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Sample records for aversive memory recall

  1. Visual attention and emotional memory: recall of aversive pictures is partially mediated by concurrent task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottage, Claire L; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    The emotional enhancement of memory is often thought to be determined by attention. However, recent evidence using divided attention paradigms suggests that attention does not play a significant role in the formation of memories for aversive pictures. We report a study that investigated this question using a paradigm in which participants had to encode lists of randomly intermixed negative and neutral pictures under conditions of full attention and divided attention followed by a free recall test. Attention was divided by a highly demanding concurrent task tapping visual processing resources. Results showed that the advantage in recall for aversive pictures was still present in the DA condition. However, mediation analyses also revealed that concurrent task performance significantly mediated the emotional enhancement of memory under divided attention. This finding suggests that visual attentional processes play a significant role in the formation of emotional memories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Emotional discussions reduce memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.

  3. Rethinking a Negative Event : The Affective Impact Of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing Of Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories

  4. Rethinking a Negative Event : The Affective Impact of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing of Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories

  5. Memory reconsolidation in aversive and appetitive settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Claire Reichelt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory reconsolidation has been observed across species and in a number of behavioural paradigms. The majority of memory reconsolidation studies have been carried out in pavlovian fear conditioning and other aversive memory settings, with potential implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, there is a growing literature on memory reconsolidation in appetitive reward-related memory paradigms, including translational models of drug addiction. While there appears to be substantial similarity in the basic phenomenon and underlying mechanisms of memory reconsolidation across unconditioned stimulus valence, there are also notable discrepancies. These arise both when comparing aversive to appetitive paradigms and also across different paradigms within the same valence of memory. We review the demonstration of memory reconsolidation across different aversive and appetitive memory paradigms, the commonalities and differences in underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which each memory undergoes reconsolidation. We focus particularly on whether principles derived from the aversive literature are applicable to appetitive settings, and also whether the expanding literature in appetitive paradigms is informative for fear memory reconsolidation.

  6. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  7. Different components of conditioned food aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Vladimir P; Solntseva, Svetlana V; Kozyrev, Sergey A; Nikitin, Pavel V; Shevelkin, Alexey V

    2016-07-01

    Memory reconsolidation processes and protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) activity in memory maintenance and reorganization are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined memory reconsolidation and PKMzeta activity during the maintenance and reorganization of a conditioned food aversion memory among snails. These processes were specifically evaluated after administration of a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin), NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801), protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; CYH), or PKMzeta inhibitor (zeta inhibitory peptide; ZIP) either 2 or 10 days after aversion training. Two days post-training, injections of MK-801 or CYH, combined with a conditioned stimulus reminder, caused amnesia development, and a second training 11 days after this induction did not lead to long-term memory formation. Interestingly, MK-801 or CYH injections and the reminder 10 days after training did not affect memory retrieval. Methiothepin and the reminder, or ZIP without the reminder, at 2 and 10 days after training led to memory impairment, while a second training 11 days after amnesia induction resulted in memory formation. These results suggest that the maintenance of a conditioned food aversion involves two different components with variable dynamics. One component could be characterized by memory strengthening over time and involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and protein synthesis reconsolidation at early, but not late, training stages. The other memory component could involve serotonin-dependent reconsolidation and Mzeta-like kinase activity at both early and late stages after learning. Deficiencies within these two components led to various forms of memory impairment, which differed in terms of the formation of a conditioned food aversion during the second training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Imagery Rescripting: The Impact of Conceptual and Perceptual Changes on Aversive Autobiographical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H

    2016-01-01

    Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic) content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis of ImRs. We propose an additional hypothesis: that ImRs can also be effective by the manipulation of perceptual features of the memory, without explicitly targeting meaning-relevant content. In two experiments using a within-subjects design (both N = 48, community samples), both Conceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing meaning-relevant content-and Perceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing perceptual features-were compared to Recall-only of aversive autobiographical image-based memories. An active control condition, Recall + Attentional Breathing (Recall+AB) was added in the first experiment. In the second experiment, a Positive-ImRs condition was added-changing the aversive image into a positive image that was unrelated to the aversive autobiographical memory. Effects on the aversive memory's unpleasantness, vividness and emotionality were investigated. In Experiment 1, compared to Recall-only, both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in unpleasantness, and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality of memories. In Experiment 2, the effects on unpleasantness were not replicated, and both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality, compared to Recall-only, as did Positive-ImRs. There were no effects on vividness, and the ImRs conditions did not differ significantly from Recall+AB. Results suggest that, in addition to traditional forms of ImRs, targeting the meaning-relevant content of an image during ImRs, relatively simple techniques focusing on perceptual aspects or positive imagery might also yield benefits. Findings require replication and extension to clinical samples.

