WorldWideScience

Sample records for aversive visual learning

  1. Aversive reinforcement improves visual discrimination learning in free-flying honeybees.

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    Aurore Avarguès-Weber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning and perception of visual stimuli by free-flying honeybees has been shown to vary dramatically depending on the way insects are trained. Fine color discrimination is achieved when both a target and a distractor are present during training (differential conditioning, whilst if the same target is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning, discrimination is coarse and limited to perceptually dissimilar alternatives. Another way to potentially enhance discrimination is to increase the penalty associated with the distractor. Here we studied whether coupling the distractor with a highly concentrated quinine solution improves color discrimination of both similar and dissimilar colors by free-flying honeybees. As we assumed that quinine acts as an aversive stimulus, we analyzed whether aversion, if any, is based on an aversive sensory input at the gustatory level or on a post-ingestional malaise following quinine feeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the presence of a highly concentrated quinine solution (60 mM acts as an aversive reinforcer promoting rejection of the target associated with it, and improving discrimination of perceptually similar stimuli but not of dissimilar stimuli. Free-flying bees did not use remote cues to detect the presence of quinine solution; the aversive effect exerted by this substance was mediated via a gustatory input, i.e. via a distasteful sensory experience, rather than via a post-ingestional malaise. CONCLUSION: The present study supports the hypothesis that aversion conditioning is important for understanding how and what animals perceive and learn. By using this form of conditioning coupled with appetitive conditioning in the framework of a differential conditioning procedure, it is possible to uncover discrimination capabilities that may remain otherwise unsuspected. We show, therefore, that visual discrimination is not an absolute phenomenon but can be modulated by experience.

  2. The role of the COMT val158met polymorphism in mediating aversive learning in visual cortex.

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    Gruss, L Forest; Langaee, Taimour; Keil, Andreas

    2016-01-15

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alters metabolic activity of the COMT enzyme regulating catecholamines, with the Val (valine) allele resulting in 40% greater enzymatic activity than the Met (methionine) allele. Previous research has identified systematic inter-individual differences in cognitive and behavioral phenotypes related to this polymorphism, often attributed to the fact that extracellular dopamine in the prefrontal cortex is strongly affected by the COMT enzyme. The neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these inter-individual differences in specific brain systems and task contexts remain to be established however. In the current study, we examined the extent to which physio-mechanistic differences by COMT genotype affect somato-visceral and visual cortical responses to learned threat cues. Classical aversive differential conditioning was implemented using rapidly phase-reversing grating stimuli, previously shown to engage retinotopic visual cortex. Differential response patterns in sensory and autonomic systems were elicited by pairing one grating (CS+, conditioned stimulus), but not the other (CS-), with a noxious stimulus. Dense-array electroencephalography and somato-visceral measures of defensive reactivity were recorded in addition to self-report data. Individuals of the Val/Val genotype, compared to Met allele carriers, reliably showed greater initial enhancement in their visuocortical response to the CS+, accompanied by stronger defensive engagement, indexed by heart rate acceleration and startle potentiation. The finding that COMT polymorphism status affects threat cue reactivity at the visuocortical level is consistent with the notion that sensory processing of threat is facilitated by strong re-entrant bias signals from anterior areas, including the prefrontal cortex. PMID:26549298

  3. Mechanisms of radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on taste aversion learning is reviewed and discussed, with particular emphasis on those studies that have used exposure to ionizing radiation as an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned taste aversion. The primary aim of the review is to attempt to define the mechanisms that lead to the initiation of the taste aversion response following exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies using drug treatments to produce a taste aversion have been included to the extent that they are relevant to understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can affect the behavior of the organism. 141 references

  4. Overcoming Learning Aversion in Evaluating and Managing Uncertain Risks.

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    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2015-10-01

    Decision biases can distort cost-benefit evaluations of uncertain risks, leading to risk management policy decisions with predictably high retrospective regret. We argue that well-documented decision biases encourage learning aversion, or predictably suboptimal learning and premature decision making in the face of high uncertainty about the costs, risks, and benefits of proposed changes. Biases such as narrow framing, overconfidence, confirmation bias, optimism bias, ambiguity aversion, and hyperbolic discounting of the immediate costs and delayed benefits of learning, contribute to deficient individual and group learning, avoidance of information seeking, underestimation of the value of further information, and hence needlessly inaccurate risk-cost-benefit estimates and suboptimal risk management decisions. In practice, such biases can create predictable regret in selection of potential risk-reducing regulations. Low-regret learning strategies based on computational reinforcement learning models can potentially overcome some of these suboptimal decision processes by replacing aversion to uncertain probabilities with actions calculated to balance exploration (deliberate experimentation and uncertainty reduction) and exploitation (taking actions to maximize the sum of expected immediate reward, expected discounted future reward, and value of information). We discuss the proposed framework for understanding and overcoming learning aversion and for implementing low-regret learning strategies using regulation of air pollutants with uncertain health effects as an example. PMID:26491992

  5. What can behavior analysis learn from the aversives controversy?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper argues that behavior analysis may have contributed to the aversives controversy in a number of ways. The role that the field has played and the lessons that may be learned are discussed in the areas of research, training, and politics.

  6. Impaired Conditioned Taste Aversion Learning in Spinophilin Knockout Mice

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    Stafstrom-Davis, Carrie A.; Ouimet, Charles C.; Feng, Jian; Allen, Patrick B; Greengard, Paul; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Plasticity in dendritic spines may underlie learning and memory. Spinophilin, a protein enriched in dendritic spines, has the properties of a scaffolding protein and is believed to regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics affecting dendritic spine morphology. It also binds protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1), an enzyme that regulates dendritic spine physiology. In this study, we tested the role of spinophilin in conditioned taste aversion learning (CTA) using transgenic spinophilin knockout mice. CTA is...

  7. Redundancy of visual information in aversive conditioning: Rol of the superior colliculus

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    Cardenas, Fernando P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A relevant feature of biological systems is the parallel or distributed processing. This kind of information processing ensures a functional redundancy which serves as a mechanism for allowing a functional level even in the absence of some regions of the system. In the case of the visual system the parallel processing relies on three simultaneous pathways, each one of them carrying out certain aspects of visual information processing. The collicular branch of this parallel system is related to emotional aspects. The collicular pathway transmits information from the superior colliculus to the amygdala, via the suprageniculate nucleus. Here we assess the effect of the temporal inhibition of the superior colliculus on the acquisition of a classical aversive conditioning. For this Wistar rats received a intracollicular microinjection of lidocaine (1% immediately before the training session. Our results clearly showed that the superior colliculus in not the main structure required to the acquisition of this kind of associative learning. This suggests that other subcortical structures must be responsible for relaying information to the amygdala in order to allow the aversive conditioning acquisition. From this, new possibilities are open to study a probable way to understand the redundant properties of the mammal visual system.

  8. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

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    Edith Roussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult. METHODOLOGY: To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our results constitute the first integrative

  9. METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR 5 IN CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Simonyi, A.; Serfozo, P.; Parker, K.E.; Ramsey, A.K.; Schachtman, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    In conditioned taste aversion (CTA), animals learn to avoid a flavored solution (conditioned stimulus, CS) previously paired with internal malaise (unconditioned stimulus, US). Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has been implicated in learning and memory processes and is necessary for CTA. In the present study, local microinjections of a mGlu5-selective antagonist, 3-[2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP, 0, 1 or 5 μg) into the insular cortex and basolateral amygdala were us...

  10. Interactions between radiation and amphetamine in taste aversion learning and the role of the area postrema in amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three experiments were run to assess the role of the area postrema in taste aversion learning resulting from combined treatment with subthreshold unconditioned stimuli and in the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion. In the first experiment, it was shown that combined treatment with subthreshold radiation (15 rad) and subthreshold amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, IP) resulted in the acquisition of a taste aversion. The second experiment showed that lesions of the area postrema blocked taste aversion learning produced by two subthreshold doses of amphetamine. In the third experiment, which looked at the dose-response curve for amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning in intact rats and rats with area postrema lesions, it was shown that both groups of rats acquired taste aversions following injection of amphetamine, although the rats with lesions showed a less severe aversion than the intact rats. The results are interpreted as indicating that amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning may involve area postrema-mediated mechanisms, particularly at the lower doses, but that an intact area postrema is not a necessary condition for the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion

  11. Contrasting role of octopamine in appetitive and aversive learning in the crab Chasmagnathus.

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    Laura Kaczer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines are implicated in reinforcing associative learning. Octopamine (OA is considered the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline and several studies in insects converge on the idea that OA mediates the reward in appetitive conditioning. However, it is possible to assume that OA could have a different role in an aversive conditioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we pharmacologically studied the participation of OA in two learning processes in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, one appetitive and one aversive. It is shown that the aversive memory is impaired by an OA injection applied immediately or 30 minutes after the last training trial. By contrast, the appetitive memory is blocked by OA antagonists epinastine and mianserine, but enhanced by OA when injected together with the supply of a minimum amount of reinforcement. Finally, double-learning experiments in which crabs are given the aversive and the appetitive learning either successively or simultaneously allow us to study the interaction between both types of learning and analyze the presumed action of OA. We found that the appetitive training offered immediately, but not one hour, after an aversive training has an amnesic effect on the aversive memory, mimicking the effect and the kinetic of an OA injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the role of OA is divergent in two memory processes of opposite signs: on the one hand it would mediate the reinforcement in appetitive learning, and on the other hand it has a deleterious effect over aversive memory consolidation.

  12. Impaired conditioned taste aversion learning in spinophilin knockout mice.

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    Stafstrom-Davis, C A; Ouimet, C C; Feng, J; Allen, P B; Greengard, P; Houpt, T A

    2001-01-01

    Plasticity in dendritic spines may underlie learning and memory. Spinophilin, a protein enriched in dendritic spines, has the properties of a scaffolding protein and is believed to regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics affecting dendritic spine morphology. It also binds protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1), an enzyme that regulates dendritic spine physiology. In this study, we tested the role of spinophilin in conditioned taste aversion learning (CTA) using transgenic spinophilin knockout mice. CTA is a form of associative learning in which an animal rejects a food that has been paired previously with a toxic effect (e.g., a sucrose solution paired with a malaise-inducing injection of lithium chloride). Acquisition and extinction of CTA was tested in spinophilin knockout and wild-type mice using taste solutions (sucrose or sodium chloride) or flavors (Kool-Aid) paired with moderate or high doses of LiCl (0.15 M, 20 or 40 mL/kg). When sucrose or NaCl solutions were paired with a moderate dose of LiCl, spinophilin knockout mice were unable to learn a CTA. At the higher dose, knockout mice acquired a CTA but extinguished more rapidly than wild-type mice. A more salient flavor stimulus (taste plus odor) revealed similar CTA learning at both doses of LiCl in both knockouts and wild types. Sensory processing in the knockouts appeared normal because knockout mice and wild-type mice expressed identical unconditioned taste preferences in two-bottle tests, and identical lying-on-belly responses to acute LiCl. We conclude that spinophilin is a candidate molecule required for normal CTA learning. PMID:11584074

  13. Aversive learning in honeybees revealed by the olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex.

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    Vanina Vergoz

    Full Text Available Invertebrates have contributed greatly to our understanding of associative learning because they allow learning protocols to be combined with experimental access to the nervous system. The honeybee Apis mellifera constitutes a standard model for the study of appetitive learning and memory since it was shown, almost a century ago, that bees learn to associate different sensory cues with a reward of sugar solution. However, up to now, no study has explored aversive learning in bees in such a way that simultaneous access to its neural bases is granted. Using odorants paired with electric shocks, we conditioned the sting extension reflex, which is exhibited by harnessed bees when subjected to a noxious stimulation. We show that this response can be conditioned so that bees learn to extend their sting in response to the odorant previously punished. Bees also learn to extend the proboscis to one odorant paired with sugar solution and the sting to a different odorant paired with electric shock, thus showing that they can master both appetitive and aversive associations simultaneously. Responding to the appropriate odorant with the appropriate response is possible because two different biogenic amines, octopamine and dopamine subserve appetitive and aversive reinforcement, respectively. While octopamine has been previously shown to substitute for appetitive reinforcement, we demonstrate that blocking of dopaminergic, but not octopaminergic, receptors suppresses aversive learning. Therefore, aversive learning in honeybees can now be accessed both at the behavioral and neural levels, thus opening new research avenues for understanding basic mechanisms of learning and memory.

  14. Taste aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste aversion learning. The first experiment determined the thresholds for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride (0.30 mEq/kg) did not produce a significant reduction in preference. Combined treatment with radiation and lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr of each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditioned stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion

  15. Taste-Potentiated Odor Aversion Learning in Rats with Lesions of the Insular Cortex

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    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Christopher; Reilly, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The current study assessed the influence of excitotoxic lesions of the insular cortex (IC) on taste-potentiated odor aversion (TPOA) learning. Water-deprived rats initially received a single odor-toxicosis or odor/taste-toxicosis pairing and were subsequently tested, in separate trials, with the odor and the taste stimulus. Indicating TPOA, neurologically intact rats conditioned with the odor/taste compound stimulus acquired significantly stronger odor aversions than normal rats conditioned w...

  16. Fetal Protection : The Roles of Social Learning and Innate Food Aversions in South India.

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    Placek, Caitlyn D; Hagen, Edward H

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy involves puzzling aversions to nutritious foods. Although studies generally support the hypotheses that such aversions are evolved mechanisms to protect the fetus from toxins and/or pathogens, other factors, such as resource scarcity and psychological distress, have not been investigated as often. In addition, many studies have focused on populations with high-quality diets and low infectious disease burden, conditions that diverge from the putative evolutionary environment favoring fetal protection mechanisms. This study tests the fetal protection, resource scarcity, and psychological distress hypotheses of food aversions in a resource-constrained population with high infectious disease burden. The role of culture is also explored. In the first of two studies in Tamil Nadu, India, we investigated cultural explanations of pregnancy diet among non-pregnant women (N = 54). In the second study, we conducted structured interviews with pregnant women (N = 94) to determine their cravings and aversions, resource scarcity, indices of pathogen exposure, immune activation, psychological distress, and emic causes of aversions. Study 1 found that fruits were the most commonly reported food that pregnant women should avoid because of their harmful effects on infants. Study 2 found modest support for the fetal protection hypothesis for food aversions. It also found that pregnant women most commonly avoided fruits as well as "black" and "hot" foods. Aversions were primarily acquired through learning and focused on protecting the infant from harm. Our findings provide modest support for the fetal protection hypothesis and surprisingly strong support for the influence of cultural norms and learning on dietary aversions in pregnancy. PMID:26286435

  17. Dopamine Regulates Aversive Contextual Learning and Associated In Vivo Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus.

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    Broussard, John I; Yang, Kechun; Levine, Amber T; Tsetsenis, Theodoros; Jenson, Daniel; Cao, Fei; Garcia, Isabella; Arenkiel, Benjamin R; Zhou, Fu-Ming; De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A

    2016-03-01

    Dopamine release during reward-driven behaviors influences synaptic plasticity. However, dopamine innervation and release in the hippocampus and its role during aversive behaviors are controversial. Here, we show that in vivo hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA3-CA1 circuit underlies contextual learning during inhibitory avoidance (IA) training. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques verified sparse dopaminergic innervation of the hippocampus from the midbrain. The long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) underlying the learning of IA was assessed with a D1-like dopamine receptor agonist or antagonist in ex vivo hippocampal slices and in vivo in freely moving mice. Inhibition of D1-like dopamine receptors impaired memory of the IA task and prevented the training-induced enhancement of both ex vivo and in vivo LTP induction. The results indicate that dopamine-receptor signaling during an aversive contextual task regulates aversive memory retention and regulates associated synaptic mechanisms in the hippocampus that likely underlie learning. PMID:26904943

  18. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

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    Kim, Yunbok; Wood, Jesse; Moghaddam, Bita

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP) in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning. PMID:22238652

  19. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

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    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  20. Long term effects of aversive reinforcement on colour discrimination learning in free-flying bumblebees.

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    Miguel A Rodríguez-Gironés

    Full Text Available The results of behavioural experiments provide important information about the structure and information-processing abilities of the visual system. Nevertheless, if we want to infer from behavioural data how the visual system operates, it is important to know how different learning protocols affect performance and to devise protocols that minimise noise in the response of experimental subjects. The purpose of this work was to investigate how reinforcement schedule and individual variability affect the learning process in a colour discrimination task. Free-flying bumblebees were trained to discriminate between two perceptually similar colours. The target colour was associated with sucrose solution, and the distractor could be associated with water or quinine solution throughout the experiment, or with one substance during the first half of the experiment and the other during the second half. Both acquisition and final performance of the discrimination task (measured as proportion of correct choices were determined by the choice of reinforcer during the first half of the experiment: regardless of whether bees were trained with water or quinine during the second half of the experiment, bees trained with quinine during the first half learned the task faster and performed better during the whole experiment. Our results confirm that the choice of stimuli used during training affects the rate at which colour discrimination tasks are acquired and show that early contact with a strongly aversive stimulus can be sufficient to maintain high levels of attention during several hours. On the other hand, bees which took more time to decide on which flower to alight were more likely to make correct choices than bees which made fast decisions. This result supports the existence of a trade-off between foraging speed and accuracy, and highlights the importance of measuring choice latencies during behavioural experiments focusing on cognitive abilities.

  1. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

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    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  2. Learning Science Through Visualization

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    Chaudhury, S. Raj

    2005-01-01

    In the context of an introductory physical science course for non-science majors, I have been trying to understand how scientific visualizations of natural phenomena can constructively impact student learning. I have also necessarily been concerned with the instructional and assessment approaches that need to be considered when focusing on learning science through visually rich information sources. The overall project can be broken down into three distinct segments : (i) comparing students' abilities to demonstrate proportional reasoning competency on visual and verbal tasks (ii) decoding and deconstructing visualizations of an object falling under gravity (iii) the role of directed instruction to elicit alternate, valid scientific visualizations of the structure of the solar system. Evidence of student learning was collected in multiple forms for this project - quantitative analysis of student performance on written, graded assessments (tests and quizzes); qualitative analysis of videos of student 'think aloud' sessions. The results indicate that there are significant barriers for non-science majors to succeed in mastering the content of science courses, but with informed approaches to instruction and assessment, these barriers can be overcome.

  3. Visual Impediments to Learning

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    Noëlla Piquette, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognition, learning, and motor planning are dependent upon accurate encoding of stimuli from the environment. If there is an error in, or an impediment to, sensory perception, higher cognitive functions, such as reading, memory, emotional awareness, and impulse control can be affected. In schools, deficiencies of the visual process impede and impair reading acquisition and learning and influence other behavior. Children are affected by different types of functional impediments to eyesight and visual function. The degree to which children are impacted varies according to the depth and nature of the impediments present, and to some degree to socioeconomic status. Some children are at a greater disadvantage simply because of the greater visual demands of the neo-traditional classroom. These visual impediments to learning (VIL are rarely detected in common sight screenings and are associated with limited socioeconomic success and increased criminality. Significant VIL limit academic and life outcomes, with some ethnicities affected by a greater prevalence of reading-impairing impediments. This presents difficulties for various public agencies at all levels of government. To complicate matters further, children who are affected by vision difficulties will most often not report the problem, nor will VIL be detected during standard pediatric or psychoeducational assessment.VIL are described in brief, as is how they alter children’s academic outcomes, health, and behavior. A model of sufficient vision care in the prevention and management of most vision-related learning and behavioral difficulties is proposed. The position is advanced that ensuring a

  4. Induction of aversive learning through thermogenetic activation of Kenyon cell ensembles in Drosophila

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    David eVasmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila represents a model organism to analyze neuronal mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Kenyon cells of the Drosophila mushroom body are required for associative odor learning and memory retrieval. But is the mushroom body sufficient to acquire and retrieve an associative memory? To answer this question we have conceived an experimental approach to bypass olfactory sensory input and to thermogenetically activate sparse and random ensembles of Kenyon cells directly. We found that if the artifical activation of Kenyon cell ensembles coincides with a salient, aversive stimulus learning was induced The animals adjusted their behavior in a subsequent test situation and actively avoided reactivation of these Kenyon cells. Our results show that Kenyon cell activity in coincidence with a salient aversive stimulus can suffice to form an associative memory. Memory retrieval is characterized by a closed feedback loop between a behavioral action and the reactivation of sparse ensembles of Kenyon cells.

  5. Rats taste-aversive learning with cyclosporine a is not affected by contextual changes.

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    Tuerkmen, Akin; Bösche, Katharina; Lückemann, Laura; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Hadamitzky, Martin

    2016-10-01

    In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) rats associate a novel taste (conditioned stimulus; CS) with a treatment (unconditioned stimulus; US) that induces symptoms of malaise. During retrieval, animals learn that the CS no longer predicts the US, with the consequence that the behavior elicited by the CS extinguishes. Importantly, CTA data with lithium chloride (LiCl) as US indicate that extinction learning is affected by changing the physical context. However, if this is also the case in different taste-aversion paradigms employing compounds other than LiCL as US is unknown. Against this background the present study investigated in a CTA paradigm with saccharin as CS and the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) as US the influence of contextual changes on CTA extinction. Our results show, that extinction of a learned CS-US association with CsA is not prone to contextual changes. Due to the direct effects of CsA on CNS functioning, CTA with this immunosuppressant apparently operates under different mechanisms compared to other drugs, such as LiCl. These data indicate that taste aversive learning and its extinction are not necessarily specific to the context in which it is learned but also depends, at least in part, on the physiological and neuropharmacological effects of the drug employed as US. PMID:27316343

  6. Neural mechanisms of the nucleus accumbens circuit in reward and aversive learning.

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    Hikida, Takatoshi; Morita, Makiko; Macpherson, Tom

    2016-07-01

    The basal ganglia are key neural substrates not only for motor function, but also cognitive functions including reward and aversive learning. Critical for these processes are the functional role played by two projection neurons within nucleus accumbens (NAc); the D1- and D2-expressing neurons. Recently, we have developed a novel reversible neurotransmission blocking technique that specifically blocks neurotransmission from NAc D1- and D2-expressing neurons, allowing for in vivo analysis. In this review, we outline the functional dissociation of NAc D1- and D2-expressing neurons of the basal ganglia in reward and aversive learning, as well as drug addiction. These studies have revealed the importance of activation of NAc D1 receptors for reward learning and drug addiction, and inactivation of NAc D2 receptors for aversive learning and flexibility. Based on these findings, we propose a neural mechanism, in which dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area that send inputs to the NAc work as a switch between D1- and D2-expressing neurons. These basal ganglia neural mechanisms will give us new insights into the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:26827817

  7. Aversive Learning in Adolescents: Modulation by Amygdala–Prefrontal and Amygdala–Hippocampal Connectivity and Neuroticism

    OpenAIRE

    Garavan, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Neuroticism involves a tendency for enhanced emotional and cognitive processing of negative affective stimuli and a propensity to worry and be anxious. It is known that this trait modulates fear learning and the activation of brain regions involved in it such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex and their connectivity. Thirty-nine (21 female) 14-year-old healthy adolescents participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of aversive pavlovian different...

  8. The significance of learned food aversions in the aetiology of anorexia associated with cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, J A; Emery, P W

    1987-01-01

    The results of 24 h food preference tests have suggested that learned food aversions may be involved in the development of anorexia in tumour bearing rats and in patients with cancer. We have performed similar tests over longer periods, up to 10 days, in male rats implanted with Leydig cell tumours, using semisynthetic diets containing differing proportions of fat, protein and carbohydrate. Tumour growth caused anorexia (16-30% decrease in food intake) and cachexia (78% decrease in body fat a...

  9. Dopamine Regulates Aversive Contextual Learning and Associated In Vivo Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Broussard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine release during reward-driven behaviors influences synaptic plasticity. However, dopamine innervation and release in the hippocampus and its role during aversive behaviors are controversial. Here, we show that in vivo hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA3-CA1 circuit underlies contextual learning during inhibitory avoidance (IA training. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques verified sparse dopaminergic innervation of the hippocampus from the midbrain. The long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP underlying the learning of IA was assessed with a D1-like dopamine receptor agonist or antagonist in ex vivo hippocampal slices and in vivo in freely moving mice. Inhibition of D1-like dopamine receptors impaired memory of the IA task and prevented the training-induced enhancement of both ex vivo and in vivo LTP induction. The results indicate that dopamine-receptor signaling during an aversive contextual task regulates aversive memory retention and regulates associated synaptic mechanisms in the hippocampus that likely underlie learning.

  10. Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preexposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired preexposures to lithium chloride (3.0 mEq/kg, IP) blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium chloride or exposure to ionizing radiation (100 rad). Similar pretreatment with radiation blocked the acquisition of a radiation-induced aversion, but had no effect on taste aversions produced by lithium chloride (3.0 or 1.5 mEq/kg). Preexposure to ethanol (4 g/kg, PO) disrupted the acquisition of an ethanol-induced taste aversion, but not radiation- or lithium chloride-induced aversions. In contrast, preexposure to either radiation or lithium chloride attenuated an ethanol-induced taste aversion in intact rats, but not in rats with lesions of the area postrema. The results are discussed in terms of relationships between these three unconditioned stimuli and in terms of implications of these results for understanding the nature of the proximal unconditioned stimulus in taste aversion learning

  11. Aversive Learning and Appetitive Motivation Toggle Feed-Forward Inhibition in the Drosophila Mushroom Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisse, Emmanuel; Owald, David; Barnstedt, Oliver; Talbot, Clifford B; Huetteroth, Wolf; Waddell, Scott

    2016-06-01

    In Drosophila, negatively reinforcing dopaminergic neurons also provide the inhibitory control of satiety over appetitive memory expression. Here we show that aversive learning causes a persistent depression of the conditioned odor drive to two downstream feed-forward inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the mushroom body, called MVP2, or mushroom body output neuron (MBON)-γ1pedc>α/β. However, MVP2 neuron output is only essential for expression of short-term aversive memory. Stimulating MVP2 neurons preferentially inhibits the odor-evoked activity of avoidance-directing MBONs and odor-driven avoidance behavior, whereas their inhibition enhances odor avoidance. In contrast, odor-evoked activity of MVP2 neurons is elevated in hungry flies, and their feed-forward inhibition is required for expression of appetitive memory at all times. Moreover, imposing MVP2 activity promotes inappropriate appetitive memory expression in food-satiated flies. Aversive learning and appetitive motivation therefore toggle alternate modes of a common feed-forward inhibitory MVP2 pathway to promote conditioned odor avoidance or approach. PMID:27210550

  12. Dissociation of the Role of Infralimbic Cortex in Learning and Consolidation of Extinction of Recent and Remote Aversion Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Walaa; Ferreira, Guillaume; Maroun, Mouna

    2015-10-01

    Medial prefrontal circuits have been reported to undergo a major reorganization over time and gradually take a more important role for remote emotional memories such as contextual fear memory or food aversion memory. The medial prefrontal cortex, and specifically its ventral subregion, the infralimbic cortex (IL), was also reported to be critical for recent memory extinction of contextual fear conditioning and conditioned odor aversion. However, its exact role in the extinction of remotely acquired information is still not clear. Using postretrieval blockade of protein synthesis or inactivation of the IL, we showed that the IL is similarly required for extinction consolidation of recent and remote fear memory. However, in odor aversion memory, the IL was only involved in extinction consolidation of recent, but not remote, memory. In contrast, only remote retrieval of aversion memory induced c-Fos activation in the IL and preretrieval inactivation of the IL with lidocaine impaired subsequent extinction of remote but not recent memory, indicating IL is necessary for extinction learning of remote aversion memory. In contrast to the effects in odor aversion, our data show that the involvement of the IL in the consolidation of fear extinction does not depend on the memory age. More importantly, our data indicate that the IL is implicated in the extinction of fear and nonfear-based associations and suggest dissociation in the engagement of the IL in the learning and consolidation of food aversion extinction over time. PMID:25872918

  13. Learning Visualizations by Analogy: Promoting Visual Literacy through Visualization Morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchikachorn, Puripant; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    We propose the concept of teaching (and learning) unfamiliar visualizations by analogy, that is, demonstrating an unfamiliar visualization method by linking it to another more familiar one, where the in-betweens are designed to bridge the gap of these two visualizations and explain the difference in a gradual manner. As opposed to a textual description, our morphing explains an unfamiliar visualization through purely visual means. We demonstrate our idea by ways of four visualization pair examples: data table and parallel coordinates, scatterplot matrix and hyperbox, linear chart and spiral chart, and hierarchical pie chart and treemap. The analogy is commutative i.e. any member of the pair can be the unfamiliar visualization. A series of studies showed that this new paradigm can be an effective teaching tool. The participants could understand the unfamiliar visualization methods in all of the four pairs either fully or at least significantly better after they observed or interacted with the transitions from the familiar counterpart. The four examples suggest how helpful visualization pairings be identified and they will hopefully inspire other visualization morphings and associated transition strategies to be identified. PMID:26357285

  14. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  15. Visual Perceptual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Hua, Tianmiao; Huang, Chang-Bing; Zhou, Yifeng; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning refers to the phenomenon that practice or training in perceptual tasks often substantially improves perceptual performance. Often exhibiting stimulus or task specificities, perceptual learning differs from learning in the cognitive or motor domains. Research on perceptual learning reveals important plasticity in adult perceptual systems, and as well as the limitations in the information processing of the human observer. In this article, we review the behavioral results, me...

  16. Mediated overshadowing and potentiation of long-delay taste aversion learning: Two versus six cue-taste pairings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Dorothy W S; Sun, Qian; Boakes, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Mediated overshadowing occurs when an evoked representation of one stimulus interferes with the formation of an association between two other stimuli. This study tested whether such an effect can be found in long-delay taste aversion learning. The general methodology was to pair a cue with a sour taste (hydrochloric acid [HCl]) and then introduce the cue during the delay between the target taste, sucrose, and injection with lithium chloride (LiCl). Either 2 or 6 cue-HCl pairings were given. In Experiment 1, introduction of the cue, an almond flavor, produced overshadowing of the sucrose aversion in the group given 2 cue-HCl pairings (Paired-2), relative to an unpaired control, but potentiation of the sucrose aversion in the group given 6 cue-HCl pairings (Paired-6). This confirms that few pairings can be better than many in determining whether representation-mediated effects occur (Holland, 1990). A possible explanation for the Paired-6 results is that almond evoked an aversive response rather than memory of the sour HCl and that this added to the aversion produced by the sucrose-lithium pairing. Experiment 2 obtained similar results when a context was used as the cue intended to evoke an HCl representation. PMID:26752235

  17. Differential effects of wake promoting drug Modafinil in aversive learning paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan eShanmugasundaram

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil (MO an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter was initially approved to treat narcolepsy, a sleep related disorder in humans. One interesting side-effect of this drug, which emerged from preclinical and clinical studies, is the facilitation of cognitive performance. So far, this was primarily shown in appetitive learning paradigms, but it is yet unclear whether MO exerts a more general cognitive enhancement effect. Thus, the aim of the present study in rats was to extend these findings by testing the effects of MO in two aversive paradigms, Pavlovian fear conditioning (FC and the operant two-way active avoidance (TWA learning paradigms. We discovered a differential, task-dependent effect of MO. In the FC paradigm MO treated rats showed a dose-dependent enhancement of fear memory compared to vehicle treated rats, indicated by increased context-related freezing. Cue related fear memory remained unaffected. In the TWA paradigm MO induced a slight, but significant decrease of avoidance responses compared to vehicle treated animals, while the number of escape reactions during the acquisition of the TWA task remained unaffected. These findings expand the knowledge in the regulation of cognitive abilities and may contribute to the understanding of the contraindicative effects of MO in anxiety related mental disorders.

  18. RSK2 Signaling in Brain Habenula Contributes to Place Aversion Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcq, Emmanuel; Koebel, Pascale; Del Boca, Carolina; Pannetier, Solange; Kirstetter, Anne-Sophie; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Hanauer, Andre; Befort, Katia; Kieffer, Brigitte L.

    2011-01-01

    RSK2 is a Ser/Thr kinase acting in the Ras/MAPK pathway. "Rsk2" gene deficiency leads to the Coffin-Lowry Syndrome, notably characterized by cognitive deficits. We found that "mrsk2" knockout mice are unable to associate an aversive stimulus with context in a lithium-induced conditioned place aversion task requiring both high-order cognition and…

  19. The role of dopamine in the context of aversive stimuli with particular reference to acoustically signaled avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton eIlango

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning from punishment is a powerful means for behavioral adaptation with high relevance for various mechanisms of self-protection. Several studies have explored the contribution of released dopamine (DA or responses of DA neurons on reward seeking using rewards such as food, water, and sex. Phasic DA signals evoked by rewards or conditioned reward predictors are well documented, as are modulations of these signals by such parameters as reward magnitude, probability, and deviation of actually occurring from expected rewards. Less attention has been paid to DA neuron firing and DA release in response to aversive stimuli, and the prediction and avoidance of punishment. In this review, we first focus on DA changes in response to aversive stimuli as measured by microdialysis and voltammetry followed by the change in electrophysiological signatures by aversive stimuli and fearful events. We subsequently focus on the role of DA and effect of DA manipulations on signaled avoidance learning, which consists of learning the significance of a warning cue through Pavlovian associations and the execution of an instrumental avoidance response. We present a coherent framework utilizing the data on microdialysis, voltammetry, electrophysiological recording, electrical brain stimulation and behavioral analysis. We end by outlining current gaps in the literature and proposing future directions aimed at incorporating technical and conceptual progress to understand the involvement of reward circuit on punishment based decisions.

  20. Aversive and non-reward learning in the fire-bellied toad using familiar and unfamiliar prey stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula DICKE, Antje HEIDORN, Gerhard ROTH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how snapping behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar prey is modified by reward omission and aversive conditioning in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis. Toads were trained to snap at cricket images by rewarding them with live crickets. The task was learned, and the learning criterion (10 snapping responses within 2 minutes was reached in all individuals investigated. Subsequent reward omission did not alter the frequency of snapping to the familiar cricket stimulus. Snapping decreased only in some individuals, when a mild foot shock was applied at snapping. However, at presentation of images of hitherto unfamiliar meal worms and foot-shock application at snapping to the stimulus, the majority of toads diminished snapping significantly. Snapping responses decreased more rapidly, when snapping at meal worms was not rewarded or a footshock was applied uncorrelated to the presentation of or snapping at meal worms. These results demonstrate that in toads familiarity and unfamiliarity of prey stimuli are important factors in aversive learning, because well-trained responses to familiar stimuli become immune against reward omission. Furthermore, at presentation of unfamiliar stimuli, omission of reward and uncorrelated footshock had a stronger aversive effect than correlated footshock [Current Zoology 57 (6: 709–716, 2011].

  1. Aversive and non-reward learning in the fire-bellied toad using familiar and unfamiliar prey stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ursula DICKE; Antje HEIDORN; Gerhard ROTH

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated how snapping behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar prey is modified by reward omission and aversive conditioning in the fure-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.Toads were trained to snap at cricket images by rewarding them with live crickets.The task was learned,and the learning criterion (10 snapping responses within 2 minutes) was reached in all individuals investigated.Subsequent reward omission did not alter the frequency of snapping to the familiar cricket stimulus.Snapping decreased only in some individuals,when a mild foot shock was applied at snapping.However,at presentation of images of hitherto unfamiliar meal worms and foot-shock application at snapping to the stimulus,the majority of toads diminished snapping significantly.Snapping responses decreased more rapidly,when snapping at meal worms was not rewarded or a footshock was applied uncorrelated to the presentation of or snapping at meal worms.These results demonstrate that in toads familiarity and unfamiliarity of prey stimuli are important factors in aversive learning,because well-trained responses to familiar stimuli become immune against reward omission.Furthermore,at presentation of unfamiliar stimuli,omission of reward and uncorrelated footshock had a stronger aversive effect than correlated footshock [Current Zoology 57 (6):709-716,2011 ].

  2. Effects of dose and of partial body ionizing radiation on taste aversion learning in rats with lesions of the area postrema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of area postrema lesions on the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following partial body exposure to ionizing radiation was investigated in rats exposed to head-only irradiation at 100, 200 and 300 rad or to body-only irradiation at 100 and 200 rad. Following head-only irradiation area postrema lesions produced a significant attenuation of the radiation-induced taste aversion at all dose levels, although the rats still showed a significant reduction in sucrose preference. Following body-only exposure, area postrema lesions completely disrupted the acquisition of the conditioned taste aversion. The results are interpreted as indicating that: (a) the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following body-only exposure is mediated by the area postrema; and (b) taste aversion learning following radiation exposure to the head-only is mediated by both the area postrema and a mechanism which is independent of the area postrema

  3. A Window on the Study of Aversive Instrumental Learning: Strains, Performance, Neuroendocrine, and Immunologic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Caroline C.; Gouveia, Flávia V.; de Castro, Marina C.; Kuroki, Mayra A.; dos Santos, Lennon C. T.; Fonoff, Erich T.; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Otoch, José P.; Martinez, Raquel C. R.

    2016-01-01

    The avoidance response is present in pathological anxiety and interferes with normal daily functions. The aim of this article is to shed light on performance markers of active avoidance (AA) using two different rat strains, Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar. Specifically, good and poor performers were evaluated regarding anxiety traits exhibited in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and corticosterone levels and motor activity in the open field test. In addition, the plasma levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-1Beta (IL-1beta), Nerve Growth Factor Beta (NGF-beta), Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-alpha) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1) were compared in the good and poor performers to better understand the role of the immunologic system in aversive learning. Behavioral criteria were employed to identify subpopulations of SD and Wistar rats based on their behavioral scores during a two-way AA test. The animals were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and motor activity in the open-field test. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured at the end of the avoidance test. Cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-1beta, NGF-beta, TNF-alpha, and CINC-1 were measured in the plasma of the Wistar rats. Sixty-six percent of the Wistar rats and 35% of the SD rats exhibited a poor performance. This feature was associated with a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in the EPM. The poor and good performers exhibited lower levels of corticosterone compared with the control animals, which suggests that training alters corticosterone levels, thereby leading to hypocortisolism, independent of the performance. The CINC-1 levels were increased in the poor performers, which reinforces the role of immunologic system activation in learning deficits. Our study provides a better understanding of the complex interactions that underlie neuroimmune consequences and their implications for performance.

  4. Dictionary learning in visual computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed fast development on dictionary learning approaches for a set of visual computing tasks, largely due to their utilization in developing new techniques based on sparse representation. Compared with conventional techniques employing manually defined dictionaries, such as Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform, dictionary learning aims at obtaining a dictionary adaptively from the data so as to support optimal sparse representation of the data. In contrast to conventional clustering algorithms like K-means, where a data point is associated with only one cluster c

  5. Instructed knowledge shapes feedback-driven aversive learning in striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, but not the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Lauren Y; Doll, Bradley B; Li, Jian; Daw, Nathaniel D; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Socially-conveyed rules and instructions strongly shape expectations and emotions. Yet most neuroscientific studies of learning consider reinforcement history alone, irrespective of knowledge acquired through other means. We examined fear conditioning and reversal in humans to test whether instructed knowledge modulates the neural mechanisms of feedback-driven learning. One group was informed about contingencies and reversals. A second group learned only from reinforcement. We combined quantitative models with functional magnetic resonance imaging and found that instructions induced dissociations in the neural systems of aversive learning. Responses in striatum and orbitofrontal cortex updated with instructions and correlated with prefrontal responses to instructions. Amygdala responses were influenced by reinforcement similarly in both groups and did not update with instructions. Results extend work on instructed reward learning and reveal novel dissociations that have not been observed with punishments or rewards. Findings support theories of specialized threat-detection and may have implications for fear maintenance in anxiety. PMID:27171199

  6. Serotonin and dopamine in the parabrachial nucleus of rats during conditioned taste aversion learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zach, P.; Křivánek, Jiří; Valeš, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 2 (2006), s. 271-276. ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : taste aversion * microdialysis * parabrachial nucleus Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2006

  7. Learning by Doing, Risk Aversion and Use of Risk Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Uematsu, Hiroki; Ashok, Mishra K.

