. Khanvilkar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The word camel is derived from the Greek word “kremal”. Camel is an important component of the desert ecosystem from time immemorial and is recognized as the “Ship of the desert”. Humans depend on this animal not just for meat, milk and hide but also as one of the most important mode of transport in the desert which has increased to 10,30,000 million according to FAO census, which is almost 6-8% of the total camel population of the world. The genus Camelus has two species, one humped camel found in Africa, Arabia, Iran, Afghanistan and India and two-humped camel found in Central Asia reaching up to Mongolia and Western part of China. Camels have 70 chromosomes. Camels do not have sweat glands and can tolerate heat up to 49 oC to 50oC during the day time and 30oC during night time. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 72-73

  18. Evaluation of xylazine in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshin, P K; Nigam, J M; Singh, S C; Robinson, B A

    1980-11-01

    When xylazine was given intramuscularly to 12 apparently healthy adult camels (Camelus dromedarius) at the rate of 0.4 mg/kg of body weight, mean values for onset of weak time, down time, and time until recovery were 8.6 +/- 1.1, 10.5 +/- 0.6, and 150 +/- 56.9 minutes, respectively. Mild salivation, drooping of lower lips, and relaxation of neck were observed at meant times of 15.3 +/- 4.9, 11.0 +/- 1.7, and 22.7 +/- 3.9 minutes, respectively. Analgesic effects remained for 60 to 90 minutes. Hemocytologic changes were not statistically significant. Marked hyperglycemia was observed at 30 minutes after xylazine administration. Hypotension from 30 to 60 minutes after xylazine administration was not correlated with elevated central venous pressure or with bradycardia. Electrocardiography revealed 1st-degree atrioventricular block, sinoatrial block, sinus arrhythmia, and wandering pacemaker in sinoatrial node, which were attributed to vagal stimulation. Primary T-wave changes and ST segment elevation also were observed. When xylazine was used at the same dosage in 13 clinical cases involving surgery of short duration, it proved to be a satisfactory sedative, analgesic, and muscle relaxant.

  19. Reconstruction of the putative cervidae ancestral karyotype by chromosome painting of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) with dromedary probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementyeva, P V; Trifonov, V A; Kulemzina, A I; Graphodatsky, A S

    2010-06-01

    The Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is one of a few deer species presumably preserving the ancestral cervid karyotype. The comparative genomic data of the Siberian roe deer are critical for our understanding of the karyotypic relationships within artiodactyls. We have established chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) by cross-species chromosome painting with dromedary chromosome-specific painting probes. Dromedary chromosome paints detected 53 autosomal homologies in the genome of the Siberian roe deer. The identification of chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and cattle resulted from previously detected cattle-dromedary homologies. We have found 8 chromosomal rearrangements (6 fissions in the Siberian roe deer, 1 fission in the cattle and 1 inversion on the CPY11) that have separated the karyotypes of the cattle and the Siberian roe deer. The inversion on CPY11 might be an apomorphic trait of cervids, since we detected its presence in the gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Thus our data further prove the scenario of chromosomal rearrangements that was previously proposed and add some new data. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Episodic molecular evolution of pituitary growth hormone in Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniou, Zoitsa; Wallis, O Caryl; Wallis, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The sequence of growth hormone (GH) is generally strongly conserved in mammals, but episodes of rapid change occurred during the evolution of primates and artiodactyls, when the rate of GH evolution apparently increased substantially. As a result the sequences of higher primate and ruminant GHs differ markedly from sequences of other mammalian GHs. In order to increase knowledge of GH evolution in Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla plus Cetacea) we have cloned and characterized GH genes from camel (Camelus dromedarius), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), using genomic DNA and a polymerase chain reaction technique. As in other mammals, these GH genes comprise five exons and four introns. Two very similar GH gene sequences (encoding identical proteins) were found in each of hippopotamus and giraffe. The deduced sequence for the mature hippopotamus GH is identical to that of dolphin, in accord with current ideas of a close relationship between Cetacea and Hippopotamidae. The sequence of camel GH is identical to that reported previously for alpaca GH. The sequence of giraffe GH is very similar to that of other ruminants but differs from that of nonruminant cetartiodactyls at about 18 residues. The results demonstrate that the apparent burst of rapid evolution of GH occurred largely after the separation of the line leading to ruminants from other cetartiodactyls.