  9. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

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    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  10. Speed matters: relationship between speed of eye movements and modification of aversive autobiographical memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Chantal Van Veen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is an efficacious treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. In EMDR, patients recall a distressing memory and simultaneously make eye movements (EM. Both tasks are considered to require limited working memory (WM resources. Because this leaves fewer resources available for memory retrieval, the memory should become less vivid and less emotional during future recall. Currently, EMDR is a standardized treatment and patients typically receive the same dual task manipulation of 1 EM cycle per second (1 Hz. From a WM perspective, the WM taxation of the dual task might be titrated to the WM taxation of the memory image. We hypothesized that highly vivid images are more affected by high WM taxation and less vivid images are more affected by low WM taxation. In study 1, 34 participants performed a reaction time task, and rated image vividness and difficulty of retrieving an image, during five speeds of EM and no EM. Both a high WM taxing frequency (fast EM; 1.2 Hz and a low WM taxing EM frequency (slow EM; 0.8 Hz were selected. In study 2, 72 participants recalled three highly vivid aversive autobiographical memory images (n=36 or three less vivid images (n=36 under each of three conditions: recall + fast EM, recall + slow EM or recall only. Multi-level modeling revealed a consistent pattern for all outcome measures: recall + fast EM led to less emotional, less vivid and more difficult to retrieve images than recall + slow EM and recall only, and the effects of recall + slow EM felt consistently in between the effects of recall + fast EM and recall only, but only differed significantly from recall + fast EM. Crucially, image vividness did not interact with condition on the decrease of emotionality over time, which was inconsistent with the prediction. Implications for understanding the mechanisms of action in memory modification and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

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    Hadayat eSeddiqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  12. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

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    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  13. Rethinking a Negative Event: The Affective Impact of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing of Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Slofstra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRuminative (abstract verbal processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing.MethodsThe affective impact of abstract verbal versus concrete verbal versus imagery-based processing during recall of an aversive autobiographical memory was investigated in a non-clinical sample (n = 99 using both an observational and an experimental design. Observationally, it was examined whether spontaneous use of processing modes (both state and trait measures was associated with impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall on negative and positive affect. Experimentally, the causal relation between processing modes and affective impact was investigated by manipulating the processing mode during retrieval of the same aversive autobiographical memory.ResultsMain findings were that higher levels of trait (but not state measures of both ruminative and imagery-based processing and depressive symptomatology were positively correlated with higher levels of negative affective impact in the observational part of the study. In the experimental part, no main effect of processing modes on affective impact of autobiographical memories was found. However, a significant moderating effect of depressive symptomatology was found. Only for individuals with low levels of depressive symptomatology, concrete verbal (but not abstract verbal processing of the aversive autobiographical memory did result in weaker affective responses, compared to imagery-based processing.DiscussionThese results cast doubt

  14. Rethinking a Negative Event: The Affective Impact of Ruminative versus Imagery-Based Processing of Aversive Autobiographical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H

    2017-01-01

    Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. The affective impact of abstract verbal versus concrete verbal versus imagery-based processing during recall of an aversive autobiographical memory was investigated in a non-clinical sample ( n  = 99) using both an observational and an experimental design. Observationally, it was examined whether spontaneous use of processing modes (both state and trait measures) was associated with impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall on negative and positive affect. Experimentally, the causal relation between processing modes and affective impact was investigated by manipulating the processing mode during retrieval of the same aversive autobiographical memory. Main findings were that higher levels of trait (but not state) measures of both ruminative and imagery-based processing and depressive symptomatology were positively correlated with higher levels of negative affective impact in the observational part of the study. In the experimental part, no main effect of processing modes on affective impact of autobiographical memories was found. However, a significant moderating effect of depressive symptomatology was found. Only for individuals with low levels of depressive symptomatology, concrete verbal (but not abstract verbal) processing of the aversive autobiographical memory did result in weaker affective responses, compared to imagery-based processing. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that ruminative processing of

  15. Accessibility Limits Recall from Visual Working Memory

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    Rajsic, Jason; Swan, Garrett; Wilson, Daryl E.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate limitations of accessibility of information in visual working memory (VWM). Recently, cued-recall has been used to estimate the fidelity of information in VWM, where the feature of a cued object is reproduced from memory (Bays, Catalao, & Husain, 2009; Wilken & Ma, 2004; Zhang & Luck, 2008). Response…

  16. Imagery Rescripting: The Impact of Conceptual and Perceptual Changes on Aversive Autobiographical Memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Slofstra