    2011-01-01

    Using a national survey, double hurdle models are estimated to examine the impact of farmers’ risk attitude on use of production and marketing contracts. Risk averse farmers are less likely to use contracts but risk attitude does not have any significant impact on the intensity at which contracts are adopted.

  8. Visualization Learning for Visually Impaired People

    OpenAIRE

    Salamin, Patrick; Thalmann, Daniel; Vexo,Frederic

    2007-01-01

    Virtual Environments (VE) are mainly visual experiments that exclude visually impaired people. In this paper we present an application that should allow almost everybody to ``see'' or at least to perceive 3D shapes. We will first describe the mandatory aspects of such an application, the tests we made and finally conclude by the results we obtained with geometrically basic shapes that are very promising.

  9. Visual Learning in Application of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt Shafie, Afza; Barnachea Janier, Josefina; Bt Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah

    Innovative use of technology can improve the way how Mathematics should be taught. It can enhance student's learning the concepts through visualization. Visualization in Mathematics refers to us of texts, pictures, graphs and animations to hold the attention of the learners in order to learn the concepts. This paper describes the use of a developed multimedia courseware as an effective tool for visual learning mathematics. The focus is on the application of integration which is a topic in Engineering Mathematics 2. The course is offered to the foundation students in the Universiti Teknologi of PETRONAS. Questionnaire has been distributed to get a feedback on the visual representation and students' attitudes towards using visual representation as a learning tool. The questionnaire consists of 3 sections: Courseware Design (Part A), courseware usability (Part B) and attitudes towards using the courseware (Part C). The results showed that students demonstrated the use of visual representation has benefited them in learning the topic.

  10. Food for song: expression of c-Fos and ZENK in the zebra finch song nuclei during food aversion learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Tokarev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether the song system forebrain regions are exclusively evolved for song or whether they also process information not related to song that might reflect their 'evolutionary history'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question we monitored the induction of two immediate-early genes (IEGs c-Fos and ZENK in various regions of the song system in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata in response to an aversive food learning paradigm; this involves the association of a food item with a noxious stimulus that affects the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and tongue, causing subsequent avoidance of that food item. The motor response results in beak and head movements but not vocalizations. IEGs have been extensively used to map neuro-molecular correlates of song motor production and auditory processing. As previously reported, neurons in two pallial vocal motor regions, HVC and RA, expressed IEGs after singing. Surprisingly, c-Fos was induced equivalently also after food aversion learning in the absence of singing. The density of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly higher than that of birds in control conditions. This was not the case in two other pallial song nuclei important for vocal plasticity, LMAN and Area X, although singing did induce IEGs in these structures, as reported previously. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with the possibility that some of the song nuclei may participate in non-vocal learning and the populations of neurons involved in the two tasks show partial overlap. These findings underscore the previously advanced notion that the specialized forebrain pre-motor nuclei controlling song evolved from circuits involved in behaviors related to feeding.

  11. Rapid taste-aversion learning by an isolated molluscan central nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, J. J.; Gelperin, A

    1980-01-01

    The isolated lips and nervous system of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus will produce some of the feeding behavior of the intact animal; i.e., they generate the rhythmic neural activity characteristic of ingestion in response to food extracts applied to the lips. This preparation will respond to a variety of food extracts that elicit feeding in the whole animal. This provides the opportunity for aversive conditioning experiments involving taste discrimination. Pairing lip chemostimulation b...

  12. How Infants Learn About the Visual World

    OpenAIRE

    Scott P Johnson

    2010-01-01

    The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning vi...

  13. Digital media Experiences for Visual Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2013-01-01

    Visual learning is a topic for didactic studies in all levels of educaion, brought about by an increasing use of digital meida- digital media give rise to discussions of how learning expereienes come about from various media ressources that generate new learning situations. new situations call for...... both possibilites of technology and the nature of the content it facilitates. the discussion comes in three parts: 1. the alteration of visual representations in contemporary teaching and learning brought about by digital interfaces, 2. the functions af visual experience in learning processes brought...... about by the nature of diverse digital artefacts, 3. the learning potentials in using mobils devices for integrating the body in visual perception processes....

  14. Advances in visual perceptual learning and plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Yuka; Nanez, Jose E.; Watanabe, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as a long-term improvement in performance on a visual task. In recent years, the idea that conscious effort is necessary for VPL to occur has been challenged by research suggesting the involvement of more implicit processing mechanisms, such as reinforcement-driven processing and consolidation. In addition, we have learnt much about the neural substrates of VPL and it has become evident that changes in visual areas and regions beyond the visual cort...

  15. Instructed knowledge shapes feedback-driven aversive learning in striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, but not the amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Lauren Y; Doll, Bradley B; Li, Jian; Daw, Nathaniel D; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Socially-conveyed rules and instructions strongly shape expectations and emotions. Yet most neuroscientific studies of learning consider reinforcement history alone, irrespective of knowledge acquired through other means. We examined fear conditioning and reversal in humans to test whether instructed knowledge modulates the neural mechanisms of feedback-driven learning. One group was informed about contingencies and reversals. A second group learned only from reinforcement. We combined quantitative models with functional magnetic resonance imaging and found that instructions induced dissociations in the neural systems of aversive learning. Responses in striatum and orbitofrontal cortex updated with instructions and correlated with prefrontal responses to instructions. Amygdala responses were influenced by reinforcement similarly in both groups and did not update with instructions. Results extend work on instructed reward learning and reveal novel dissociations that have not been observed with punishments or rewards. Findings support theories of specialized threat-detection and may have implications for fear maintenance in anxiety. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15192.001 PMID:27171199

  16. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Norman E. Spear

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion...

  17. Searching for learning-dependent changes in the antennal lobe: simultaneous recording of neural activity and aversive olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the honeybee brain has been studied using the appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, in which a bee learns the association between an odor and a sucrose reward. In this framework, coupling behavioral measurements of proboscis extension and invasive recordings of neural activity has been difficult because proboscis movements usually introduce brain movements that affect physiological preparations. Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which does not generate this problem. We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we distinguished learners and non-learners and analyzed possible learning-dependent changes in antennal lobe activity. We did not find differences between glomerular responses to the CS+ and the CS- in learners. Unexpectedly, we found that during conditioning trials non-learners exhibited a progressive decrease in physiological responses to odors, irrespective of their valence. This effect could neither be attributed to a fitness problem nor to abnormal dye bleaching. We discuss the absence of learning-induced changes in the antennal lobe of learners and the decrease in calcium responses found in non-learners. Further studies will have to extend the search for functional plasticity related to aversive learning to other brain areas and to look on a broader range of temporal scales

  18. Learning QlikView data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Pover, Karl

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to start developing charts from your data.Learning QlikView Data Visualization is for anybody interested in performing powerful data analysis and crafting insightful data visualization, independent of any previous knowledge of QlikView. Experience with spreadsheet software will help you understand QlikView functions.

  19. Visual discrimination learning under switching procedure in visually deprived cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that fine visual discrimination learning is severely impaired in cats binocularly deprived in the early period of life (BD cats) and also somewhat in control cats reared with open eyes in the limited laboratory environment (C cats) compared with cats reared in a normal rural environment (N cats). It was concluded that visual deprivation impairs perceptual learning. In the present study discriminative stimuli were dissimilar and so the task was perceptually easy, but using a switching procedure made it associatively difficult. In regular trials a gate with a grating pattern was positive and a blank gate negative, whereas in switching trials the meaning of the gates was reversed. The switching stimulus was intermittent light in some stages of training and intermittent tone in others. Learning was severely impaired in BD cats and somewhat in C cats and the deficit was similar under visual and auditory switching. Thus, early visual deprivation impairs associative learning. The impairment probably includes associations between switching stimulus and instrumental responses and configural associations between switching stimulus and discriminative stimuli. PMID:10212071

  20. Online Unsupervised Feature Learning for Visual Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fayao; Shen, Chunhua; Reid, Ian; Hengel, Anton van den

    2013-01-01

    Feature encoding with respect to an over-complete dictionary learned by unsupervised methods, followed by spatial pyramid pooling, and linear classification, has exhibited powerful strength in various vision applications. Here we propose to use the feature learning pipeline for visual tracking. Tracking is implemented using tracking-by-detection and the resulted framework is very simple yet effective. First, online dictionary learning is used to build a dictionary, which captures the appearan...

  1. Reflexive Learning through Visual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    methods are exemplified through two university classroom cases about collaborative idea generation processes. The visual methods and materials in the cases are photo elicitation using photo cards, and modeling with LEGO Serious Play sets. Why. The goal is to encourage the reader, whether student or...... professional, to facilitate with visual methods in a critical, reflective, and experimental way. The chapter offers recommendations for facilitating with visual methods to support playful, emergent designerly processes. The chapter also has a critical, situated perspective. Where. This chapter offers case...... vignettes that refer to design-oriented workshops where student groups generate ideas, such as for a campaign. The cases are set at Roskilde University. How. There are recommendations on how to facilitate workshops and develop your own practice as a reflexive facilitator. Some of the typical facilitation...

  2. Feature and Region Selection for Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ji; Wang, Liantao; Cabral, Ricardo; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Visual learning problems, such as object classification and action recognition, are typically approached using extensions of the popular bag-of-words (BoWs) model. Despite its great success, it is unclear what visual features the BoW model is learning. Which regions in the image or video are used to discriminate among classes? Which are the most discriminative visual words? Answering these questions is fundamental for understanding existing BoW models and inspiring better models for visual recognition. To answer these questions, this paper presents a method for feature selection and region selection in the visual BoW model. This allows for an intermediate visualization of the features and regions that are important for visual learning. The main idea is to assign latent weights to the features or regions, and jointly optimize these latent variables with the parameters of a classifier (e.g., support vector machine). There are four main benefits of our approach: 1) our approach accommodates non-linear additive kernels, such as the popular χ(2) and intersection kernel; 2) our approach is able to handle both regions in images and spatio-temporal regions in videos in a unified way; 3) the feature selection problem is convex, and both problems can be solved using a scalable reduced gradient method; and 4) we point out strong connections with multiple kernel learning and multiple instance learning approaches. Experimental results in the PASCAL VOC 2007, MSR Action Dataset II and YouTube illustrate the benefits of our approach. PMID:26742135

  3. Failure to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to static electric fields and air ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Forsythe, W.C.; Anderson, L.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Taste-aversion (TA) learning was measured to determine whether exposure to high-voltage direct current (HVdc) static electric fields can produce TA learning in male Long Evans rats. Fifty-six rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 14 rats each. All rats were placed on a 20 min/day drinking schedule for 12 consecutive days prior to receiving five conditioning trials. During the conditioning trials, access to 0.1% sodium saccharin-flavored water was given for 20 min, followed 30 min later by one of four treatments. Two groups of 14 rats each were individually exposed to static electric fields and air ions, one group to +75 kV/m (+2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}) and the other group to {minus}75 kV/m ({minus}2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}). Two other groups of 14 rats each served as sham-exposed controls, with the following variation in one of the sham-exposed groups: this group was subdivided into two subsets of seven rats each, so that a positive control group could be included to validate the experimental design. The positive control group (n = 7) was injected with cyclophosphamide 25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days, whereas the other subset of seven rats was similarly injected with an equivalent volume of saline. Access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days was followed by the treatments described above and was alternated daily with water recovery sessions in which the rats received access to water for 20 min in the home cage without further treatment. Following the last water-recovery session, a 20 min, two-bottle preference test (between water and saccharin-flavored water) was administered to each group. The positive control group did show TA learning, thus validating the experimental protocol.

  4. Juvenile hormone enhances aversive learning performance in 2-day old worker honey bees while reducing their attraction to queen mandibular pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees' attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP's effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

  5. Lessons Learned from Designing Visualization Dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Maria-Elena; Tory, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    A variety of visualization guidelines, principles, and techniques are available to help create a visualization-based dashboard, but few publications discuss the experience of designing dashboards in the real world. This article discuss the lessons learned from designing applications for small start-up companies and institutions. From their experience as visualization practitioners, the authors confirm the need for tailored and customizable approaches, emphasize the need for a quicker way to create functional prototypes, point out frequent misconceptions on the scope of a functional prototype, discuss how performance can affect prototyping, and discuss the resistance of industrial partners to involve their customers in requirements gathering. PMID:26960030

  6. Inertia in travel choice: The role of risk aversion and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Chorus, C.; Dellaert, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to literature by showing how travellers that make normatively rational choices exhibit inertia during a series of risky choices. Our analyses complement other studies that conceive inertia as the result of boundedly rational or even non-deliberate, habitual decision-making. We start by presenting a model of risky travel choice based on Bayesian Expected Utility maximization premises. We show how inertia emerges due to a learning-based lock-in effect: travellers learn ab...

  7. Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. Here we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects to...... modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence non-specific learning during...... walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 years, N = 20) could learn a specific sequence of...

  8. Using Visual Tools for Analysis and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Rob; Barlow, Nichola; Barker, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This pack is intended as a resource for lecturers and students to facilitate the further development of their learning and teaching strategies. Visual tools were initially introduced within a module of the Year 3 nursing curriculum within the University of Huddersfield by Dr Rob Burton. Throughout the period of 2007-2008 a small team of lecturers with a keen interest in this teaching and learning strategy engaged in exploring and reviewing the literature. They also attended a series of loc...

  9. Interactive learning of visual topological navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Filliat, David

    2008-01-01

    International audience We present a topological navigation system that is able to visually recognize the different rooms of an apartment and guide a robot between them. Specifically tailored for small entertainment robots, the system relies on vision only and learns its navigation capabilities incrementally by interacting with a user. This continuous learning strategy makes the system particularly adaptable to environmental lighting and structure modifications. From the computer vision poi...

  10. A Visual Detection Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Bettina L.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Trejo, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Our learning model has memory templates representing the target-plus-noise and noise-alone stimulus sets. The best correlating template determines the response. The correlations and the feedback participate in the additive template updating rule. The model can predict the relative thresholds for detection in random, fixed and twin noise.

  11. Learning Sorting Algorithms through Visualization Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed…

  12. Right Hemisphere Dominance in Visual Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, Jozsef; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed…

  13. Learning the way to blood: first evidence of dual olfactory conditioning in a blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus. II. Aversive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinauger, Clément; Buratti, Laura; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-09-15

    After having demonstrated that blood-sucking bugs are able to associate a behaviourally neutral odour (L-lactic acid) with positive reinforcement (i.e. appetitive conditioning) in the first part of this study, we tested whether these insects were also able to associate the same odour with a negative reinforcement (i.e. aversive conditioning). Learned aversion to host odours has been repeatedly suggested as a determinant for the distribution of disease vectors among host populations. Nevertheless, no experimental evidence has been obtained so far. Adapting a classical conditioning approach to our haematophagous model, we trained larvae of Rhodnius prolixus to associate L-lactic acid, an odour perceived by bugs but behaviourally neutral when presented alone, with a mechanical perturbation (i.e. negative reinforcement). Naive bugs and bugs exposed to CS, punishment, or CS and punishment without contingency remained indifferent to the presence of an air stream loaded with L-lactic acid (random orientation on a locomotion compensator), whereas the groups previously exposed to the contingency CS-punishment were significantly repelled by L-lactic acid. In a companion paper, the opposite, i.e. attraction, was induced in bugs exposed to the contingency of the same odour with a positive reinforcement. These constitute the first pieces of evidence of olfactory conditioning in triatomine bugs and the first demonstration that the same host odour can be used by insects that are disease vectors to learn to recognize either a host to feed on or a potentially defensive one. The orientation mechanism during repulsion is also discussed in light of our results. PMID:21865516

  14. Perceptual Learning in Children With Visual Impairment Improves Near Visual Acuity

    OpenAIRE

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.; van Rens, G. H M B; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four-to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children with visual impairment were divided into three groups: a magnifier group (n = 12), a crowded perceptual learning group (n = 18), and an uncrowded perceptual learning group (n = 15). Children with no...

  15. Visual and Verbal Learning in a Genetic Metabolic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilkin, Amy M.; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual and verbal learning in a genetic metabolic disorder (cystinosis) were examined in the following three studies. The goal of Study I was to provide a normative database and establish the reliability and validity of a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) that was modeled after a widely used test of…

  16. Visual and Verbal Learning in a Genetic Metabolic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Spilkin, Amy M.; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual and verbal learning in a genetic metabolic disorder (cystinosis) were examined in the following three studies. The goal of Study I was to provide a normative database and establish the reliability and validity of a new test of visual learning and memory (Visual Learning and Memory Test; VLMT) that was modeled after a widely used test of verbal learning and memory (California Verbal Learning Test; CVLT). One hundred seventy-two neurologically intact individuals ages 5 years through 50 y...

  17. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  18. Visual quality assessment by machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Long; Kuo, C -C Jay

    2015-01-01

    The book encompasses the state-of-the-art visual quality assessment (VQA) and learning based visual quality assessment (LB-VQA) by providing a comprehensive overview of the existing relevant methods. It delivers the readers the basic knowledge, systematic overview and new development of VQA. It also encompasses the preliminary knowledge of Machine Learning (ML) to VQA tasks and newly developed ML techniques for the purpose. Hence, firstly, it is particularly helpful to the beginner-readers (including research students) to enter into VQA field in general and LB-VQA one in particular. Secondly, new development in VQA and LB-VQA particularly are detailed in this book, which will give peer researchers and engineers new insights in VQA.

  19. Learning Visualization Strategies: A qualitative investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Daniel; Oh, Kyong Eun; Tremaine, Marilyn; Chiang, James; Bemis, Karen; Silver, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    The following study investigates the range of strategies individuals develop to infer and interpret cross-sections of three-dimensional objects. We focus on the identification of mental representations and problem-solving processes made by 11 individuals with the goal of building training applications that integrate the strategies developed by the participants in our study. Our results suggest that although spatial transformation and perspective-taking techniques are useful for visualizing cross-section problems, these visual processes are augmented by analytical thinking. Further, our study shows that participants employ general analytic strategies for extended periods which evolve through practice into a set of progressively more expert strategies. Theoretical implications are discussed and five main findings are recommended for integration into the design of education software that facilitates visual learning and comprehension.

  20. Learned image representations for visual recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Larsen, Rasmus; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of extracting image structures for representing images effectively in order to solve visual recognition tasks. Problems from diverse research areas (medical imaging, material science and food processing) have motivated large parts of the methodological development. The solutions are inspired by and extend state-of-the-art techniques for describing and learning image content.More specifically, the thesis explores two approaches to constructing image representa...

  1. Diversity Priors for Learning Early Visual Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanchen eXiong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how utilizing diversity priors can discover early visual features thatresemble their biological counterparts. The study is mainly motivated by the sparsity andselectivity of activations of visual neurons in area V1. Most previous work on computationalmodeling emphasizes selectivity or sparsity independently. However, we argue that selectivityand sparsity are just two epiphenomena of the diversity of receptive fields, which has been rarelyexploited in learning. In this paper, to verify our hypothesis, restricted Boltzmann machines(RBMs are employed to learn early visual features by modeling the statistics of natural images.Considering RBMs as neural networks, the receptive fields of neurons are formed by the inter-weights between hidden and visible nodes. Due to the conditional independence in RBMs, thereis no mechanism to coordinate the activations of individual neurons or the whole population.A diversity prior is introduced in this paper for training RBMs. We find that the diversity priorindeed can assure simultaneously sparsity and selectivity of neuron activations. The learnedreceptive fields yield a high degree of biological similarity in comparison to physiological data.Also, corresponding visual features display a good generative capability in image reconstruction.

  2. The relevance of visual information on learning sounds in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.M. ter Schure

    2016-01-01

    Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This dissertatio

  3. Learning without knowing: subliminal visual feedback facilitates ballistic motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    received supraliminal as compared to subliminal feedback. In the 0 ms feedback group motor performance increased only slightly indicating an important role of augmented feedback in learning the ballistic task. In the two groups who received subliminal feedback none of the subjects were able to tell what...... well- described phenomenon that we may respond to features of our surroundings without being aware of them. It is also a well-known principle, that learning is reinforced by augmented feedback on motor performance. In the present experiment we hypothesized that motor learning may be facilitated by...... subconscious (subliminal) augmented visual feedback on motor performance. To test this, 45 subjects participated in the experiment, which involved learning of a ballistic task. The task was to execute simple ankle plantar flexion movements as quickly as possible within 200 ms and to continuously improve...

  4. Specificity of auditory-guided visual perceptual learning suggests crossmodal plasticity in early visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Anton L.; Watanabe, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Sounds modulate visual perception. Blind humans show altered brain activity in early visual cortex. However, it is still unclear whether crossmodal activity in visual cortex results from unspecific top-down feedback, a lack of visual input, or genuinely reflects crossmodal interactions at early sensory levels. We examined how sounds affect visual perceptual learning in sighted adults. Visual motion discrimination was tested prior to and following eight sessions in which observers were exposed...

  5. Learning STEM Through Integrative Visual Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Satyugjit Singh

    Previous cognitive models of memory have not comprehensively taken into account the internal cognitive load of chunking isolated information and have emphasized the external cognitive load of visual presentation only. Under the Virk Long Term Working Memory Multimedia Model of cognitive load, drawing from the Cowan model, students presented with integrated animations of the key neural signal transmission subcomponents where the interrelationships between subcomponents are visually and verbally explicit, were hypothesized to perform significantly better on free response and diagram labeling questions, than students presented with isolated animations of these subcomponents. This is because the internal attentional cognitive load of chunking these concepts is greatly reduced and hence the overall cognitive load is less for the integrated visuals group than the isolated group, despite the higher external load for the integrated group of having the interrelationships between subcomponents presented explicitly. Experiment 1 demonstrated that integrating the subcomponents of the neuron significantly enhanced comprehension of the interconnections between cellular subcomponents and approached significance for enhancing comprehension of the layered molecular correlates of the cellular structures and their interconnections. Experiment 2 corrected time on task confounds from Experiment 1 and focused on the cellular subcomponents of the neuron only. Results from the free response essay subcomponent subscores did demonstrate significant differences in favor of the integrated group as well as some evidence from the diagram labeling section. Results from free response, short answer and What-If (problem solving), and diagram labeling detailed interrelationship subscores demonstrated the integrated group did indeed learn the extra material they were presented with. This data demonstrating the integrated group learned the extra material they were presented with provides some initial

  6. Learned image representations for visual recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This thesis addresses the problem of extracting image structures for representing images effectively in order to solve visual recognition tasks. Problems from diverse research areas (medical imaging, material science and food processing) have motivated large parts of the methodological development...... new image representation for texture-like patterns based on count statistics of second-order image structure. We demonstrate the discriminative capabilities of this representation on medical images and perform both cell classification and mitosis detection. Moreover, we develop an object....... The solutions are inspired by and extend state-of-the-art techniques for describing and learning image content. More specifically, the thesis explores two approaches to constructing image representations, namely feature engineering and feature learning. In the feature engineering approach, we devise a...

  7. Perceptual learning in children with visual impairment improves near visual acuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.; Rens, G. van; Cillessen, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS: Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children

  8. Perceptual Learning in Children With Visual Impairment Improves Near Visual Acuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F. Nienke; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four-to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children w

  9. Learning bimodal structure in audio-visual data

    OpenAIRE

    Monaci, Gianluca; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Sommer, Friederich T.

    2009-01-01

    A novel model is presented to learn bimodally informative structures from audio-visual signals. The signal is represented as a sparse sum of audio- visual kernels. Each kernel is a bimodal function consisting of synchronous snippets of an audio waveform and a spatio-temporal visual basis function. To represent an audio-visual signal, the kernels can be positioned independently and arbitrarily in space and time. The proposed algorithm uses unsupervised learning to form dicti...

  10. Benefits of Stimulus Congruency for Multisensory Facilitation of Visual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Robyn S Kim; Seitz, Aaron R.; Shams, Ladan

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies of perceptual learning have largely focused on unisensory stimuli. However, multisensory interactions are ubiquitous in perception, even at early processing stages, and thus can potentially play a role in learning. Here, we examine the effect of auditory-visual congruency on visual learning. Methodology/Principle Findings Subjects were trained over five days on a visual motion coherence detection task with either congruent audiovisual, or incongruent audiovisual stimuli. Co...

  11. Role of biomedical knowledge in learning visual diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Ledept, Annique; Boshuizen, Henny; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Vries, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Ledept, A., Boshuizen, H. P. A., Kirschner, P. A., & De Vries, H. (2012, August). Role of biomedical knowledge in learning visual diagnosis. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 14 'Learning and Professional Development', Antwerp, Belgium.

  12. Ambiguity aversion in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BenjaminHayden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available People generally prefer risky options, which have fully specified outcome probabilities, to ambiguous options, which have unspecified probabilities. This preference, formalized in economics, is strong enough that people will reliably prefer a risky option to an ambiguous option with a greater expected value. Explanations for ambiguity aversion often invoke uniquely human faculties like language, self-justification, or a desire to avoid public embarrassment. Challenging these ideas, here we demonstrate that a preference for unambiguous options is shared with rhesus macaques. We trained four monkeys to choose between pairs of options that both offered explicitly cued probabilities of large and small juice outcomes. We then introduced occasional trials where one of the options was obscured and examined their resulting preferences; we ran humans in a parallel experiment on a nearly identical task. We found that monkeys reliably preferred risky options to ambiguous ones, even when this bias was costly, closely matching the behavior of humans in the analogous task. Notably, ambiguity aversion varied parametrically with the extent of ambiguity. As expected, ambiguity aversion gradually declined as monkeys learned the underlying probability distribution of rewards. These data indicate that ambiguity aversion reflects fundamental cognitive biases shared with other animals rather than uniquely human factors guiding decisions.

  13. Dynamic visualizations in multimedia learning : The influence of verbal explanations on visual attention, cognitive load and learning outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Weigand, Florian

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to take a closer look at visual attention allocation, cognitive load and learning outcome in learning from dynamic visualizations with accompanying verbal explanations. Instructional design guidelines derived from cognitive theories of learning with multimedia commonly recommend presenting spoken rather than written text in order to promote learning. Based on the existing evidences for the superiority of spoken over written text presentation five empirical stud...

  14. Visual Learning: Creative Input for the Handicapped Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Linda

    A teacher of learning disabled secondary students discusses the role of visual learning in motivating students and increasing their communication skills. Application of visual methods in an American and British setting is seen to have resulted in gains in self concept, motivation toward school, and in comunication skills. (CL)

  15. Visual Spatial Skill: A Consequence of Learning to Read?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Zhou, Yanling; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers…

  16. Monterey Learning Systems: Improving Academic Achievement of Visually Impaired Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Kathryn M.

    1977-01-01

    Tested was the premise that the academic competencies of visually impaired learners could be enhanced by training procedures that combine auditory and visual skills in a project using the Monterey Learning Systems Reading and Mathematics Programs with 29 visually impaired print readers. (Author/MH)

  17. Visual illusions can facilitate sport skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Wulf, Gabriele; Maquestiaux, François

    2015-06-01

    Witt, Linkenauger, and Proffitt (Psychological Science, 23, 397-399, 2012) demonstrated that golf putting performance was enhanced when the hole was surrounded by small circles, making it look larger, relative to when it was surrounded by large circles, making it look smaller. In the present study, we examined whether practicing putting with small or large surrounding circles would have not only immediate effects on performance, but also longer-lasting effects on motor learning. Two groups of nongolfers practiced putting golf balls to a 10.4-cm circle ("hole") from a distance of 2 m. Small or large circles were projected around the hole during the practice phase. Perception of hole size was affected by the size of the surrounding circles. Also, self-efficacy was higher in the group with the perceived larger hole. One day after practice, participants performed the putting task, but without visual illusions (i.e., a retention test). Putting accuracy in retention was greater for the group that had practiced with the perceived larger hole. These findings suggest that the apparently larger target led to the more effective learning outcome. PMID:25316049

  18. The student with a visual disability and a learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, J N; Koenig, A J

    1997-01-01

    Existing studies indicate that between 14% and 65% of students with visual disabilities also have learning disabilities. The similar symptoms of the two conditions and the earlier identification of a visual disability often mask the presence of a learning disability. This article addresses definition, assessment, intervention, and future implications related to educational practices with students who have both learning and visual disabilities. The definitions of the two conditions are compared, emphasizing features that make identification difficult. The article examines common assessment procedures, describing approaches that are inappropriate for students who have low vision or blindness. Intervention approaches are described, including adaptations of the environment, enhancement of vision, instruction in compensatory skills, the use of learning strategies, and the availability of learning opportunities. Future directions include refinement of diagnostic approaches, and research related to the characteristics and instructional needs of students who have both visual and learning disabilities. PMID:9146097

  19. Prospective and Pavlovian mechanisms in aversive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Studying aversive behaviour is critical for understanding negative emotions and associated psychopathologies. However a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms underlying aversion is lacking, with associative learning theories focusing on Pavlovian reactions and decision-making theoretic approaches on prospective functions. We propose a computational model of aversion that combines goal-directed and Pavlovian forms of control into a unifying framework in which their relative importance is regulated by factors such as threat distance and controllability. Using simulations, we test whether the model can reproduce available empirical findings and discuss its relevance to understanding factors underlying negative emotions such as fear and anxiety. Furthermore, the specific method used to construct the model permits a natural mapping from its components to brain structure and function. Our model provides a basis for a unifying account of aversion that can guide empirical and interventional study contexts. PMID:26539969

  20. Changing viewer perspectives reveals constraints to implicit visual statistical learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical learning—learning environmental regularities to guide behavior—likely plays an important role in natural human behavior. One potential use is in search for valuable items. Because visual statistical learning can be acquired quickly and without intention or awareness, it could optimize search and thereby conserve energy. For this to be true, however, visual statistical learning needs to be viewpoint invariant, facilitating search even when people walk around. To test whether implic...

  1. Colouring the Gaps in Learning Design: Aesthetics and the Visual in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Fiona; Kop, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The visual is a dominant mode of information retrieval and understanding however, the focus on the visual dimension of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is still quite weak in relation to its predominant focus on usability. To accommodate the future needs of the visual learner, designers of e-learning environments should advance the current…

  2. Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Seirafi, Mehrdad; De Weerd, Peter; Pegna, Alan J.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit ...

  3. Does Conspecific Fighting Yield Conditioned Taste Aversion in Rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sadahiko; Kumazawa, Gaku; Ieki, Hayato; Hashimoto, Aya

    2012-01-01

    Running in an activity wheel yields conditioned aversion to a taste solution consumed before the running, but its underlying physiological mechanism is unknown. According to the claim that energy expenditure or general stress caused by physical exercise is a critical factor for this taste-aversion learning, not only running but also other…

  4. Concrete and abstract visualizations in history learning tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, Maaike; Van Boxtel, Carla; Kanselaar, Gellof; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Prangsma, M. E., Van Boxtel, C. A. M., Kanselaar, G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Concrete and abstract visualizations in history learning tasks. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 371-387.

  5. Images in Language: Metaphors and Metamorphoses. Visual Learning. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Andras, Ed.; Nyiri, Kristof, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Learning and teaching are faced with radically new challenges in today's rapidly changing world and its deeply transformed communicational environment. We are living in an era of images. Contemporary visual technology--film, video, interactive digital media--is promoting but also demanding a new approach to education: the age of visual learning…

  6. Visual teaching and learning in the fields of engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyvete S. Shatri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Engineering education today is faced with numerous demands that are closely connected with a globalized economy. One of these requirements is to draw the engineers of the future, who are characterized with: strong analytical skills, creativity, ingenuity, professionalism, intercultural communication and leadership. To achieve this effective teaching methods should be used to facilitate and enhance the learning of students and their performance in general, making them able to cope with market demands of a globalized economy. One of these methods is the visualization as a very important method that increases the learning of students. A visual approach in science and in engineering also increases communication, critical thinking and provides analytical approach to various problems. Therefore, this research is aimed to investigate the effect of the use of visualization in the process of teaching and learning in engineering fields and encourage teachers and students to use visual methods for teaching and learning. The results of this research highlight the positive effect that the use of visualization has in the learning process of students and their overall performance. In addition, innovative teaching methods have a good effect in the improvement of the situation. Visualization motivates students to learn, making them more cooperative and developing their communication skills.

  7. Tool-Based Curricula and Visual Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Vasileska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years nanotechnology hasrevolutionized the world of information theory, computers andother important disciplines, such as medicine, where it hascontributed significantly in the creation of more sophisticateddiagnostic tools. Therefore, it is important for people working innanotechnology to better understand basic concepts to be morecreative and productive. To further foster the progress onNanotechnology in the USA, the National Science Foundation hascreated the Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCNand the dissemination of all the information from member andnon-member participants of the NCN is enabled by thecommunity website www.nanoHUB.org. nanoHUB’s signatureservices online simulation that enables the operation ofsophisticated research and educational simulation engines with acommon browser. No software installation or local computingpower is needed. The simulation tools as well as nano-conceptsare augmented by educational materials, assignments, and toolbasedcurricula, which are assemblies of tools that help studentsexcel in a particular area.As elaborated later in the text, it is the visual mode of learningthat we are exploiting in achieving faster and better results withstudents that go through simulation tool-based curricula. Thereare several tool based curricula already developed on thenanoHUB and undergoing further development, out of which fiveare directly related to nanoelectronics. They are: ABACUS –device simulation module; ACUTE – Computational Electronicsmodule; ANTSY – bending toolkit; and AQME – quantummechanics module. The methodology behind tool-based curriculais discussed in details. Then, the current status of each module ispresented, including user statistics and student learningindicatives. Particular simulation tool is explored further todemonstrate the ease by which students can grasp information.Representative of Abacus is PN-Junction Lab; representative ofAQME is PCPBT tool; and

  8. Learning of Grammar-Like Visual Sequences by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jessica M.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. Method: In Study 1,…

  9. Visual Supports for the Learning Disabled: A Handbook for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Leighan

    2013-01-01

    A large percent of the population is affected by learning disabilities, which significantly impacts individuals and families. Much research has been done to identify effective ways to best help the students with learning disabilities. One of the more promising strategies is the use of visual supports to enhance these students' understanding…

  10. Asymmetrical learning between a tactile and visual serial RT task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Lubbe, van der Rob H.J.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2007-01-01

    According to many researchers, implicit learning in the serial reaction-time task is predominantly motor based and therefore should be independent of stimulus modality. Previous research on the task, however, has focused almost completely on the visual domain. Here we investigated sequence learning

  11. Visual Transfer Learning: Informal Introduction and Literature Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rodner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Transfer learning techniques are important to handle small training sets and to allow for quick generalization even from only a few examples. The following paper is the introduction as well as the literature overview part of my thesis related to the topic of transfer learning for visual recognition problems.

  12. Perceptual Learning and Dynamic Changes in Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Carmel, David; Carrasco, Marisa

    2008-01-01

    Perceptual learning is the improved performance that follows practice in a perceptual task. In this issue of Neuron, Yotsumoto et al. use fMRI to show that stimuli presented at the location used in training initially evoke greater activation in primary visual cortex than stimuli presented elsewhere, but this difference disappears once learning asymptotes.

  13. The Contribution of Visualization to Learning Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkel, Cecile; Ben-Ari, Mordechai; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a visualization environment and associated learning activities designed to improve learning of computer architecture. The environment, EasyCPU, displays a model of the components of a computer and the dynamic processes involved in program execution. We present the results of a research program that analysed the contribution of…

  14. Towards a visual Educational Modeling Language for effective learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaandacirc; Retbi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Educational Modeling Languages (EMLs are design languages intended to teachers for modeling any educational unit, independently of the pedagogical approach, context, users or resources employed. However, most existing educational modeling languages are criticized for being too abstract and too complex to be understood and manipulated by teachers. In this paper, we present a visual EML that simplifies the process of authoring learning scenarios for teachers with no programming background. Based on the conceptual framework of the activity theory, our resulting visual EML uses an explicit flow representation to design adaptive sequencing within learning activities, especially for effective learning purposes.

  15. Handwriting generates variable visual output to facilitate symbol learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X; James, Karin H

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26726913

  16. Closed-Loop Learning of Visual Control Policies

    CERN Document Server

    Jodogne, S R; 10.1613/jair.2110

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a general, flexible framework for learning mappings from images to actions by interacting with the environment. The basic idea is to introduce a feature-based image classifier in front of a reinforcement learning algorithm. The classifier partitions the visual space according to the presence or absence of few highly informative local descriptors that are incrementally selected in a sequence of attempts to remove perceptual aliasing. We also address the problem of fighting overfitting in such a greedy algorithm. Finally, we show how high-level visual features can be generated when the power of local descriptors is insufficient for completely disambiguating the aliased states. This is done by building a hierarchy of composite features that consist of recursive spatial combinations of visual features. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithms by solving three visual navigation tasks and a visual version of the classical Car on the Hill control problem.

  17. Instructive signals for motor learning from visual cortical area MT

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Megan R; Medina, Javier F.; Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2005-01-01

    Sensory error signals have long been proposed to act as instructive signals to guide motor learning. Here we have exploited the temporal specificity of learning in smooth pursuit eye movements and the well-defined anatomical structure of the neural circuit for pursuit to identify a part of sensory cortex that provides instructive signals for motor learning in monkeys. We show that electrical microstimulation in the motion-sensitive middle temporal area (MT) of extrastriate visual cortex instr...

  18. Food for Song: Expression of C-Fos and ZENK in the Zebra Finch Song Nuclei during Food Aversion Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tokarev, Kirill; Tiunova, Anna; Scharff, Constance; Anokhin, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Background Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether the song system forebrain regions are exclusively evolved for song or whether they also process information not related to song that might reflect their ‘evolutionary history’. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this question we...

  19. The Experiential Learning Cycle in Visual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsoy, Aysu; Özad, Bahire Efe

    2004-01-01

    Experiential Learning Cycle has been applied to the Layout and Graphics Design in Computer Course provided by the Faculty of Communication and Media Studies to the students studying at the Public Relations and Advertising Department. It is hoped that by applying the Experiential Learning Cycle, the creativity and problem solving strategies of the…

  20. Reception of Aversive Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunceford, Blair E; Kubanek, Julia

    2015-09-01

    Many organisms encounter noxious or unpalatable compounds in their diets. Thus, a robust reception-system for aversive taste is necessary for an individual's survival; however, mechanisms for perceiving aversive taste vary among organisms. Possession of a system sensitive to aversive taste allows for recognition of a vast array of noxious molecules via membrane-bound receptors, co-receptors, and ion channels. These receptor-ligand interactions trigger signal transduction pathways resulting in activation of nerves and in neural processing, which in turn dictates behavior, including rejection of the noxious item. The impacts of these molecular processes on behavior differ among species, and these differences have impacts at the ecosystem level by driving feeding-behavior, organization of communities, and ultimately, speciation. For example, when comparing mammalian carnivores and herbivores, it is not surprising that herbivores that encounter a variety of toxic plants in their diets express a larger number of aversive taste receptors than carnivores. Comparing the molecular mechanisms and ecological consequences of aversive-taste reception among organisms in a variety of types of ecosystems and ecological niches will illuminate the role of taste in ecology and evolution. PMID:26025470

  1. Multisensory training can promote or impede visual perceptual learning of speech stimuli: visual-tactile vs. visual-auditory training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Auer Jr., Edward T.; Bernstein, Lynne E.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of studies we have been investigating how multisensory training affects unisensory perceptual learning with speech stimuli. Previously, we reported that audiovisual (AV) training with speech stimuli can promote auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in normal-hearing adults but can impede learning in congenitally deaf adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Here, impeder and promoter effects were sought in normal-hearing adults who participated in lipreading training. In Experiment 1, visual-only (VO) training on paired associations between CVCVC nonsense word videos and nonsense pictures demonstrated that VO words could be learned to a high level of accuracy even by poor lipreaders. In Experiment 2, visual-auditory (VA) training in the same paradigm but with the addition of synchronous vocoded acoustic speech impeded VO learning of the stimuli in the paired-associates paradigm. In Experiment 3, the vocoded AO stimuli were shown to be less informative than the VO speech. Experiment 4 combined vibrotactile speech stimuli with the visual stimuli during training. Vibrotactile stimuli were shown to promote visual perceptual learning. In Experiment 5, no-training controls were used to show that training with visual speech carried over to consonant identification of untrained CVCVC stimuli but not to lipreading words in sentences. Across this and previous studies, multisensory training effects depended on the functional relationship between pathways engaged during training. Two principles are proposed to account for stimulus effects: (1) Stimuli presented to the trainee’s primary perceptual pathway will impede learning by a lower-rank pathway. (2) Stimuli presented to the trainee’s lower rank perceptual pathway will promote learning by a higher-rank pathway. The mechanisms supporting these principles are discussed in light of multisensory reverse hierarchy theory (RHT). PMID:25400566

  2. Rule-Based Learning Explains Visual Perceptual Learning and Its Specificity and Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jun-Yun; Zhang, Gong-Liang; Xiao, Lu-Qi; Klein, Stanley A.; Levi, Dennis M.; Yu, Cong

    2010-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning models, as constrained by orientation and location specificities, propose that learning either reflects changes in V1 neuronal tuning or reweighting specific V1 inputs in either the visual cortex or higher areas. Here we demonstrate that, with a training-plus-exposure procedure, in which observers are trained at one orientation and either simultaneously or subsequently passively exposed to a second transfer orientation, perceptual learning can completely transfer to...