  1. Testosterone profiles and their correlation with sexual libido in male camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Aminu

    2008-10-01

    The study was conducted on 4 male Jaisalmeri camels (Camelus dromedarius) on their circulating testosterone (T) profiles and correlation with sexual libido. The average T concentration was low during hot months of April to September, started increasing in the months of October and November, continued to increase steadily in the months of December, January and February followed by decline in the ensuing months. Individual variations in onset and cessation of T surge were observed. Sexual libido as indicated by copulation time (CT) and volume of semen ejaculated (V) was high during January to April months, declined slowly over May month followed by complete cessation in later half of June. Sexual libido was almost negligible during July to November months. The sexual libido was also low during December month. Like circulating T profiles, individual variations were also observed in sexual libido. Data indicated that onset as well as cessation of T surge preceded the onset and cessation of sexual libido in all the animals. A positive correlation was found among circulating T (concentration), CT and V of semen. It is concluded that seasonal changes in circulating testosterone governs sexual libido in male camels.

  2. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Trichuris globulosa Von Linstow, 1901 from camels. A review of Trichuris species parasitizing herbivorous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R; Gutiérrez-Avilés, L; Halajian, A; Zurita, A; de Rojas, M; Cutillas, C

    2015-08-01

    At the present work, we carried out a morph-biometrical and molecular study of Trichuris species isolated from Camelus dromedarius from Iran and from Ovis aries from South Africa comparatively with other species of Trichuris from different herbivorous hosts and geographical regions. The population from camels from Iran was identified as Trichuris globulosa. Two different morphometrically populations of Trichuris sp. from sheep from South Africa were identified: Trichuris ovis and Trichuris skrjabini. Ribosomal data did not reveal significate differences in the ITS2 sequences between T. ovis and T. globulosa to assess a specific determination. The mitochondrial data suggest that T. globulosa constitute a different genetic lineage to T. ovis. Cytochrome c-oxidase and cytochrome b partial gene sequences corroborated the existence of a different genetic lineage of T. ovis from sheep of South Africa that would be closely related to the populations of T. globulosa from camels from Iran. The cytochrome c-oxidase and cytochrome b partial gene sequences of T. globulosa have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of purine derivatives in the urine of some ruminant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, S.; Stefanon, B.; Susmel, P.; Haddi, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    The application of published high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of PD in urine of cattle, sheep, buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) was investigated. Urine was taken from two water buffaloes, two camels, three cows and four sheep, all fed at maintenance level. Total nitrogen content in urine was determined using a micro-Kjeldahl procedure. Allantoin, uric acid and creatinine levels were determined colorimetrically while xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC. Relative proportion of allantoin ranged from 74 ± 7 to 91 ± 1% in camels and cattle, respectively. Uric acid proportion was very low in camel urine (1.7 ± 1) but ranged from 3.7 ± 3 to 9.2 ± 1% in sheep and cows, respectively. Xanthine + hypoxanthine ranged from 11 ± 3 to 25 ± 7% in buffalo and camels, respectively. Total PD:Creatinine ratio (mol/mol W 0.75 ) was 118 ± 15, 46 ± 17, 37 ± 9 and 33 ± 5 for cattle, camels, buffaloes and sheep respectively. The adoption of a single method for the simultaneous detection of all derivatives proved difficult due to elution of polar coextractives at the same retention times as the peaks of allantoin, uric acid and creatinine. (author)

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of S100-like protein in non-mammalian kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo, Paolo; Arcamone, Nadia; Pelagalli, Gaetano Vincenzo; Gargiulo, Giuliana

    2003-04-15

    The immunolocalization of S100-like protein was investigated in the kidney of saltwater fishes (Dicentrarchus labrax; Coris julis; Serranus cabrilla; Scorpaena porcus), amphibia (Rana aesculenta), reptiles (Lacerta viridis), and aves (Gallus domesticus; Strutio camelus). S100-like immunoreactivity was detected in the juxtaglomerular cells of all saltwater fishes studied. No immunoreactivity was observed in other tracts of the nephron or in the interstitial tissue. In frog kidney, S100-like immunoreactive cells were localized in the proximal tubule, singly distributed or placed side by side in clusters of two or three cells. S100-like immunoreactive cells were distributed in the distal and in the collecting tubules in lizard, chicken, and ostrich kidney. In the distal tubule of lizard kidney, S100-like immunoreactive cells were numerous and uniformly distributed. In lizard collecting tubules, S100-like immunoreactive cells showed less intense immunoreactivity than in the distal tubule, except for a cluster of cells at the junction with the initial collecting duct. In chicken and ostrich kidney, S100-like immunoreactive cells of the distal tubules were closely packed together. In the collecting tubules, S100-like immunoreactive cells were alternate to negative cells. These results indicate the high conservation degree of S100 proteins through phylogenesis and suggest a functional role for these proteins in the vertebrate kidney. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Differential Glycosylation and Modulation of Camel and Human HSP Isoforms in Response to Thermal and Hypoxic Stresses

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    Abdullah Hoter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs following heat stress or other stress conditions is a common physiological response in almost all living organisms. Modification of cytosolic proteins including HSPs by O-GlcNAc has been shown to enhance their capabilities for counteracting lethal levels of cellular stress. Since HSPs are key players in stress resistance and protein homeostasis, we aimed to analyze their forms at the cellular and molecular level using camel and human HSPs as models for efficient and moderate thermotolerant mammals, respectively. In this study, we cloned the cDNA encoding two inducible HSP members, HSPA6 and CRYAB from both camel (Camelus dromedarius and human in a Myc-tagged mammalian expression vector. Expression of these chaperones in COS-1 cells revealed protein bands of approximately 25-kDa for both camel and human CRYAB and 70-kDa for camel HSPA6 and its human homologue. While localization and trafficking of the camel and human HSPs revealed similar cytosolic localization, we could demonstrate altered glycan structure between camel and human HSPA6. Interestingly, the glycoform of camel HSPA6 was rapidly formed and stabilized under normal and stress culture conditions whereas human HSPA6 reacted differently under similar thermal and hypoxic stress conditions. Our data suggest that efficient glycosylation of camel HSPA6 is among the mechanisms that provide camelids with a superior capability for alleviating stressful environmental circumstances.

  6. Physical and kinematic properties of cryopreserved camel sperm after elimination of semen viscosity by different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahrawy, Khalid; Rateb, Sherif; Khalifa, Marwa; Monaco, Davide; Lacalandra, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    This investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different techniques for liquefaction of semen on post-thaw physical and dynamic characteristics of camel spermatozoa. A total of 144 ejaculates were collected from 3 adult camels, Camelus dromedarius, twice-weekly over 3 consecutive breeding seasons. A raw aliquot of each ejaculate was evaluated for physical and morphological properties, whereas the remaining portion was diluted (1:3) with glycerolated Tris lactose egg yolk extender, and was further subjected to one of the following liquefaction treatments: control (untreated), 5μl/ml α-amylase, 0.1mg/ml papain, 5u/ml bromelain, or 40-kHz nominal ultrasound frequency. The post-thaw objective assessment of cryopreserved spermatozoa, in all groups, was performed by a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. The results revealed that all liquefaction treatments improved (P<0.05) post-thaw motility, viability and sperm motion criteria. However, an adverse effect (P<0.05) was observed in acrosome integrity, sperm cell membrane integrity and percent of normal sperm in all enzymatically-treated specimens compared to both control and ultrasound-treated semen. These results elucidate the efficiency of utilizing ultrasound technology for viscosity elimination of camel semen. In addition, developing enzymatic semen liquefaction techniques is imperious to benefit from when applying assisted reproductive technologies, particularly AI and IVF, in camels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. INVESTIGATION ON CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INFECTIONS IN WILD ANIMALS IN A ZOO IN ANHUI PROVINCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Youfang; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Cefan; Li, Peiying; Xu, Qianming; Zhao, Changcheng; Liu, Wei; Xu, Wenlong