  3. Visual Descriptor Learning for Predicting Grasping Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang

    2016-01-01

    feature space consisting of surface features was performed. Dimensions in the visual space were varied and the effects were evaluated with the task of grasping unknown object. The evaluation was performed using a novel probabilistic grasp prediction approach based on neighbourhood analysis. The resulting...... success-rates for predicting grasps were between 75% and 90% depending on the object class. The investigations also provided insights into the importance of selecting a proper visual feature space when utilising it for predicting affordances. As a consequence of the gained insights, a semi-local surface...... for creating a hierarchical representation of visual surface descriptors in SE(3). The mechanism provides a generic way of creating a hierarchical representation of N layers using pairs of descriptors. The created hierarchies were evaluated on the task of grasping unknown objects and the resulting...

  4. Preschoolers' Learning of Brand Names from Visual Cues.

    OpenAIRE

    Macklin, M Carole

    1996-01-01

    This research addresses the question of how perceptual cues affect preschoolers' learning of brand names. It is found that when visual cues are provided in addition to brand names that are prior-associated in children's memory structures, children better remember the brand names. Although two cues (a picture and a color) improve memory over the imposition of a single cue, extensive visual cues may overtax young children's processing abilities. The study contributes to our understanding of how...

  5. Visually weighted neighbor voting for image tag relevance learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Silhyoung; De Neve, Wesley; Man Ro, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The presence of non-relevant tags in image folksonomies hampers the effective organization and retrieval of user-contributed images. In this paper, we propose to learn the relevance of user-supplied tags by means of visually weighted neighbor voting, a variant of the popular baseline neighbor voting algorithm proposed by Li et al. (IEEE Trans Multimedia 11(7):1310-1322, 2009). To gain insight into the effectiveness of baseline and visually weighted neighbor voting, we qualitatively analyze th...

  6. Visual and Spatial Modes in Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys some major trends from research on visual and spatial thinking coming from cognitive science, developmental psychology, science literacy, and science studies. It explores the role of visualisation in creativity, in building mental models, and in the communication of scientific ideas, in order to place these findings in the…

  7. Dynamic functional brain networks involved in simple visual discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida María; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge Luis

    2014-10-01

    Visual discrimination tasks have been widely used to evaluate many types of learning and memory processes. However, little is known about the brain regions involved at different stages of visual discrimination learning. We used cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry to evaluate changes in regional brain oxidative metabolism during visual discrimination learning in a water-T maze at different time points during training. As compared with control groups, the results of the present study reveal the gradual activation of cortical (prefrontal and temporal cortices) and subcortical brain regions (including the striatum and the hippocampus) associated to the mastery of a simple visual discrimination task. On the other hand, the brain regions involved and their functional interactions changed progressively over days of training. Regions associated with novelty, emotion, visuo-spatial orientation and motor aspects of the behavioral task seem to be relevant during the earlier phase of training, whereas a brain network comprising the prefrontal cortex was found along the whole learning process. This study highlights the relevance of functional interactions among brain regions to investigate learning and memory processes. PMID:24937013

  8. Deep Multimodal Learning for Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mroueh, Youssef; Marcheret, Etienne; Goel, Vaibhava

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present methods in deep multimodal learning for fusing speech and visual modalities for Audio-Visual Automatic Speech Recognition (AV-ASR). First, we study an approach where uni-modal deep networks are trained separately and their final hidden layers fused to obtain a joint feature space in which another deep network is built. While the audio network alone achieves a phone error rate (PER) of $41\\%$ under clean condition on the IBM large vocabulary audio-visual studio datase...

  9. Cognitive learning: new media to visualize human anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Soliz, E; Sinav, A; Ambron, R; Molholt, P.

    2000-01-01

    The knowledge of anatomy is essential for all health care professionals. However, it has become extremely difficult to find qualified instructors who can fit into an academic environment that stresses research funding and publications for promotion. In addition, dissection, which is the best way to learn anatomy, is expensive, labor intensive and time consuming. We are developing electronic visualization media to augment the teaching and learning of human anatomy. We are creating programs tha...

  10. Visualizing learner activities with a virtual learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rodil, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents how to gain insights into children’s navigation of an interactive virtual learning environment and how that would benefit their educators. A prototype for logging user information as quantifiable data has been developed and deployed in an in-situ evaluation of the system. The...... system collects a hidden corpus of data, which is visualized in order to assess if and how the interaction with the system reflects on the learning gains of the individual learners....

  11. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  12. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  13. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-08-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the visual (area V1) and frontal cortex (area FEF) of monkeys. We devised a new icon-selection task. On each day, the monkeys saw 2 new icons (small pictures) and learned which one was relevant. We rewarded eye movements to a saccade target connected to the relevant icon with a curve. Neurons in visual and frontal cortex coded the monkey's choice, because the representation of the selected curve was enhanced. Learning delayed the neuronal selection signals and we uncovered the cause of this delay in V1, where learning to select the relevant icon caused an early suppression of surrounding image elements. These results demonstrate that the learning of a new rule causes a transition from fast and random decisions to a more considerate strategy that takes additional time and they reveal the contribution of visual and frontal cortex to the learning process. PMID:27269960

  14. Speech Analysis and Visual Image: Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Alfred; Chung, C. W.; Lam, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Students will speak a second language with an accent if they learn the language after the age of six. It does not matter how motivated and clever they are, the accent will not go away. Only a few gifted students can speak a second language flawlessly. The exact reasons for this phenomenon are unknown. Although a large number of hypotheses have…

  15. Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Kit Wan Kwok

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter and longer (7-letter nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (‘literacy’. Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words.

  16. Appetitive vs. Aversive conditioning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US), which might be pain (aversive conditioning) or food (appetitive conditioning). After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction) is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+) predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock), another shape (appCS+) predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants' preference), and a third shape (CS-) predicted neither US. In a extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW) were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR) responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry) humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning. PMID:26042011

  17. Appetitive vs. Aversive Conditioning in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eAndreatta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US, which might be pain (aversive conditioning or food (appetitive conditioning. After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 am and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+ predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock, another shape (appCS+ predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants’ preference, and a third shape (CS- predicted neither US. In an extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning

  18. Learning Analytics in the LMS: Using Browser Extensions to Embed Visualizations into a Learning Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Leony, Derick; Pardo Sánchez, Abelardo; Fuente Valentín, Luis de la; Quiñones, Iago; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The use of analytics has gained a relevant level of impor- tance in current learning environments. Due to its life-cycle of observa- tion, analysis and intervention, it is important to make learning analytics available to all the participants of a learning process. A Learning Man- agement System (LMS) is a very suitable platform to present results in the form of visualizations, but the development of custom modules usu- ally requires programming and administrative work. This paper presents a ...

  19. Bumblebee visual search for multiple learned target types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek; Pattrick, Jonathan G

    2013-11-15

    Visual search is well studied in human psychology, but we know comparatively little about similar capacities in non-human animals. It is sometimes assumed that animal visual search is restricted to a single target at a time. In bees, for example, this limitation has been evoked to explain flower constancy, the tendency of bees to specialise on a single flower type. Few studies, however, have investigated bee visual search for multiple target types after extended learning and controlling for prior visual experience. We trained colour-naive bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) extensively in separate discrimination tasks to recognise two rewarding colours in interspersed block training sessions. We then tested them with the two colours simultaneously in the presence of distracting colours to examine whether and how quickly they were able to switch between the target colours. We found that bees switched between visual targets quickly and often. The median time taken to switch between targets was shorter than known estimates of how long traces last in bees' working memory, suggesting that their capacity to recall more than one learned target was not restricted by working memory limitations. Following our results, we propose a model of memory and learning that integrates our findings with those of previous studies investigating flower constancy. PMID:23948481

  20. Perceptual learning modifies the functional specializations of visual cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nihong; Cai, Peng; Zhou, Tiangang; Thompson, Benjamin; Fang, Fang

    2016-05-17

    Training can improve performance of perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, is strongest for the trained task and stimulus, leading to a widely accepted assumption that the associated neuronal plasticity is restricted to brain circuits that mediate performance of the trained task. Nevertheless, learning does transfer to other tasks and stimuli, implying the presence of more widespread plasticity. Here, we trained human subjects to discriminate the direction of coherent motion stimuli. The behavioral learning effect substantially transferred to noisy motion stimuli. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the transfer of learning. The TMS experiment revealed dissociable, causal contributions of V3A (one of the visual areas in the extrastriate visual cortex) and MT+ (middle temporal/medial superior temporal cortex) to coherent and noisy motion processing. Surprisingly, the contribution of MT+ to noisy motion processing was replaced by V3A after perceptual training. The fMRI experiment complemented and corroborated the TMS finding. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that, before training, among visual cortical areas, coherent and noisy motion was decoded most accurately in V3A and MT+, respectively. After training, both kinds of motion were decoded most accurately in V3A. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of perceptual learning extend far beyond the retuning of specific neural populations for the trained stimuli. Learning could dramatically modify the inherent functional specializations of visual cortical areas and dynamically reweight their contributions to perceptual decisions based on their representational qualities. These neural changes might serve as the neural substrate for the transfer of perceptual learning. PMID:27051066

  1. Visual Speech Perception in Children with Language Learning Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Evans, Sam; Snell, Caroline; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the ability of children with developmental language learning impairments (LLIs) to use visual speech cues from the talking face. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 41 typically developing children (mean age: 8 years 0 months, range: 4 years 5 months to 11 years 10 months) and 27 children with…

  2. Customizability of visualizations in web-based learning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Francisco Javier; Steinmetz, Ralf; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2000-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the usability and customizability issues of interactive animations and simulations in web-based learning systems. The approach presented here extended our component-based architecture to build up interactive multimedia visualization units by the use of metadata.

  3. Multiple Learning Strategies Project. Medical Assistant. Visually Impaired. [Vol. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Beverly; And Others

    This instructional package, one of two designed for visually impaired students, focuses on the vocational area of medical assistant. Contained in this document are thirty-five learning modules organized into nine units: telephoning; medications and treatments; review for competency; third-party billing; skill building; bookkeeping; interpersonal…

  4. Can Visual Illusions Be Used to Facilitate Sport Skill Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Meer, Yor; Moerman, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that practicing putting with visual illusions that make the hole appear larger than it actually is leads to longer-lasting performance improvements. Interestingly, from a motor control and learning perspective, it may be possible to actually predict the opposite to occur, as facing a smaller appearing target should enforce performers to be more precise. To test this idea the authors invited participants to practice an aiming task (i.e., a marble-shooting task) with either a visual illusion that made the target appear larger or a visual illusion that made the target appear smaller. They applied a pre-post test design, included a control group training without any illusory effects and increased the amount of practice to 450 trials. In contrast to earlier reports, the results revealed that the group that trained with the visual illusion that made the target look smaller improved performance from pre- to posttest, whereas the group practicing with visual illusions that made the target appear larger did not show any improvements. Notably, also the control group improved from pre- to posttest. The authors conclude that more research is needed to improve our understanding of whether and how visual illusions may be useful training tools for sport skill learning. PMID:27254078

  5. Online multiple kernel similarity learning for visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hao; Hoi, Steven C H; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Peilin

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed a number of studies on distance metric learning to improve visual similarity search in content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Despite their successes, most existing methods on distance metric learning are limited in two aspects. First, they usually assume the target proximity function follows the family of Mahalanobis distances, which limits their capacity of measuring similarity of complex patterns in real applications. Second, they often cannot effectively handle the similarity measure of multimodal data that may originate from multiple resources. To overcome these limitations, this paper investigates an online kernel similarity learning framework for learning kernel-based proximity functions which goes beyond the conventional linear distance metric learning approaches. Based on the framework, we propose a novel online multiple kernel similarity (OMKS) learning method which learns a flexible nonlinear proximity function with multiple kernels to improve visual similarity search in CBIR. We evaluate the proposed technique for CBIR on a variety of image data sets in which encouraging results show that OMKS outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques significantly. PMID:24457509

  6. Visual acuity and visual skills in Malaysian children with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaliha MN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohd-Nor Muzaliha,1 Buang Nurhamiza,1 Adil Hussein,1 Abdul-Rani Norabibas,1 Jaafar Mohd-Hisham-Basrun,1 Abdullah Sarimah,2 Seo-Wei Leo,3 Ismail Shatriah11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Biostatistics and Research Methodology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia; 3Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, SingaporeBackground: There is limited data in the literature concerning the visual status and skills in children with learning disabilities, particularly within the Asian population. This study is aimed to determine visual acuity and visual skills in children with learning disabilities in primary schools within the suburban Kota Bharu district in Malaysia.Methods: We examined 1010 children with learning disabilities aged between 8–12 years from 40 primary schools in the Kota Bharu district, Malaysia from January 2009 to March 2010. These children were identified based on their performance in a screening test known as the Early Intervention Class for Reading and Writing Screening Test conducted by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia. Complete ocular examinations and visual skills assessment included near point of convergence, amplitude of accommodation, accommodative facility, convergence break and recovery, divergence break and recovery, and developmental eye movement tests for all subjects.Results: A total of 4.8% of students had visual acuity worse than 6/12 (20/40, 14.0% had convergence insufficiency, 28.3% displayed poor accommodative amplitude, and 26.0% showed signs of accommodative infacility. A total of 12.1% of the students had poor convergence break, 45.7% displayed poor convergence recovery, 37.4% showed poor divergence break, and 66.3% were noted to have poor divergence recovery. The mean horizontal developmental eye movement was significantly prolonged.Conclusion: Although their visual acuity was satisfactory, nearly 30% of the

  7. Visual Complexity in Orthographic Learning: Modeling Learning across Writing System Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Yun; Plaut, David C.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    The visual complexity of orthographies varies across writing systems. Prior research has shown that complexity strongly influences the initial stage of reading development: the perceptual learning of grapheme forms. This study presents a computational simulation that examines the degree to which visual complexity leads to grapheme learning…

  8. Perceptual Learning Increases The Strength of The Earliest Signals in Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Min; Yang, Lin; Rios, Cristina; He, Bin; Engel, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Training improves performance on most visual tasks. Such perceptual learning can modify how information is read out from, and represented in, later visual areas, but effects on early visual cortex are controversial. In particular, it remains unknown whether learning can reshape neural response properties in early visual areas independent from feedback arising in later cortical areas. Here, we tested whether learning can modify feed-forward signals in early visual cortex as measured by the hum...

  9. Repetitive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induced Excitability Changes of Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Learning Effects—A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Beckhaus, Katharina; Dinse, Hubert R.; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Studies on noninvasive motor cortex stimulation and motor learning demonstrated cortical excitability as a marker for a learning effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool to modulate cortical excitability. It is as yet unknown how tDCS-induced excitability changes and perceptual learning in visual cortex correlate. Our study aimed to examine the influence of tDCS on visual perceptual learning in healthy humans. Additionally, we measured excitability in prim...

  10. A Framework for Contextualized Visualization supporting Informal Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eicke Godehardt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the information society today is that knowledge workers are overwhelmed by the amount of information they get. This creates the need of a filter: the possibility to find relevant information in an easy and systematic way. In fact, working at a knowledge intensive workplace and retrieving information is a kind of learning – informal learning – which takes place at daily work. This type of learning includes reading documents and digital snippets, asking questions and searching for the help of other colleagues. This paper investigates how people at knowledge intensive workplaces can be supported through a graphical integration of existing information in a contextualized way to fulfill their given work task. We present research on software that visualizes the information of knowledge workers, tasks, digital resources, people and the relations between them. In addition state context information is taken to enrich the output to provide an intuitive and appropriate tool for knowledge workers. We will show all the necessary steps to offer these contextualized information in a supporting visualization. To verify the usefulness of our approach, we did a quantitative and qualitative user study to see if contextualized information visualization is helpful to knowledge workers for a specific scenario. Therefore we analyzed how beginners or new employees may benefit from such a tool. The results clearly show the advantages of our solution. Contextualized visualization substantially boosts efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge workers, because of time savings and avoidance of failures.

  11. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input. PMID:27079969

  12. Effects of Computer-Based Visual Representation on Mathematics Learning and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Hsin I.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Visual representation has been recognized as a powerful learning tool in many learning domains. Based on the assumption that visual representations can support deeper understanding, we examined the effects of visual representations on learning performance and cognitive load in the domain of mathematics. An experimental condition with visual…

  13. Learning by E-Learning for Visually Impaired Students: Opportunities or Again Marginalisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharade, Kalpana; Peese, Hema

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, e-learning has become a valuable tool for an increasing number of visually impaired (VI) learners. The benefits of this technology include: (1) remote learning for VI students; (2) the possibility for teachers living far from schools or universities to provide remote instructional assistance to VI students; and (3) continuing…

  14. Interactive Visualization Tools to Improve Learning and Teaching in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosa, Kirsi; Distante, Damiano; Tervakari, Anne; Cerulo, Luigi; Fernández, Alejandro; Koro, Juho; Kailanto, Meri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents two interactive visualization tools for learning management systems (LMS) in order to improve learning and teaching in online courses. The first tool was developed at the Intelligent Information Systems Laboratory (IISLab) at the Tampere University of Technology (TUT). The tool is used to analyse students' activity from…

  15. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  16. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  17. Reinforcement learning for dpm of embedded visual sensor nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a RL (Reinforcement Learning) based DPM (Dynamic Power Management) technique to learn time out policies during a visual sensor node's operation which has multiple power/performance states. As opposed to the widely used static time out policies, our proposed DPM policy which is also referred to as OLTP (Online Learning of Time out Policies), learns to dynamically change the time out decisions in the different node states including the non-operational states. The selection of time out values in different power/performance states of a visual sensing platform is based on the workload estimates derived from a ML-ANN (Multi-Layer Artificial Neural Network) and an objective function given by weighted performance and power parameters. The DPM approach is also able to dynamically adjust the power-performance weights online to satisfy a given constraint of either power consumption or performance. Results show that the proposed learning algorithm explores the power-performance tradeoff with non-stationary workload and outperforms other DPM policies. It also performs the online adjustment of the tradeoff parameters in order to meet a user-specified constraint. (author)

  18. 3D Visualization of Machine Learning Algorithms with Astronomical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    We present innovative machine learning (ML) methods using unsupervised clustering with minimum spanning trees (MSTs) to study 3D astronomical catalogs. Utilizing Python code to build trees based on galaxy catalogs, we can render the results with the visualization suite Blender to produce interactive 360 degree panoramic videos. The catalogs and their ML results can be explored in a 3D space using mobile devices, tablets or desktop browsers. We compare the statistics of the MST results to a number of machine learning methods relating to optimization and efficiency.

  19. Configural learning in contextual cuing of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Tom; Vadillo, Miguel A; Pearson, Daniel; Shanks, David R

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the role of configural representations in contextual cuing of visual search. Repeating patterns of distractors (contexts) were trained incidentally as predictive of the target location. Training participants with repeating contexts of consistent configurations led to stronger contextual cuing than when participants were trained with contexts of inconsistent configurations. Computational simulations with an elemental associative learning model of contextual cuing demonstrated that purely elemental representations could not account for the results. However, a configural model of associative learning was able to simulate the ordinal pattern of data. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913779

  20. Signaled two-way avoidance learning using electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus as negative reinforcement: effects of visual and auditory cues as warning stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Troncoso

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus is a primary relay for the processing of auditory information in the brainstem. The inferior colliculus is also part of the so-called brain aversion system as animals learn to switch off the electrical stimulation of this structure. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether associative learning occurs between aversion induced by electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus and visual and auditory warning stimuli. Rats implanted with electrodes into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus were placed inside an open-field and thresholds for the escape response to electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus were determined. The rats were then placed inside a shuttle-box and submitted to a two-way avoidance paradigm. Electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus at the escape threshold (98.12 ± 6.15 (A, peak-to-peak was used as negative reinforcement and light or tone as the warning stimulus. Each session consisted of 50 trials and was divided into two segments of 25 trials in order to determine the learning rate of the animals during the sessions. The rats learned to avoid the inferior colliculus stimulation when light was used as the warning stimulus (13.25 ± 0.60 s and 8.63 ± 0.93 s for latencies and 12.5 ± 2.04 and 19.62 ± 1.65 for frequencies in the first and second halves of the sessions, respectively, P0.05 in both cases. Taken together, the present results suggest that rats learn to avoid the inferior colliculus stimulation when light is used as the warning stimulus. However, this learning process does not occur when the neutral stimulus used is an acoustic one. Electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus may disturb the signal transmission of the stimulus to be conditioned from the inferior colliculus to higher brain structures such as amygdala

  1. Visualization method and tool for interactive learning of large decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trong Dung; Ho, TuBao

    2002-03-01

    When learning from large datasets, decision tree induction programs often produce very large trees. How to visualize efficiently trees in the learning process, particularly large trees, is still questionable and currently requires efficient tools. This paper presents a visualization method and tool for interactive learning of large decision trees, that includes a new visualization technique called T2.5D (stands for Tress 2.5 Dimensions). After a brief discussion on requirements for tree visualizers and related work, the paper focuses on presenting developing techniques for the issues (1) how to visualize efficiently large decision trees; and (2) how to visualize decision trees in the learning process.

  2. Towards a visual Educational Modeling Language for effective learning

    OpenAIRE

    Asmaandacirc; Retbi; Farid Merrouch; Mohammed Khalidi Idrissi; Samir Bennani

    2012-01-01

    Educational Modeling Languages (EMLs) are design languages intended to teachers for modeling any educational unit, independently of the pedagogical approach, context, users or resources employed. However, most existing educational modeling languages are criticized for being too abstract and too complex to be understood and manipulated by teachers. In this paper, we present a visual EML that simplifies the process of authoring learning scenarios for teachers with no programming background. Bas...

  3. Visual error augmentation enhances learning in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Felix; Sharp Ian; Patton James

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Because recent preliminary evidence points to the use of Error augmentation (EA) for motor learning enhancements, we visually enhanced deviations from a straight line path while subjects practiced a sensorimotor reversal task, similar to laparoscopic surgery. Our study asked 10 healthy subjects in two groups to perform targeted reaching in a simulated virtual reality environment, where the transformation of the hand position matrix was a complete reversal--rotated 180 degrees about a...

  4. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Maria GraziaDi Bono; MarcoZorzi

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representa...

  5. PROCEDURAL VISUAL LEARNING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Audrey; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Maillart, Christelle; Schmitz, Xavier; Meulemans, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the Procedural Learning (PL) system may contribute to the language difficulties observed in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Method: Fifteen children with SLI and their typically developing (TD) peers were compared on visual PL tasks: specifically, deterministic Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. In a first experiment, children with SLI and their TD peers performed the classical SRT task using a...

  6. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene;

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....

  7. Direct and Indirect Measures of Learning in Visual Search

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we will explore direct and indirect measures of learning in a visual search task commonly called contextual cueing. In the first part, we present a review of the scientific literature on contextual cueing, in order to give the readers of this thesis a better general idea of existing evidence and open questions within this relatively new research field. The aims of our own experimental studies presented in the succeeding chapters are the following ones: (1) to replicate and ext...

  8. Brain signal complexity rises with repetition suppression in visual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Marc Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Lina, Jean-Marc; McIntosh, Anthony R; Gosselin, Frédéric; Théoret, Hugo; Lippé, Sarah

    2016-06-21

    Neuronal activity associated with visual processing of an unfamiliar face gradually diminishes when it is viewed repeatedly. This process, known as repetition suppression (RS), is involved in the acquisition of familiarity. Current models suggest that RS results from interactions between visual information processing areas located in the occipito-temporal cortex and higher order areas, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain signal complexity, which reflects information dynamics of cortical networks, has been shown to increase as unfamiliar faces become familiar. However, the complementarity of RS and increases in brain signal complexity have yet to be demonstrated within the same measurements. We hypothesized that RS and brain signal complexity increase occur simultaneously during learning of unfamiliar faces. Further, we expected alteration of DLPFC function by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate RS and brain signal complexity over the occipito-temporal cortex. Participants underwent three tDCS conditions in random order: right anodal/left cathodal, right cathodal/left anodal and sham. Following tDCS, participants learned unfamiliar faces, while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Results revealed RS over occipito-temporal electrode sites during learning, reflected by a decrease in signal energy, a measure of amplitude. Simultaneously, as signal energy decreased, brain signal complexity, as estimated with multiscale entropy (MSE), increased. In addition, prefrontal tDCS modulated brain signal complexity over the right occipito-temporal cortex during the first presentation of faces. These results suggest that although RS may reflect a brain mechanism essential to learning, complementary processes reflected by increases in brain signal complexity, may be instrumental in the acquisition of novel visual information. Such processes likely involve long-range coordinated activity between prefrontal and lower order visual

  9. The role of visual cortex acetylcholine in learning to discriminate temporally modulated visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Minces

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain innervate discrete regions of the cortical mantle, bestowing the cholinergic system with the potential to dynamically modulate sub-regions of the cortex according to behavioral demands. Cortical cholinergic activity has been shown to facilitate learning and modulate attention. Experiments addressing these issues have primarily focused on widespread cholinergic depletions, extending to areas involved in general cognitive processes and sleep cycle regulation, making a definitive interpretation of the behavioral role of cholinergic projections difficult. Furthermore, a review of the electrophysiological literature suggests that cholinergic modulation is particularly important in representing the fine temporal details of stimuli, an issue rarely addressed in behavioral experimentation. The goal of this work is to understand the role cholinergic projections, specific to the sensory cortex, in learning to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of stimuli. A novel visual Go/No-Go task was developed to assess the ability of rats to learn and discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of visual stimuli (lights flashing at various frequencies. The cholinergic contribution to this task was examined by selectively eliminating acetylcholine projections to visual cortex (using 192 IgG-saporin, either before or after discrimination training.We find that in the face of compromised cholinergic input to the visual cortex, the rats’ ability to learn to perform fine discriminations is impaired, whereas their ability to perform discriminations remains unaffected.These results suggest that acetylcholine serves the role of facilitating plastic changes in the sensory cortices that are needed for an animal to refine their sensitivity to the temporal characteristics of relevant stimuli.

  10. The role of visual cortex acetylcholine in learning to discriminate temporally modulated visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minces, V H; Alexander, A S; Datlow, M; Alfonso, S I; Chiba, A A

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain innervate discrete regions of the cortical mantle, bestowing the cholinergic system with the potential to dynamically modulate sub-regions of the cortex according to behavioral demands. Cortical cholinergic activity has been shown to facilitate learning and modulate attention. Experiments addressing these issues have primarily focused on widespread cholinergic depletions, extending to areas involved in general cognitive processes and sleep cycle regulation, making a definitive interpretation of the behavioral role of cholinergic projections difficult. Furthermore, a review of the electrophysiological literature suggests that cholinergic modulation is particularly important in representing the fine temporal details of stimuli, an issue rarely addressed in behavioral experimentation. The goal of this work is to understand the role of cholinergic projections, specific to the sensory cortices, in learning to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of stimuli. A novel visual Go/No-Go task was developed to assess the ability of rats to learn to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of visual stimuli (lights flashing at various frequencies). The cholinergic contribution to this task was examined by selective reduction of acetylcholine projections to visual cortex (VCx) (using 192 IgG-saporin), either before or after discrimination training. We find that in the face of compromised cholinergic input to the VCx, the rats' ability to learn to perform fine discriminations is impaired, whereas their ability to perform previously learned discriminations remains unaffected. These results suggest that acetylcholine serves the role of facilitating plastic changes in the sensory cortices that are necessary for an animal to refine its sensitivity to the temporal characteristics of relevant stimuli. PMID:23519084

  11. Learning indoor robot navigation using visual and sensorimotor map information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjie; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451

  12. Visualizing A Framework for Tangibility in Multimedia Learning for Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Kien Tsong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an attempt to conceive a tangible multimedia framework in educational settings. For preschoolers, the major drawback in conventional multimedia systems nowadays is the lack of concrete elements that allow them to learn naturally and tangibly. As Piaget stated that children aged below seven can only cognizant concrete objects (preoperational stage, there exists a large gap between preschoolers and digital multimedia. To bridge the gap, multimedia should and need to embrace tangible objects in learning. However, as a newly explored area, there is absence of discussion on how the tangible multimedia should look like. In response to this, a relevant framework that outlines the basic structure of such multimedia is visualized in this paper for reference as well as grounding guidelines. Relevant pilot study conducted revealed that tangible multimedia was efficacious in elevating preschoolers’ learning performance, and motivation.

  13. Visualizing A Framework for Tangibility in Multimedia Learning for Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Kien Tsong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an attempt to conceive a tangible multimedia framework in educational settings. For preschoolers, the major drawback in conventional multimedia systems nowadays is the lack of concrete elements that allow them to learn naturally and tangibly. As Piaget stated that children aged below seven can only cognizant concrete objects (preoperational stage, there exists a large gap between preschoolers and digital multimedia. To bridge the gap, multimedia should and need to embrace tangible objects in learning. However, as a newly explored area, there is absence of discussion on how the tangible multimedia should look like. In response to this, a relevant framework that outlines the basic structure of such multimedia is visualized in this paper for reference as well as grounding guidelines. Relevant pilot study conducted revealed that tangible multimedia was efficacious in elevating preschoolers’ learning performance, and motivation.

  14. Learning Visual Spatial Pooling by Strong PCA Dimension Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Haruo; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2016-07-01

    In visual modeling, invariance properties of visual cells are often explained by a pooling mechanism, in which outputs of neurons with similar selectivities to some stimulus parameters are integrated so as to gain some extent of invariance to other parameters. For example, the classical energy model of phase-invariant V1 complex cells pools model simple cells preferring similar orientation but different phases. Prior studies, such as independent subspace analysis, have shown that phase-invariance properties of V1 complex cells can be learned from spatial statistics of natural inputs. However, those previous approaches assumed a squaring nonlinearity on the neural outputs to capture energy correlation; such nonlinearity is arguably unnatural from a neurobiological viewpoint but hard to change due to its tight integration into their formalisms. Moreover, they used somewhat complicated objective functions requiring expensive computations for optimization. In this study, we show that visual spatial pooling can be learned in a much simpler way using strong dimension reduction based on principal component analysis. This approach learns to ignore a large part of detailed spatial structure of the input and thereby estimates a linear pooling matrix. Using this framework, we demonstrate that pooling of model V1 simple cells learned in this way, even with nonlinearities other than squaring, can reproduce standard tuning properties of V1 complex cells. For further understanding, we analyze several variants of the pooling model and argue that a reasonable pooling can generally be obtained from any kind of linear transformation that retains several of the first principal components and suppresses the remaining ones. In particular, we show how the classic Wiener filtering theory leads to one such variant. PMID:27171856

  15. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...

  16. Visual outcome and complications of residents learning phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ravi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of phacoemulsification in our country raises important training issues. We prospectively analyzed the incidence of complications and visual outcomes in the initial 70 phacoemulsifications (70 patients performed by the first two residents learning phacoemulsification in our training programme. Both were experienced in standard (manual extracapsular cataract extraction. Postoperative follow up of 6 weeks or longer was available in 59 eyes. The 11 patients (11 eyes lost to follow up did not have any intra-operative complications. The overall incidence of vitreous loss was 10%, similar to the frequency of this complication (determined retrospectively in the first 70 standard extracapsular cataract extractions performed by the same residents. Intraocular lenses (IOL were successfully implanted in 62 eyes, as planned. One IOL dislocated into the vitreous was successfully repositioned. Other complications encountered included superior corneal edema (3 eyes, iris damage inferiorly (7 eyes and clinical cystoid macular edema (5 eyes. A best corrected visual acuity of 6/12 or better was obtained in 56 (94.8% of the 59 eyes available for the six week follow up. In the eyes with vitreous loss, 6 out of 7 had visual acuity better than 6/12. No nuclei were lost into the vitreous. The rate of surgical complications for residents learning phacoemulsification in a supervised manner can be acceptably low.

  17. Proust revisited: odours as triggers of aversive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffolo, Marieke B J; Smeets, Monique A M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2012-01-01

    According to the Proust phenomenon, olfactory memory triggers are more evocative than other-modality triggers resulting in more emotional and detailed memories. An experimental paradigm was used to investigate this in aversive memories, similar to those experienced by patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Seventy healthy participants watched an aversive film, while simultaneously being exposed to olfactory, auditory and visual triggers, which were matched on intensity, valence, arousal and salience. During a second session one week later, participants were randomly exposed to one of the three triggers, and asked to think back about the film and to rate the resulting memory. Results revealed that odour-evoked memories of aversive events were more detailed, unpleasant and arousing than memories evoked by auditory, but not visual, triggers. PMID:21547759

  18. Visual Tracking Based on Extreme Learning Machine and Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoxian Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The existing sparse representation-based visual trackers mostly suffer from both being time consuming and having poor robustness problems. To address these issues, a novel tracking method is presented via combining sparse representation and an emerging learning technique, namely extreme learning machine (ELM. Specifically, visual tracking can be divided into two consecutive processes. Firstly, ELM is utilized to find the optimal separate hyperplane between the target observations and background ones. Thus, the trained ELM classification function is able to remove most of the candidate samples related to background contents efficiently, thereby reducing the total computational cost of the following sparse representation. Secondly, to further combine ELM and sparse representation, the resultant confidence values (i.e., probabilities to be a target of samples on the ELM classification function are used to construct a new manifold learning constraint term of the sparse representation framework, which tends to achieve robuster results. Moreover, the accelerated proximal gradient method is used for deriving the optimal solution (in matrix form of the constrained sparse tracking model. Additionally, the matrix form solution allows the candidate samples to be calculated in parallel, thereby leading to a higher efficiency. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracker.

  19. Neurofeedback in Learning Disabled Children: Visual versus Auditory Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Thalía; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Harmony, Thalía; Caballero, María I; Díaz-Comas, Lourdes; Galán, Lídice; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Aubert, Eduardo; Otero-Ojeda, Gloria

    2016-03-01

    Children with learning disabilities (LD) frequently have an EEG characterized by an excess of theta and a deficit of alpha activities. NFB using an auditory stimulus as reinforcer has proven to be a useful tool to treat LD children by positively reinforcing decreases of the theta/alpha ratio. The aim of the present study was to optimize the NFB procedure by comparing the efficacy of visual (with eyes open) versus auditory (with eyes closed) reinforcers. Twenty LD children with an abnormally high theta/alpha ratio were randomly assigned to the Auditory or the Visual group, where a 500 Hz tone or a visual stimulus (a white square), respectively, was used as a positive reinforcer when the value of the theta/alpha ratio was reduced. Both groups had signs consistent with EEG maturation, but only the Auditory Group showed behavioral/cognitive improvements. In conclusion, the auditory reinforcer was more efficacious in reducing the theta/alpha ratio, and it improved the cognitive abilities more than the visual reinforcer. PMID:26294269

  20. Visual Literacy and Biochemistry Learning: The role of external representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J.S.V. Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual Literacy can bedefined as people’s ability to understand, use, think, learn and express themselves through external representations (ER in a given subject. This research aims to investigate the development of abilities of ERs reading and interpretation by students from a Biochemistry graduate course of theFederal University of São João Del-Rei. In this way, Visual Literacy level was  assessed using a questionnaire validatedin a previous educational research. This diagnosis questionnaire was elaborated according to six visual abilitiesidentified as essential for the study of the metabolic pathways. The initial statistical analysis of data collectedin this study was carried out using ANOVA method. Results obtained showed that the questionnaire used is adequate for the research and indicated that the level of Visual Literacy related to the metabolic processes increased significantly with the progress of the students in the graduation course. There was also an indication of a possible interference in the student’s performancedetermined by the cutoff punctuation in the university selection process.

  1. Learning and Prediction of Slip from Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Matthies, Larry; Helmick, Daniel; Perona, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for slip prediction from a distance for wheeled ground robots using visual information as input. Large amounts of slippage which can occur on certain surfaces, such as sandy slopes, will negatively affect rover mobility. Therefore, obtaining information about slip before entering such terrain can be very useful for better planning and avoiding these areas. To address this problem, terrain appearance and geometry information about map cells are correlated to the slip measured by the rover while traversing each cell. This relationship is learned from previous experience, so slip can be predicted remotely from visual information only. The proposed method consists of terrain type recognition and nonlinear regression modeling. The method has been implemented and tested offline on several off-road terrains including: soil, sand, gravel, and woodchips. The final slip prediction error is about 20%. The system is intended for improved navigation on steep slopes and rough terrain for Mars rovers.

  2. Visualization Techniques Through Search Interfaces in Learning Object Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alonso Gaona García

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented a study to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of eight different interfaces based on visualization techniques to carry out searching digital resources according to knowledge area and knowledge representation scheme. The navigation structure is based on hi­erarchical taxonomic representation through the use of Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT. It was adopted principles of Human Computer In­teraction (HCI for the development of search interfaces through information visualization tech­niques. Finally, it will be presented preliminary results in order to evaluate the most representa­tive aspects to carry out the development of visu­al search interfaces of learning objects in digital repositories, according to principles of visualiza­tion techniques and hierarchic taxonomic classi­fication.

  3. Learning Analytics: A Case Study of the Process of Design of Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Martin; Corrin, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The ability to visualize student engagement and experience data provides valuable opportunities for learning support and curriculum design. With the rise of the use of learning analytics to provide "actionable intelligence" on students' learning, the challenge is to create visualizations of the data, which are clear and useful to the intended…

  4. Thinking Maps®: A Visual Language for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyerle, David

    There have been a range of different types of visual tools used in schools over the past 50 years such as “graphic organizers,” mind mapping, and concept mapping. These tools are grounded in the mapping metaphor, reflecting our capacities to network information and create cognitive maps of content knowledge and concepts. This writing investigates a language of eight cognitive maps called Thinking Maps® and Thinking Maps® Software, used from early grades through college courses to foster cognitive development and content learning across disciplines by all students across entire schools.

  5. Cognitive robotic system for learning of complex visual stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.; Rozhkov, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of learning of complex visual stimuli in cognitive robotics is considered. These stimuli should be selected on the base of rules supporting arbitrary comparisons of stimulus features with features of other salient objects (context). New perceptual knowledge representation based on the predicate logic is implemented to express such rules. Computable predicates are provided by low-level vision system. The rules are constructed using genetic algorithms on the base of a set of examples obtained by a robot during consequent trials. Dependence between the number of necessary trials and rule complexity is studied.

  6. Summarize to learn: summarization and visualization of text for ubiquitous learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio; Last, Mark; Verbeke, Mathias;

    2013-01-01

    Visualizations can stand in many relations to texts – and, as research into learning with pictures has shown, they can become particularly valuable when they transform the contents of the text (rather than just duplicate its message or structure it). But what kinds of transformations can be...... particularly helpful in the learning process? In this paper, we argue that interacting with, and creating, summaries of texts is a key transformation technique, and we investigate how textual and graphical summarization approaches, as well as automatic and manual summarization, can complement one another to...... support effective learning....

  7. Using E-Learning Portfolio Technology To Support Visual Art Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greer Jones-Woodham

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by self-directed learning (SDL theories, this paper uses learning portfolios as a reflective practice to improve student learning and develop personal responsibility, growth and autonomy in learning in a Visual Arts course. Students use PowerPoint presentations to demonstrate their concepts by creating folders that are linked to e-portfolios on the University website. This paper establishes the role of learning e-portfolios to improve teaching and learning as a model of reflection, collaboration and documentation in the making of art as a self-directed process. These portfolios link students' creative thinking to their conceptual frameworks. They also establish a process of inquiry using journals to map students' processes through their reflections and peer feedback. This practice argues that learning e-portfolios in studio art not only depends on a set of objectives whose means are justified by an agreed end but also depends on a practice that engages students' reflection about their actions while in their art- making practice. Using the principles of the maker as the intuitive and reflective practitioner, the making as the process in which the learning e-portfolios communicate the process and conceptual frameworks of learning and the eventual product, and the made as evidence of that learning in light of progress made, this paper demonstrates that learning-in-action and reflecting-in and-on-action are driven by self-direction. With technology, students bring their learning context to bear with the use of SDL. Students' use of PowerPoint program technology in making their portfolios is systematic and builds on students' competencies as this process guides students' beliefs and actions about their work that is based on theory and concepts in response to a visual culture that is Trinidad and Tobago. Students' self–directed art-making process as a self directed learning, models the process of articulated learning. Communicating about

  8. Different components of conditioned food aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Vladimir P; Solntseva, Svetlana V; Kozyrev, Sergey A; Nikitin, Pavel V; Shevelkin, Alexey V

    2016-07-01

    Memory reconsolidation processes and protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) activity in memory maintenance and reorganization are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined memory reconsolidation and PKMzeta activity during the maintenance and reorganization of a conditioned food aversion memory among snails. These processes were specifically evaluated after administration of a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin), NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801), protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; CYH), or PKMzeta inhibitor (zeta inhibitory peptide; ZIP) either 2 or 10 days after aversion training. Two days post-training, injections of MK-801 or CYH, combined with a conditioned stimulus reminder, caused amnesia development, and a second training 11 days after this induction did not lead to long-term memory formation. Interestingly, MK-801 or CYH injections and the reminder 10 days after training did not affect memory retrieval. Methiothepin and the reminder, or ZIP without the reminder, at 2 and 10 days after training led to memory impairment, while a second training 11 days after amnesia induction resulted in memory formation. These results suggest that the maintenance of a conditioned food aversion involves two different components with variable dynamics. One component could be characterized by memory strengthening over time and involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and protein synthesis reconsolidation at early, but not late, training stages. The other memory component could involve serotonin-dependent reconsolidation and Mzeta-like kinase activity at both early and late stages after learning. Deficiencies within these two components led to various forms of memory impairment, which differed in terms of the formation of a conditioned food aversion during the second training. PMID:27017957

  9. The limits of catastrophe aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Martin

    2002-06-01

    We discuss the management of catastrophe-risks from a theoretical point of view. The concept of a catastrophe is informally and formally defined, and a number of desiderata for catastrophe-averse decision rules are introduced. However, the proposed desiderata turn out to be mutually inconsistent. As a consequence of this result, it is argued that the "rigid" form of catastrophe aversion articulated by, for example, the maximin rule, the maximum probable loss rule, (some versions of) the precautionary principle, and the rule proposed in Ekenberg et al. (1997, 2000) should be given up. An alternative form of "non-rigid" catastrophe aversion is considered. PMID:12088231

  10. Parallel reinforcement pathways for conditioned food aversions in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Geraldine A.; Mustard, Julie A; Simcock, Nicola K.; Ross-Taylor, Alexandra A.R.; McNicholas, Lewis D.; Popescu, Alexandra; Marion-Poll, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Summary Avoiding toxins in food is as important as obtaining nutrition. Conditioned food aversions have been studied in animals as diverse as nematodes and humans [1, 2], but the neural signaling mechanisms underlying this form of learning have been difficult to pinpoint. Honeybees quickly learn to associate floral cues with food [3], a trait that makes them an excellent model organism for studying the neural mechanisms of learning and memory. Here we show that honeybees not only detect toxin...

  11. Memory modulated saliency: A computational model of the incremental learning of target locations in visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Dziemianko, Michal; Keller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The top-down guidance of visual attention is one of the main factors allowing humans to effectively process vast amounts of incoming visual information. Nevertheless we still lack a full understanding of the visual, semantic, and memory processes governing visual attention. In this paper, we present a computational model of visual search capable of predicting the most likely positions of target objects. The model does not require a separate training phase, but learns likely target positions i...

  12. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly L Brandstatt; Voss, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and o...

  13. Nonassociative and associative modification of head-waving produced by aversive tentacular stimuli in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, K K; Takacs, C A; Carew, T J

    1997-01-01

    Head-waving, a spontaneously occurring exploratory and appetitive behavior of the marine mollusc Aplysia, provides an opportunity to examine mechanisms of learning expressed in a nonreflexive behavior. The present study explores nonassociative and associative forms of learned modification of head-waving produced using an aversive stimulus as reinforcement. Experiments on intact, freely behaving animals demonstrate that training with electric shock as an aversive unconditioned stimulus, delivered unilaterally to the anterior tentacles, produces a learned shift in head-waving behavior away from the side on which shock was applied. This behavioral change is a novel learned behavioral response that is influenced by the topographic location of an aversive stimulus. Furthermore, training with application of tentacle shock reinforcement, contingent upon the animal's head position, produces operant conditioning of head-waving. Thus, anterior tentacle shock is effective as an aversive reinforcer for both nonassociative and operant learning expressed in the head-waving behavior of Aplysia. PMID:10456104

  14. Assessment of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning style among undergraduate nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Radhwan Hussein Ibrahim; Dhiaa Al-rahman Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning styles refer to the ability of learner to perceive and process information in learning situations. The ability to understand students’ learning styles can increase the educational outcomes. VAK (Visual, auditory, kinesthetic) learning style is one of the learning style in which students use three of sensory perception to receive information. Teachers can incorporate these learning styles in their classroom activities so that students are competent to be successful in thei...

  15. Differential Effects of Music and Video Gaming During Breaks on Auditory and Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Kuschpel, Maxim S; Schad, Daniel J; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. This study investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on auditory versus visual memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (a) open eyes resting, (b) listening to music, and (c) playing a video game, immediately after memorizing auditory versus visual stimuli. To assess learning performance, words were recalled directly after the break (an 8:30 minute delay) and were recalled and recognized again after 7 days. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, it was found that playing the Angry Birds video game during a short learning break impaired long-term retrieval in auditory learning but enhanced long-term retrieval in visual learning compared with the music and rest conditions. These differential effects of video games on visual versus auditory learning suggest specific interference of common break activities on learning. PMID:26448497

  16. Serial order learning of subliminal visual stimuli: evidence of multistage learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaede eKido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that statistical learning of visual symbol sequences occurs implicitly (Kim et al., 2009. Here, we examined whether people can learn the serial order of the visual symbols when they cannot perceive them. During the familiarization phase, triplets or quadruplets of novel symbols were presented to one of the eyes under continuous flash suppression (CFS. Perception of the symbols was completely suppressed by the flash patterns presented to the other eye (binocular rivalry. In the test phase, the detection latency was faster for the symbols located later in the triplets or the quadruplets. These results indicate that serial order learning occurs even when the participants cannot perceive the stimuli. We also found that the detection became slower for the last item of the triplets or the quadruplets. This phenomenon occurred only when the participants were familiarized to the symbols under CFS, suggesting that the following symbols interfered with the processing for the target symbol when conscious perception was suppressed. We further examined the nature of the interference, and found that the interference occurred only when the following symbol was not fixed. This result suggests that serial order learning under binocular rivalry is restricted to the fixed order sequence. Statistical learning for the transition probability of the symbols might not occur when participants cannot perceive the symbols. We confirmed this hypothesis by conducting another experiment in which transition probability of the symbol sequence was manipulated.

  17. Fixed-Rank Representation for Unsupervised Visual Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Risheng; De la Torre, Fernando; Su, Zhixun

    2012-01-01

    Subspace clustering and feature extraction are two of the most extensive unsupervised visual learning tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, we pose these two problems in a unified framework, named fixed-rank representation (FRR). For subspace clustering, our first contribution is to show that, when the data is clean, we can efficiently solve FRR in closed-form and the global optimal solution to FRR can exactly recover the multiple subspace structure. Furthermore, we prove that under some suitable conditions, even with insufficient observations, the memberships of data points still can be exactly recovered by FRR. In the case that the data is corrupted by noises and outliers, a sparse regularization is introduced to achieve robustness for FRR. For feature extraction, we provide some new insights to understand existing methods, which lead to a new approach for robust feature extraction. As a non-trivial byproduct, a fast numerical solver is developed for FRR. Experimental results on b...

  18. Identification of Quality Visual-Based Learning Material for Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    It is widely known that the use of visual technology enhances learning by providing a better understanding of the topic as well as motivating students. If all visual-based learning materials (tables, figures, photos, etc.) were equally effective in facilitating student achievement of all kinds of educational objectives, there would virtually be no…

  19. A Visual Haptic System for Children with Learning Disabilities: Software and Hardware Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmaniyan, Neeraja; Krishnaswamy, Swetha; Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Bisantz, Ann; Shriber, Linda; Kesavadas, Thenkurussi

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities exhibit considerable challenges with visual motor integration. While there are specialized Occupational Therapy interventions aimed at visual motor integration, computer games and virtual toys have now become increasingly popular, forming an integral part of children's learning and play.…

  20. Supporting Multimedia Learning with Visual Signalling and Animated Pedagogical Agent: Moderating Effects of Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. M.; Ozogul, G.; Reisslein, M.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of visual signalling to relevant information in multiple external representations and the visual presence of an animated pedagogical agent (APA). Students learned electric circuit analysis using a computer-based learning environment that included Cartesian graphs, equations and electric circuit diagrams. The…

  1. Learning to detect but not to grasp suppressed visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K; Sterzer, P; Kathmann, N; Franz, V H; Hesselmann, G

    2013-11-01

    A central implication of the two-visual-systems hypothesis (TVSH) is that the dorsal visuomotor system (vision-for-action) can make use of invisible information, whereas the ventral system (vision-for-perception) cannot (Milner & Goodale, 1995). Therefore, actions such as grasping movements should be influenced by invisible information while conscious reports remain unaffected. To test this assumption, we used a dichoptic stimulation technique--continuous flash suppression (CFS)--which has the potency to render stimuli invisible for up to seconds (Tsuchiya & Koch, 2005). In two experiments using CFS, participants were asked to grasp for invisible bars of different sizes (Experiment 1) or orientations (Experiment 2), or to report both measures verbally. Target visibility was measured trial-by-trial using the perceptual awareness scale (PAS). We found no evidence for the use of invisible information by the visuomotor system despite extensive training (600 trials) and the availability of haptic feedback. Participants neither learned to scale their maximum grip aperture to the size of the invisible stimulus, nor to align their hand to its orientation. Careful control of stimulus visibility across training sessions, however, revealed a robust tendency towards decreasing perceptual thresholds under CFS. We discuss our results within the framework of the TVSH and with respect to alternative models which emphasize the close functional interaction between the dorsal and ventral visual systems. PMID:24096175

  2. Neural Network Machine Learning and Dimension Reduction for Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Neural network machine learning in computer science is a continuously developing field of study. Although neural network models have been developed which can accurately predict a numeric value or nominal classification, a general purpose method for constructing neural network architecture has yet to be developed. Computer scientists are often forced to rely on a trial-and-error process of developing and improving accurate neural network models. In many cases, models are constructed from a large number of input parameters. Understanding which input parameters have the greatest impact on the prediction of the model is often difficult to surmise, especially when the number of input variables is very high. This challenge is often labeled the "curse of dimensionality" in scientific fields. However, techniques exist for reducing the dimensionality of problems to just two dimensions. Once a problem's dimensions have been mapped to two dimensions, it can be easily plotted and understood by humans. The ability to visualize a multi-dimensional dataset can provide a means of identifying which input variables have the highest effect on determining a nominal or numeric output. Identifying these variables can provide a better means of training neural network models; models can be more easily and quickly trained using only input variables which appear to affect the outcome variable. The purpose of this project is to explore varying means of training neural networks and to utilize dimensional reduction for visualizing and understanding complex datasets.

  3. Looking to Learn: The Effects of Visual Guidance on Observational Learning of the Golf Swing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia D'Innocenzo

    Full Text Available Skilled performers exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than less-skilled counterparts do and they look more frequently at task-relevant regions than at superfluous ones. We examine whether we may guide novices' gaze towards relevant regions during action observation in order to facilitate their learning of a complex motor skill. In a Pre-test-Post-test examination of changes in their execution of the full golf swing, 21 novices viewed one of three videos at intervention: i a skilled golfer performing 10 swings (Free Viewing, FV; ii the same video with transient colour cues superimposed to highlight key features of the setup (Visual Guidance; VG; iii or a History of Golf video (Control. Participants in the visual guidance group spent significantly more time looking at cued areas than did the other two groups, a phenomenon that persisted after the cues had been removed. Moreover, the visual guidance group improved their swing execution at Post-test and on a Retention test one week later. Our results suggest that visual guidance to cued areas during observational learning of complex motor skills may accelerate acquisition of the skill.

  4. Looking to Learn: The Effects of Visual Guidance on Observational Learning of the Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Innocenzo, Giorgia; Gonzalez, Claudia C; Williams, A Mark; Bishop, Daniel T

    2016-01-01

    Skilled performers exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than less-skilled counterparts do and they look more frequently at task-relevant regions than at superfluous ones. We examine whether we may guide novices' gaze towards relevant regions during action observation in order to facilitate their learning of a complex motor skill. In a Pre-test-Post-test examination of changes in their execution of the full golf swing, 21 novices viewed one of three videos at intervention: i) a skilled golfer performing 10 swings (Free Viewing, FV); ii) the same video with transient colour cues superimposed to highlight key features of the setup (Visual Guidance; VG); iii) or a History of Golf video (Control). Participants in the visual guidance group spent significantly more time looking at cued areas than did the other two groups, a phenomenon that persisted after the cues had been removed. Moreover, the visual guidance group improved their swing execution at Post-test and on a Retention test one week later. Our results suggest that visual guidance to cued areas during observational learning of complex motor skills may accelerate acquisition of the skill. PMID:27224057

  5. Using ICT at an Open Distance Learning (ODL) Institution in South Africa: The Learning Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokiwa, S. A.; Phasha, T. N.

    2012-01-01

    For students with visual impairments, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important means through which they can learn and access learning materials at various levels of education. However, their learning experiences in using such form of technologies have been rarely documented, thus suggests society's lack of…

  6. Sensorimotor Learning of Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Using Visual Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Mo Jung

    Full Text Available Humans can acquire a wide variety of motor skills using sensory feedback pertaining to discrepancies between intended and actual movements. Acupuncture needle manipulation involves sophisticated hand movements and represents a fundamental skill for acupuncturists. We investigated whether untrained students could improve their motor performance during acupuncture needle manipulation using visual feedback (VF.Twenty-one untrained medical students were included, randomly divided into concurrent (n = 10 and post-trial (n = 11 VF groups. Both groups were trained in simple lift/thrusting techniques during session 1, and in complicated lift/thrusting techniques in session 2 (eight training trials per session. We compared the motion patterns and error magnitudes of pre- and post-training tests.During motion pattern analysis, both the concurrent and post-trial VF groups exhibited greater improvements in motion patterns during the complicated lifting/thrusting session. In the magnitude error analysis, both groups also exhibited reduced error magnitudes during the simple lifting/thrusting session. For the training period, the concurrent VF group exhibited reduced error magnitudes across all training trials, whereas the post-trial VF group was characterized by greater error magnitudes during initial trials, which gradually reduced during later trials.Our findings suggest that novices can improve the sophisticated hand movements required for acupuncture needle manipulation using sensorimotor learning with VF. Use of two types of VF can be beneficial for untrained students in terms of learning how to manipulate acupuncture needles, using either automatic or cognitive processes.

  7. Parametric eigenspace representation for visual learning and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, H.; Nayar, Shree K.

    1993-06-01

    We address the problem of automatically learning object models for recognition and pose estimation. In contrast to the traditional approach, we formulate the recognition problem as one of matching visual appearance rather than shape. The appearance of an object in a two- dimensional image depends on its shape, reflectance properties, pose in the scene, and the illumination conditions. While shape and reflectance are intrinsic properties of an object and are constant, pose and illumination vary from scene to scene. We present a new compact representation of object appearance that is parametrized by pose and illumination. For each object of interest, a large set of images is obtained by automatically varying pose and illumination. This large image set is compressed to obtain a low-dimensional subspace, called the eigenspace, in which the object is represented as a hypersurface. Given an unknown input image, the recognition system projects the image onto the eigenspace. The object is recognized based on the hypersurface it lies on. The exact position of the projection on the hypersurface determines the object's pose in the image. We have conducted experiments using several objects with complex appearance characteristics. We conclude with a discussion on various issues related to the learning and recognition techniques proposed in the paper.

  8. An interactive approach to learning and teaching in visual arts education

    OpenAIRE

    Zlata Tomljenović

    2015-01-01

    The present research focuses on modernising the approach to learning and teaching the visual arts in teaching practice, as well as examining the performance of an interactive approach to learning and teaching in visual arts classes with the use of a combination of general and specific (visual arts) teaching methods. The study uses quantitative analysis of data on the basis of results obtained from a pedagogical experiment. The subjects of the research were 285 second- and fourth-grade student...

  9. Enhancing learning and comprehension through strengthening visual literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Le Roux

    2011-01-01

    Living in an image-rich world, as we currently do, does not mean that individuals naturally possess visual literacy skills. This article explores the concept of ‘visual literacy’, and the skills needed to develop visual literacy and visual intelligence. Developing visual literacy in educational environments is important because it can contribute to individual empowerment, and it is therefore necessary to take pedagogical advantage of visual literacy’s place across the disciplines. Doing this ...

  10. Enhancing learning and comprehension through strengthening visual literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Le Roux

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Living in an image-rich world, as we currently do, does not mean that individuals naturally possess visual literacy skills. This article explores the concept of ‘visual literacy’, and the skills needed to develop visual literacy and visual intelligence. Developing visual literacy in educational environments is important because it can contribute to individual empowerment, and it is therefore necessary to take pedagogical advantage of visual literacy’s place across the disciplines. Doing this means tapping into experiences, expertise and interest in visual communication and building a new paradigm that takes visual education seriously.

  11. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words-which was the model's learning objective

  12. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GraziaDi Bono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

  13. Lying aversion and prosocial behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Biziou-van-Pol, Laura; Novaro, Arianna; Liberman, Andrés Occhipinti; Capraro, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the moral conflict between lying aversion and prosociality. What does telling a white lie signal about a person's prosocial tendencies? How does believing a possibly untruthful message signal about a listener's prosocial tendencies? To answer these questions, we conducted a 2x3 experiment. In the first stage we measured altruistic tendencies using a Dictator Game and cooperative tendencies using a Prisoner's dilemma. In the second stage, we used a sender-receiver game to measure aversion to telling a Pareto white lie (i.e., a lie that helps both the liar and the listener), aversion to telling an altruistic white lie (i.e., a lie that helps the listener at the expense of the liar), and skepticism towards believing a possibly untruthful message. We found three major results: (i) both altruism and cooperation are positively correlated with aversion to telling a Pareto white lie; (ii) neither altruism nor cooperation are significantly correlated with aversion to telling an altruistic wh...

  14. Socio-cognitive profiles for visual learning in young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Julie eChristian; Aimee eGoldstone; Shu-guang eKuai; Wynne eChin; Dominic eAbrams; Zoe eKourtzi

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom that practice makes perfect; but why do some adults learn better than others? Here, we investigate individuals’ cognitive and social profiles to test which variables account for variability in learning ability across the lifespan. In particular, we focused on visual learning using tasks that test the ability to inhibit distractors and select task-relevant features. We tested the ability of young and older adults to improve through training in the discrimination of visual...

  15. Socio-cognitive profiles for visual learning in young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Julie; Goldstone, Aimee; Kuai, Shu-Guang; Chin, Wynne; Abrams, Dominic; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom that practice makes perfect; but why do some adults learn better than others? Here, we investigate individuals’ cognitive and social profiles to test which variables account for variability in learning ability across the lifespan. In particular, we focused on visual learning using tasks that test the ability to inhibit distractors and select task-relevant features. We tested the ability of young and older adults to improve through training in the discrimination of visual g...

  16. You see what you have learned. Evidence for an interrelation of associative learning and visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Uengoer, Metin; Schubö, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Besides visual salience and observers' current intention, prior learning experience may influence deployment of visual attention. Associative learning models postulate that observers pay more attention to stimuli previously experienced as reliable predictors of specific outcomes. To investigate the impact of learning experience on deployment of attention, we combined an associative learning task with a visual search task and measured event-related potentials of the EEG as neural markers of attention deployment. In the learning task, participants categorized stimuli varying in color/shape with only one dimension being predictive of category membership. In the search task, participants searched a shape target while disregarding irrelevant color distractors. Behavioral results showed that color distractors impaired performance to a greater degree when color rather than shape was predictive in the learning task. Neurophysiological results show that the amplified distraction was due to differential attention deployment (N2pc). Experiment 2 showed that when color was predictive for learning, color distractors captured more attention in the search task (ND component) and more suppression of color distractor was required (PD component). The present results thus demonstrate that priority in visual attention is biased toward predictive stimuli, which allows learning experience to shape selection. We also show that learning experience can overrule strong top-down control (blocked tasks, Experiment 3) and that learning experience has a longer-term effect on attention deployment (tasks on two successive days, Experiment 4). PMID:26338030

  17. Mobile Learning and the Visual Web, Oh My! Nutrition Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing how our program participants learn in school and for their personal improvement. Extension educators who deliver nutrition program will want to be aware of the technology trends that are driving these changes. Blended learning, mobile learning, the visual Web, and the gamification of health are approaches to consider…

  18. Electrophysiological Evidence of Heterogeneity in Visual Statistical Learning in Young Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Shafali S.; Kirkham, Natasha; Senturk, Damla; Hasenstab, Kyle; Sugar, Catherine; Kupelian, Chloe; Baker, Elizabeth; Sanders, Andrew J.; Shimizu, Christina; Norona, Amanda; Paparella, Tanya; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical learning is characterized by detection of regularities in one's environment without an awareness or intention to learn, and it may play a critical role in language and social behavior. Accordingly, in this study we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of visual statistical learning in young children with autism…

  19. Neural correlates of context-dependent feature conjunction learning in visual search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Greenlee, Mark W; Tse, Peter U

    2016-06-01

    Many perceptual learning experiments show that repeated exposure to a basic visual feature such as a specific orientation or spatial frequency can modify perception of that feature, and that those perceptual changes are associated with changes in neural tuning early in visual processing. Such perceptual learning effects thus exert a bottom-up influence on subsequent stimulus processing, independent of task-demands or endogenous influences (e.g., volitional attention). However, it is unclear whether such bottom-up changes in perception can occur as more complex stimuli such as conjunctions of visual features are learned. It is not known whether changes in the efficiency with which people learn to process feature conjunctions in a task (e.g., visual search) reflect true bottom-up perceptual learning versus top-down, task-related learning (e.g., learning better control of endogenous attention). Here we show that feature conjunction learning in visual search leads to bottom-up changes in stimulus processing. First, using fMRI, we demonstrate that conjunction learning in visual search has a distinct neural signature: an increase in target-evoked activity relative to distractor-evoked activity (i.e., a relative increase in target salience). Second, we demonstrate that after learning, this neural signature is still evident even when participants passively view learned stimuli while performing an unrelated, attention-demanding task. This suggests that conjunction learning results in altered bottom-up perceptual processing of the learned conjunction stimuli (i.e., a perceptual change independent of the task). We further show that the acquired change in target-evoked activity is contextually dependent on the presence of distractors, suggesting that search array Gestalts are learned. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2319-2330, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970441

  20. Default Risk and Risk Averse International Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Lizarazo, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a quantitative model of debt and default for small open economies that interact with risk averse international investors. The model developed here extends the recent work on the analysis of endogenous default risk to the case in which international investors are risk averse agents with decreasing absolute risk aversion (DARA). By incorporating risk averse investors who trade with a single emerging economy, the present model o ers two main improvements over the standard cas...

  1. Comparative Risk Aversion under Background Risk Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Masamitsu Ohnishi; Yusuke Osaki

    2010-01-01

    This paper determines a new sufficient condition of the (von Neumann-Morgenstern) utility function that preserves comparative risk aversion under background risk. It is the single crossing condition of risk aversion. Because this condition requires monotonicity in the local sense, it may satisfy the U-shaped risk aversion observed in the recent empirical literature.

  2. A physiological increase of insulin in the olfactory bulb decreases detection of a learned aversive odor and abolishes food odor-induced sniffing behavior in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Aimé

    Full Text Available Insulin is involved in multiple regulatory mechanisms, including body weight and food intake, and plays a critical role in metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. An increasing body of evidence indicates that insulin is also involved in the modulation of olfactory function. The olfactory bulb (OB contains the highest level of insulin and insulin receptors (IRs in the brain. However, a role for insulin in odor detection and sniffing behavior remains to be elucidated. Using a behavioral paradigm based on conditioned olfactory aversion (COA to isoamyl-acetate odor, we demonstrated that an intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of 14 mU insulin acutely decreased olfactory detection of fasted rats to the level observed in satiated animals. In addition, whereas fasted animals demonstrated an increase in respiratory frequency upon food odor detection, this effect was absent in fasted animals receiving a 14 mU insulin ICV injection as well as in satiated animals. In parallel, we showed that the OB and plasma insulin levels were increased in satiated rats compared to fasted rats, and that a 14 mU insulin ICV injection elevated the OB insulin level of fasted rats to that of satiated rats. We further quantified insulin receptors (IRs distribution and showed that IRs are preferentially expressed in the caudal and lateral parts of the main OB, with the highest labeling found in the mitral cells, the main OB projection neurons. Together, these data suggest that insulin acts on the OB network to modulate olfactory processing and demonstrate that olfactory function is under the control of signals involved in energy homeostasis regulation and feeding behaviors.

  3. The process of teaching and learning in classes with visual deficient students: perceptions of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iohanna Elizabeth Beckers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of astronomy focused on students with special educational needs must happen in order to involve the participant so inclusive in the process of teaching and learning. Thus, students with visual deficient require actions that favor the different senses but sight. Thus, this study set out to interview teachers in early grades of elementary school, aiming to analyze how the process of teaching and learning of astronomical content in classrooms that have included visual deficient students happens. Such analysis showed that the teaching of astronomy practiced by teachers favored an audio-visual language. It may discourage the participation of the visual deficient ones.

  4. Visualization of learning in multilayer perceptron networks using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M; Downs, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the use of scientific visualization methods for the analysis of feedforward neural networks (NNs). Inevitably, the kinds of data associated with the design and implementation of neural networks are of very high dimensionality, presenting a major challenge for visualization. A method is described using the well-known statistical technique of principal component analysis (PCA). This is found to be an effective and useful method of visualizing the learning trajectories of many learning algorithms such as backpropagation and can also be used to provide insight into the learning process and the nature of the error surface. PMID:18238154

  5. Genotypic influence on aversive conditioning in honeybees, using a novel thermal reinforcement procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Junca

    Full Text Available In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER, bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US. This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee's body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive.

  6. Investigating Verbal and Visual Auditory Learning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Childhood Ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether children with localized ependymoma experience a decline in verbal or visual-auditory learning after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). The secondary objective was to investigate the impact of age and select clinical factors on learning before and after treatment. Methods and Materials: Learning in a sample of 71 patients with localized ependymoma was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-C) and the Visual-Auditory Learning Test (VAL). Learning measures were administered before CRT, at 6 months, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: There was no significant decline on measures of verbal or visual-auditory learning after CRT; however, younger age, more surgeries, and cerebrospinal fluid shunting did predict lower scores at baseline. There were significant longitudinal effects (improved learning scores after treatment) among older children on the CVLT-C and children that did not receive pre-CRT chemotherapy on the VAL. Conclusion: There was no evidence of global decline in learning after CRT in children with localized ependymoma. Several important implications from the findings include the following: (1) identification of and differentiation among variables with transient vs. long-term effects on learning, (2) demonstration that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT had greater risk of adverse visual-auditory learning performance, and (3) establishment of baseline and serial assessment as critical in ascertaining necessary sensitivity and specificity for the detection of modest effects.

  7. Introduction of computing in physics learning visual programing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces physics and programing, foundation of visual basic, grammar of visual basic, visual programing, solution of equation, calculation of matrix, solution of simultaneous equation, differentiation, differential equation, simultaneous differential equation and second-order differential equation, integration and solution of partial differential equation. It also covers basic language, terms of visual basic, usage of method, graphic method, step by step method, fails-position method, Gauss elimination method, difference method and Euler method.

  8. The Rhetoric of Multi-Display Learning Spaces: exploratory experiences in visual art disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bligh, Brett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Display Learning Spaces (MD-LS comprise technologies to allow the viewing of multiple simultaneous visual materials, modes of learning which encourage critical reflection upon these materials, and spatial configurations which afford interaction between learners and the materials in orchestrated ways. In this paper we provide an argument for the benefits of Multi-Display Learning Spaces in supporting complex, disciplinary reasoning within learning, focussing upon our experiences within postgraduate visual arts education. The importance of considering the affordances of the physical environment within education has been acknowledged by the recent attention given to Learning Spaces, yet within visual art disciplines the perception of visual material within a given space has long been seen as a key methodological consideration with implications for the identity of the discipline itself. We analyse the methodological, technological and spatial affordances of MD-LS to support learning, and discuss comparative viewing as a disciplinary method to structure visual analysis within the space which benefits from the simultaneous display of multiple partitions of visual evidence. We offer an analysis of the role of the teacher in authoring and orchestration and conclude by proposing a more general structure for what we term ‘multiple perspective learning’, in which the presentation of multiple pieces of visual evidence creates the conditions for complex argumentation within Higher Education.

  9. Combining visual dictionary, kernel-based similarity and learning strategy for image category retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Philippe-Henri; Cord, Matthieu; Philipp-Foliguet, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a search engine architecture, RETIN, aiming at retrieving com- plex categories in large image databases. For indexing, a scheme based on a two-step quantization process is presented to compute visual codebooks. The similarity be- tween images is represented in a kernel framework. Such a similarity is combined with online learning strategies motivated by recent Machine-Learning developments such as Active Learning. Additionally, an offine supervised learning is embedded in ...

  10. Reflective Teaching-Learning Process of Integrating Metaphorical Thinking and Visual Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Cittoor Girija Navaneedhan

    2012-01-01

    Reflective teaching-learning methodology is a self evaluation technique adopted by teachers to promote motivation within one’s own self in order to make teaching-learning process more interesting and effective task. “If the teacher integrates mind tools such as metaphorical thinking and visual imagery in his/her reflective teaching methodology, the teaching-learning process becomes more challenging, the teacher will develop radiant or divergent thinking as the result teaching-learning process...

  11. On loss aversion in bimatrix games

    OpenAIRE

    Driesen, B.; Perea, A.; Peters, H

    2007-01-01

    In this article three different types of loss aversion equilibria in bimatrix games are studied. Loss aversion equilibria are Nash equilibria of games where players are loss averse and where the reference points—points below which they consider payoffs to be losses—are endogenous to the equilibrium calculation. The first type is the fixed point loss aversion equilibrium, introduced in Shalev (2000; Int. J. Game Theory 29(2):269) under the name of ‘myopic loss aversion equilibrium.’ There, the...

  12. A Mouse Model of Visual Perceptual Learning Reveals Alterations in Neuronal Coding and Dendritic Spine Density in the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xian; Hu, Xu; Li, Yue; Lou, Shihao; Ma, Xiao; An, Xu; Liu, Hui; Peng, Jing; Ma, Danyi; Zhou, Yifeng; Yang, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can improve spatial vision in normally sighted and visually impaired individuals. Although previous studies of humans and large animals have explored the neural basis of VPL, elucidation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remains a challenge. Owing to the advantages of molecular genetic and optogenetic manipulations, the mouse is a promising model for providing a mechanistic understanding of VPL. Here, we thoroughly evaluated the effects and properties of VPL on spatial vision in C57BL/6J mice using a two-alternative, forced-choice visual water task. Briefly, the mice underwent prolonged training at near the individual threshold of contrast or spatial frequency (SF) for pattern discrimination or visual detection for 35 consecutive days. Following training, the contrast-threshold trained mice showed an 87% improvement in contrast sensitivity (CS) and a 55% gain in visual acuity (VA). Similarly, the SF-threshold trained mice exhibited comparable and long-lasting improvements in VA and significant gains in CS over a wide range of SFs. Furthermore, learning largely transferred across eyes and stimulus orientations. Interestingly, learning could transfer from a pattern discrimination task to a visual detection task, but not vice versa. We validated that this VPL fully restored VA in adult amblyopic mice and old mice. Taken together, these data indicate that mice, as a species, exhibit reliable VPL. Intrinsic signal optical imaging revealed that mice with perceptual training had higher cut-off SFs in primary visual cortex (V1) than those without perceptual training. Moreover, perceptual training induced an increase in the dendritic spine density in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of V1. These results indicated functional and structural alterations in V1 during VPL. Overall, our VPL mouse model will provide a platform for investigating the neurobiological basis of VPL. PMID:27014004

  13. A mouse model of visual perceptual learning reveals alterations in neuronal coding and dendritic spine density in the visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual perceptual learning (VPL can improve spatial vision in normally sighted and visually impaired individuals. Although previous studies of humans and large animals have explored the neural basis of VPL, elucidation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remains a challenge. Owing to the advantages of molecular genetic and optogenetic manipulations, the mouse is a promising model for providing a mechanistic understanding of VPL. Here, we thoroughly evaluated the effects and properties of VPL on spatial vision in C57BL/6J mice using a two-alternative, forced-choice visual water task. Briefly, the mice underwent prolonged training at near the individual threshold of contrast or spatial frequency (SF for pattern discrimination or visual detection for 35 consecutive days. Following training, the contrast-threshold trained mice showed an 87% improvement in contrast sensitivity (CS and a 55% gain in visual acuity (VA. Similarly, the SF-threshold trained mice exhibited comparable and long-lasting improvements in VA and significant gains in CS over a wide range of SFs. Furthermore, learning largely transferred across eyes and stimulus orientations. Interestingly, learning could transfer from a pattern discrimination task to a visual detection task, but not vice versa. We validated that this VPL fully restored VA in adult amblyopic mice and old mice. Taken together, these data indicate that mice, as a species, exhibit reliable VPL. Intrinsic signal optical imaging revealed that mice with perceptual training had higher cut-off SFs in primary visual cortex (V1 than those without perceptual training. Moreover, perceptual training induced an increase in the dendritic spine density in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of V1. These results indicated functional and structural alterations in V1 during VPL. Overall, our VPL mouse model will provide a platform for investigating the neurobiological basis of VPL.

  14. Visual Vocabulary Learning and Its Application to 3D and Mobile Visual Search

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Liujuan

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we review related works and recent trends in visual vocabulary based web image search, object recognition, mobile visual search, and 3D object retrieval. Especial focuses would be also given for the recent trends in supervised/unsupervised vocabulary optimization, compact descriptor for visual search, as well as in multi-view based 3D object representation.

  15. Assessment of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning style among undergraduate nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhwan Hussein Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Learning styles refer to the ability of learner to perceive and process information in learning situations. The ability to understand students’ learning styles can increase the educational outcomes. VAK (Visual, auditory, kinesthetic learning style is one of the learning style in which students use three of sensory perception to receive information. Teachers can incorporate these learning styles in their classroom activities so that students are competent to be successful in their courses. The purpose of this study is to assess Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic learning style among undergraduate nursing students. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out; the study was conducted during the period of 3rd. November, 2013-15, March, 2014, in two Nursing Colleges at Universities of Mosul and Kirkuk. A stratified random sampling was used for data collection. The target population was an undergraduate nursing students (210 students (60 male and 150 female. Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS, Chi-square, Frequencies and Percentage was used for data analysis. The results: the findings reveal that Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic learning style of the study sample was (40.0%, (29.5%, and 30.5% respectively. Females preferred auditory learning style (30.3% more than males (27.3%, while males preferred kinesthetic learning style (32.3% more than females (29.8%. Recommendation: The researcher recommended that nurse educators should aware of learning styles of the students and provide teaching style to be matched with their learning style.

  16. The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Paas, F., Marcus, N., Ayres, P., & Sweller, J. (2009). The mirror-neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 21-30.

  17. Artificial grammar learning: preference for acoustic or visual modality?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Ana Isabel Santos

    2013-01-01

    This thesis transmits the artificial grammar learning paradigm as an acquisition and processing model of language, within implicit learning investigation. The number of investigations about language and it’s acquisition has increased throughout the years, specifically in the implicit learning ability and artificial grammar learning as the most adequate ...

  18. Reduction in the retinotopic early visual cortex with normal aging and magnitude of perceptual learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H.; Andersen, George J.; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    While normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphological analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphological measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity. PMID:25277041

  19. The process of teaching and learning in classes with visual deficient students: perceptions of teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Iohanna Elizabeth Beckers; Josefa Lídia Costa Pereira; Anderson Giovani Trogello

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of astronomy focused on students with special educational needs must happen in order to involve the participant so inclusive in the process of teaching and learning. Thus, students with visual deficient require actions that favor the different senses but sight. Thus, this study set out to interview teachers in early grades of elementary school, aiming to analyze how the process of teaching and learning of astronomical content in classrooms that have included visual deficient stud...

  20. Fragment-Based Learning of Visual Object Categories in Non-Human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Kromrey; Matthew Maestri; Karin Hauffen; Evgeniy Bart; Jay Hegdé

    2010-01-01

    When we perceive a visual object, we implicitly or explicitly associate it with an object category we know. Recent research has shown that the visual system can use local, informative image fragments of a given object, rather than the whole object, to classify it into a familiar category. We have previously reported, using human psychophysical studies, that when subjects learn new object categories using whole objects, they incidentally learn informative fragments, even when not required to d...

  1. Sparse representation, modeling and learning in visual recognition theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This unique text/reference presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art in sparse representations, modeling and learning. The book examines both the theoretical foundations and details of algorithm implementation, highlighting the practical application of compressed sensing research in visual recognition and computer vision. Topics and features: provides a thorough introduction to the fundamentals of sparse representation, modeling and learning, and the application of these techniques in visual recognition; describes sparse recovery approaches, robust and efficient sparse represen

  2. A Computational Model of Spatial Learning by a Person with Visual Disability: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kanubhai K. Patel; SanjayKumar Vij

    2011-01-01

    A computational model, named as Non-visual Spatial Learning (NSL) model, of spatial learning by a person with visual disability through virtual environment (VE) is proposed in this paper. We report an experiment that investigates the validity of our NSL model by prototype system implementation based on the model. Fourteen participants ranging from 17 to 35 years old participated in experiment. They were divided in to two groups — bind-folded sighted (8 participants), and blind (6 participants...

  3. Visual Learning Alters the Spontaneous Activity of the Resting Human Brain: An fNIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijing Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC has been widely used to investigate spontaneous brain activity that exhibits correlated fluctuations. RSFC has been found to be changed along the developmental course and after learning. Here, we investigated whether and how visual learning modified the resting oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO functional brain connectivity by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. We demonstrate that after five days of training on an orientation discrimination task constrained to the right visual field, resting HbO functional connectivity and directed mutual interaction between high-level visual cortex and frontal/central areas involved in the top-down control were significantly modified. Moreover, these changes, which correlated with the degree of perceptual learning, were not limited to the trained left visual cortex. We conclude that the resting oxygenated hemoglobin functional connectivity could be used as a predictor of visual learning, supporting the involvement of high-level visual cortex and the involvement of frontal/central cortex during visual perceptual learning.