    2016-09-01

    To assess Cryptosporidium infections among wild animals in a zoo located in Anhui province, we conducted an investigation on the fecal samples collected from 44 primates, 41 herbivores, 44 carnivores and omnivores, and 103 birds in the zoo with the use of Sheather's sugar flotation technique and modified acid-fast staining. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the fecal samples from six primates, two herbivores, four carnivores and omnivores, and seven birds by using Sheather's sugar flotation technique; the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 13.64, 4.88, 9.09, and 6.80%, respectively. Modified acid-fast staining detected the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the fecal samples of one primate, three herbivores, 0 carnivores and omnivores, and one bird, and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 2.27, 7.32, 0.00, and 0.97%, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis with the use of the neighbor-joining (NJ) method based on the aligned partial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences showed that the protozoan pathogen isolated from primates was Cryptosporidium hominis and the pathogen isolated from camels ( Camelus dromedarius ) was Cryptosporidium andersoni. Subtyping the Cryptosporidium hominis by 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene phylogenetic analysis showed the Cryptosporidium hominis belongs to the subtype IdA and IbA.

  8. Serological, molecular detection and potential risk factors associated with camel brucellosis in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sana; Khan, Iahtasham; Nasir, Amar; Younus, Muhammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Melzer, Falk; Neubauer, Heinrich; El-Adawy, Hosny

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in developing countries and was considered the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Brucellosis was reported in camels and has been reported from all camel-keeping countries.The present study was performed in three districts (Jhang, Chiniot, and Bhakkar) of Punjab province of Pakistan. A total of 200 camel (Camelus bactrianus) sera were collected using random and multistage cluster sampling from different areas. Fifty samples were collected from one organized governmental farm. One hundred fifty samples were collected randomly from nomadic/pastoral production systems. All sera were tested with Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and confirmed by ELISA. Genomic DNA was extracted from all serum samples and tested by real-time PCR. Various potential risk factors (season, rearing with other animals, and abortion or orchitis history) recorded through questionnaires were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test.In total, 5 % of investigated sera were positive by RBPT. Only 2 % of the camel sera were CELISA positive. Brucella abortus DNA was detected in 1.5 % of the investigated animals. Season, rearing of camels with other ruminants, abortion, and orchitis history were found to be statistically significant (p brucellosis is a zoonotic disease in the Pakistani Punjab with various risk factors maintaining and perpetuating its spread. Therefore, there is a need for implementing control measures and raising public health awareness in prevention of brucellosis in Pakistan.

  9. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos y llama (Lama glama, cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares fueron observados en las cuatro especies de Lamini, incluso similares a los descritos para camello, Camelus bactrianus. Sin embargo, se encontraron finas y consistentes diferencias en los brazos cortos del cromosoma 1, permitiendo separar a camellos, guanacos y llamas, de las de vicuñas y alpacas. Este patrón fue consistente incluso en un híbrido guanaco x alpaca. Relaciones equivalentes fueron encontradas en las secuencias completas del gen para citocromo b, así como en el árbol de expansión mínima de las secuencias parciales de la región control, agrupando a guanacos con llamas y a vicuñas con alpacas. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron a V. vicugna y a L. guanicoe como grupos recíprocamente monofHéticos. El análisis de las secuencias de ambos genes mostró dos ciados entre las vicuñas, concordantes con las subespecies reconocidas para esta especie, pero los resultados obtenidos para guanacos no reflejaron la existencia de las cuatro subespecies previamente propuestas. El análisis combinado de variaciones cromosómicas y moleculares demostraron una alta similitud genética entre alpacas y vicuñas, así como entre llamas y guanacos. Aunque se revela hibridización direccional, nuestros resultados apoyan fuertemente la hipótesis de que la llama se deriva de L. guanicoe, y la alpaca de V. vicugna, apoyando la reclasificación de la alpaca como V. pacosFour camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe and

  10. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling - Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O; Ismael, Mohammad A; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications.

  11. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling – Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O.; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M.; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26858689

  12. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

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    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  13. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling – Towards Understanding the Insulin-like Properties of Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed O Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1 and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2. Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications.