  4. Visual Formative Assessments: The Use of Images to Quickly Assess and Record Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Visual formative assessments (VFAs) allow more free more time for direct instruction. VFA's guide students in using simple images to demonstrate the essential learnings within a unit to themselves and the teacher. VFAs are powerful because they engage students to coalesce their understanding into a concise visual image. (Contains 2 figures.)

  5. Visual Design Guidelines for Improving Learning from Dynamic and Interactive Digital Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the dynamic and interactive features of digital text, the visual design guidelines for digital text are similar to those for printed text. The purpose of this study was to develop visual design guidelines for improving learning from dynamic and interactive digital text and to validate them by controlled testing. Two structure design…

  6. Visualisierungen im Lehr-Lern-Process (Visualizations in the Process of Teaching and Learning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnotz, Wolfgang; Zink, Thomas; Pfeiffer, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the role of visualization of information in learning. Theorizes that the comprehension of visualizations is a process of structure mapping between a visuo-spatial configuration and a mental model. Tests the model and finds differences in the use of text and picture information to answer different kinds of text questions. (DSK)

  7. Visual Hybrid Development Learning System (VHDLS) Framework for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banire, Bilikis; Jomhari, Nazean; Ahmad, Rodina

    2015-01-01

    The effect of education on children with autism serves as a relative cure for their deficits. As a result of this, they require special techniques to gain their attention and interest in learning as compared to typical children. Several studies have shown that these children are visual learners. In this study, we proposed a Visual Hybrid…

  8. A Study to Understand the Role of Visual Arts in the Teaching and Learning of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, Saroja; Kanapathy, Ravi; Mastan, Jamilah

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to understand the role of visual arts in the teaching and learning of science among Grade 3 teachers and students. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative research design was used to discover the different perceptions of both teachers and students on the role of visual arts in science. The data for the research was…

  9. Behind Mathematical Learning Disabilities: What about Visual Perception and Motor Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Stefanie; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert; Vanderswalmen, Ruth; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 39 children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) and 106 typically developing controls belonging to three control groups of three different ages, we found that visual perception, motor skills and visual-motor integration explained a substantial proportion of the variance in either number fact retrieval or procedural…

  10. Changes in visual object recognition precede the shape bias in early noun learning

    OpenAIRE

    LindaBSmith

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most formidable skills that characterize human beings are language and our prowess in visual object recognition. They may also be developmentally intertwined. Two experiments, a large sample cross-sectional study and a smaller sample 6-month longitudinal study of 18- 24 month olds tested a hypothesized developmental link between changes in the visual object representation and noun learning. Previous findings in visual object recognition indicate that children’s ability to recogniz...

  11. Sensory information in perceptual-motor sequence learning: visual and/or tactile stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Lubbe, van der, S.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2009-01-01

    Sequence learning in serial reaction time (SRT) tasks has been investigated mostly with unimodal stimulus presentation. This approach disregards the possibility that sequence acquisition may be guided by multiple sources of sensory information simultaneously. In the current study we trained participants in a SRT task with visual only, tactile only, or bimodal (visual and tactile) stimulus presentation. Sequence performance for the bimodal and visual only training groups was similar, while bot...

  12. The role of experience and sleep in visual learning : behavioral and brain imaging investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Duhoux Mathieu, Stéphanie

    2009-01-01

    Identifying and recognizing visual objects are crucial skills that enable to interact with the environment adequately. Most of the time, these processes are rapid and effortless. However, recognition is the final outcome of complex processes, including the creation of representations of visual objects and their consolidation into memory, which mechanisms and neural correlates remain largely unknown. The present work reports four studies, aiming at better understanding visual learning, and tes...

  13. Changes in Visual Object Recognition Precede the Shape Bias in Early Noun Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Meagan; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most formidable skills that characterize human beings are language and our prowess in visual object recognition. They may also be developmentally intertwined. Two experiments, a large sample cross-sectional study and a smaller sample 6-month longitudinal study of 18- to 24-month-olds, tested a hypothesized developmental link between changes in visual object representation and noun learning. Previous findings in visual object recognition indicate that children’s ability to recognize...

  14. Neural correlates of perceptual learning: A functional MRI study of visual texture discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Frith, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Visual texture discrimination has been shown to induce long-lasting behavioral improvement restricted to the trained eye and trained location in visual field [Karni, A. & Sagi, D. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 4966–4970]. We tested the hypothesis that such learning involves durable neural modifications at the earliest cortical stages of the visual system, where eye specificity, orientation, and location information are mapped with highest resolution. Using functional magnetic resonanc...

  15. Formation of 17-18 yrs age girl students’ visual performance by means of visual training at stage of adaptation to learning loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko S.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related training influence of basketball and volleyball elements on functional state of 1 st year students’ visual analyzers in period of adaptation to learning loads with expressed visual component. Material: in experiment 29 students of 17-18 year age without visual pathologies participated. Indicators of visual performance were determined by correction table of Tagayeva and processed by Weston methodic. Accommodative function was tested by method of mechanical proximetry. Results: the authors worked out and tested two programs of visual training. Influence of visual trainings on visual performance’s main components (quickness, quality, integral indicators was studied as well as eye’s accommodative function (by dynamic of position of the nearest point of clear vision. Conclusions: Application of visual trainings at physical education classes permits to improve indicators of visual analyzer’s performance as well as minimize negative influence of intensive learning loads on eye’ accommodative function.

  16. Stereoscopic Visualization as a Tool For Learning Astronomy Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Norman M

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization is becoming an extensively used educational tool. 3D visualization tends to be most useful when demonstrating concepts involving the very large – such as astronomy, or the very small – such as nanotechnology. Stereo visualization allows students to familiarize and immerse themselves in worlds which are difficult or impossible to experience in real life. This study will evaluate the educational benefit of teaching lessons involving a highly spatially-orient...

  17. Facilitation of learning spatial relations among locations by visual cues: generality across spatial configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, Bradley R; Kelly, Debbie M; Brown, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    Spatial pattern learning permits the learning of the location of objects in space relative to each other without reference to discrete visual landmarks or environmental geometry. In the present experiment, we investigated conditions that facilitate spatial pattern learning. Specifically, human participants searched in a real environment or interactive 3-D computer-generated virtual environment open-field search task for four hidden goal locations arranged in a diamond configuration located in a 5 x 5 matrix of raised bins. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Pattern Only, Landmark + Pattern, or Cues + Pattern. All participants experienced a Training phase followed by a Testing phase. Visual cues were coincident with the goal locations during Training only in the Cues + Pattern group whereas a single visual cue at a non-goal location maintained a consistent spatial relationship with the goal locations during Training only in the Landmark + Pattern group. All groups were then tested in the absence of visual cues. Results in both environments indicated that participants in all three groups learned the spatial configuration of goal locations. The presence of the visual cues during Training facilitated acquisition of the task for the Landmark + Pattern and Cues + Pattern groups compared to the Pattern Only group. During Testing the Landmark + Pattern and Cues + Pattern groups did not differ when their respective visual cues were removed. Furthermore, during Testing the performance of these two groups was superior to the Pattern Only group. Results generalize prior research to a different configuration of spatial locations, isolate spatial pattern learning as the process facilitated by visual cues, and indicate that the facilitation of learning spatial relations among locations by visual cues does not require coincident visual cues. PMID:19777275

  18. Conditioned Flavor Aversion: A Mechanism for Goats to Avoid Condensed Tannins in Blackbrush

    OpenAIRE

    Provenza, Frederick D; Burritt, Elizabeth A; Clausen, T. P.; Bryant, J. P.; Reichardt, P. B.; Distel, Roberto A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that herbivores instinctively avoid tannin-containing plant parts in response to the adverse effects of tannins on forage digestion. However, we found that goats learned to avoid condensed tannins (CTs) from blackbrush current season's growth by associating the flavor of foods containing CTs with aversive postingestive consequences. The aversive consequences experienced by goats apparently are not related to digestion inhibition and may depend on the structure ...

  19. Inequality Aversion and Risk Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Morilla, Xavier; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada

    2010-01-01

    Using self reported measures of life satisfaction and risk attitudes, we empirically test whether there is a relationship between individuals inequality and risk aversion. The empirical analysis uses the German SOEP household panel for the years 1997 to 2007 to conclude that the negative effect of inequality measured by the sample gini coefficient by year and federal state is larger for those individuals who report to be less willing to take risks. Nevertheless, the empirical results suggest ...

  20. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability to...... apply leverage. Risk parity portfolios exploit this opportunity by equalizing the risk allocation across asset classes, thus overweighting safer assets relative to their weight in the market portfolio....

  1. Financial Intermediation with Risk Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Hellwig, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The paper extends Diamond's (1984) analysis of financial intermediation to allow for risk aversion of the intermediary. It shows that, as in the case of risk neutrality, the agency costs of external funds provided to an intermediary are relatively small if the intermediary is financing many entrepreneurs with stochastically independent returns. Even though the intermediary is adding rather than subdividing risks, the underlying large-numbers argument is not invalidated by the presence of risk...

  2. Volatility, Investment and Disappointment Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Aizenman; Nancy Marion

    1995-01-01

    This study uncovers a statistically significant negative correlation between volatility and private investment over the 1970-93 period in a set of almost fifty developing countries and provides a possible interpretation of this result by using the disappointment- aversion expected utility framework first described by Gul (1991). We consider a number of different volatility measures related to domestic policies or to external factors. As the various volatility measures tend to be positively co...

  3. Inequality Aversion and Antisocial Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Thöni, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial punishment - punishment of pro-social cooperators - has shown to be detrimental for the efficiency of informal punishment mechanisms in public goods games. The motives behind antisocial punishment acts are not yet well understood. This article shows that inequality aversion predicts antisocial punishment in public goods games with punishment. The model by Fehr and Schmidt (1999) allows to derive conditions under which antisocial punishment occurs. With data from three studies on pu...

  4. Will Dyscalculics Be Benefitted by Dint of Visual Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Praveen; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2009-01-01

    Not all children are made the same. Learning disabilities like dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalculia are either not understood or ignored in schools. As a result, the schoolchildren suffer for no fault of theirs and they lag behind in their course of learning. They may find it difficult to achieve the basic skills of learning such as reading,…

  5. Learn to Teach Chemistry Using Visual Media Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoguz, Suat

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' attitudes to using visual media tools in the chemistry laboratory. One hundred and fifteen undergraduates studying science education at Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey participated in the study. They video-recorded chemistry experiments with visual media tools and assessed them on a…

  6. Spatial Constraints on Learning in Visual Search: Modeling Contextual Cuing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F.; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Predictive visual context facilitates visual search, a benefit termed contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998). In the original task, search arrays were repeated across blocks such that the spatial configuration (context) of all of the distractors in a display predicted an embedded target location. The authors modeled existing results using…

  7. Global Statistical Learning in a Visual Search Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John L.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Locating a target in a visual search task is facilitated when the target location is repeated on successive trials. Global statistical properties also influence visual search, but have often been confounded with local regularities (i.e., target location repetition). In two experiments, target locations were not repeated for four successive trials,…

  8. The Preference of Visualization in Teaching and Learning Absolute Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyalioglu, Alper Cihan; Aksu, Zeki; Senel, Esma Ozge

    2012-01-01

    Visualization is mostly despised although it complements and--sometimes--guides the analytical process. This study mainly investigates teachers' preferences concerning the use of the visualization method and determines the extent to which they encourage their students to make use of it within the problem-solving process. This study was conducted…

  9. Promote Chemistry Learning with Dynamic Visualizations: Generation, Selection, and Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihui

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic visualizations can strengthen chemistry instruction by illustrating atomic level phenomena. Visualizations can help students add ideas about unseen phenomena involving atomic particles. They allow students to interact with phenomena that cannot be investigated in hands-on laboratories. Connecting dynamic, atomic representations with associated observable phenomena and symbolic representations has the potential to increase the coherence and comprehensiveness of student understanding. C...

  10. Cortical Dynamics of Contextually Cued Attentive Visual Learning and Search: Spatial and Object Evidence Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Grossberg, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    How do humans use target-predictive contextual information to facilitate visual search? How are consistently paired scenic objects and positions learned and used to more efficiently guide search in familiar scenes? For example, humans can learn that a certain combination of objects may define a context for a kitchen and trigger a more efficient…

  11. Blended Learning in the Visual Communications Classroom: Student Reflections on a Multimedia Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    George-Palilonis, Jennifer; Filak, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Advances in digital technology and a rapidly evolving media landscape continue to dramatically change teaching and learning. Among these changes is the emergence of multimedia teaching and learning tools, online degree programs, and hybrid classes that blend traditional and digital content delivery. At the same time, visual communication programs…

  12. GreedEx: A Visualization Tool for Experimentation and Discovery Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Iturbide, J. A.; Debdi, O.; Esteban-Sanchez, N.; Pizarro, C.

    2013-01-01

    Several years ago we presented an experimental, discovery-learning approach to the active learning of greedy algorithms. This paper presents GreedEx, a visualization tool developed to support this didactic method. The paper states the design goals of GreedEx, makes explicit the major design decisions adopted, and describes its main characteristics…

  13. Visual Statistical Learning Based on the Perceptual and Semantic Information of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Sachio; Nishiyama, Megumi; Nakahara, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related…

  14. Learning Curve Analyses in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Are Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Truly Visual Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Visual and auditory verbal learning using a selective reminding format was studied in a mixed clinical sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 42), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 83), velocardiofacial syndrome (n = 17) and neurotypicals (n = 38) using the Test of Memory and Learning to (1) more thoroughly…

  15. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Carissa L.; Conway, Christopher M.; Field, Suzanne L.; Houston, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that nonlinguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning (VSL) as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a…

  16. The Film as Visual Aided Learning Tool in Classroom Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinay Gazi, Zehra; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the impact of the visual aided learning on pre-service teachers' co-construction of subject matter knowledge in teaching practice. The study revealed the examination of film as an active cognizing and learning tool in classroom management course within teacher education programme. Within the framework of action…

  17. Dissociable Learning Processes Underlie Human Pain Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Ganesh, Gowrishankar; Robbins, Trevor; Seymour, Ben

    2016-01-11

    Pavlovian conditioning underlies many aspects of pain behavior, including fear and threat detection [1], escape and avoidance learning [2], and endogenous analgesia [3]. Although a central role for the amygdala is well established [4], both human and animal studies implicate other brain regions in learning, notably ventral striatum and cerebellum [5]. It remains unclear whether these regions make different contributions to a single aversive learning process or represent independent learning mechanisms that interact to generate the expression of pain-related behavior. We designed a human parallel aversive conditioning paradigm in which different Pavlovian visual cues probabilistically predicted thermal pain primarily to either the left or right arm and studied the acquisition of conditioned Pavlovian responses using combined physiological recordings and fMRI. Using computational modeling based on reinforcement learning theory, we found that conditioning involves two distinct types of learning process. First, a non-specific "preparatory" system learns aversive facial expressions and autonomic responses such as skin conductance. The associated learning signals-the learned associability and prediction error-were correlated with fMRI brain responses in amygdala-striatal regions, corresponding to the classic aversive (fear) learning circuit. Second, a specific lateralized system learns "consummatory" limb-withdrawal responses, detectable with electromyography of the arm to which pain is predicted. Its related learned associability was correlated with responses in ipsilateral cerebellar cortex, suggesting a novel computational role for the cerebellum in pain. In conclusion, our results show that the overall phenotype of conditioned pain behavior depends on two dissociable reinforcement learning circuits. PMID:26711494

  18. Interactions of temperature and taste in conditioned aversions

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Patrick L.; Smith, James C.; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The the influence of temperature on taste cues and the ability to discriminate and learn about different temperatures of foods are important factors regulating ingestion. The goal of this research was to demonstrate that thermal orosensory input can serve as a salient stimulus to guide ingestive behavior in the rat, and also that it interacts with gustatory input during choice and conditioned aversion experiments. A novel apparatus with Peltier refrigerators was used to control the temperatur...

  19. Isolating Visual and Proprioceptive Components of Motor Sequence Learning in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharer, Elizabeth A; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Oberman, Lindsay M

    2016-05-01

    In addition to defining impairments in social communication skills, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also show impairments in more basic sensory and motor skills. Development of new skills involves integrating information from multiple sensory modalities. This input is then used to form internal models of action that can be accessed when both performing skilled movements, as well as understanding those actions performed by others. Learning skilled gestures is particularly reliant on integration of visual and proprioceptive input. We used a modified serial reaction time task (SRTT) to decompose proprioceptive and visual components and examine whether patterns of implicit motor skill learning differ in ASD participants as compared with healthy controls. While both groups learned the implicit motor sequence during training, healthy controls showed robust generalization whereas ASD participants demonstrated little generalization when visual input was constant. In contrast, no group differences in generalization were observed when proprioceptive input was constant, with both groups showing limited degrees of generalization. The findings suggest, when learning a motor sequence, individuals with ASD tend to rely less on visual feedback than do healthy controls. Visuomotor representations are considered to underlie imitative learning and action understanding and are thereby crucial to social skill and cognitive development. Thus, anomalous patterns of implicit motor learning, with a tendency to discount visual feedback, may be an important contributor in core social communication deficits that characterize ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 563-569. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26442448

  20. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Chilaka Nora; Perkins Elisabeth; Tripet Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambi...

  1. On the effects of action on visual perception & How new movement types are learned

    OpenAIRE

    Beets, Iseult Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    Perception can induce effects on action. Perception of others´ actions can thus influence our own actions. However, research on how action can shape perception is sparse. In this thesis, the effects of (i) motor learning and (ii) simple movements, can influence visual perception. Furthermore, the issue of motor learning is addressed; how can new movement types be learned and do active and passively guided motor training lead to ...

  2. The rhetoric of multi-display learning spaces: exploratory experiences in visual art discipines

    OpenAIRE

    Bligh, Brett; Lorenz, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Brett Bligh and Katharina Lorenz of The University of Nottingham, present the Multi-Display Learning Spaces (MD-LS) in this article. It comprises technologies to allow the viewing of multiple simultaneous visual materials, modes of learning which encourage critical reflection upon these materials, and spatial configurations which afford interaction between learners and the materials in orchestrated ways. They argue that Multi-Display Learning Spaces support complex, disciplinary reasoning wit...

  3. Estimation of Mental Effort in Learning Visual Search by Measuring Pupil Response

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Tatsuto; Puntous, Théodore; Tuladhar, Anup; Yoshimoto, Sanae; Shirama, Aya

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual sensitivity and performance with training. In this study, we examined whether learning is accompanied by a release from mental effort on the task, leading to automatization of the learned task. For this purpose, we had subjects conduct a visual search for a target, defined by a combination of orientation and spatial frequency, while we monitored their pupil size. It is well known that pupil size reflects the strength of mental effort...

  4. The effect of haptic guidance and visual feedback on learning a complex tennis task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; van Raai, Mark; Rauter, Georg; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert

    2013-11-01

    While haptic guidance can improve ongoing performance of a motor task, several studies have found that it ultimately impairs motor learning. However, some recent studies suggest that the haptic demonstration of optimal timing, rather than movement magnitude, enhances learning in subjects trained with haptic guidance. Timing of an action plays a crucial role in the proper accomplishment of many motor skills, such as hitting a moving object (discrete timing task) or learning a velocity profile (time-critical tracking task). The aim of the present study is to evaluate which feedback conditions-visual or haptic guidance-optimize learning of the discrete and continuous elements of a timing task. The experiment consisted in performing a fast tennis forehand stroke in a virtual environment. A tendon-based parallel robot connected to the end of a racket was used to apply haptic guidance during training. In two different experiments, we evaluated which feedback condition was more adequate for learning: (1) a time-dependent discrete task-learning to start a tennis stroke and (2) a tracking task-learning to follow a velocity profile. The effect that the task difficulty and subject's initial skill level have on the selection of the optimal training condition was further evaluated. Results showed that the training condition that maximizes learning of the discrete time-dependent motor task depends on the subjects' initial skill level. Haptic guidance was especially suitable for less-skilled subjects and in especially difficult discrete tasks, while visual feedback seems to benefit more skilled subjects. Additionally, haptic guidance seemed to promote learning in a time-critical tracking task, while visual feedback tended to deteriorate the performance independently of the task difficulty and subjects' initial skill level. Haptic guidance outperformed visual feedback, although additional studies are needed to further analyze the effect of other types of feedback visualization on

  5. A comparison of dependent measures used to quantify radiation-induced taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several commonly used measures of conditioned taste aversion were compared under a variety of experimental conditions. In the first experiment an aversion to a saccharin solution (0.1%) was conditioned by pairing this taste substance with a single 100 R exposure to Cobalt-60. Comparisons were performed between the following measures: a short-term single-bottle test, a 22-hour two-bottle preference test, a measure quantifying recovery from the aversion along with other measures derived from these tests. Appropriate control groups received saccharin and sham exposure, water and sham exposure, and water and radiation exposure in order to measure both neophobia and enhanced neophobia. In Experiment 2 the total whole body radiation exposure used to condition the taste aversion was varied in different groups from 50 to 300 R exposures and the effect on conditioning was measured using the dependent variables described in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3 radiation-induced taste aversion was studied in rats which had prior exposures to the saccharin solution. In all three studies it was shown that different interpretations result from measuring the conditioned aversion with the different dependent variables commonly used, and several measures are needed to give a fair and accurate description of learned taste aversion. (author)

  6. High salt recruits aversive taste pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Yuki; Butnaru, Matthew; von Buchholtz, Lars; Ryba, Nicholas J.P.; Zuker, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    In the tongue, distinct classes of taste receptor cells detect the five basic tastes, sweet, sour, bitter, sodium salt, and umami 1,2 . Among these qualities, bitter and sour stimuli are innately aversive, whereas sweet and umami are appetitive, and generally attractive to animals. In contrast, salty taste is unique in that increasing salt concentration fundamentally transforms an innately appetitive stimulus into a powerfully aversive one 3–7 . This appetitive-aversive balance helps maintain...

  7. Indexation Rules, Risk Aversion, and Imperfect Information

    OpenAIRE

    C. Benassi; A. E. Scorcu

    2003-01-01

    Nominal wage adjustment is modeled as resulting from bargaining between a risk neutral firm and a risk averse worker, in an environment where the rate of inflation is a random variable. Risk aversion makes for endogenous indexation arrangements, which deliver partial indexation as they exploit imperfect inflation indices; risk aversion also generates a positive correlation between indexation and inflation variance. The model suggests a distinction between complete vs incomplete inflation adju...

  8. Interference and feature specificity in visual perceptual learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yotsumoto, Yuko; Chang, Li-Hung; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual learning (PL) often shows specificity to a trained feature. We investigated whether feature specificity is related to disruption in PL using the texture discrimination task (TDT), which shows learning specificity to background element but not to target element. Learning was disrupted when orientations of background elements were changed in two successive training-sessions (interference) but not in a random order from trial to trial (roving). The presentation of target elements seem...

  9. Teaching and Learning Data Visualization: Ideas and Assignments

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Deborah; Perrett, Jamis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how to make statistical graphics a more prominent element of the undergraduate statistics curricula. The focus is on several different types of assignments that exemplify how to incorporate graphics into a course in a pedagogically meaningful way. These assignments include having students deconstruct and reconstruct plots, copy masterful graphs, create one-minute visual revelations, convert tables into `pictures', and develop interactive visualizations with, e.g., the v...

  10. THE ROLE OF VISUAL VOCABULARY IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING ITALIAN FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Pederzoli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual material does not imply necessarily the comprehension of the message included in it. It is necessary to go deeper, identifying the meaning enclosed into an expression using a visual code. In a formative context this aspect is even more relevant because the usage of visual material is growing due to also the new technologies applied to education. Therefore, this article highlights the main characteristics of a visual material for second languages acquisition, that is the visual vocabulary. First of all, the topic will be introduced through a semiotic overview about the usage of pictures in learning, underlining the process through which the meaning is spread across visual material. Indeed, the investigation of meaning-making includes the study of sign processes – that is semiosis – like analogy, metaphor, symbolism, likeness, etc., all aspects that characterize a linguistic code and a visual code too. Then, a literature review focuses on the main studies concerning the teaching and learning of vocabulary in a second language, especially in the field of the French lexicography. Finally, considering the characteristics of the visual material from a semiotic perspective, the final paragraph provides an example of a visual vocabulary of Italian as second language. This vocabulary is thought for foreign workers in the field of tourism and hosting that need to learn Italian for specific purpose. Thus, considering the proficiency level of that type of learners (A2, according to the CEFR and their limitation in terms of time spent for learning, the vocabulary represents an effective support material in the process of learning and retaining vocabulary and fixed expressions. Therefore, this article aims at contributing to the debate over the usage of visual material in the context of learning and teaching a second language, due to the fact that nowadays the society offers us a wide range of visual stimuli. Thus, as users or designers

  11. Neural systems underlying aversive conditioning in humans with primary and secondary reinforcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R Delgado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Money is a secondary reinforcer commonly used across a range of disciplines in experimental paradigms investigating reward learning and decision-making. The effectiveness of monetary reinforcers during aversive learning and its neural basis, however, remains a topic of debate. Specifically, it is unclear if the initial acquisition of aversive representations of monetary losses depends on similar neural systems as more traditional aversive conditioning that involves primary reinforcers. This study contrasts the efficacy of a biologically defined primary reinforcer (shock and a socially defined secondary reinforcer (money during aversive learning and its associated neural circuitry. During a two-part experiment, participants first played a gambling game where wins and losses were based on performance to gain an experimental bank. Participants were then exposed to two separate aversive conditioning sessions. In one session, a primary reinforcer (mild shock served as an unconditioned stimulus (US and was paired with one of two colored squares, the conditioned stimuli (CS+ and CS-, respectively. In another session, a secondary reinforcer (loss of money served as the US and was paired with one of two different CS. Skin conductance responses were greater for CS+ compared to CS- trials irrespective of type of reinforcer. Neuroimaging results revealed that the striatum, a region typically linked with reward-related processing, was found to be involved in the acquisition of aversive conditioned response irrespective of reinforcer type. In contrast, the amygdala was involved during aversive conditioning with primary reinforcers, as suggested by both an exploratory fMRI analysis and a follow-up case study with a patient with bilateral amygdala damage. Taken together, these results suggest that learning about potential monetary losses may depend on reinforcement learning related systems, rather than on typical structures involved in more biologically based

  12. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: II. Sucrose and Corn Oil Conditioned Aversions

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Grigson, Patricia S.; Norgren, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    In this study conditioned aversions were produced in sham feeding rats to limit postingestive feedback from the oral stimulus. All control rats learned an aversion to either 100% corn oil or 0.3M sucrose when ingestion of these stimuli was followed by an injection of lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats with lesions of the ventroposteromedial thalamus also learned to avoid either corn oil or sucrose. After 3 trials, rats with damage to the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) learned to avoid 100% corn oil, bu...

  13. The Effect of Learning on the Function of Monkey Extrastriate Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Gregor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most remarkable capabilities of the adult brain is its ability to learn and continuously adapt to an ever-changing environment. While many studies have documented how learning improves the perception and identification of visual stimuli, relatively little is known about how it modifies the underlying neural mechanisms. We trained monkeys to identify natural images that were degraded by interpolation with visual noise. We found that learning led to an improvement in monkeys' ability to identify these indeterminate visual stimuli. We link this behavioral improvement to a learning-dependent increase in the amount of information communicated by V4 neurons. This increase was mediated by a specific enhancement in neural activity. Our results reveal a mechanism by which learning increases the amount of information that V4 neurons are able to extract from the visual environment. This suggests that V4 plays a key role in resolving indeterminate visual inputs by coordinated interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing streams.

  14. The effect of learning on the function of monkey extrastriate visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Rainer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most remarkable capabilities of the adult brain is its ability to learn and continuously adapt to an ever-changing environment. While many studies have documented how learning improves the perception and identification of visual stimuli, relatively little is known about how it modifies the underlying neural mechanisms. We trained monkeys to identify natural images that were degraded by interpolation with visual noise. We found that learning led to an improvement in monkeys' ability to identify these indeterminate visual stimuli. We link this behavioral improvement to a learning-dependent increase in the amount of information communicated by V4 neurons. This increase was mediated by a specific enhancement in neural activity. Our results reveal a mechanism by which learning increases the amount of information that V4 neurons are able to extract from the visual environment. This suggests that V4 plays a key role in resolving indeterminate visual inputs by coordinated interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing streams.

  15. Visual Mnemonics for Language Learning: Static Pictures versus Animated Morphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemer, Alexander; Schwan, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The literature on learning with animations has focused so far on subject matters in which changes over time depicted in the animation are mapped onto changes over time in the reality of the concepts to be learned. The experiments presented in this article, however, suggest that also a nontemporal mapping of facts, as in paired-associate learning…

  16. Adaptive learning in a compartmental model of visual cortex - how feedback enables stable category learning and refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg eLayher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The categorization of real world objects is often reflected in the similarity of their visual appearances. Such categories of objects do not necessarily form disjunct sets of objects, neither semantically nor visually. The relationship between categories can often be described in terms of a hierarchical structure. For instance, tigers and leopards build two separate mammalian categories, but both belong to the category of felines. In other words, tigers and leopards are subcategories of the category Felidae. In the last decades, the unsupervised learning of categories of visual input stimuli has been addressed by numerous approaches in machine learning as well as in the computational neurosciences. However, the question of what kind of mechanisms might be involved in the process of subcategory learning, or category refinement, remains a topic of active investigation. We propose a recurrent computational network architecture for the unsupervised learning of categorial and subcategorial visual input representations. During learning, the connection strengths of bottom-up weights from input to higher-level category representations are adapted according to the input activity distribution. In a similar manner, top-down weights learn to encode the characteristics of a specific stimulus category. Feedforward and feedback learning in combination realize an associative memory mechanism, enabling the selective top-down propagation of a category's feedback weight distribution. We suggest that the difference between the expected input encoded in the projective field of a category node and the current input pattern controls the amplification of feedforward-driven representations. Large enough differences trigger the recruitment of new representational resources and the establishment of (sub- category representations. We demonstrate the temporal evolution of such learning and show how the approach successully establishes category and subcategory

  17. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, María C.; Kramar, Cecilia P.; Tomaiuolo, Micol; Katche, Cynthia; Weisstaub, Noelia; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H.

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 h later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus. PMID:25506318

  18. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-tem aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 hour later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus.

  19. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, María C; Kramar, Cecilia P; Tomaiuolo, Micol; Katche, Cynthia; Weisstaub, Noelia; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 h later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus. PMID:25506318

  20. Learning Science Using AR Book: A Preliminary Study on Visual Needs of Deaf Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megat Mohd. Zainuddin, Norziha; Badioze Zaman, Halimah; Ahmad, Azlina

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that is projected to have more significant role in teaching and learning, particularly in visualising abstract concepts in the learning process. AR is a technology is based on visually oriented technique. Thus, it is suitable for deaf learners since they are generally classified as visual learners. Realising the importance of visual learning style for deaf learners in learning Science, this paper reports on a preliminary study of on an ongoing research on problems faced by deaf learners in learning the topic on Microorganisms. Being visual learners, they have problems with current text books that are more text-based that graphic based. In this preliminary study, a qualitative approach using the ethnographic observational technique was used so that interaction with three deaf learners who are participants throughout this study (they are also involved actively in the design and development of the AR Book). An interview with their teacher and doctor were also conducted to identify their learning and medical problems respectively. Preliminary findings have confirmed the need to design and develop a special Augmented Reality Book called AR-Science for Deaf Learners (AR-SiD).

  1. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Brandstatt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.

  2. Recovering risk aversion from options

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss, Robert R.; Nikolaos Panigirtzoglou

    2001-01-01

    Cross-sections of option prices embed the risk-neutral probability densities functions (PDFs) for the future values of the underlying asset. Theory suggests that risk-neutral PDFs differ from market expectations due to risk premia. Using a utility function to adjust the risk-neutral PDF to produce subjective PDFs, we can obtain measures of the risk aversion implied in option prices. Using FTSE 100 and S&P 500 options, and both power and exponential utility functions, we show that subjective P...

  3. Students using visual thinking to learn science in a Web-based environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, Jean Margaret

    United States students' science test scores are low, especially in problem solving, and traditional science instruction could be improved. Consequently, visual thinking, constructing science structures, and problem solving in a web-based environment may be valuable strategies for improving science learning. This ethnographic study examined the science learning of fifteen fourth grade students in an after school computer club involving diverse students at an inner city school. The investigation was done from the perspective of the students, and it described the processes of visual thinking, web page construction, and problem solving in a web-based environment. The study utilized informal group interviews, field notes, Visual Learning Logs, and student web pages, and incorporated a Standards-Based Rubric which evaluated students' performance on eight science and technology standards. The Visual Learning Logs were drawings done on the computer to represent science concepts related to the Food Chain. Students used the internet to search for information on a plant or animal of their choice. Next, students used this internet information, with the information from their Visual Learning Logs, to make web pages on their plant or animal. Later, students linked their web pages to form Science Structures. Finally, students linked their Science Structures with the structures of other students, and used these linked structures as models for solving problems. Further, during informal group interviews, students answered questions about visual thinking, problem solving, and science concepts. The results of this study showed clearly that (1) making visual representations helped students understand science knowledge, (2) making links between web pages helped students construct Science Knowledge Structures, and (3) students themselves said that visual thinking helped them learn science. In addition, this study found that when using Visual Learning Logs, the main overall ideas of the

  4. Learning Visual Representations for Perception-Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piater, Justus; Jodogne, Sebastien; Detry, Renaud;

    2011-01-01

    We discuss vision as a sensory modality for systems that effect actions in response to perceptions. While the internal representations informed by vision may be arbitrarily complex, we argue that in many cases it is advantageous to link them rather directly to action via learned mappings...... and RLJC, our second method learns structural object models for robust object detection and pose estimation by probabilistic inference. To these models, the method associates grasp experiences autonomously learned by trial and error. These experiences form a nonparametric representation of grasp success...

  5. Analítica visual en eLearning

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Aguilar, Diego Alonso

    2015-01-01

    [ES] La docencia universitaria ha experimentado cambios espectaculares en los últimos años debido al impacto de la tecnología en diferentes actividades cotidianas. El eLearning (o aprendizaje electrónico) y el bLearning (Blended Learning o aprendizaje mixto) nacieron gracias a este fenómeno, ya fuera como alternativa o complemento a la enseñanza tradicional. Esto ha producido cambios de paradigma en los últimos años en la docencia universitaria donde muchos profesores se han apoyado o han sus...

  6. The role of visualization in learning from computer-based images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piburn, Michael D.; Reynolds, Stephen J.; McAuliffe, Carla; Leedy, Debra E.; Birk, James P.; Johnson, Julia K.

    2005-05-01

    Among the sciences, the practice of geology is especially visual. To assess the role of spatial ability in learning geology, we designed an experiment using: (1) web-based versions of spatial visualization tests, (2) a geospatial test, and (3) multimedia instructional modules built around QuickTime Virtual Reality movies. Students in control and experimental sections were administered measures of spatial orientation and visualization, as well as a content-based geospatial examination. All subjects improved significantly in their scores on spatial visualization and the geospatial examination. There was no change in their scores on spatial orientation. A three-way analysis of variance, with the geospatial examination as the dependent variable, revealed significant main effects favoring the experimental group and a significant interaction between treatment and gender. These results demonstrate that spatial ability can be improved through instruction, that learning of geological content will improve as a result, and that differences in performance between the genders can be eliminated.

  7. The influence of visual ability on learning and memory performance in 13 strains of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Richard E; Wong, Aimée A.

    2007-01-01

    We calculated visual ability in 13 strains of mice (129SI/Sv1mJ, A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, CAST/EiJ, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, MOLF/EiJ, SJL/J, SM/J, and SPRET/EiJ) on visual detection, pattern discrimination, and visual acuity and tested these and other mice of the same strains in a behavioral test battery that evaluated visuo-spatial learning and memory, conditioned odor preference, and motor learning. Strain differences in visual acuity accounted for a significant proportion of the v...

  8. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol eTomaiuolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lateral Habenula (LHb is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA. We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 hours after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience.

  9. New perspectives on e-learning for the blind and severely visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder, Roland

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the late 90s different options has been established for media supported learning, so-called e-learning. The underlying mechanisms provide an appropriate platform for a novel learning environment that might help the blind and severely visually impaired. The options represent visual information provided by tactile analogies. A haptic device is used, i.e., a hardware device that helps present tactile information. The haptic device can generate a tactile representation of geometric objects and physical bodies. This can be provided with or without visual information and/or a teacher’s instructions. Respective requirements have been met by developing the prototypical software make2Dhaptic. In this paper applications of the haptic device and make2Dhaptic in combination with histological slides are discussed. The results of initial tests are promising.

  10. Differential Endocannabinoid Regulation of Extinction in Appetitive and Aversive Barnes Maze Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloe, John P.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2008-01-01

    CB[subscript 1] receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the…

  11. How does learning experience modulate expertise markers in the visual and auditory domains

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tianyin; 劉天音

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I aim to examine how learning to read in different scripts modulates the way visual and spoken words are processed. In visual word processing (Chapter 2), I focused on two expertise markers for Chinese character recognition, reduced holistic processing (HP) and left-side bias (LSB) effects, and used simplified and traditional Chinese scripts as the stimuli. I found that simplified and traditional Chinese readers demonstrated a similar level of HP when processing characters sha...

  12. Visual Storytelling Interacting in School : Learning Conditions in the Social Science Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Stenliden, Linnéa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this compilation thesis is to understand how technology for visual storytelling can be shaped and used in relation to social science education in primary school, but also how social dimensions, technical and other matters create emerging learning conditions in such an educational setting. The visual storytelling technology introduced and used in the study is ‘the Statistics eXplorer platform, a geovisual analytics. The choice of theoretical perspectives to inform and guide the stud...

  13. Learning-Based Visual Saliency Model for Detecting Diabetic Macular Edema in Retinal Image

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochun Zou; Xinbo Zhao; Yongjia Yang; Na Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper brings forth a learning-based visual saliency model method for detecting diagnostic diabetic macular edema (DME) regions of interest (RoIs) in retinal image. The method introduces the cognitive process of visual selection of relevant regions that arises during an ophthalmologist’s image examination. To record the process, we collected eye-tracking data of 10 ophthalmologists on 100 images and used this database as training and testing examples. Based on analysis, two properties (Fe...

  14. Enhancing the Teaching and Learning of Mathematical Visual Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinnell, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    The importance of mathematical visual images is indicated by the introductory paragraph in the Statistics and Probability content strand of the Australian Curriculum, which draws attention to the importance of learners developing skills to analyse and draw inferences from data and "represent, summarise and interpret data and undertake…

  15. Accurate or Assumed: Visual Learning in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembath, David; Vivanti, Giacomo; Iacono, Teresa; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often described as visual learners. We tested this assumption in an experiment in which 25 children with ASD, 19 children with global developmental delay (GDD), and 17 typically developing (TD) children were presented a series of videos via an eye tracker in which an actor instructed them to…

  16. Teacher Education and Experiential Learning: A Visual Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Maureen; Smith, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article reports research that critically examined our teacher education outdoor education pedagogy. The purpose was to use visual ethnography to critique our teaching over twenty years of annual five-day bush-based residential camps. The bush camps were situated in an outdoor education programme contributing to a four-year undergraduate…

  17. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilaka Nora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Two contrasted membrane qualities or levels of blood palatability were used as reinforcing stimuli for bi-directional conditioning during blood feeding. Results Under such experimental conditions An. gambiae females learned very rapidly to associate visual (chequered and white patterns and olfactory cues (presence and absence of cheese or Citronella smell with the reinforcing stimuli (bloodmeal quality and remembered the association for up to three days. Associative learning significantly increased with the strength of the conditioning stimuli used. Importantly, learning sometimes occurred faster when a positive reinforcing stimulus (palatable blood was associated with an innately preferred cue (such as a darker visual pattern. However, the use of too attractive a cue (e.g. Shropshire cheese smell was counter-productive and decreased learning success. Conclusions The results address an important knowledge gap in mosquito ecology and emphasize the role of associative memory for An. gambiae's host finding and blood-feeding behaviour with important potential implications for vector control.