  14. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Purification of camel liver catalase by zinc chelate affinity chromatography and pH gradient elution: An enzyme with interesting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafik, Abdelbasset; Essamadi, Abdelkhalid; Çelik, Safinur Yildirim; Mavi, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and increasing temperatures are global concerns. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) lives most of its life under high environmental stress in the desert and represent ideal model for studying desert adaptation among mammals. Catalase plays a key role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. For the first time, catalase from camel liver was purified to homogeneity by zinc chelate affinity chromatography using pH gradient elution, a better separation was obtained. A purification fold of 201.81 with 1.17% yield and a high specific activity of 1132539.37U/mg were obtained. The native enzyme had a molecular weight of 268kDa and was composed of four subunits of equal size (65kDa). The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 45°C and pH 7.2. Thiol reagents, β-Mercaptoethanol and D,L-Dithiothreitol, inhibited the enzyme activity. The enzyme was inhibited by Al 3+ , Cd 2+ and Mg 2+ , whereas Ca 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ stimulated the catalase activity. Reduced glutathione has no effect on catalase activity. The K m and V max of the enzyme for hydrogen peroxide were 37.31mM and 6185157U/mg, respectively. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively with K i value of 14.43μM, the IC 50 was found to be 16.71μM. The properties of camel catalase were different comparing to those of mammalian species. Relatively higher molecular weight, higher optimum temperature, protection of reduced glutathione from hydrogen peroxide oxidation and higher affinity for hydrogen peroxide and sodium azide, these could be explained by the fact that camel is able to live in the intense environmental stress in the desert. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo immunotherapy of lung cancer using cross-species reactive vascular endothelial growth factor nanobodies

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    vFatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht v

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Lung cancer is the main leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Angiogenesis is the main step in proliferation and spreading of tumor cells. Targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an effective approach for inhibition of cancer angiogenesis. Nanobodies (NBs are a novel class of antibodies derived from the camel. Unique characteristics of Nbs like their small size and good penetration to tumor tissues makes them promising tools in drug development.  Development of NBs targeting both human and mouse VEGF is required for understanding their in vivo functions.  Therefore, development of cross-species reactive anti-VEGF Nbs for immunotherapy of lung cancer was the main aim of the current study. Materials and Methods: Here we developed NBs from Camelus dromedarius library with high specificity and binding affinity to both human and mouse VEGF. In vitro and In vivo function of developed NB was evaluated on human endothelial cells and lung epithelial tumor cells (TC-1. Results: A nanobody showed the highest affinity to human and mouse VEGF and potently inhibited VEGF in the ELISA experiment. Anti-VEGF NBs significantly inhibited in vitro human endothelial cell migration through blockade of VEGF (P=0.045. Anti-VEGF NBs also significantly inhibited in vivo TC-1 growth in a dose-dependent manner (P=0.001 and resulted in higher survival rate in the nanobody treated group Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the potential of anti-VEGF NBsin tumor growth inhibition and are promising as novel cancer therapeutic candidate.

  17. Methane Emission by Camelids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T.; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A.; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg−1 d−1) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg−1 d−1). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg−1 in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg−1 in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  18. Camelid Ig V genes reveal significant human homology not seen in therapeutic target genes, providing for a powerful therapeutic antibody platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbeek, Alex; Mazouari, Khalil El; Desmyter, Aline; Blanchetot, Christophe; Hultberg, Anna; de Jonge, Natalie; Roovers, Rob C; Cambillau, Christian; Spinelli, Sylvia; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Verrips, Theo; de Haard, Hans J; Achour, Ikbel

    2015-01-01

    Camelid immunoglobulin variable (IGV) regions were found homologous to their human counterparts; however, the germline V repertoires of camelid heavy and light chains are still incomplete and their therapeutic potential is only beginning to be appreciated. We therefore leveraged the publicly available HTG and WGS databases of Lama pacos and Camelus ferus to retrieve the germline repertoire of V genes using human IGV genes as reference. In addition, we amplified IGKV and IGLV genes to uncover the V germline repertoire of Lama glama and sequenced BAC clones covering part of the Lama pacos IGK and IGL loci. Our in silico analysis showed that camelid counterparts of all human IGKV and IGLV families and most IGHV families could be identified, based on canonical structure and sequence homology. Interestingly, this sequence homology seemed largely restricted to the Ig V genes and was far less apparent in other genes: 6 therapeutically relevant target genes differed significantly from their human orthologs. This contributed to efficient immunization of llamas with the human proteins CD70, MET, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, resulting in large panels of functional antibodies. The in silico predicted human-homologous canonical folds of camelid-derived antibodies were confirmed by X-ray crystallography solving the structure of 2 selected camelid anti-CD70 and anti-MET antibodies. These antibodies showed identical fold combinations as found in the corresponding human germline V families, yielding binding site structures closely similar to those occurring in human antibodies. In conclusion, our results indicate that active immunization of camelids can be a powerful therapeutic antibody platform. PMID:26018625

  19. Methane emission by camelids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Dittmann

    Full Text Available Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total, all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹ when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹. However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants. This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels.