  18. Appetitive vs. Aversive conditioning in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US), which might be pain (aversive conditioning) or food (appetitive conditioning). After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and patholog...

  19. Appetitive vs. Aversive Conditioning in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Andreatta

    2015-01-01

    In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US), which might be pain (aversive conditioning) or food (appetitive conditioning). After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and patholog...

  20. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-04-01

    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional-in particular, fear-related-processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595436

  1. Risk Aversion, Price Uncertainty and Irreversible Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goorbergh, R.W.J.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the theory of irreversible investment under uncertainty by allowing for risk averse investors in the absence of com-plete markets.Until now this theory has only been developed in the cases of risk neutrality, or risk aversion in combination with complete markets.Within a gener

  2. Joint Prior Learning for Visual Sensor Network Noisy Image Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Bo; Wang, Shuang; Liang, Xuefeng; Jiao, Licheng; Xu, Caijin

    2016-01-01

    The visual sensor network (VSN), a new type of wireless sensor network composed of low-cost wireless camera nodes, is being applied for numerous complex visual analyses in wild environments, such as visual surveillance, object recognition, etc. However, the captured images/videos are often low resolution with noise. Such visual data cannot be directly delivered to the advanced visual analysis. In this paper, we propose a joint-prior image super-resolution (JPISR) method using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to improve VSN image quality. Unlike conventional methods that only focus on upscaling images, JPISR alternatively solves upscaling mapping and denoising in the E-step and M-step. To meet the requirement of the M-step, we introduce a novel non-local group-sparsity image filtering method to learn the explicit prior and induce the geometric duality between images to learn the implicit prior. The EM algorithm inherently combines the explicit prior and implicit prior by joint learning. Moreover, JPISR does not rely on large external datasets for training, which is much more practical in a VSN. Extensive experiments show that JPISR outperforms five state-of-the-art methods in terms of both PSNR, SSIM and visual perception. PMID:26927114

  3. Enhance students’ motivation to learn programming by using direct visual feed-back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; Reng, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The technical subjects chosen are within programming. Using image-processing algorithms as means to provide direct visual feedback for learning basic C/C++. The pedagogical approach is within a PBL framework and is based on dialogue and collaborative learning. At the same time the intention was to...... establish a community of practice among the students and the teachers. A direct visual feedback and a higher level of merging between the artistic, creative, and technical lectures have been the focus of motivation as well as a complete restructuring of the elements of the technical lectures. The paper will...

  4. Both memory and attention systems contribute to visual search for targets cued by implicitly learned context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Barry; Sy, Jocelyn L; Guerin, Scott A

    2013-06-01

    Environmental context learned without awareness can facilitate visual processing of goal-relevant information. According to one view, the benefit of implicitly learned context relies on the neural systems involved in spatial attention and hippocampus-mediated memory. While this view has received empirical support, it contradicts traditional models of hippocampal function. The purpose of the present work was to clarify the influence of spatial context on visual search performance and on brain structures involved memory and attention. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that activity in the hippocampus as well as in visual and parietal cortex was modulated by learned visual context even though participants' subjective reports and performance on a post-experiment recognition task indicated no explicit knowledge of the learned context. Moreover, the magnitude of the initial selective hippocampus response predicted the magnitude of the behavioral benefit due to context observed at the end of the experiment. The results suggest that implicit contextual learning is mediated by attention and memory and that these systems interact to support search of our environment. PMID:23099047

  5. On-the-fly learning for visual search of large-scale image and video datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Chatfield, Ken; Arandjelović, Relja; Parkhi, Omkar; Zisserman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to visually search large-scale video datasets for semantic entities specified by a text query. The paradigm we explore is constructing visual models for such semantic entities on-the-fly, i.e. at run time, by using an image search engine to source visual training data for the text query. The approach combines fast and accurate learning and retrieval, and enables videos to be returned within seconds of specifying a query. We describe three classes of queries, each...

  6. Visual Literacy Skills of Students in College-Level Biology: Learning Outcomes Following Digital or Hand-Drawing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Justine C.

    2014-01-01

    To test the claim that digital learning tools enhance the acquisition of visual literacy in this generation of biology students, a learning intervention was carried out with 33 students enrolled in an introductory college biology course. This study compared learning outcomes following two types of learning tools: a traditional drawing activity, or…

  7. Blended learning promoting new developments for Nordic master programs in visual studies and art education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a blended course design in the international Nordic Visual Studies and Art Education (NoVA) master’s program developed and conducted by four Nordic partners. We examine a particular course - Visual cultures and aesthetics in digital communication and learning...... (Ejsing-Duun & Buhl forthcoming). The blended learning course VCAD involved a combination of face-to-face teaching with usage of location-based and mobile activities involving i-nigma, Instagram, and Pinterest, which comprised their learning materials and platforms. Furthermore, the course included online...... activities via the learning management system Moodle and the presentation and video conferencing system Adobe Connect.Studies on design-based research (DBR) approaches (Amiel & Reeves 2008, Dede 2004) inspired the principles for the research design, as teachers made interventions during the VCAD course. The...

  8. Learning expressive percussion performance under different visual feedback conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Brandmeyer, A.; Sadakata, M.; Timmers, R.; Desain, P.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the effect of two different forms of real-time visual feedback on expressive percussion performance. Conservatory percussion students performed imitations of recorded teacher performances while receiving either high-level feedback on the expressive style of their performances, low-level feedback on the timing and dynamics of the performed notes, or no feedback. The high-level feedback was based on a Bayesian analysis of the performances, while the low-level feedb...

  9. Visual Representations Is Lexical Learning Environments: Application To The Alexia System

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thierry; Selva, Thierry

    1998-01-01

    Cognition-based arguments in support of using multimedia aids for the learning of vocabulary have so far offered only an imprecise, general framework. CALL experimentalists have also tried to establish the effectiveness of multimedia for vocabulary learning, but their attempts reveal that the underlying representations have not been clearly defined. After reviewing these points, we propose criteria for evaluating the quality of a visual representation in a lexical environment. These criteria ...

  10. Location specific sleep spindle activity in the early visual areas and perceptual learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Ji Won; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Hämäläinen, Matti; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is consolidated during sleep. However, the underlying neuronal mechanisms of consolidation are not yet fully understood. It has been suggested that the spontaneous brain oscillations that characterize sleep stages are indicative of the consolidation of learning and memory. We investigated whether sleep spindles and/or slow-waves are associated with consolidation of VPL during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep during the first sleep cycle, using magnetoenceph...

  11. Visual Sequence Learning in Infancy: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Associations with Language

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that non-linguistic sequence learning abilities are an important contributor to language development (Conway, Bauernschmidt, Huang, & Pisoni, 2010). The current study investigated visual sequence learning as a possible predictor of vocabulary development in infants. Fifty-eight 8.5-month-old infants were presented with a three-location spatiotemporal sequence of multi-colored geometric shapes. Early language skills were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates CDI. Analyses of chi...

  12. Broad-based visual benefits from training with an integrated perceptual-learning video game

    OpenAIRE

    Deveau, Jenni; Lovcik, Gary; Aaron R Seitz

    2014-01-01

    Perception is the window through which we understand all information about our environment, and therefore deficits in perception due to disease, injury, stroke or aging can have significant negative impacts on individuals’ lives. Research in the field of perceptual learning has demonstrated that vision can be improved in both normally seeing and visually impaired individuals, however, a limitation of most perceptual learning approaches is their emphasis on isolating particular mechanisms. In ...

  13. A Comparative Study of Textual and Visual Contextualization on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Zoghi; Mehdi Mirzaei

    2014-01-01

    Language teaching practioners are curently puting increasing emphasis on L2 vocabulary learning in the language teaching curiculum. Aditonaly, with the emergence and prevalence of growing technologies, language teachers are asumed to take advantage of these technologies in prompting L2 learning vocabulary. The present comparative study investigates the efect of using two types of vocabulary contextualization; textual and visual, in teaching vocabulary. The participants were seventy lear...

  14. Dissociable circuits for visual shape learning in the young and aging human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mayhew, Stephen D.; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing objects in cluttered scenes is vital for successful interactions in our complex environments. Learning is known to play a key role in facilitating performance in a wide range of perceptual skills not only in young but also older adults. However, the neural mechanisms that support our ability to improve visual form recognition with training in older age remain largely unknown. Here, we combine behavioral and fMRI measurements to identify the brain circuits involved in the learning ...

  15. Visual Learning Alters the Spontaneous Activity of the Resting Human Brain: An fNIRS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Haijing Niu; Hao Li; Li Sun; Yongming Su; Jing Huang; Yan Song

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been widely used to investigate spontaneous brain activity that exhibits correlated fluctuations. RSFC has been found to be changed along the developmental course and after learning. Here, we investigated whether and how visual learning modified the resting oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) functional brain connectivity by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We demonstrate that after five days of training on an orientation discrimina...

  16. LearnIT: Enhanced Search and Visualization of IT Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmouni, Maher; Hickey, Marianne; Bartolini, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Year over year, the majority of IT projects fail to deliver the required features on time and budget, costing billions of dollars. The task of portfolio managers is to make a selection of prospective projects, given only rough cost-benefit estimates for them. In this paper, we present LearnIT, a tool to aid portfolio managers in their portfolio selection job. LearnIT identifies past or current IT projects within a large database on the basis of similarity to a given IT project or proposal. Fu...

  17. Socio-cognitive profiles for visual learning in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChristian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common wisdom that practice makes perfect; but why do some adults learn better than others? Here, we investigate individuals’ cognitive and social profiles to test which variables account for variability in learning ability across the lifespan. In particular, we focused on visual learning using tasks that test the ability to inhibit distractors and select task-relevant features. We tested the ability of young and older adults to improve through training in the discrimination of visual global forms embedded in a cluttered background. Further, we used a battery of cognitive tasks and psycho-social measures to examine which of these variables predict training-induced improvement in perceptual tasks and may account for individual variability in learning ability. Using partial least squares regression modelling, we show that visual learning is influenced by cognitive (i.e. cognitive inhibition, attention and social (strategic and deep learning factors rather than an individual’s age alone. Further, our results show that independent of age, strong learners rely on cognitive factors such as attention, while weaker learners use more general cognitive strategies. Our findings suggest an important role for higher-cognitive circuits involving executive functions that contribute to our ability to improve in perceptual tasks after training across the lifespan.

  18. Visual acuity and visual skills in Malaysian children with learning disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaliha MN; Nurhamiza B; Hussein A; Norabibas AR; Mohd-Hisham-Basrun J; Sarimah A; Leo SW; Shatriah I

    2012-01-01

    Mohd-Nor Muzaliha,1 Buang Nurhamiza,1 Adil Hussein,1 Abdul-Rani Norabibas,1 Jaafar Mohd-Hisham-Basrun,1 Abdullah Sarimah,2 Seo-Wei Leo,3 Ismail Shatriah11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Biostatistics and Research Methodology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia; 3Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, SingaporeBackground: There is limited data in the literature concerning the visual status and...

  19. Learning Disabilities and the Auditory and Visual Matching Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormanen, Minna R. K.; Takala, Marjatta; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether audiovisual computer training without linguistic material had a remedial effect on different learning disabilities, like dyslexia and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). This study applied a pre-test-intervention-post-test design with students (N = 62) between the ages of 7 and 19. The computer training lasted eight weeks…

  20. Robust visual tracking via multi-task sparse learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we formulate object tracking in a particle filter framework as a multi-task sparse learning problem, which we denote as Multi-Task Tracking (MTT). Since we model particles as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically, learning the representation of each particle is considered a single task in MTT. By employing popular sparsity-inducing p, q mixed norms (p D; 1), we regularize the representation problem to enforce joint sparsity and learn the particle representations together. As compared to previous methods that handle particles independently, our results demonstrate that mining the interdependencies between particles improves tracking performance and overall computational complexity. Interestingly, we show that the popular L 1 tracker [15] is a special case of our MTT formulation (denoted as the L 11 tracker) when p q 1. The learning problem can be efficiently solved using an Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. As such, MTT is computationally attractive. We test our proposed approach on challenging sequences involving heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that MTT methods consistently outperform state-of-the-art trackers. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Perceptual Organization of Visual Structure Requires a Flexible Learning Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Bhatt and Quinn (2011) provide a compelling and comprehensive review of empirical evidence that supports the operation of principles of perceptual organization in young infants. They also have provided a comprehensive list of experiences that could serve to trigger the learning of at least some of these principles of perceptual organization, and…

  2. The visual simulators for architecture and computer organization learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Boško; Grbanović Nenad; Đorđević Jovan

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a method of an effective distance learning of architecture and computer organization. The proposed method is based on a software system that is possible to be applied in any course in this field. Within this system students are enabled to observe simulation of already created computer systems. The system provides creation and simulation of switch systems, too.

  3. Learning of arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli in adults: the "bond effect" of haptic exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fredembach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well-known that human beings are able to associate stimuli (novel or not perceived in their environment. For example, this ability is used by children in reading acquisition when arbitrary associations between visual and auditory stimuli must be learned. The studies tend to consider it as an "implicit" process triggered by the learning of letter/sound correspondences. The study described in this paper examined whether the addition of the visuo-haptic exploration would help adults to learn more effectively the arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults were asked to learn 15 new arbitrary associations between visual stimuli and their corresponding sounds using two learning methods which differed according to the perceptual modalities involved in the exploration of the visual stimuli. Adults used their visual modality in the "classic" learning method and both their visual and haptic modalities in the "multisensory" learning one. After both learning methods, participants showed a similar above-chance ability to recognize the visual and auditory stimuli and the audio-visual associations. However, the ability to recognize the visual-auditory associations was better after the multisensory method than after the classic one. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed that adults learned more efficiently the arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli when the visual stimuli were explored with both vision and touch. The results are discussed from the perspective of how they relate to the functional differences of the manual haptic modality and the hypothesis of a "haptic bond" between visual and auditory stimuli.

  4. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:26156982

  5. Instructional Designer's Intentions and Learners' Perceptions of the Instructional Functions of Visuals in an e-Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung-Hee; Boling, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare an instructional designer's intentions with the learners' perceptions of the instructional functions of visuals in one specific e-learning lesson. An instructional designer created each visual with more than two purposes related to the psychological, cognitive, and affective aspects of learning. Contrary to…

  6. Learning to Associate Orientation with Color in Early Visual Areas by Associative Decoded fMRI Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-07-25

    Associative learning is an essential brain process where the contingency of different items increases after training. Associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions [1-4]. However, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas, although a number of studies have indicated that learning of a single visual feature (perceptual learning) involves early visual areas [5-8]. Here, via decoded fMRI neurofeedback termed "DecNef" [9], we tested whether associative learning of orientation and color can be created in early visual areas. During 3 days of training, DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was physically presented to participants. As a result, participants came to perceive "red" significantly more frequently than "green" in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3-5 months after the training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of two different visual features such as orientation and color was created, most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning is called "A-DecNef," and it may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain functions because associations are fundamental and ubiquitous functions in the brain. PMID:27374335

  7. Learning to See the Infinite: Measuring Visual Literacy Skills in a 1st-Year Seminar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael S.; Matthews, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Visual literacy was a stated learning objective for the fall 2009 iteration of a first-year seminar course. To help students develop visual literacy skills, they received formal instruction throughout the semester and completed a series of carefully designed learning activities. The effects of these interventions were measured using a one-group…

  8. Learning Program for Enhancing Visual Literacy for Non-Design Students Using a CMS to Share Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Taeko; Watanabe, Takashi; Otani, Toshio; Masuzawa, Toshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a basic learning program for enhancing visual literacy using an original Web content management system (Web CMS) to share students' outcomes in class as a blog post. It seeks to reinforce students' understanding and awareness of the design of visual content. The learning program described in this research focuses on to address…

  9. The voice of the visual : visual learning strategies for problem analysis, social dialogue and mediated participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    The changing needs for innovative learning strategies in the life sciences results from the growing complexity of societal issues. Nowadays, complex societal issues are also called ‘wicked problems.’ Wicked problems are problems that do not have one single solution that is right or wrong, good or ba

  10. Health Security and Risk Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Health security has become a popular way of justifying efforts to control catastrophic threats to public health. Unfortunately, there has been little analysis of the concept of health security, nor the relationship between health security and other potential aims of public health policy. In this paper I develop an account of health security as an aversion to risky policy options. I explore three reasons for thinking risk avoidance is a distinctly worthwhile aim of public health policy: (i) that security is intrinsically valuable, (ii) that it is necessary for social planning and (iii) that it is an appropriate response to decision-making in contexts of very limited information. Striking the right balance between securing and maximizing population health thus requires a substantive, and hitherto unrecognized, value judgment. Finally, I critically evaluate the current health security agenda in light of this new account of the concept and its relationship to the other aims of public health policy. PMID:26990349

  11. Sparse similarity matrix learning for visual object retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Z.; Yu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Tf-idf weighting scheme is adopted by state-of-the-art object retrieval systems to reflect the difference in discriminability between visual words. However, we argue it is only suboptimal by noting that tf-idf weighting scheme does not take quantization error into account and exploit word correlation. We view tf-idf weights as an example of diagonal Mahalanobis-type similarity matrix and generalize it into a sparse one by selectively activating off-diagonal elements. Our goal is to separate s...

  12. Learning to rank using user clicks and visual features for image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Tao, Dacheng; Wang, Meng; Rui, Yong

    2015-04-01

    The inconsistency between textual features and visual contents can cause poor image search results. To solve this problem, click features, which are more reliable than textual information in justifying the relevance between a query and clicked images, are adopted in image ranking model. However, the existing ranking model cannot integrate visual features, which are efficient in refining the click-based search results. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking model based on the learning to rank framework. Visual features and click features are simultaneously utilized to obtain the ranking model. Specifically, the proposed approach is based on large margin structured output learning and the visual consistency is integrated with the click features through a hypergraph regularizer term. In accordance with the fast alternating linearization method, we design a novel algorithm to optimize the objective function. This algorithm alternately minimizes two different approximations of the original objective function by keeping one function unchanged and linearizing the other. We conduct experiments on a large-scale dataset collected from the Microsoft Bing image search engine, and the results demonstrate that the proposed learning to rank models based on visual features and user clicks outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:25095275

  13. Joint learning and weighting of visual vocabulary for bag-of-feature based tissue classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jingyan

    2013-12-01

    Automated classification of tissue types of Region of Interest (ROI) in medical images has been an important application in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD). Recently, bag-of-feature methods which treat each ROI as a set of local features have shown their power in this field. Two important issues of bag-of-feature strategy for tissue classification are investigated in this paper: the visual vocabulary learning and weighting, which are always considered independently in traditional methods by neglecting the inner relationship between the visual words and their weights. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel algorithm, Joint-ViVo, which learns the vocabulary and visual word weights jointly. A unified objective function based on large margin is defined for learning of both visual vocabulary and visual word weights, and optimized alternately in the iterative algorithm. We test our algorithm on three tissue classification tasks: classifying breast tissue density in mammograms, classifying lung tissue in High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) images, and identifying brain tissue type in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The results show that Joint-ViVo outperforms the state-of-art methods on tissue classification problems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Challenges of Educating the Visually Impaired and Quality Assurance in Tertiary Institutions of Learning in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omede, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on the challenges in educating the visually impaired and modalities for ensuring quality assurance in tertiary institutions of learning in Nigeria. It examined the global challenges in the higher educational system and made it clear that the visually impaired are those with visual problems be it partial, low vision, or total…

  15. Something for Everyone? An Evaluation of the Use of Audio-Visual Resources in Geographical Learning in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, John H.; Bowden, Annabel

    1999-01-01

    Reports from a survey of geographers that canvassed experiences using audio-visual resources to support teaching. Suggests that geographical learning has embraced audio-visual resources and that they are employed effectively. Concludes that integration of audio-visual resources into mainstream curriculum is essential to ensure effective and…

  16. An Issue of Learning: The Effect of Visual Split Attention in Classes for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Susan M.; Clark, M. Diane

    2012-01-01

    One of the ongoing challenges teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing face is managing the visual split attention implicit in multimedia learning. When a teacher presents various types of visual information at the same time, visual learners have no choice but to divide their attention among those materials and the teacher and…

  17. A THEORY OF LEARNING TO READ BY "MODALITY BLOCKING" OR "NON-VISUAL" AKT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLAU, HAROLD; BLAU, HARRIET

    A THEORY OF TEACHING SEVERELY HANDICAPPED READERS TO READ BY MODALITY BLOCKING OR NONVISUAL ATK, THE AUDITORY-KINESTHETIC-TACTILE METHOD, RATHER THAN BY STRENGTHENING ALL SENSORY MODALITIES IS REPORTED. INDIVIDUALS WHO SPEAK ADEQUATELY BUT WHO READ INADEQUATELY SUFFER INTERFERENCE FROM THE VISUAL INPUT SYSTEM IN THE LEARNING OF READING. IF THE…

  18. A theoretical analysis of how segmentation of dynamic visualizations optimizes students' learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, Ingrid; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Spanjers, I. A. E., Van Gog, T., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). A theoretical analysis of how segmentation of dynamic visualizations optimizes students’ learning. Educational Psychology Review, 22(4), 411-423. doi:10.1007/s10648-010-9135-6

  19. Visualizing Biological Data in Museums: Visitor Learning with an Interactive Tree of Life Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Michael S.; Phillips, Brenda C.; Evans, Evelyn Margaret; Block, Florian; Diamond, Judy; Shen, Chia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate museum visitor learning and engagement at an interactive visualization of an evolutionary tree of life consisting of over 70,000 species. The study was conducted at two natural history museums where visitors collaboratively explored the tree of life using direct touch gestures on a multi-touch tabletop display. In the…

  20. Learning and Retention of Concepts Formed from Unfamiliar Visual Patterns. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Alma E.

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the learning and retention of concepts formed from novel visual stimulus materials (wave-form patterns). The purpose of the first experiment was to scale sets of wave forms as a function of difficulty, i.e., subjects were shown a prototype wave form and were asked to give same-different judgments for…

  1. Learning Visual Forward Models to Compensate for Self-Induced Image Motion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghadirzadeh, A.; Kootstra, G.W.; Maki, A.; Björkman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the sensory consequences of an agent's own actions is considered an important skill for intelligent behavior. In terms of vision, so-called visual forward models can be applied to learn such predictions. This is no trivial task given the high-dimensionality of sensory data and complex act

  2. Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Put, M.; Leeuwis, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a diversi

  3. Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Loes; Put, Marcel; Leeuwis, Cees

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a diversity of instruction strategies to accommodate the…

  4. Games, Simulations, and Visual Metaphors in Education: Antagonism between Enjoyment and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Lloyd P.; Noah, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of game-like activities on adult learning during a computer-based simulation. This research also studied the use of visual metaphors as graphic organizers to help make the underlying science principles explicit without interfering with the interactive nature of the simulation. A total of…

  5. Meeting the Needs of Students with Coexisting Visual Impairments and Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beth A.; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of visual impairments and learning disabilities presents unique challenges. It is imperative that teachers be apprised of the characteristics of this population as well as instructional strategies targeted at meeting their unique needs. The authors highlight typical patterns of performance and provide suggestions for effective…

  6. Does Increasing Communication through Visual Learning Environments Enhance Student Perceptions of Lecturers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Lara

    2006-01-01

    The current study was conducted in an effort to examine whether increased levels of communication using visual learning environments (VLEs) alters student perceptions of lecturers. Eighty-six MSc students in Computing Science participated by using She and Fisher's (2002) Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). In addition to using the…

  7. THE USES AND ABUSES OF VISUAL TRAINING FOR CHILDREN WITH PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR LEARNING PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARLSON, PAUL V.; GREENSPOON, MORTON K.

    THE ROLE OF THE OPTOMETRIST IN DIAGNOSING AND CORRECTING PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR LEARNING PROBLEMS IS DISCUSSED. ONE GROUP OF OPTOMETRISTS ADHERES TO STANDARD TECHNIQUES, INCLUDING THE PRESCRIPTION OF CORRECTIVE LENSES AND THE USE OF ORTHOPTIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE SAKE OF CLEAR, COMFORTABLE, AND EFFECTIVE VISUAL PERFORMANCE. OTHERS EMPLOY DIVERSE…

  8. A stable biologically motivated learning mechanism for visual feature extraction to handle facial categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rajaei

    Full Text Available The brain mechanism of extracting visual features for recognizing various objects has consistently been a controversial issue in computational models of object recognition. To extract visual features, we introduce a new, biologically motivated model for facial categorization, which is an extension of the Hubel and Wiesel simple-to-complex cell hierarchy. To address the synaptic stability versus plasticity dilemma, we apply the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART for extracting informative intermediate level visual features during the learning process, which also makes this model stable against the destruction of previously learned information while learning new information. Such a mechanism has been suggested to be embedded within known laminar microcircuits of the cerebral cortex. To reveal the strength of the proposed visual feature learning mechanism, we show that when we use this mechanism in the training process of a well-known biologically motivated object recognition model (the HMAX model, it performs better than the HMAX model in face/non-face classification tasks. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed mechanism is capable of following similar trends in performance as humans in a psychophysical experiment using a face versus non-face rapid categorization task.

  9. Learning to Match Auditory and Visual Speech Cues: Social Influences on Acquisition of Phonological Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Infants' language exposure largely involves face-to-face interactions providing acoustic and visual speech cues but also social cues that might foster language learning. Yet, both audiovisual speech information and social information have so far received little attention in research on infants' early language development. Using a preferential…

  10. The Effect of Learning Background and Imagery Cognitive Development on Visual Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Shyh-Bao; Sun, Chun-Wang

    2013-01-01

    This research looked into the effect of how cognitive development toward imagery is formed through visual perception by means of a quantitative questionnaire. The main variable was the difference between the learning backgrounds of the interviewees. A two-way ANOVA mixed design was the statistical method used for the analysis of the 2 × 4 (2 by 4)…

  11. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  12. Making a Difference. Visual Health Needs of People with a Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Anne; Bickerstaff, David; Lindsay, Jennifer; McConkey, Roy; Jackson, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the findings from a study to assess the impact of corrective eye treatment in adults with a learning disability. The Special Visual Assessment Clinic (SVAC) is an optometry led multi professional service delivered in a Resource Centre in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The study, which included user and carer input in its design,…

  13. Primary School Pupils' Response to Audio-Visual Learning Process in Port-Harcourt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olube, Friday K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine primary school children's response on the use of audio-visual learning processes--a case study of Chokhmah International Academy, Port-Harcourt (owned by Salvation Ministries). It looked at the elements that enhance pupils' response to educational television programmes and their hindrances to these…

  14. Building a Learning Readiness Program for the Mainstreamed Visually Impaired Child in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Aryeh; Eshet, Shari

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the beginnings of a total developmental language learning system for mainstreamed visually impaired children in Israel. The readiness program is divided into five sections: auditory perception and discrimination, tactile perception and discrimination and fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination, body image awareness,…

  15. The Relationship between Visual Metaphor Comprehension and Recognition of Similarities in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown metaphoric comprehension deficits in children with learning disabilities. To understand metaphoric language, children must have enough semantic knowledge about the metaphorical terms and the ability to recognize similarity between two different domains. In the current study visual and verbal metaphor understanding was…

  16. Multivariate Gradient Analysis for Evaluating and Visualizing a Learning System Platform for Computer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the application of canonical gradient analysis to evaluate and visualize student performance and acceptance of a learning system platform. The subject of evaluation is a first year BSc module for computer programming. This uses "Ceebot," an animated and immersive game-like development environment. Multivariate…

  17. Spatial Visualization as Mediating between Mathematics Learning Strategy and Mathematics Achievement among 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabab'h, Belal; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2015-01-01

    Jordanian 8th grade students revealed low achievement in mathematics through four periods (1999, 2003, 2007 & 2011) of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). This study aimed to determine whether spatial visualization mediates the affect of Mathematics Learning Strategies (MLS) factors namely mathematics attitude,…

  18. High salt recruits aversive taste pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuki; Butnaru, Matthew; von Buchholtz, Lars; Ryba, Nicholas J P; Zuker, Charles S

    2013-02-28

    In the tongue, distinct classes of taste receptor cells detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, sodium salt and umami. Among these qualities, bitter and sour stimuli are innately aversive, whereas sweet and umami are appetitive and generally attractive to animals. By contrast, salty taste is unique in that increasing salt concentration fundamentally transforms an innately appetitive stimulus into a powerfully aversive one. This appetitive-aversive balance helps to maintain appropriate salt consumption, and represents an important part of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. We have shown previously that the appetitive responses to NaCl are mediated by taste receptor cells expressing the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, but the cellular substrate for salt aversion was unknown. Here we examine the cellular and molecular basis for the rejection of high concentrations of salts. We show that high salt recruits the two primary aversive taste pathways by activating the sour- and bitter-taste-sensing cells. We also demonstrate that genetic silencing of these pathways abolishes behavioural aversion to concentrated salt, without impairing salt attraction. Notably, mice devoid of salt-aversion pathways show unimpeded, continuous attraction even to very high concentrations of NaCl. We propose that the 'co-opting' of sour and bitter neural pathways evolved as a means to ensure that high levels of salt reliably trigger robust behavioural rejection, thus preventing its potentially detrimental effects on health. PMID:23407495

  19. Visual technology for the autonomous learning of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Linneweber‐Lammerskitten

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a collaborative research and development project between the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland and Rhodes University in South Africa. The project seeks to establish, disseminate and research the efficacy and use of short video clips designed specifically for the autonomous learning of mathematics. Specific to the South African context is our interest in capitalising on the ubiquity of cellphone technology and the autonomous affordances offered by mobile learning. This paper engages with a number of theoretical and pedagogical issues relating to the design, production and use of these video clips. Although the focus is specific to the contexts of South Africa and Switzerland, the discussion is of broad applicability.

  20. Learning to use an invisible visual signal for perception

    OpenAIRE

    Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O.; Backus, Benjamin T.

    2010-01-01

    How does the brain construct a percept of the world from sensory signals? One approach to this fundamental question is to investigate perceptual learning as induced by exposure to different statistical regularities in sensory signals [1–7]. For example, recent studies showed that exposure to novel correlations between different sensory signals can cause a signal to have new perceptual effects [2,3]. In all those studies, however, the signals were always clearly visible. The automaticity of th...

  1. Learning by building: A visual modelling language for psychology students

    OpenAIRE

    Mulholland, Paul; Watt, Stuart

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive modelling involves building computational models of psychological theories in order to learn more about them, and is a major research area allied to psychology and artificial intelligence. The main problem is that few psychology students have previous programming experience. The course lecturer can avoid the problem by presenting the area only in general terms. This leaves the process of building and testing models, which is central to the methodology, an unknown. Alternatively, stu...

  2. Robust visual tracking via structured multi-task sparse learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-11-09

    In this paper, we formulate object tracking in a particle filter framework as a structured multi-task sparse learning problem, which we denote as Structured Multi-Task Tracking (S-MTT). Since we model particles as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically, learning the representation of each particle is considered a single task in Multi-Task Tracking (MTT). By employing popular sparsity-inducing lp,q mixed norms (specifically p∈2,∞ and q=1), we regularize the representation problem to enforce joint sparsity and learn the particle representations together. As compared to previous methods that handle particles independently, our results demonstrate that mining the interdependencies between particles improves tracking performance and overall computational complexity. Interestingly, we show that the popular L1 tracker (Mei and Ling, IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intel 33(11):2259-2272, 2011) is a special case of our MTT formulation (denoted as the L11 tracker) when p=q=1. Under the MTT framework, some of the tasks (particle representations) are often more closely related and more likely to share common relevant covariates than other tasks. Therefore, we extend the MTT framework to take into account pairwise structural correlations between particles (e.g. spatial smoothness of representation) and denote the novel framework as S-MTT. The problem of learning the regularized sparse representation in MTT and S-MTT can be solved efficiently using an Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. As such, S-MTT and MTT are computationally attractive. We test our proposed approach on challenging sequences involving heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that S-MTT is much better than MTT, and both methods consistently outperform state-of-the-art trackers. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  3. Visual teaching and learning in the fields of engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Kyvete S. Shatri

    2015-01-01

    Engineering education today is faced with numerous demands that are closely connected with a globalized economy. One of these requirements is to draw the engineers of the future, who are characterized with: strong analytical skills, creativity, ingenuity, professionalism, intercultural communication and leadership. To achieve this effective teaching methods should be used to facilitate and enhance the learning of students and their performance in general, making them able to cope with market ...

  4. Low-rank sparse learning for robust visual tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new particle-filter based tracking algorithm that exploits the relationship between particles (candidate targets). By representing particles as sparse linear combinations of dictionary templates, this algorithm capitalizes on the inherent low-rank structure of particle representations that are learned jointly. As such, it casts the tracking problem as a low-rank matrix learning problem. This low-rank sparse tracker (LRST) has a number of attractive properties. (1) Since LRST adaptively updates dictionary templates, it can handle significant changes in appearance due to variations in illumination, pose, scale, etc. (2) The linear representation in LRST explicitly incorporates background templates in the dictionary and a sparse error term, which enables LRST to address the tracking drift problem and to be robust against occlusion respectively. (3) LRST is computationally attractive, since the low-rank learning problem can be efficiently solved as a sequence of closed form update operations, which yield a time complexity that is linear in the number of particles and the template size. We evaluate the performance of LRST by applying it to a set of challenging video sequences and comparing it to 6 popular tracking methods. Our experiments show that by representing particles jointly, LRST not only outperforms the state-of-the-art in tracking accuracy but also significantly improves the time complexity of methods that use a similar sparse linear representation model for particles [1]. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Learning Content Recommendation for Visual Basic.Net Programming Language based on Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Shishehchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the quality of learning and the expansion of education technology, motivate the researchers to work on learning area more than before. Problem statement: With the rapid advance of learning contents on the web and also the variety of learning books, finding suitable ones has become a very difficult and complicated task for learners. Approach: This study aims to propose a learning system includes the semantic recommender system. Students can employ this application to learn learning content at anywhere. This system works based on the learner’s knowledge level and also the learner’s request that system asks from the learner at the beginning. Learner will be able to find and learn the right learning materials to reach their request. Finally, all changes about learner will store in the learner model in the ontology. The proposed architecture comprises some subsystems and components. One of the most important of subsystems is a knowledge based system, which covers the ontology which called VBnet ontology. This ontology consists of three parts; LearnerModel, Domain Concept and Learning Material. Moreover, we define two other subsystems; Learner performance evaluation, recommendation system and some modules; Availability checker, Knowledge evaluator, Exam generator, Request analyzer and user interface. Results: Considering to scope of research we develop the ontology for Visual Basic.Net programming language and describe all available classes and subclasses step by step. Also we create some query by SPARQL and show the information retrival from VB ontology. Conclusion: This system can help to student to learn materials of Visual Basic.Net with the good quality without the place dependency.

  6. Learning expressive percussion performance under different visual feedback conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmeyer, Alex; Timmers, Renee; Sadakata, Makiko; Desain, Peter

    2011-03-01

    A study was conducted to test the effect of two different forms of real-time visual feedback on expressive percussion performance. Conservatory percussion students performed imitations of recorded teacher performances while receiving either high-level feedback on the expressive style of their performances, low-level feedback on the timing and dynamics of the performed notes, or no feedback. The high-level feedback was based on a Bayesian analysis of the performances, while the low-level feedback was based on the raw participant timing and dynamics data. Results indicated that neither form of feedback led to significantly smaller timing and dynamics errors. However, high-level feedback did lead to a higher proficiency in imitating the expressive style of the target performances, as indicated by a probabilistic measure of expressive style. We conclude that, while potentially disruptive to timing processes involved in music performance due to extraneous cognitive load, high-level visual feedback can improve participant imitations of expressive performance features. PMID:20574662

  7. Learning to Read Aligns Visual Analytical Skills with Grapheme-Phoneme Mapping: Evidence from Illiterates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lachmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning to read puts evolutionary established speech and visual object recognition functions to novel use. This leads to particular rearrangements and differentiations in these functions, for instance the habitual preference for holistic perceptual organization for visual object recognition in contrast with its suppression in recognizing and classifying letters. We performed an experiment in which the differentiation between holistic non-letter processing and analytic letter processing in literates was originally shown (van Leeuwen & Lachmann, 2004 with illiterate adults. The original differentiation is absent in illiterates; they uniformly showed analytic perception for both letters and non-letters. The result implies that analytic visual perception is not a secondary development resulting from learning to read but, rather, a primary mode of perceptual organization that is suppressed for non-letter objects in skilled readers.

  8. The Effect of Visual and Etymological Treatments on Learning Decomposable Idioms among EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study endeavors to investigate the impact of visual and etymological treatments on learning idioms among English language learners. Seventy-nine intermediate students at Rooz Academy Language School in Babol were selected from among a total number of 116 learners based on their performances on the Longman complete course for the TOEFL test to fulfill the purpose of the study. The students were then assigned into three experimental groups. Initially, a pre-test of idiomatic expressions including 48 idiomatic items was administered to the participants in all groups. During the instructional period, the groups were taught a group of abnormally decomposable idioms through different treatments, namely, visual, etymological, and a combination of visual-etymological elaboration. At the end of the instructional period, the participants in all groups were given a posttest which was the same as the pretest. The design of this study is quasi-experimental. The data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis. The results of data analysis revealed that the etymological treatment was more effective than visual aids on learning idioms among intermediate English language learners. However, the visual-etymological treatment was the most effective one. The findings of this study have implications for EFL teachers, students, and materials developers.Keywords: Visualization, Etymology, Idiom, Dual coding theory

  9. Visual Design in the Creation of Educational Infographics : Case Study of Designing Infographics for E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ruottinen, Anna-Riikka

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was created to study the possibilities of improving digital learning materials through the visual design of infographics. This study is case-driven, as a design for in-fographics was developed as a part of this study and the potential improvements were studied via this case of practical application. The design was based on the research and literature on the visual content in Finnish learning materials and on the execution of infographics as visual and pedagogical material. The...

  10. The role of visual cortex acetylcholine in learning to discriminate temporally modulated visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Minces, V. H.; Alexander, A.S.; Datlow, M.; Alfonso, S. I.; Chiba, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain innervate discrete regions of the cortical mantle, bestowing the cholinergic system with the potential to dynamically modulate sub-regions of the cortex according to behavioral demands. Cortical cholinergic activity has been shown to facilitate learning and modulate attention. Experiments addressing these issues have primarily focused on widespread cholinergic depletions, extending to areas involved in general cognitive processes and sleep cycle regu...

  11. Real-Time Strategy Video Game Experience and Visual Perceptual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Hye-Jin; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-07-22

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as long-term improvement in performance on a visual-perception task after visual experiences or training. Early studies have found that VPL is highly specific for the trained feature and location, suggesting that VPL is associated with changes in the early visual cortex. However, the generality of visual skills enhancement attributable to action video-game experience suggests that VPL can result from improvement in higher cognitive skills. If so, experience in real-time strategy (RTS) video-game play, which may heavily involve cognitive skills, may also facilitate VPL. To test this hypothesis, we compared VPL between RTS video-game players (VGPs) and non-VGPs (NVGPs) and elucidated underlying structural and functional neural mechanisms. Healthy young human subjects underwent six training sessions on a texture discrimination task. Diffusion-tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed before and after training. VGPs performed better than NVGPs in the early phase of training. White-matter connectivity between the right external capsule and visual cortex and neuronal activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were greater in VGPs than NVGPs and were significantly correlated with RTS video-game experience. In both VGPs and NVGPs, there was task-related neuronal activity in the right IFG, ACC, and striatum, which was strengthened after training. These results indicate that RTS video-game experience, associated with changes in higher-order cognitive functions and connectivity between visual and cognitive areas, facilitates VPL in early phases of training. The results support the hypothesis that VPL can occur without involvement of only visual areas. Significance statement: Although early studies found that visual perceptual learning (VPL) is associated with involvement of the visual cortex, generality of visual skills enhancement by action video-game experience

  12. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl;

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  13. From Agents to Continuous Change via Aesthetics: Learning Mechanics with Visual Agentbased Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Pratim; Wright, Mason

    2013-01-01

    Novice learners find motion as a continuous process of change challenging to understand. In this paper, we present a pedagogical approach based on agent-based, visual programming to address this issue. Integrating Logo programming with curricular science has been shown to be challenging in previous research on educational computing. We present a new Logo-based visual programming language - ViMAP - and, a sequence of learning activities involving programming and modeling, designed specifically to support seamless integration between programming and learning kinematics. We describe relevant affordances of the ViMAP environment that supports such seamless integration. We then present ViMAP-MoMo, a curricular unit designed in ViMAP for modeling kinematics, for a wide range of students (elementary - high school). The main contribution of this paper is that we describe in detail a sequence of learning activities in three phases, discuss the underlying rationale for each phase, and where relevant, report results in ...

  14. A Computational Model of Spatial Learning by a Person with Visual Disability: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanubhai K. Patel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A computational model, named as Non-visual Spatial Learning (NSL model, of spatial learning by a person with visual disability through virtual environment (VE is proposed in this paper. We report an experiment that investigates the validity of our NSL model by prototype system implementation based on the model. Fourteen participants ranging from 17 to 35 years old participated in experiment. They were divided in to two groups — bind-folded sighted (8 participants, and blind (6 participants. They learned spatial layout in VE using two exploration modes: guided (training phase and unguided (testing phase. In unguided exploration mode, spatial layout knowledge was assessed by asking participants to perform object localization task and target-object task. The results reveal that there were significant improvements in post-training navigation performance of the participants.

  15. Estimation of mental effort in learning visual search by measuring pupil response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuto Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual sensitivity and performance with training. In this study, we examined whether learning is accompanied by a release from mental effort on the task, leading to automatization of the learned task. For this purpose, we had subjects conduct a visual search for a target, defined by a combination of orientation and spatial frequency, while we monitored their pupil size. It is well known that pupil size reflects the strength of mental effort invested in a task. We found that pupil size increased rapidly as the learning proceeded in the early phase of training and decreased at the later phase to a level half of its maximum value. This result does not support the simple automatization hypothesis. Instead, it suggests that the mental effort and behavioral performance reflect different aspects of perceptual learning. Further, mental effort would be continued to be invested to maintain good performance at a later stage of training.

  16. Visual event-related potential studies supporting the validity of VARK learning styles' visual and read/write learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsatitporn, Sarawin; Pichitpornchai, Chailerd

    2016-06-01

    The validity of learning styles needs supports of additional objective evidence. The identification of learning styles using subjective evidence from VARK questionnaires (where V is visual, A is auditory, R is read/write, and K is kinesthetic) combined with objective evidence from visual event-related potential (vERP) studies has never been investigated. It is questionable whether picture superiority effects exist in V learners and R learners. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether vERP could show the relationship between vERP components and VARK learning styles and to identify the existence of picture superiority effects in V learners and R learners. Thirty medical students (15 V learners and 15 R learners) performed recognition tasks with vERP and an intermediate-term memory (ITM) test. The results of within-group comparisons showed that pictures elicited larger P200 amplitudes than words at the occipital 2 site (P < 0.05) in V learners and at the occipital 1 and 2 sites (P < 0.05) in R learners. The between-groups comparison showed that P200 amplitudes elicited by pictures in V learners were larger than those of R learners at the parietal 4 site (P < 0.05). The ITM test result showed that a picture set showed distinctively more correct responses than that of a word set for both V learners (P < 0.001) and R learners (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the result indicated that the P200 amplitude at the parietal 4 site could be used to objectively distinguish V learners from R learners. A lateralization existed to the right brain (occipital 2 site) in V learners. The ITM test demonstrated the existence of picture superiority effects in both learners. The results revealed the first objective electrophysiological evidence partially supporting the validity of the subjective psychological VARK questionnaire study. PMID:27105739

  17. Visual Control of Autonomous Vehicle by Neural Networks Using Fuzzy-Supervised Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoo, Young Jae [Kumho Information and Telecommunications Laboratory, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Cheol [Cheonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes a control scheme for an autonomous vehicle with visual sensors, which uses visual information to guide itself along roadways. The control system integrates visual data into the steering servo process directly, instead of subdividing the process by geometric reasoning for a vehicle-centered representation of the road from two-dimensional visual image data. A neural network using fuzzy-supervised learning is used for determining the steering angle required to move the vanishing point and vanishing line of the road to the desired position in the camera image. The validity and the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme are confirmed by a computer simulation of the autonomous vehicle`s driving performance. (author). 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    OpenAIRE

    Loes Witteveen; Rico Lie

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA), is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it creates a learning environment that is film-based. VPA enhances the analysis of complex issues, and facilitates stakeholder dialogue and action planning. The strategy is used in workshops dealing with ...

  19. A teaching and learning programme to enhance the teaching and learning needs of visually impaired learners in an inclusive natural sciences classroom / Moses Mojaki Maloka

    OpenAIRE

    Maloka, Mojaki Moses

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of visually impaired learners and their teachers regarding the extent to which the teaching and learning needs of learners with visual impairment are addressed in inclusive classrooms. The first phase of the study was characterized by a literature review. A literature review was undertaken to elucidate the concept visual impairment and to highlight the magnitude of visual impairment in South Africa. Attention was also paid to the place ...

  20. Robust Visual Tracking Via Consistent Low-Rank Sparse Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-06-19

    Object tracking is the process of determining the states of a target in consecutive video frames based on properties of motion and appearance consistency. In this paper, we propose a consistent low-rank sparse tracker (CLRST) that builds upon the particle filter framework for tracking. By exploiting temporal consistency, the proposed CLRST algorithm adaptively prunes and selects candidate particles. By using linear sparse combinations of dictionary templates, the proposed method learns the sparse representations of image regions corresponding to candidate particles jointly by exploiting the underlying low-rank constraints. In addition, the proposed CLRST algorithm is computationally attractive since temporal consistency property helps prune particles and the low-rank minimization problem for learning joint sparse representations can be efficiently solved by a sequence of closed form update operations. We evaluate the proposed CLRST algorithm against 14 state-of-the-art tracking methods on a set of 25 challenging image sequences. Experimental results show that the CLRST algorithm performs favorably against state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  1. Spatial Shifts of Audio-Visual Interactions by Perceptual Learning are Specific to the Trained Orientation and Eye *

    OpenAIRE

    Batson, Melissa A.; Beer, Anton L.; Aaron R Seitz; Watanabe, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    A large proportion of the human cortex is devoted to visual processing. Contrary to the traditional belief that multimodal integration takes place in multimodal processing areas separate from visual cortex, several studies have found that sounds may directly alter processing in visual brain areas. Furthermore, recent findings show that perceptual learning can change the perceptual mechanisms that relate auditory and visual senses. However, there is still a debate about the systems involved in...

  2. The voice of the visual : visual learning strategies for problem analysis, social dialogue and mediated participation

    OpenAIRE

    Witteveen, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    The changing needs for innovative learning strategies in the life sciences results from the growing complexity of societal issues. Nowadays, complex societal issues are also called ‘wicked problems.’ Wicked problems are problems that do not have one single solution that is right or wrong, good or bad or true or false. These are problems in which many stakeholders are involved, all of them framing the problems and issues in a different way. Reflecting on the consequent changing role of scienti...

  3. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Ross, Don;

    all levels of wealth, or over a “sufficiently large” range of wealth. Although this second assumption if often viewed as self-evident from the vast experimental literature showing risk aversion over laboratory stakes, it actually requires that lab wealth be varied for a given subject as one takes......Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in standard statements of this calibration puzzle is that individuals define utility over terminal wealth......, and that terminal wealth is defined as the sum of extra-lab wealth and any wealth accumulated in the lab. This assumption is often used in Expected Utility Theory, as well as popular alternatives such as RankDependent Utility theory. Another core assumption is that the small-stakes risk aversion is observed over...

  4. Figure analysis: A teaching technique to promote visual literacy and active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based biology courses. An additional challenge is that visual literacy is often overlooked in undergraduate science education. To address both of these challenges, a technique called figure analysis was developed and implemented in three different levels of undergraduate biology courses. Here, students learn content while gaining practice in interpreting visual information by discussing figures with their peers. Student groups also make connections between new and previously learned concepts on their own while in class. The instructor summarizes the material for the class only after students grapple with it in small groups. Students reported a preference for learning by figure analysis over traditional lecture, and female students in particular reported increased confidence in their analytical abilities. There is not a technology requirement for this technique; therefore, it may be utilized both in classrooms and in nontraditional spaces. Additionally, the amount of preparation required is comparable to that of a traditional lecture. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):336-344, 2016. PMID:26891952

  5. Pests and pesticides, risk and risk aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Pannell, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical and applied literature on risk in decision making for agricultural pest control is reviewed. Risk can affect pesticide decision making either because of risk aversion or because of its influence on expected profit. It is concluded that risk does not necessarily lead to increased pesticide use by individual farmers. Uncertainty about some variables, such as pest density and pest mortality, does lead to higher optimal pesticide use under risk aversion. However, uncertainty about oth...

  6. Common Agency with Risk-Averse Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Semenov, Aggey

    2006-01-01

    I consider a common agency model under adverse selection with a risk averse agent. Contracting takes place ex ante when all players have symmetric, although incomplete, information. The coordination problem between principals leads to more distortion in the optimal policy from the first best compared to the case of risk neutrality. In contrast with the risk neutral case the principals are unable to screen completely the agent's preferences if she/he is sufficiently risk averse. However, if th...

  7. Loss Aversion, Stochastic Compensation, and Team Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Daido; Takeshi Murooka

    2013-01-01

    We investigate moral-hazard problems with limited liability where agents have expectation-based reference-dependent preferences. We show that stochastic compensation for low performance can be optimal. Because of loss aversion, the agents have first-order risk aversion to wage uncertainty. This causes the agents to work harder when their low performance is stochastically compensated. We also examine team incentives for credibly employing such stochastic compensation. In an optimal contract, l...

  8. Risk aversion in risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk averse attitude that is included in some proposed risk acceptance criteria is examined. It is shown that it is a weaker attitude than risk aversion, as is commonly defined in decision theory. Consequently, the boundary curve separating acceptable and unacceptable regions does not have to be a straight line on the logarithmic frequency-consequence space. A curve of variable slope would express the same attitude as long as the slope is less than -1

  9. Can risk aversion explain stock price volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen F. LeRoy

    2013-01-01

    Why are the prices of stocks and other assets so volatile? Efficient capital markets theory implies that stock prices should be much less volatile than actually observed, reflecting an unrealistic assumption that investors are risk neutral. If instead investors are assumed to be risk averse, predicted volatility is higher. However, models that incorporate investor avoidance of risk can explain real-world stock price volatility only under levels of risk aversion that are unrealistically high. ...

  10. Ambiguity Aversion in Models of Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Bade

    2013-01-01

    Four papers that use ambiguity aversion in political economy are reviewed. The first two (Bade, 2011a and 2011b) find that two important puzzles (equilibrium existence with multidimensional issue spaces and platform convergence) of the Downs-Hotelling model of electoral competition can be addressed by modeling parties as ambiguity-averse. The second two papers pertain to the Condorcet model of information aggregation. Ghirardato and Katz (2006) explains selective abstention through ambiguity ...

  11. Predicting Robust Learning with the Visual Form of the Moment-by-Moment Learning Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan S.; Hershkovitz, Arnon; Rossi, Lisa M.; Goldstein, Adam B.; Gowda, Sujith M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method for analyzing a student's learning over time for a specific skill: analysis of the graph of the student's moment-by-moment learning over time. Moment-by-moment learning is calculated using a data-mined model that assesses the probability that a student learned a skill or concept at a specific time during learning…

  12. Hippocampal Erk mechanisms linking prediction error to fear extinction: Roles of shock expectancy and contextual aversive valence

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Kyu Hwan; Guzman, Yomayra F.; Tronson, Natalie C.; Guedea, Anita L.; Gao, Can; Radulovic, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Extinction of fear requires learning that anticipated aversive events no longer occur. Animal models reveal that sustained phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) in hippocampal CA1 neurons plays an important role in this process. However, the key signals triggering and regulating the activity of Erk are not known. By varying the degree of expected and delivered aversive reinforcement, we demonstrate that Erk specifically responds to prediction errors of contextual ...

  13. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects’ performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  14. Visual discrimination learning in dwarf goats and associated changes in heart rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Jan; Nürnberg, G; Manteuffel, G

    2004-09-30

    We studied visual discrimination learning in a group of Nigerian dwarf goats using a computer-based learning device which was integrated in the animals' home pen. We conducted three consecutive learning tasks (T1, T2 and T3), each of which lasted for 13 days. In each task, a different set of four visual stimuli was presented on a computer screen in a four-choice design. Predefined sequences of stimulus combinations were presented in a pseudorandom order. Animals were rewarded with drinking water when they chose the positive stimulus by pressing a button next to it. Noninvasive measurements of goats' heartbeat intervals were carried out on the first and the last 2 days of each learning task. We analysed heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of resting animals to study sustained physiological effects related to general learning challenge rather than acute excitement during an actual learning session. The number of trials to reach the learning criterion was 1000 in T1, when visual stimuli were presented to the goats for the first time, but decreased to 210 in T2 and 240 in T3, respectively. A stable plateau of correct choices between 70% and 80% was reached on Day 10 in T1, on Day 8 in T2 and on Day 6 in T3. We found a significant influence of the task and of the interaction between task and day on learning success. Whereas HR increased throughout T1, this relationship was inverted in T2 and T3, indicating different effects on the HR depending on how familiar goats were with the learning task. We found a significant influence of the task and the interaction between task and time within the task on HRV parameters, indicating changes of vagal activity at the heart. The results suggest that changes in HR related to learning were predominantly caused by a withdrawal of vagal activity at the heart. With regard to nonlinear processes in heartbeat regulation, increased deterministic shares of HRV indicated that the animals did not really relax until the end of T3

  15. Learning a Combined Model of Visual Saliency for Fixation Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwei; Borji, Ali; Jay Kuo, C-C; Itti, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    A large number of saliency models, each based on a different hypothesis, have been proposed over the past 20 years. In practice, while subscribing to one hypothesis or computational principle makes a model that performs well on some types of images, it hinders the general performance of a model on arbitrary images and large-scale data sets. One natural approach to improve overall saliency detection accuracy would then be fusing different types of models. In this paper, inspired by the success of late-fusion strategies in semantic analysis and multi-modal biometrics, we propose to fuse the state-of-the-art saliency models at the score level in a para-boosting learning fashion. First, saliency maps generated by several models are used as confidence scores. Then, these scores are fed into our para-boosting learner (i.e., support vector machine, adaptive boosting, or probability density estimator) to generate the final saliency map. In order to explore the strength of para-boosting learners, traditional transformation-based fusion strategies, such as Sum, Min, and Max, are also explored and compared in this paper. To further reduce the computation cost of fusing too many models, only a few of them are considered in the next step. Experimental results show that score-level fusion outperforms each individual model and can further reduce the performance gap between the current models and the human inter-observer model. PMID:26829792

  16. Non-sparse Linear Representations for Visual Tracking with Online Reservoir Metric Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xi; Shi, Qinfeng; Dick, Anthony; Hengel, Anton van den

    2012-01-01

    Most sparse linear representation-based trackers need to solve a computationally expensive L1-regularized optimization problem. To address this problem, we propose a visual tracker based on non-sparse linear representations, which admit an efficient closed-form solution without sacrificing accuracy. Moreover, in order to capture the correlation information between different feature dimensions, we learn a Mahalanobis distance metric in an online fashion and incorporate the learned metric into the optimization problem for obtaining the linear representation. We show that online metric learning using proximity comparison significantly improves the robustness of the tracking, especially on those sequences exhibiting drastic appearance changes. Furthermore, in order to prevent the unbounded growth in the number of training samples for the metric learning, we design a time-weighted reservoir sampling method to maintain and update limited-sized foreground and background sample buffers for balancing sample diversity ...

  17. A qualitative inquiry into the effects of visualization on high school chemistry students' learning process of molecular structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deratzou, Susan

    This research studies the process of high school chemistry students visualizing chemical structures and its role in learning chemical bonding and molecular structure. Minimal research exists with high school chemistry students and more research is necessary (Gabel & Sherwood, 1980; Seddon & Moore, 1986; Seddon, Tariq, & Dos Santos Veiga, 1984). Using visualization tests (Ekstrom, French, Harman, & Dermen, 1990a), a learning style inventory (Brown & Cooper, 1999), and observations through a case study design, this study found visual learners performed better, but needed more practice and training. Statistically, all five pre- and post-test visualization test comparisons were highly significant in the two-tailed t-test (p > .01). The research findings are: (1) Students who tested high in the Visual (Language and/or Numerical) and Tactile Learning Styles (and Social Learning) had an advantage. Students who learned the chemistry concepts more effectively were better at visualizing structures and using molecular models to enhance their knowledge. (2) Students showed improvement in learning after visualization practice. Training in visualization would improve students' visualization abilities and provide them with a way to think about these concepts. (3) Conceptualization of concepts indicated that visualizing ability was critical and that it could be acquired. Support for this finding was provided by pre- and post-Visualization Test data with a highly significant t-test. (4) Various molecular animation programs and websites were found to be effective. (5) Visualization and modeling of structures encompassed both two- and three-dimensional space. The Visualization Test findings suggested that the students performed better with basic rotation of structures as compared to two- and three-dimensional objects. (6) Data from observations suggest that teaching style was an important factor in student learning of molecular structure. (7) Students did learn the chemistry concepts

  18. Learning disability subtypes and the effects of auditory and visual priming on visual event-related potentials to words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J; Stelmack, R M

    1994-02-01

    Three learning-disability (LD) subtype groups and a normal control group of children were compared in their visual event-related potentials (ERPs) to primed and unprimed words. The LD subtypes were defined by deficient performance on tests of arithmetic (Group A), reading and spelling (Group RS), or both (Group RSA). The primed words were preceded by pictures or spoken words having a related meaning, while unprimed words were preceded by non-associated pictures or spoken words. For normal controls, N450 amplitude was greater to unprimed words than to words primed by pictures and spoken words. For Group A, N450 amplitude was reduced by spoken-word primes, but not by picture primes, an effect that demonstrates a deficit in processing visual-spatial information. For Group RS and Group RSA, neither picture nor spoken-word primes reduced N450 amplitude. These effects can be understood in terms of deficiencies in processing auditory-verbal information. Normal controls displayed a greater left- than right-hemispheric asymmetry in frontal N450 amplitude to unprimed words, an effect that is consistent with the association of skilled reading with hemispheric specialization. This asymmetry was absent in the ERPs of all the LD subtypes. The distinct ERP effects for the groups endorses the value of defining LD subtypes on the basis of patterns of deficits in arithmetic and reading and spelling. PMID:8150889

  19. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  20. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Hammond, Geoff; Rodger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW). We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j) and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻) mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets) they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies. PMID:23144936

  1. Steroid Hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) Modulates the Acquisition of Aversive Olfactory Memories in Pollen Forager Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Lisa H.; McQuillan, H. James; Aiken, Alastair; Vergoz, Vanina; Mercer, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we examine effects of the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), on associative olfactory learning in the honeybee, "Apis mellifera." 20-E impaired the bees' ability to associate odors with punishment during aversive conditioning, but did not interfere with their ability to associate odors with a food reward (appetitive…

  2. Learning to perform a new movement with robotic assistance: comparison of haptic guidance and visual demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinkensmeyer DJ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical guidance with a robotic device is a candidate technique for teaching people desired movement patterns during motor rehabilitation, surgery, and sports training, but it is unclear how effective this approach is as compared to visual demonstration alone. Further, little is known about motor learning and retention involved with either robot-mediated mechanical guidance or visual demonstration alone. Methods Healthy subjects (n = 20 attempted to reproduce a novel three-dimensional path after practicing it with mechanical guidance from a robot. Subjects viewed their arm as the robot guided it, so this "haptic guidance" training condition provided both somatosensory and visual input. Learning was compared to reproducing the movement following only visual observation of the robot moving along the path, with the hand in the lap (the "visual demonstration" training condition. Retention was assessed periodically by instructing the subjects to reproduce the path without robotic demonstration. Results Subjects improved in ability to reproduce the path following practice in the haptic guidance or visual demonstration training conditions, as evidenced by a 30–40% decrease in spatial error across 126 movement attempts in each condition. Performance gains were not significantly different between the two techniques, but there was a nearly significant trend for the visual demonstration condition to be better than the haptic guidance condition (p = 0.09. The 95% confidence interval of the mean difference between the techniques was at most 25% of the absolute error in the last cycle. When asked to reproduce the path repeatedly following either training condition, the subjects' performance degraded significantly over the course of a few trials. The tracing errors were not random, but instead were consistent with a systematic evolution toward another path, as if being drawn to an "attractor path". Conclusion These results indicate

  3. ViZDoom: A Doom-based AI Research Platform for Visual Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kempka, Michał; Wydmuch, Marek; Runc, Grzegorz; Toczek, Jakub; Jaśkowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in deep neural networks have led to effective vision-based reinforcement learning methods that have been employed to obtain human-level controllers in Atari 2600 games from pixel data. Atari 2600 games, however, do not resemble real-world tasks since they involve non-realistic 2D environments and the third-person perspective. Here, we propose a novel test-bed platform for reinforcement learning research from raw visual information which employs the first-person perspective...

  4. The Effect of Visual and Etymological Treatments on Learning Decomposable Idioms among EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Nassim Golaghaei; Sedigheh Kakolian

    2015-01-01

    The present study endeavors to investigate the impact of visual and etymological treatments on learning idioms among English language learners. Seventy-nine intermediate students at Rooz Academy Language School in Babol were selected from among a total number of 116 learners based on their performances on the Longman complete course for the TOEFL test to fulfill the purpose of the study. The students were then assigned into three experimental groups. Initially, a pre-test of idiomatic express...

  5. It’s all connected: Pathways in visual object recognition and early noun learning

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    A developmental pathway may be defined as the route, or chain of events, through which a new structure or function forms. For many human behaviors, including object name learning and visual object recognition, these pathways are often complex, multi-causal and include unexpected dependencies. This paper presents three principles of development that suggest the value of a developmental psychology that explicitly seeks to trace these pathways and uses empirical evidence on developmental depende...

  6. Reading Speed in the peripheral visual field of older adults: Does it benefit from perceptual learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Deyue; Cheung, Sing-Hang; Legge, Gordon E.; Chung, Susana T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancing reading ability in peripheral vision is important for the rehabilitation of people with central-visual-field loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous research has shown that perceptual learning, based on a trigram letter-recognition task, improved peripheral reading speed among normally-sighted young adults (Chung, Legge, & Cheung, 2004). Here we ask whether the same happens in older adults in an age range more typical of the onset of AMD. Eighteen normally-sighted...

  7. Design and development of visual learning techniques to construct chemical engineering safety knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nishaben Santibhai, Dholakiya

    2009-01-01

    People working in the chemical industry require specific skills to deal with hazardous environments and to operate complicated machinery which often requires on site training. The importance of designing systems and environments with safe possible ways to train operators is essential for the chemical industries. Virtual reality offers the potential to train personnel in a safe highly visual and interactive manner. Virtual Learning Environments(VLE) represent an entirely new form of educat...

  8. Multivariate Gradient Analysis for Evaluating and Visualizing a Learning System Platform for Computer Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Mather

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the application of canonical gradient analysis to evaluate and visualize student performance and acceptance of a learning system platform. The subject of evaluation is a first year BSc module for computer programming. This uses ‘Ceebot’, an animated and immersive game-like development environment. Multivariate ordination approaches are widely used in ecology to explore species distribution along environmental gradients. Environmental factors are represented ...

  9. Online learning-based robust visual tracking for autonomous landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Changhong; Carrio Fernández, Adrián; Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Campoy Cervera, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous landing is a challenging and important technology for both military and civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In this paper, we present a novel online adaptive visual tracking algorithm for UAVs to land on an arbitrary field (that can be used as the helipad) autonomously at real-time frame rates of more than twenty frames per second. The integration of low-dimensional subspace representation method, online incremental learning approach and hierarchical tracking ...

  10. Visual Tracking Based on an Improved Online Multiple Instance Learning Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jia Wang; Hua Zhang

    2016-01-01

    An improved online multiple instance learning (IMIL) for a visual tracking algorithm is proposed. In the IMIL algorithm, the importance of each instance contributing to a bag probability is with respect to their probabilities. A selection strategy based on an inner product is presented to choose weak classifier from a classifier pool, which avoids computing instance probabilities and bag probability M times. Furthermore, a feedback strategy is presented to update weak classifiers. In the feed...

  11. Efficient Online Subspace Learning With an Indefinite Kernel for Visual Tracking and Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Liwicki, Stephan; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; TZIMIROPOULOS, Georgios; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    We propose an exact framework for online learning with a family of indefinite (not positive) kernels. As we study the case of nonpositive kernels, we first show how to extend kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) from a reproducing kernel Hilbert space to Krein space. We then formulate an incremental KPCA in Krein space that does not require the calculation of preimages and therefore is both efficient and exact. Our approach has been motivated by the application of visual tracking for wh...

  12. Adjustment to Subtle Time Constraints and Power Law Learning in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jacqueline C.; Chang, Seah; Cho, Yang Seok

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1) varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms) randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over 3 consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification...

  13. Broad-based visual benefits from training with an integrated perceptual-learning video game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, Jenni; Lovcik, Gary; Seitz, Aaron R

    2014-06-01

    Perception is the window through which we understand all information about our environment, and therefore deficits in perception due to disease, injury, stroke or aging can have significant negative impacts on individuals' lives. Research in the field of perceptual learning has demonstrated that vision can be improved in both normally seeing and visually impaired individuals, however, a limitation of most perceptual learning approaches is their emphasis on isolating particular mechanisms. In the current study, we adopted an integrative approach where the goal is not to achieve highly specific learning but instead to achieve general improvements to vision. We combined multiple perceptual learning approaches that have individually contributed to increasing the speed, magnitude and generality of learning into a perceptual-learning based video-game. Our results demonstrate broad-based benefits of vision in a healthy adult population. Transfer from the game includes; improvements in acuity (measured with self-paced standard eye-charts), improvement along the full contrast sensitivity function, and improvements in peripheral acuity and contrast thresholds. The use of this type of this custom video game framework built up from psychophysical approaches takes advantage of the benefits found from video game training while maintaining a tight link to psychophysical designs that enable understanding of mechanisms of perceptual learning and has great potential both as a scientific tool and as therapy to help improve vision. PMID:24406157

  14. Terminal feedback outperforms concurrent visual, auditory, and haptic feedback in learning a complex rowing-type task

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrist, Roland; Rauter, Georg; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Augmented feedback, provided by coaches or displays, is a well-established strategy to accelerate motor learning. Frequent terminal feedback and concurrent feedback have been shown to be detrimental for simple motor task learning but supportive for complex motor task learning. However, conclusions on optimal feedback strategies have been mainly drawn from studies on artificial laboratory tasks with visual feedback only. Therefore, the authors compared the effectiveness of learning a complex, ...

  15. Gap junction networks in mushroom bodies participate in visual learning and memory in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Yang, Xing; Tian, Jingsong; Gao, Zhongbao; Wang, Meng; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are widely distributed in the brains across species and play essential roles in neural information processing. However, the role of gap junctions in insect cognition remains poorly understood. Using a flight simulator paradigm and genetic tools, we found that gap junctions are present in Drosophila Kenyon cells (KCs), the major neurons of the mushroom bodies (MBs), and showed that they play an important role in visual learning and memory. Using a dye coupling approach, we determined the distribution of gap junctions in KCs. Furthermore, we identified a single pair of MB output neurons (MBONs) that possess a gap junction connection to KCs, and provide strong evidence that this connection is also required for visual learning and memory. Together, our results reveal gap junction networks in KCs and the KC-MBON circuit, and bring new insight into the synaptic network underlying fly’s visual learning and memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13238.001 PMID:27218450

  16. Functional interaction between the dorsal hippocampus and the striatum in visual discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, C; Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Arias, J L

    2012-03-01

    The hippocampus and the striatum have traditionally been considered as part of different and independent memory systems. However, there is evidence that supports a functional interaction between the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum at least in particular learning tasks. Here, we evaluated the functional contribution of both brain regions in a visual discrimination learning task using cytochrome c oxidase (CO) quantitative histochemistry. Compared with other brain metabolic mapping techniques, CO activity reflects steady-state neuronal energy demand. Rats were trained for 6 days in a water T-maze to find a hidden escape platform associated with an intramaze visual cue. A control group of animals swam for an equivalent amount of time compared as the trained group but without any escape platform available. After finishing the behavioral task, CO activity was measured in subdivisions of the dorsal hippocampus and the dorsal striatum in both groups. Results show significantly higher CO activity in the CA1 area and the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus in the trained rats compared with the control group. In addition, a significant negative functional cross-correlation between area CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus and the anterodorsal striatum was found. Our results support current theories on competitive interaction of different memory systems during visual discrimination learning. PMID:22012685

  17. On Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity, Memristive Devices, and building a Self-Learning Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabe eLinares-Barranco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a very exciting overlap between emergent nano technologyand neuroscience. We are linking one type of memristor nano technology devices to the biological synaptic updaterule known as Spike-Time-Dependent-Plasticity found in real biological synapses.Understanding this link allows neuromorphic engineers to develop circuit architecturesthat use this type of memristors to artificially emulate parts of the visual cortex. We focus on the type of memristors referred to as voltage driven memristors andfocus our discussions on a behavioral macro model for such devices.The implementationsresult in fully asynchronous architectures with neurons sending their action potentials notonly forwards but also backwards. One criticalaspect is to use neurons that generate spikes of specific shapes. By changing the shapes of the neuron action potential spikes we can tune and manipulatethe STDP learning rules for both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. We show howneurons and memristors can be interconnected to achieve large scale spiking learning systems,that follow a type of multiplicative STDP learning rule. We briefly extend the architecturesto use three-terminal transistors with similar memristive behavior.We illustrate how a V1 visual cortex layer can assembled and how it iscapable of learning to extract orientations from visual data coming from a real artificialCMOS spiking retina observing real life scenes. Finally, we discuss limitationsof currently available memristors.The results presented are based on behavioral simulations and do not take intoaccount non-idealities of devices and interconnects. The aim of this paper is to present, ina tutorial manner, aninitial framework for the possible development of fully asynchronous STDP learning neuromorphic architecturesexploiting two or three terminal memristive type devices. All files used for the simulations are made available through the journal web site.

  18. Reference-dependent preferences and loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Neuman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE in the health-care sector to test the loss aversion theory that is derived from reference-dependent preferences: The absolute subjective value of a deviation from a reference point is generally greater when the deviation represents a loss than when the same-sized change is perceived as a gain. As far as is known, this paper is the first to use a DCE to test the loss aversion theory. A DCE is a highly suitable tool for such testing because it estimates the marginal valuations of attributes, based onextit{ deviations from a reference point} (a constant scenario. Moreover, loss aversion can be examined for extit{each attribute separately}. Another advantage of a DCE is that is can be applied toextit{ non-traded goods with non-tangible attributes}. A health-care event is used for empirical illustration: The loss aversion theory is tested within the context of preference structures for maternity-ward attributes, estimated using data gathered from 3850 observations made by a sample of 542 women who had recently given birth. Seven hypotheses are presented and tested. Overall, significant support for behavioral loss aversion theories was found. %JEL codes: D01, D12, I19

  19. DeepTrack: Learning Discriminative Feature Representations Online for Robust Visual Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanxi Li; Yi Li; Porikli, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    Deep neural networks, albeit their great success on feature learning in various computer vision tasks, are usually considered as impractical for online visual tracking, because they require very long training time and a large number of training samples. In this paper, we present an efficient and very robust tracking algorithm using a single convolutional neural network (CNN) for learning effective feature representations of the target object in a purely online manner. Our contributions are multifold. First, we introduce a novel truncated structural loss function that maintains as many training samples as possible and reduces the risk of tracking error accumulation. Second, we enhance the ordinary stochastic gradient descent approach in CNN training with a robust sample selection mechanism. The sampling mechanism randomly generates positive and negative samples from different temporal distributions, which are generated by taking the temporal relations and label noise into account. Finally, a lazy yet effective updating scheme is designed for CNN training. Equipped with this novel updating algorithm, the CNN model is robust to some long-existing difficulties in visual tracking, such as occlusion or incorrect detections, without loss of the effective adaption for significant appearance changes. In the experiment, our CNN tracker outperforms all compared state-of-the-art methods on two recently proposed benchmarks, which in total involve over 60 video sequences. The remarkable performance improvement over the existing trackers illustrates the superiority of the feature representations, which are learned purely online via the proposed deep learning framework. PMID:26841390

  20. Design of a Braille Learning Application for Visually Impaired Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Lutfun; Jaafar, Azizah; Ahamed, Eistiak; Kaish, A B M A

    2015-01-01

    Visually impaired students (VIS) are unable to get visual information, which has made their learning process complicated. This paper discusses the overall situation of VIS in Bangladesh and identifies major challenges that they are facing in getting education. The Braille system is followed to educate blind students in Bangladesh. However, lack of Braille based educational resources and technological solutions have made the learning process lengthy and complicated for VIS. As a developing country, Bangladesh cannot afford for the costly Braille related technological tools for VIS. Therefore, a mobile phone based Braille application, "mBRAILLE", for Android platform is designed to provide an easy Braille learning technology for VIS in Bangladesh. The proposed design is evaluated by experts in assistive technology for students with disabilities, and advanced learners of Braille. The application aims to provide a Bangla and English Braille learning platform for VIS. In this paper, we depict iterative (participatory) design of the application along with a preliminary evaluation with 5 blind subjects, and 1 sighted and 2 blind experts. The results show that the design scored an overall satisfaction level of 4.53 out of 5 by all respondents, indicating that our design is ready for the next step of development. PMID:26427745

  1. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. PMID:26010021

  2. The Effect of Visual of a Courseware towards Pre-University Students' Learning in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Mazyrah; Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah; Nordin, Shahrina Md.; Sulaiman, Suziah

    This paper highlights the effect of visual of a multimedia courseware, Black Cat Courseware (BC-C), developed for learning literature at a pre-university level in University Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP). The contents of the courseware are based on a Black Cat story which is covered in an English course at the university. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the usability and effectiveness of BC-C. A total of sixty foundation students were involved in the study. Quasi-experimental design was employed, forming two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group had to interact with BC-C as part of the learning activities while the control group used the conventional learning methods. The results indicate that the experimental group achieved a statistically significant compared to the control group in understanding the Black Cat story. The study result also proves that the effect of visual increases the students' performances in literature learning at a pre-university level.

  3. Multivoxel Object Representations in Adult Human Visual Cortex Are Flexible: An Associative Learning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoussi, Mehdi; Berry, Isabelle; VanRullen, Rufin; Reddy, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Learning associations between co-occurring events enables us to extract structure from our environment. Medial-temporal lobe structures are critical for associative learning. However, the role of the ventral visual pathway (VVP) in associative learning is not clear. Do multivoxel object representations in the VVP reflect newly formed associations? We show that VVP multivoxel representations become more similar to each other after human participants learn arbitrary new associations between pairs of unrelated objects (faces, houses, cars, chairs). Participants were scanned before and after 15 days of associative learning. To evaluate how object representations changed, a classifier was trained on discriminating two nonassociated categories (e.g., faces/houses) and tested on discriminating their paired associates (e.g., cars/chairs). Because the associations were arbitrary and counterbalanced across participants, there was initially no particular reason for this cross-classification decision to tend toward either alternative. Nonetheless, after learning, cross-classification performance increased in the VVP (but not hippocampus), on average by 3.3%, with some voxels showing increases of up to 10%. For example, a chair multivoxel representation that initially resembled neither face nor house representations was, after learning, classified as more similar to that of faces for participants who associated chairs with faces and to that of houses for participants who associated chairs with houses. Additionally, learning produced long-lasting perceptual consequences. In a behavioral priming experiment performed several months later, the change in cross-classification performance was correlated with the degree of priming. Thus, VVP multivoxel representations are not static but become more similar to each other after associative learning. PMID:26836513

  4. Behavioral architecture of opioid reward and aversion in C57BL/6 substrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camron D Bryant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug liking versus drug disliking is a subjective motivational measure in humans that assesses the addiction liability of drugs. Variation in this trait is hypothesized to influence vulnerability versus resilience toward substance abuse disorders and likely contains a genetic component. In rodents and humans, conditioned place preference (CPP / aversion (CPA is a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm whereby a learned preference for the drug-paired environment is used to infer drug liking whereas a learned avoidance or aversion is used to infer drug disliking. C57BL/6 inbred mouse substrains are nearly genetically identical, yet demonstrate robust differences in addiction-relevant behaviors, including locomotor sensitization to cocaine and consumption of ethanol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that B6 substrains would demonstrate differences in the rewarding properties of the mu opioid receptor agonist oxycodone (5 mg/kg, i.p. and the aversive properties of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.. Both substrains showed similar degrees of oxycodone-induced CPP; however, there was a three-fold enhancement of naloxone-induced CPA in agonist-naïve C57BL/6J relative to C57Bl/6NJ mice. Exploratory factor analysis of CPP and CPA identified unique factors that explain variance in behavioral expression of reward versus aversion. “Conditioned Opioid-Like Behavior” was a reward-based factor whereby drug-free locomotor variables resembling opioid treatment co-varied with the degree of CPP. “Avoidance and Freezing” was an aversion-based factor, whereby the increase in the number of freezing bouts co-varied with the degree of aversion. These results provide new insight into the behavioral architecture of the motivational properties of opioids. Future studies will use quantitative trait locus mapping in B6 substrains to identify novel genetic factors that contribute to the marked strain difference in NAL-CPA.

  5. Behavioral architecture of opioid reward and aversion in C57BL/6 substrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Stacey L; Bryant, Camron D

    2014-01-01

    Drug liking vs. drug disliking is a subjective motivational measure in humans that assesses the addiction liability of drugs. Variation in this trait is hypothesized to influence vulnerability vs. resilience toward substance abuse disorders and likely contains a genetic component. In rodents and humans, conditioned place preference (CPP)/aversion (CPA) is a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm whereby a learned preference for the drug-paired environment is used to infer drug liking whereas a learned avoidance or aversion is used to infer drug disliking. C57BL/6 inbred mouse substrains are nearly genetically identical, yet demonstrate robust differences in addiction-relevant behaviors, including locomotor sensitization to cocaine and consumption of ethanol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that B6 substrains would demonstrate differences in the rewarding properties of the mu opioid receptor agonist oxycodone (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and the aversive properties of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.). Both substrains showed similar degrees of oxycodone-induced CPP; however, there was a three-fold enhancement of naloxone-induced CPA in agonist-naïve C57BL/6J relative to C57Bl/6NJ mice. Exploratory factor analysis of CPP and CPA identified unique factors that explain variance in behavioral expression of reward vs. aversion. "Conditioned Opioid-Like Behavior" was a reward-based factor whereby drug-free locomotor variables resembling opioid treatment co-varied with the degree of CPP. "Avoidance and Freezing" was an aversion-based factor, whereby the increase in the number of freezing bouts co-varied with the degree of aversion. These results provide new insight into the behavioral architecture of the motivational properties of opioids. Future studies will use quantitative trait locus mapping in B6 substrains to identify novel genetic factors that contribute to the marked strain difference in NAL-CPA. PMID:25628547

  6. Observing before Learning: Visual Material for the Learning of English as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Benavides

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a report of the findings of a research project developed in a Colombian school, Academia La Salle San Benildo, as a requirement for the B.A. degree in Modern Languages at La Salle University. The goal of this project is to describe the impact of working with visual material with the students of fifth and third grades. The data collected throughout the process include an interview, a survey, students’ work, and journals kept by the student teachers. The results of the analysis of the research show the importance of the application of visual material in the teaching process.