  20. Methane emission by camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels.

  1. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles.

  2. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  3. DETOMIDINE AND BUTORPHANOL FOR STANDING SEDATION IN A RANGE OF ZOO-KEPT UNGULATE SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouts, Tim; Dodds, Joanne; Berry, Karla; Arif, Abdi; Taylor, Polly; Routh, Andrew; Gasthuys, Frank

    2017-09-01

    General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a number of minor procedures. The combination was successfully administered in five species of nondomesticated equids (Przewalski horse [ Equus ferus przewalskii; n = 1], onager [ Equus hemionus onager; n = 4], kiang [ Equus kiang ; n = 3], Grevy's zebra [ Equus grevyi ; n = 4], and Somali wild ass [ Equus africanus somaliensis; n = 7]), with a mean dose range of 0.10-0.17 mg/kg detomidine and 0.07-0.13 mg/kg butorphanol; the white ( Ceratotherium simum simum; n = 12) and greater one-horned rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis ; n = 4), with a mean dose of 0.015 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol; and Asiatic elephant bulls ( Elephas maximus ; n = 2), with a mean dose of 0.018 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol. In addition, the combination was successfully used for standing sedation in six species of artiodactylids: giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata; n = 3), western bongo ( Tragelaphus eurycerus eurycerus; n = 2), wisent ( Bison bonasus ; n = 5), yak ( Bos grunniens ; n = 1), water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ; n = 4) and Bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus ; n = 5). The mean dose range for artiodactylid species except bongo was 0.04-0.06 mg/kg detomidine and 0.03-0.06 mg/kg butorphanol. The dose in bongo, 0.15-0.20 mg/kg detomidine and 0.13-0.15 mg/kg butorphanol, was considerably higher. Times to first effect, approach, and recovery after antidote were short. The use of detomidine and butorphanol has

  4. Diatom assemblage in a tropical lake of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and spatial variation of diatom assemblage in surface sediments of Caçó Lake (shallow, mesotrophic and weakly acid lake - Maranhão State, Brazil were analyzed in order to know the distribution pattern of the species along the lake during rainy season (April 1999. Four zones were established in the lake based on 21 diatoms species and habitat affinities. The first three zones (prime three meters deep to six meters deep were marked by the occurrence of Pinnularia gigas, Frustulia rhomboides, Encyonopsis krasskei, Eunotia camelus, E. femoriformis and E. monodon. Zone IV (seven to nine meters deep was inhabited mainly by Surirella biseriata and Fragilariforma floridana. During the beginning of the rainy season, the diatom assemblage in Caçó Lake was composed mainly by benthic and epiphytic forms that reflected the low lake levels and the abundance of littoral vegetation present in this lake.Com o objetivo de se conhecer a dinâmica espacial e a distribuição das diatomáceas contidas no sedimento superficial do lago Caçó, durante o período de chuvas (abril de 1999 foram realizadas coletas em um "transect" horizontal. A partir da observação destas coletas efetuadas a cada 1 metro pode-se observar que a distribuição das diatomáceas esteve fortemente ligada a ocorrência do banco de macrófitas da sua margem, com a ocorrência maciça das espécies epifíticas e bentônicas. A análise de agrupamento de dados permitiu uma melhor visualização, da sua distribuição a cada profundidade e também das associações específicas em cada zona. Os resultados deste estudo permitiram concluir que a ocorrência e distribuição das diatomáceas do Lago Caçó está fortemente ligada ao banco de macrófitas localizado em suas margens, definindo assim zonas características dentro do lago.

  5. Development of an ultrasound-guided technique for retrobulbar nerve block in dromedary camels: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Adel M; Eshra, Eman A

    2018-03-01

    Description of an ultrasound (US)-guided technique for retrobulbar nerve blockade in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) cadavers. Prospective experimental cadaveric study that was carried out in three phases: phase I: anatomical dissection and development of US-guided technique; phase II: methylene blue (MB) injection; phase III: contrast medium (CM), US-guided injections with computed tomography (CT) control. A total of 36 orbits from 18 heads were obtained from 18 dromedary cadavers. Phase I: anatomical dissections were carried out bilaterally, using two heads to determine needle site placement. Phase II: a US-guided, lateral, in-plane approach using one of three volumes of MB (3, 6, or 9 mL) was evaluated in six heads (four orbits per volume tested) to establish the ideal injection volume. Injections of MB that strongly stained all retrobulbar nerves were considered successful, whereas insufficient MB volumes resulted in weak or no nerve staining. Phase III: US-guided retrobulbar injection with CM was carried out using 20 orbits. Computed tomography was performed after each injection trial to determine the accuracy of needle placement and CM dispersal. An injection was judged to be successful when the CT images revealed that the needle was located within the retractor bulbi muscle cone and the CM reached the target nerves at the orbitorotundum and the optic foramina. Only injection of 9 mL of MB stained the target nerves sufficiently, whereas there was no or only weak staining with 3 and 6 mL, respectively. Therefore, 9 mL of CM was used for the US-guided injections in phase III. Subsequent CT scans revealed satisfying CM distribution within the ocular muscle cone in 18 of 20 cases (90% success rate). US-guided retrobulbar injection in dromedary cadavers is feasible. Further research is required to assess its practicality and usefulness in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and

  6. Daily rhythms of behavioral and hormonal patterns in male dromedary camels housed in boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydiane Aubè

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Daily rhythmicity has been observed for a number of hormonal and behavioral variables in mammals. It can be entrained by several external factors, such as light-dark cycle and scheduled feeding. In dromedary camels, daily rhythmicity has been documented only for melatonin secretion and body temperature. In this study, the daily rhythmicity of behavioral repertoire, cortisol and testosterone levels was investigated in captive male camels. Methods Six clinically healthy male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius were used. The animals were housed in single boxes for 24 h daily and fed twice a day. Over a period of 48 h, behavioral observations were made and blood samples taken every two hours. The data were analyzed using diurnality index, conisor analysis and PROC mixed procedure. Results The diurnality index for rumination and lying down was close to 0 (respectively, 0.09 and 0.19, while the indices for stereotypy, standing, feeding and walking were close to 1 (respectively, 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85. Cosinor analysis revealed daily rhythmicity for all behaviors and for cortisol levels (acrophase at 12:57 but not for testosterone. Rumination and lying down (inactive behaviors reached a peak during the scotophase, whereas feeding, walking and stereotypy (active behaviors reached a peak during the photophase around midday. Cortisol level and expression of stereotypies peaked before and after food distribution and were negatively correlated (r =  − 0.287, P = 0.005. Testosterone levels and expression of sexual behaviors were stimulated by the visual and olfactory contacts with the females and were positively correlated (r = 0.164, P = 0.040. Testosterone was also negatively correlated with cortisol (r =  − 0.297; P = 0.003. Discussion These preliminary results provided new knowledge about the daily rhythm of behaviors in camels housed in boxes, suggesting that camels exhibit diurnal behavior pattern in the maintenance

  7. Histologia, histoquímica e histometria do intestino de jacaré-do-Pantanal criado em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Aleixo

    2011-12-01

    Histologia. A estrutura da parede do intestino delgado e grosso do jacaré-do-Pantanal era constituída pelas túnicas mucosa, muscular e serosa. A mucosa era formada por epitélio de revestimento do tipo cilíndrico simples constituído por epiteliócitos colunares e por exocrinócitos caliciformes; lâmina própria de tecido conjuntivo frouxo e muscular da mucosa única. A túnica muscular era constituída por dois estrados, o circular e o longitudinal, sendo o estrato circular o mais desenvolvido. A serosa era típica. As especializações da mucosa observadas no intestino delgado e grosso, respectivamente, foram vilosidades e pregas intestinais, e ao longo das regiões dos intestinos, apresentaram diminuição de sua complexidade. O estudo histométrico da mucosa demonstrou diferença estatisticamente significante entre o intestino delgado e grosso. Embora a estrutura da parede intestinal de C. yacare seja semelhante à de outros crocodilianos, a da tartaruga verde e avestruz, ainda se faz necessário estudos sobre a histofisiologia para que o manejo nutricional da espécie em cativeiro seja incrementado.

  8. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.; Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d 7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d 7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d 0 ) on d 14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first