  7. Effect of Animated Graphic Annotations and Immediate Visual Feedback in Aiding Japanese Pronunciation Learning: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Soon-Hin; Ohki, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of imagery and electronic visual feedback in facilitating students' acquisition of Japanese pronunciation skills. The independent variables, animated graphic annotation (AGA) and immediate visual feedback (IVF) were integrated into a Japanese computer-assisted language learning (JCALL) program focused on the…

  8. Effects of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Visually Guided Learning of Grip Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Minarik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has been shown to be an effective non-invasive brain stimulation method for improving cognitive and motor functioning in patients with neurological deficits. tDCS over motor cortex (M1, for instance, facilitates motor learning in stroke patients. However, the literature on anodal tDCS effects on motor learning in healthy participants is inconclusive, and the effects of tDCS on visuo-motor integration are not well understood. In the present study we examined whether tDCS over the contralateral motor cortex enhances learning of grip-force output in a visually guided feedback task in young and neurologically healthy volunteers. Twenty minutes of 1 mA anodal tDCS were applied over the primary motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the dominant (right hand, during the first half of a 40 min power-grip task. This task required the control of a visual signal by modulating the strength of the power-grip for six seconds per trial. Each participant completed a two-session sham-controlled crossover protocol. The stimulation conditions were counterbalanced across participants and the sessions were one week apart. Performance measures comprised time-on-target and target-deviation, and were calculated for the periods of stimulation (or sham and during the afterphase respectively. Statistical analyses revealed significant performance improvements over the stimulation and the afterphase, but this learning effect was not modulated by tDCS condition. This suggests that the form of visuomotor learning taking place in the present task was not sensitive to neurostimulation. These null effects, together with similar reports for other types of motor tasks, lead to the proposition that tDCS facilitation of motor learning might be restricted to cases or situations where the motor system is challenged, such as motor deficits, advanced age, or very high task demand.

  9. Effective return, risk aversion and drawdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacorogna, Michel M.; Gençay, Ramazan; Müller, Ulrich A.; Pictet, Olivier V.

    2001-01-01

    We derive two risk-adjusted performance measures for investors with risk averse preferences. Maximizing these measures is equivalent to maximizing the expected utility of an investor. The first measure, Xeff, is derived assuming a constant risk aversion while the second measure, Reff, is based on a stronger risk aversion to clustering of losses than of gains. The clustering of returns is captured through a multi-horizon framework. The empirical properties of Xeff, Reff are studied within the context of real-time trading models for foreign exchange rates and their properties are compared to those of more traditional measures like the annualized return, the Sharpe Ratio and the maximum drawdown. Our measures are shown to be more robust against clustering of losses and have the ability to fully characterize the dynamic behaviour of investment strategies.

  10. Behavioral architecture of opioid reward and aversion in C57BL/6 substrains

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Stacey L.; Bryant, Camron D.

    2015-01-01

    Drug liking vs. drug disliking is a subjective motivational measure in humans that assesses the addiction liability of drugs. Variation in this trait is hypothesized to influence vulnerability vs. resilience toward substance abuse disorders and likely contains a genetic component. In rodents and humans, conditioned place preference (CPP)/aversion (CPA) is a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm whereby a learned preference for the drug-paired environment is used to infer drug liking whereas a learn...

  11. A comparison of risk aversion between markets

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, José Pedro Moura

    2013-01-01

    In this study we perform a comparison between the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the FTSE 100 indexes concerning their estimated risk aversions. Risk neutral densities are calculated for both indexes using a polynomial-lognormal, a GB2 and a mixture of two lognormal distributions; we show that the best fit to observed data is obtained using the latter. For the method of best fit, and assuming a power utility function, the risk aversion of investors is calculated using a maximum likelihood m...

  12. Effects of visual feedback-induced variability on motor learning of handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika T Leving

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a higher intra-individual variability benefits the motor learning of wheelchair propulsion. The present study evaluated whether feedback-induced variability on wheelchair propulsion technique variables would also enhance the motor learning process. Learning was operationalized as an improvement in mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique, which are thought to be closely related during the learning process.17 Participants received visual feedback-based practice (feedback group and 15 participants received regular practice (natural learning group. Both groups received equal practice dose of 80 min, over 3 weeks, at 0.24 W/kg at a treadmill speed of 1.11 m/s. To compare both groups the pre- and post-test were performed without feedback. The feedback group received real-time visual feedback on seven propulsion variables with instruction to manipulate the presented variable to achieve the highest possible variability (1st 4-min block and optimize it in the prescribed direction (2nd 4-min block. To increase motor exploration the participants were unaware of the exact variable they received feedback on. Energy consumption and the propulsion technique variables with their respective coefficient of variation were calculated to evaluate the amount of intra-individual variability.The feedback group, which practiced with higher intra-individual variability, improved the propulsion technique between pre- and post-test to the same extent as the natural learning group. Mechanical efficiency improved between pre- and post-test in the natural learning group but remained unchanged in the feedback group.These results suggest that feedback-induced variability inhibited the improvement in mechanical efficiency. Moreover, since both groups improved propulsion technique but only the natural learning group improved mechanical efficiency, it can be concluded that the improvement in mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique do not

  13. Intermittent visual feedback can boost motor learning of rhythmic movements: evidence for error feedback beyond cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tsuyoshi; Hirashima, Masaya; Osu, Rieko; Nozaki, Daichi

    2012-01-11

    Movement error is a driving force behind motor learning. For motor learning with discrete movements, such as point-to-point reaching, it is believed that the brain uses error information of the immediately preceding movement only. However, in the case of continuous and repetitive movements (i.e., rhythmic movements), there is a ceaseless inflow of performance information. Thus, an accurate temporal association of the motor commands with the resultant movement errors is not necessarily guaranteed. We investigated how the brain overcomes this challenging situation. Human participants adapted rhythmic movements between two targets to visuomotor rotations, the amplitudes of which changed randomly from cycle to cycle (the duration of one cycle was ∼400 ms). A system identification technique revealed that the motor adaptation was affected not just by the preceding movement error, but also by a history of errors from the previous cycles. Error information obtained from more than one previous cycle tended to increase, rather than decrease, movement error. This result led to a counterintuitive prediction: providing visual error feedback for only a fraction of cycles should enhance visuomotor adaptation. As predicted, we observed that motor adaptation to a constant visual rotation (30°) was significantly enhanced by providing visual feedback once every fourth or fifth cycle rather than for every cycle. These results suggest that the brain requires a specific processing time to modify the motor command, based on the error information, and so is unable to deal appropriately with the overwhelming flow of error information generated during rhythmic movements. PMID:22238101

  14. Lesion classification using clinical and visual data fusion by multiple kernel learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilev, Pavel; Hashoul, Sharbell; Walach, Eugene; Tzadok, Asaf

    2014-03-01

    To overcome operator dependency and to increase diagnosis accuracy in breast ultrasound (US), a lot of effort has been devoted to developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for breast cancer detection and classification. Unfortunately, the efficacy of such CAD systems is limited since they rely on correct automatic lesions detection and localization, and on robustness of features computed based on the detected areas. In this paper we propose a new approach to boost the performance of a Machine Learning based CAD system, by combining visual and clinical data from patient files. We compute a set of visual features from breast ultrasound images, and construct the textual descriptor of patients by extracting relevant keywords from patients' clinical data files. We then use the Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) framework to train SVM based classifier to discriminate between benign and malignant cases. We investigate different types of data fusion methods, namely, early, late, and intermediate (MKL-based) fusion. Our database consists of 408 patient cases, each containing US images, textual description of complaints and symptoms filled by physicians, and confirmed diagnoses. We show experimentally that the proposed MKL-based approach is superior to other classification methods. Even though the clinical data is very sparse and noisy, its MKL-based fusion with visual features yields significant improvement of the classification accuracy, as compared to the image features only based classifier.

  15. Learning-Based Visual Saliency Model for Detecting Diabetic Macular Edema in Retinal Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Yang, Yongjia; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    This paper brings forth a learning-based visual saliency model method for detecting diagnostic diabetic macular edema (DME) regions of interest (RoIs) in retinal image. The method introduces the cognitive process of visual selection of relevant regions that arises during an ophthalmologist's image examination. To record the process, we collected eye-tracking data of 10 ophthalmologists on 100 images and used this database as training and testing examples. Based on analysis, two properties (Feature Property and Position Property) can be derived and combined by a simple intersection operation to obtain a saliency map. The Feature Property is implemented by support vector machine (SVM) technique using the diagnosis as supervisor; Position Property is implemented by statistical analysis of training samples. This technique is able to learn the preferences of ophthalmologist visual behavior while simultaneously considering feature uniqueness. The method was evaluated using three popular saliency model evaluation scores (AUC, EMD, and SS) and three quality measurements (classical sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's J statistic). The proposed method outperforms 8 state-of-the-art saliency models and 3 salient region detection approaches devised for natural images. Furthermore, our model successfully detects the DME RoIs in retinal image without sophisticated image processing such as region segmentation. PMID:26884750

  16. Learning-Based Visual Saliency Model for Detecting Diabetic Macular Edema in Retinal Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings forth a learning-based visual saliency model method for detecting diagnostic diabetic macular edema (DME regions of interest (RoIs in retinal image. The method introduces the cognitive process of visual selection of relevant regions that arises during an ophthalmologist’s image examination. To record the process, we collected eye-tracking data of 10 ophthalmologists on 100 images and used this database as training and testing examples. Based on analysis, two properties (Feature Property and Position Property can be derived and combined by a simple intersection operation to obtain a saliency map. The Feature Property is implemented by support vector machine (SVM technique using the diagnosis as supervisor; Position Property is implemented by statistical analysis of training samples. This technique is able to learn the preferences of ophthalmologist visual behavior while simultaneously considering feature uniqueness. The method was evaluated using three popular saliency model evaluation scores (AUC, EMD, and SS and three quality measurements (classical sensitivity, specificity, and Youden’s J statistic. The proposed method outperforms 8 state-of-the-art saliency models and 3 salient region detection approaches devised for natural images. Furthermore, our model successfully detects the DME RoIs in retinal image without sophisticated image processing such as region segmentation.

  17. Loss Aversion and Rent-Seeking: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.

  18. Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

  19. Incidental Learning Speeds Visual Search by Lowering Response Thresholds, Not by Improving Efficiency: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Michael C.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    When observers search for a target object, they incidentally learn the identities and locations of "background" objects in the same display. This learning can facilitate search performance, eliciting faster reaction times for repeated displays. Despite these findings, visual search has been successfully modeled using architectures that maintain no…

  20. DeepTrack: Learning Discriminative Feature Representations Online for Robust Visual Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanxi; Li, Yi; Porikli, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    Deep neural networks, albeit their great success on feature learning in various computer vision tasks, are usually considered as impractical for online visual tracking because they require very long training time and a large number of training samples. In this work, we present an efficient and very robust tracking algorithm using a single Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for learning effective feature representations of the target object, in a purely online manner. Our contributions are multifold: First, we introduce a novel truncated structural loss function that maintains as many training samples as possible and reduces the risk of tracking error accumulation. Second, we enhance the ordinary Stochastic Gradient Descent approach in CNN training with a robust sample selection mechanism. The sampling mechanism randomly generates positive and negative samples from different temporal distributions, which are generated by taking the temporal relations and label noise into account. Finally, a lazy yet effective updating scheme is designed for CNN training. Equipped with this novel updating algorithm, the CNN model is robust to some long-existing difficulties in visual tracking such as occlusion or incorrect detections, without loss of the effective adaption for significant appearance changes. In the experiment, our CNN tracker outperforms all compared state-of-the-art methods on two recently proposed benchmarks which in total involve over 60 video sequences. The remarkable performance improvement over the existing trackers illustrates the superiority of the feature representations which are learned

  1. Side effects of being blue: influence of sad mood on visual statistical learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bertels

    Full Text Available It is well established that mood influences many cognitive processes, such as learning and executive functions. Although statistical learning is assumed to be part of our daily life, as mood does, the influence of mood on statistical learning has never been investigated before. In the present study, a sad vs. neutral mood was induced to the participants through the listening of stories while they were exposed to a stream of visual shapes made up of the repeated presentation of four triplets, namely sequences of three shapes presented in a fixed order. Given that the inter-stimulus interval was held constant within and between triplets, the only cues available for triplet segmentation were the transitional probabilities between shapes. Direct and indirect measures of learning taken either immediately or 20 minutes after the exposure/mood induction phase revealed that participants learned the statistical regularities between shapes. Interestingly, although participants from the sad and neutral groups performed similarly in these tasks, subjective measures (confidence judgments taken after each trial revealed that participants who experienced the sad mood induction showed increased conscious access to their statistical knowledge. These effects were not modulated by the time delay between the exposure/mood induction and the test phases. These results are discussed within the scope of the robustness principle and the influence of negative affects on processing style.

  2. Adjustment to subtle time constraints and power law learning in rapid serial visual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Chakyung Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1 varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over three consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB, a decrement in target (T2 identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1. Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal power law learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  3. Enhancing the T-shaped learning profile when teaching hydrology using data, modeling, and visualization activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Schiesser, Roy; Merwade, Venkatesh

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has suggested that the use of more authentic learning activities can produce more robust and durable knowledge gains. This is consistent with calls within civil engineering education, specifically hydrology, that suggest that curricula should more often include professional perspective and data analysis skills to better develop the "T-shaped" knowledge profile of a professional hydrologist (i.e., professional breadth combined with technical depth). It was expected that the inclusion of a data-driven simulation lab exercise that was contextualized within a real-world situation and more consistent with the job duties of a professional in the field, would provide enhanced learning and appreciation of job duties beyond more conventional paper-and-pencil exercises in a lower-division undergraduate course. Results indicate that while students learned in both conditions, learning was enhanced for the data-driven simulation group in nearly every content area. This pattern of results suggests that the use of data-driven modeling and visualization activities can have a significant positive impact on instruction. This increase in learning likely facilitates the development of student perspective and conceptual mastery, enabling students to make better choices about their studies, while also better preparing them for work as a professional in the field.

  4. Deep Learning Guided Partitioned Shape Model for Anterior Visual Pathway Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Awais; Cerrolaza, Juan J; Idrees, Rabia; Biggs, Elijah; Alsharid, Mohammad A; Avery, Robert A; Linguraru, Marius George

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of cranial nerve systems, such as the anterior visual pathway (AVP), from MRI sequences is challenging due to their thin long architecture, structural variations along the path, and low contrast with adjacent anatomic structures. Segmentation of a pathologic AVP (e.g., with low-grade gliomas) poses additional challenges. In this work, we propose a fully automated partitioned shape model segmentation mechanism for AVP steered by multiple MRI sequences and deep learning features. Employing deep learning feature representation, this framework presents a joint partitioned statistical shape model able to deal with healthy and pathological AVP. The deep learning assistance is particularly useful in the poor contrast regions, such as optic tracts and pathological areas. Our main contributions are: 1) a fast and robust shape localization method using conditional space deep learning, 2) a volumetric multiscale curvelet transform-based intensity normalization method for robust statistical model, and 3) optimally partitioned statistical shape and appearance models based on regional shape variations for greater local flexibility. Our method was evaluated on MRI sequences obtained from 165 pediatric subjects. A mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.779 was obtained for the segmentation of the entire AVP (optic nerve only =0.791 ) using the leave-one-out validation. Results demonstrated that the proposed localized shape and sparse appearance-based learning approach significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art segmentation approaches and is as robust as the manual segmentation. PMID:26930677

  5. Visual Literacy Skills of Students in College-Level Biology: Learning Outcomes following Digital or Hand-Drawing Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine C. Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To test the claim that digital learning tools enhance the acquisition of visual literacy in this generation of biology students, a learning intervention was carried out with 33 students enrolled in an introductory college biology course. This study compared learning outcomes following two types of learning tools: a traditional drawing activity, or a learning activity on a computer. The sample was divided into two random groups. In the first intervention students learned how to draw and label a cell. Group 1 learned the material by computer and Group 2 learned the material by hand drawing. In the second intervention, students learned how to draw the phases of mitosis, and the two groups were inverted. After each learning activity, students were given a quiz, and were also asked to self-evaluate their performance in an attempt to measure their level of metacognition. At the end of the study, participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire that was used to measure the level of task engagement the students felt towards the two types of learning activities. The students who learned the material by drawing had a significantly higher average grade on the associated quiz compared to that of those who learned the material by computer. There were no other significant differences in learning outcomes between the two groups. This study provides evidence that drawing by hand is beneficial for learning biological images compared to learning the same material on a computer.

  6. The change probability effect: incidental learning, adaptability, and shared visual working memory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2011-12-01

    Statistical properties in the visual environment can be used to improve performance on visual working memory (VWM) tasks. The current study examined the ability to incidentally learn that a change is more likely to occur to a particular feature dimension (shape, color, or location) and use this information to improve change detection performance for that dimension (the change probability effect). Participants completed a change detection task in which one change type was more probable than others. Change probability effects were found for color and shape changes, but not location changes, and intentional strategies did not improve the effect. Furthermore, the change probability effect developed and adapted to new probability information quickly. Finally, in some conditions, an improvement in change detection performance for a probable change led to an impairment in change detection for improbable changes. PMID:21963330

  7. Prevention of radiation induced taste aversion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, and a cardiovascular therapeutic agent offers significant protection to mice against lethal dose of ionizing radiation. Considering the potential efficacy of diltiazem as a radioprotector for human use, it was deemed necessary to investigate its influence on radiation-induced behavioural changes like nausea, vomiting, learning, memory and performance. In the present studies, conditioned taste aversion (CTA) test based on consumption of saccharin solution, was used as a marker of behavioural changes. Significant CTA (97±2%) was observed in rats irradiated with 60Co gamma rays (absorbed dose 1 Gy). Administration of diltiazem at doses greater than 10 mg/kg, body wt, evoked CTA in a dose-dependent manner and that was found to be further aggravated on irradiation. At a lower dose of 5 mg/kg, body wt, diltiazem did not evoke CTA and protected against radiation induced aversion significantly (62±3%). The results suggest that diltiazem at concentrations lower than 10 mg/kg, body wt, in rats may be useful in preventing radiation induced behavioural changes. This observation could be of particular significance in clinical radiotherapy where radiation induced nausea and vomiting are of great concern. (author)

  8. The Law of Demand and Risk Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    John Quah

    2002-01-01

    This note proposes a necessary and sufficient condition on a preference to guarantee that the demand function it generates satisfies the law of demand. It shows that the law of demand may be succinctly characterized by differences in an agent's level of risk aversion when she is confronted with different lotteries composed of commodity bundles.

  9. Random queues and risk averse users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Palma, André; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Nash equilibrium in time of use of a congested facility. Users are risk averse with general concave utility. Queues are subject to varying degrees of random sorting, ranging from strict queue priority to a completely random queue. We define the key “no residual queue” property, which...

  10. Observing before Learning: Visual Material for the Learning of English as a Foreign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Benavides; Liliana Murcia; Mabel Niño

    2009-01-01

    This article is a report of the findings of a research project developed in a Colombian school, Academia La Salle San Benildo, as a requirement for the B.A. degree in Modern Languages at La Salle University. The goal of this project is to describe the impact of working with visual material with the students of fifth and third grades. The data collected throughout the process include an interview, a survey, students’ work, and journals kept by the student teachers. The results of the analysis ...

  11. What can we learn from learning models about sensitivity to letter-order in visual word recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Itamar; Armstrong, Blair C; Frost, Ram

    2014-11-01

    Recent research on the effects of letter transposition in Indo-European Languages has shown that readers are surprisingly tolerant of these manipulations in a range of tasks. This evidence has motivated the development of new computational models of reading that regard flexibility in positional coding to be a core and universal principle of the reading process. Here we argue that such approach does not capture cross-linguistic differences in transposed-letter effects, nor do they explain them. To address this issue, we investigated how a simple domain-general connectionist architecture performs in tasks such as letter-transposition and letter substitution when it had learned to process words in the context of different linguistic environments. The results show that in spite of of the neurobiological noise involved in registering letter-position in all languages, flexibility and inflexibility in coding letter order is also shaped by the statistical orthographic properties of words in a language, such as the relative prevalence of anagrams. Our learning model also generated novel predictions for targeted empirical research, demonstrating a clear advantage of learning models for studying visual word recognition. PMID:25431521

  12. Can convict Cichlids (Amatitlania siquia socially learn the degree of predation risk associated with novel visual cues in their environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Barks

    Full Text Available For many animals, the ability to distinguish cues indicative of predation risk from cues unrelated to predation risk is not entirely innate, but rather is learned and improved with experience. Two pathways to such learning are possible. First, an animal could initially express antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of those cues are non-threatening. Alternatively, it could initially express no antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of them are threatening. While the learned recognition of threatening cues may occur either through personal interaction with a cue (asocial learning or through observation of the behaviour of social companions toward a cue (social learning, the learned recognition of non-threatening cues seems to occur exclusively through habituation, a form of asocial learning. Here, we tested whether convict cichlid fish (Amatitlaniasiquia can socially learn to recognize visual cues in their environment as either threatening or non-threatening. We exposed juvenile convict cichlids simultaneously to a novel visual cue and one of three (visual social cues: a social cue indicative of non-risk (the sight of conspecifics that had previously been habituated to the novel cue, a social cue indicative of predation risk (the sight of conspecifics trained to fear the novel cue, or a control treatment with no social cue. The subsequent response of focal fish, when presented with the novel cue alone, was not influenced by the social cue that they had previously witnessed. We therefore did not find evidence that convict cichlids in our study could use social learning to recognize novel visual cues as either threatening or non-threatening. We consider alternative explanations for our findings.

  13. Multivariate Gradient Analysis for Evaluating and Visualizing a Learning System Platform for Computer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mather

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of canonical gradient analysis to evaluate and visualize student performance and acceptance of a learning system platform. The subject of evaluation is a first year BSc module for computer programming. This uses ‘Ceebot’, an animated and immersive game-like development environment. Multivariate ordination approaches are widely used in ecology to explore species distribution along environmental gradients. Environmental factors are represented here by three ‘assessment’ gradients; one for the overall module mark and two independent tests of programming knowledge and skill. Response data included Likert expressions for behavioral, acceptance and opinion traits. Behavioral characteristics (such as attendance, collaboration and independent study were regarded to be indicative of learning activity. Acceptance and opinion factors (such as perceived enjoyment and effectiveness of Ceebot were treated as expressions of motivation to engage with the learning environment. Ordination diagrams and summary statistics for canonical analyses suggested that logbook grades (the basis for module assessment and code understanding were weakly correlated. Thus strong module performance was not a reliable predictor of programming ability. The three assessment indices were correlated with behaviors of independent study and peer collaboration, but were only weakly associated with attendance. Results were useful for informing teaching practice and suggested: (1 realigning assessments to more fully capture code-level skills (important in the workplace; (2 re-evaluating attendance-based elements of module design; and (3 the overall merit of multivariate canonical gradient approaches for evaluating and visualizing the effectiveness of a learning system platform.

  14. Perceptual learning for treating amblyopia in children based on activation of visual signal pathway Relationship of curative effects and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Liu; Jiang Shen; Jianzhong Huang; Yan Luo; Hongting Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional methods (such as occlusion therapy, fine manipulation, complementary, and alternative medicine) take effects slowly, are time and labor consuming, and have uncertain curative effects in the treatment of amblyopia. Perceptual learning, a new method for treating amblyopia, improves the ability to process signals from the cerebral optic nerve system by specific visual stimulation and visual learning, as well as activation of the visual signal pathway utilizing brain nervous system plasticity.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated and evaluated the curative effects of perceptual learning, which can directionally increase brain plasticity, on the treatment of amblyopia in children. The relationship between curative effect and time was also analyzed.DESIGN: A self-control experiment. SETTING: Visual Science and Optometry Center, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 125 amblyopic children (250 amblyopic eyes), 73 males, 52 females, averaging (6 ± 2) years of age, received treatment at the Visual Science and Optometry Center, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region between September 2006 and February 2007 and were recruited for this study. All children presented with no structural disease of the eyeballs. Written informed consent for therapeutic regiments was obtained from each child's parent. The protocol received approval from the Hospital's Ethics Committee. METHODS: Visual function was tested with a perceptual learning system (Research Center for Human Health and Development of Sun Yat-sen University, National Engineering Technique Research Center for Medical Care Implement) for visual noise, position noise, contour discrimination, contrast sensitivity, grating stereogram, and random-dot fusion. These tests helped to evaluate the efficiency of visual information processing of these children, and to determine the degree of defects of the optic nerve cells and the connections of visual

  15. Male and female guppies differ in speed but not in accuracy in visual discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    In many species, males and females have different reproductive roles and/or differ in their ecological niche. Since in these cases the two sexes often face different cognitive challenges, selection may promote some degree of cognitive differentiation, an issue that has received relatively little attention so far. We investigated the existence of sex differences in visual discrimination learning in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a fish species in which females show complex mate choice based on male colour pattern. We tested males and females for their ability to learn a discrimination between two different shapes (experiment 1) and between two identical figures with a different orientation (experiment 2). In experiment 3, guppies were required to select an object of the odd colour in a group of five objects. Colours changed daily, and therefore, the solution for this task was facilitated by concept learning. We found males' and females' accuracy practically overlapped in the three experiments, suggesting that the two sexes have similar discrimination learning abilities. Yet, males showed faster decision time than females without any evident speed-accuracy trade-off. This result indicates the existence of consistent between-sex differences in decision speed perhaps due to impulsivity rather than speed in information processing. Our results align with previous literature, indicating that sex differences in cognitive abilities are the exception rather than the rule, while sex differences in cognitive style, i.e. the way in which an individual faces a cognitive task, are much more common. PMID:26920920

  16. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed. (author)

  17. Aversive conditioning in prenatally gamma-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine how intrauterine exposure to gamma rays would exert on four kinds of aversive conditioning, rat fetuses were irradiated with 0.27, 0.48, or 1.46 Gy at Day 15 post conception. When ordinary avoidance conditioning was given to the groups with 0.27 and 0.48 Gy, there was no significant difference between the irradiated groups and the control group in the rate of positive avoidance response. Nor was this different in the irradiated groups and the control group, when the rate of baseline response was examined in avoidance conditioning. In positive avoidance conditioning to two kinds of anticipatory electric stimuli, the acquisition of avoidance was significantly inferior in all irradiated groups to that in the control group. When giving succesive discrimination learning, the group with 1.46 Gy tended to have higher rate of positive avoidance response and remarkably lower rate of passive avoidance response than the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Farhana Abu Bakar; Ai-Hong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) an...

  19. Visual literacy and visual communication for global education: innovations in teaching e-learning in art, design and communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders, Teun; Vries, de Sjoerd; Vaicaityte, Loreta

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the (student) proceedings of a successful inter-university co-operation between a research university and a university of applied sciences, in the field of Visual Literacy and Visual Communication. The origin lays in the international symposium “Digital Communities for Global Edu

  20. Spatial positioning of gender in two award-winning software programs for learning english: a visual content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    KORDJAZI, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to identify and interpret how spaces were differentiated by gender in visual images included in two award-winning English-learning software applications (Tell Me More and English at Home). The visual content analysis was based on examining the following values: home, workplace, street and neighborhood environment, leisure areas, and shop. Findings showed that females appeared as subordinate, financially dependent, and powerless; males as dominant, sporty, breadwinn...

  1. Neural compensation in adulthood following very preterm birth demonstrated during a visual paired associates learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Brittain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; < 33 weeks of gestation is associated with an increased risk of learning disability, which contributes to more VPT-born children repeating grades and underachieving in school. Learning problems associated with VPT birth may be caused by pathophysiological alterations in neurodevelopment resulting from perinatal brain insult; however, adaptive neuroplastic processes may subsequently occur in the developing preterm brain which ameliorate, to an extent, the potential sequelae of altered neurophysiology. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare neuronal activation in 24 VPT individuals and 22 controls (CT in young adulthood during a learning task consisting of the encoding and subsequent recognition of repeated visual paired associates. Structural MRI data were also collected and analysed in order to explore possible structure-function associations. Whilst the two groups did not differ in their learning ability, as demonstrated by their capacity to recognize previously-seen and previously–unseen visual pairs, between-group differences in linear patterns of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependant (BOLD activity were observed across the four repeated blocks of the task for both the encoding and recognition conditions, suggesting that the way learning takes place differs between the two groups. During encoding, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the cerebellum, the anterior cingulate gyrus, the midbrain/substantia nigra, medial temporal (including parahippocampal gyrus and inferior and superior frontal gyri. During the recognition condition, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the claustrum and the posterior cerebellum. Structural analysis revealed smaller grey matter volume in right middle temporal gyrus in VPT individuals compared to controls, however volume in this region

  2. Investigations on UCS-CS mediation in radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groups of 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in an investigation of procaine and dimenhydrinate effects on radiation-induced taste aversion learning. Neither the local anesthetic procaine, administered intraperitoneally, nor the antinausea drug dimenhydrinate, administered intramuscularly, blocked acquisition of aversion to saccharin flavored water. Control animals confirmed that saccharin preferences appeared normally in non-irradiated animals, and that the drugs produced no aversion in the absence of radiation. Another investigation, using groups of 5 female Sprague-Dawley rats, showed a failure of dimenhydrinate in blocking the acquisition of a rotation-induced conditioned taste aversion. Two dose levels of the drug were used, 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg. At the dimenhydrinate dosage used in the study involving radiation (1.75 mg/kg) and at the higher dosage used in the study involving rotation, there appeared to be a potentiation of the effects of radiation and rotation, respectively. Results of these studies seem to favor a model for UCS-CS mediation as being diffuse and perhaps redundant. The possibility that nausea-producing stimuli may work synergistically was also discussed. (U.S.)

  3. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl;

    2014-01-01

    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both when choices involve losses and when they do not. A large-scale incentivized experiment with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population is conducted. We find that deciding for others reduces loss aversion. When choosing between risky prospect...... others when losses loom. This finding is consistent with an interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision making driven by emotions and that these emotions are reduced when making decisions for others....... for which losses are ruled out by design, subjects make the same choices for themselves as for others. In contrast, when losses are possible, we find that the two types of choices differ. In particular, we find that subjects who make choices for themselves take less risk than those who decide for...

  4. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  5. Real time unsupervised learning of visual stimuli in neuromorphic VLSI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulioni, Massimiliano; Corradi, Federico; Dante, Vittorio; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Neuromorphic chips embody computational principles operating in the nervous system, into microelectronic devices. In this domain it is important to identify computational primitives that theory and experiments suggest as generic and reusable cognitive elements. One such element is provided by attractor dynamics in recurrent networks. Point attractors are equilibrium states of the dynamics (up to fluctuations), determined by the synaptic structure of the network; a ‘basin’ of attraction comprises all initial states leading to a given attractor upon relaxation, hence making attractor dynamics suitable to implement robust associative memory. The initial network state is dictated by the stimulus, and relaxation to the attractor state implements the retrieval of the corresponding memorized prototypical pattern. In a previous work we demonstrated that a neuromorphic recurrent network of spiking neurons and suitably chosen, fixed synapses supports attractor dynamics. Here we focus on learning: activating on-chip synaptic plasticity and using a theory-driven strategy for choosing network parameters, we show that autonomous learning, following repeated presentation of simple visual stimuli, shapes a synaptic connectivity supporting stimulus-selective attractors. Associative memory develops on chip as the result of the coupled stimulus-driven neural activity and ensuing synaptic dynamics, with no artificial separation between learning and retrieval phases.

  6. Stereoscopy in Astronomical Visualizations to Support Learning at Informal Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2015-08-01

    Stereoscopy has been used in science education for 100 years. Recent innovations in low cost technology as well as trends in the entertainment industry have made stereoscopy popular among educators and audiences alike. However, experimental studies addressing whether stereoscopy actually impacts science learning are limited. Over the last decade, we have conducted a series of quasi-experimental and experimental studies on how children and adult visitors in science museums and planetariums learned about the structure and function of highly spatial scientific objects such as galaxies, supernova, etc. We present a synthesis of the results from these studies and implications for stereoscopic visualization development. The overall finding is that the impact of stereoscopy on perceptions of scientific objects is limited when presented as static imagery. However, when presented as full motion films, a significantly positive impact was detected. To conclude, we present a set of stereoscopic design principles that can help design astronomical stereoscopic films that support deep and effective learning. Our studies cover astronomical content such as the engineering of and imagery from the Mars rovers, artistic stereoscopic imagery of nebulae and a high-resolution stereoscopic film about how astronomers measure and model the structure of our galaxy.

  7. Inflation Aversion and the Optimal Inflation Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaowang Wang; Heng-fu Zou

    2011-01-01

    The optimal inflation tax is reexamined in the framework of dynamic second best economy populated by individuals with inflation aversion. A simple formula for the optimal inflation rate is derived. Different from the literature, it is shown that if the marginal excess burden of other distorting taxes approaches zero, Friedman's rule for optimum quantity of money is not optimal, and the optimal inflation tax is negative; if the marginal excess burden of other taxes is nonzero, the optimal infl...

  8. Financial Risk Aversion and Household Asset Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Barasinska, Nataliya; Schäfer, Dorothea; Stephan, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between risk attitude and asset diversification in household portfolios. We first examine the impact of manifested risk aversion on the total number of distinct assets held in a portfolio (naive diversification). The second part of the paper focuses on a more sophisticated strategy of diversification and asks whether financial theory is compatible with observed diversification patterns. Based on the German Socioeconomic Panel which provides unique measures...

  9. When does aggregation reduce uncertainty aversion?

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Christopher P.; Echenique, Federico

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of uncertainty sharing within a household: "risk sharing," in a context of Knightian uncertainty. A household shares uncertain prospects using a social welfare function. We characterize the social welfare functions such that the household is collectively less averse to uncertainty than each member, and satises the Pareto principle and an independence axiom. We single out the sum of certainty equivalents as the unique member of this family which provides quasiconcave ranki...

  10. Aversive life events enhance human freezing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Stins, John F; Roelofs, Karin

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess body sway and heart rate. In the total sample, only unpleasant pictures elicited reduced body sway and reduced heart rate (freezing). Moreover, participants who had experienced 1 or more aversive life events showed greater reductions in heart rate for unpleasant versus pleasant pictures than those who had experienced no such event. In addition, relative to no-event participants, single-event participants showed reduced body sway to unpleasant pictures, while multiple-event participants showed reduced body sway in response to all picture categories. These results indicate that aversive life events affect automatic freezing responses and may indicate the cumulative effect of multiple trauma. The experimental paradigm presented is a promising method to study freezing as a primary defense response in trauma-related disorders. PMID:21767043

  11. Behavioral architecture of opioid reward and aversion in C57BL/6 substrains

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Camron D.

    2015-01-01

    Drug liking versus drug disliking is a subjective motivational measure in humans that assesses the addiction liability of drugs. Variation in this trait is hypothesized to influence vulnerability versus resilience toward substance abuse disorders and likely contains a genetic component. In rodents and humans, conditioned place preference (CPP) / aversion (CPA) is a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm whereby a learned preference for the drug-paired environment is used to infer drug liking whereas...

  12. Efficient training protocol for rapid learning of the two‐alternative forced‐choice visual stimulus detection task

    OpenAIRE

    Soma, Shogo; Suematsu, Naofumi; Shimegi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The potential of genetically engineered rodent models has accelerated demand for training procedures of behavioral tasks. Such training is generally time consuming and often shows large variability in learning speed between animals. To overcome these problems, we developed an efficient and stable training system for the two‐alternative forced‐choice (2AFC) visual stimulus detection task for freely behaving rodents. To facilitate the task learning, we introduced a spout‐lever as the o...

  13. Auditory-Visual System Interactions: Perinatal Visual Experience Affects Auditory Learning and Memory in Bobwhite Quail Chicks (Colinus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Columbus, Rebecca Foushee

    1998-01-01

    Early perceptual learning capacity has been shown to correspond with the relative status of emergent sensory systems throughout prenatal and postnatal development. It has also been shown that young infants can learn perceptual information during perinatal development. However, the exact nature of the relationship between prenatal and postnatal perceptual development and the role of early experience on learning ability have yet to be examined. The present study examined how auditory learnin...

  14. Hippocampal Erk Mechanisms Linking Prediction Error to Fear Extinction: Roles of Shock Expectancy and Contextual Aversive Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kyu Hwan; Guzman, Yomayra F.; Tronson, Natalie C.; Guedea, Anita L.; Gao, Can; Radulovic, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Extinction of fear requires learning that anticipated aversive events no longer occur. Animal models reveal that sustained phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) in hippocampal CA1 neurons plays an important role in this process. However, the key signals triggering and regulating the activity of Erk are not known. By…

  15. Systemic 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine Induces Conditioned Flavor Aversion and C-Fos in the Visceral Neuraxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kwon, Bumsup; Eckel, Lisa A.; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is often used in studies of adult neurogenesis and olfactory learning, but it can also have toxic effects on highly proliferative tissue. We found that pairing Kool-Aid flavors with acute systemic injections of BrdU induced strong conditioned flavor aversions. Intermittent injections during Kool-Aid-glucose…

  16. Visual literacy and visual communication for global education: innovations in teaching e-learning in art, design and communication

    OpenAIRE

    Velders, Teun; Vries, de, H.J.C.; Vaicaityte, Loreta

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the (student) proceedings of a successful inter-university co-operation between a research university and a university of applied sciences, in the field of Visual Literacy and Visual Communication. The origin lays in the international symposium “Digital Communities for Global Education” (Enschede NL, 2006) and the start was a web-based course in Informational Graphic Design. The ongoing development is an experimental master course in which students of both institutes work ...

  17. A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Why do people self-report an aversion to words like "moist"? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10-20% of the population is averse to the word "moist." This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. However, data from the current studies point to semantic features of the word-namely, associations with disgusting bodily functions-as a more prominent source of peoples' unpleasant experience. "Moist," for averse participants, was notable for its valence and personal use, rather than imagery or arousal-a finding that was confirmed by an experiment designed to induce an aversion to the word. Analyses of individual difference measures suggest that word aversion is more prevalent among younger, more educated, and more neurotic people, and is more commonly reported by females than males.

  18. Time-varying risk aversion. An application to energy hedging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk aversion is a key element of utility maximizing hedge strategies; however, it has typically been assigned an arbitrary value in the literature. This paper instead applies a GARCH-in-Mean (GARCH-M) model to estimate a time-varying measure of risk aversion that is based on the observed risk preferences of energy hedging market participants. The resulting estimates are applied to derive explicit risk aversion based optimal hedge strategies for both short and long hedgers. Out-of-sample results are also presented based on a unique approach that allows us to forecast risk aversion, thereby estimating hedge strategies that address the potential future needs of energy hedgers. We find that the risk aversion based hedges differ significantly from simpler OLS hedges. When implemented in-sample, risk aversion hedges for short hedgers outperform the OLS hedge ratio in a utility based comparison. (author)

  19. Phoneme Awareness, Visual-Verbal Paired-Associate Learning, and Rapid Automatized Naming as Predictors of Individual Differences in Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Meesha; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent relationships between phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading skills in 7- to 11-year-old children. Path analyses showed that visual-verbal paired-associate learning and RAN, but not phoneme awareness, were unique predictors of word recognition,…

  20. Risk Aversion and Incentive Compatibility with Ex Post Information Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hellwig, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The paper extends Diamond’s (1984) analysis of financial contracting with information asymmetry ex post and endogenous ”bankruptcy penalties” to allow for risk aversion of the borrower. The optimality of debt contracts, which Diamond obtained for the case of risk neutrality, is shown to be nonrobust to the introduction of risk aversion. This contrasts with the costly state verification literature, in which debt contracts are optimal for risk averse as well as risk neutral borrowers.