    Full Text Available Imagery rescripting (ImRs is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis of ImRs. We propose an additional hypothesis: that ImRs can also be effective by the manipulation of perceptual features of the memory, without explicitly targeting meaning-relevant content.In two experiments using a within-subjects design (both N = 48, community samples, both Conceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing meaning-relevant content-and Perceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing perceptual features-were compared to Recall-only of aversive autobiographical image-based memories. An active control condition, Recall + Attentional Breathing (Recall+AB was added in the first experiment. In the second experiment, a Positive-ImRs condition was added-changing the aversive image into a positive image that was unrelated to the aversive autobiographical memory. Effects on the aversive memory's unpleasantness, vividness and emotionality were investigated.In Experiment 1, compared to Recall-only, both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in unpleasantness, and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality of memories. In Experiment 2, the effects on unpleasantness were not replicated, and both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality, compared to Recall-only, as did Positive-ImRs. There were no effects on vividness, and the ImRs conditions did not differ significantly from Recall+AB.Results suggest that, in addition to traditional forms of ImRs, targeting the meaning-relevant content of an image during ImRs, relatively simple techniques focusing on perceptual aspects or positive imagery might also yield benefits. Findings require replication and extension to clinical samples.

  17. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaiuolo, Micol; González, María Carolina; Medina, Jorge Horacio; Piriz, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb ...

  18. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaiuolo, Micol; Gonzalez, Carolina; Medina, Jorge H.; Piriz, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb ...

  19. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    OpenAIRE

    Micol eTomaiuolo; Carolina eGonzalez; Jorge eMedina; Jorge eMedina; Joaquin ePiriz

    2014-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb ...

  20. Learning rules for aversive associative memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takaaki; Johansen, Joshua P

    2018-03-05

    For survival, organisms need the ability to flexibly modify their behavior. To achieve this, the brain is equipped with instructive brain circuits which trigger changes in neural connectivity and adaptive changes in behavior in response to environmental/internal challenges. Recent studies using a form of aversive associative learning termed fear conditioning have shed light on the neural mechanisms of instructive signaling. These studies demonstrate that fear learning is engaged through multiple, parallel aversive signaling pathways to the amygdala. Consistent with theoretical accounts of learning, activity in these circuits and behavioral learning is tightly regulated by the predictability of the aversive experience. However, in more complex learning conditions, these emotion circuits use a form of inference to approximate the appropriate reaction to danger. This suggests a revised view of how emotional learning systems represent aversive associations and how changes in these representations are instructed during learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recall memory for visually presented chess positions.

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    Frey, P W; Adesman, P

    1976-09-01

    A series of three experiments replicated and extended earlier research reported by Chase and Simon (1973), de Groot (1965), and Charness (Note 1). The first experiment demonstrated that the relationship between memory for chess positions and chess skill varies directly with the amount of chess-specific information in the stimulus display. The second experiment employed tachistoscopic displays to incrementally "build" tournament chess positions by meaningful or nonmeaningful chunks and demonstrated that meaningful piece groupings during presentation markedly enhance subsequent recall performance. The third experiment tested memory for one of two positions presented in immediate sequence and demonstrated that explanations based on a limited-capacity short-term memory (Chase & Simon, 1973) are not adequate for explaining performance on this memory task.

  2. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol eTomaiuolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lateral Habenula (LHb is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA. We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 hours after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience.

  3. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaiuolo, Micol; Gonzalez, Carolina; Medina, Jorge H.; Piriz, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 h after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience. PMID:24860453

  4. Three dopamine pathways induce aversive odor memories with different stability.

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    Yoshinori Aso

    Full Text Available Animals acquire predictive values of sensory stimuli through reinforcement. In the brain of Drosophila melanogaster, activation of two types of dopamine neurons in the PAM and PPL1 clusters has been shown to induce aversive odor memory. Here, we identified the third cell type and characterized aversive memories induced by these dopamine neurons. These three dopamine pathways all project to the mushroom body but terminate in the spatially segregated subdomains. To understand the functional difference of these dopamine pathways in electric shock reinforcement, we blocked each one of them during memory acquisition. We found that all three pathways partially contribute to electric shock memory. Notably, the memories mediated by these neurons differed in temporal stability. Furthermore, combinatorial activation of two of these pathways revealed significant interaction of individual memory components rather than their simple summation. These results cast light on a cellular mechanism by which a noxious event induces different dopamine signals to a single brain structure to synthesize an aversive memory.

  5. Roles of aminergic neurons in formation and recall of associative memory in crickets

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    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the study of roles of octopaminergic (OA-ergic and dopaminergic (DA-ergic signaling in insect classical conditioning, focusing on our studies on crickets. Studies on olfactory learning in honey bees and fruit-flies have suggested that OA-ergic and DA-ergic neurons convey reinforcing signals of appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US and aversive US, respectively. Our work suggested that this is applicable to olfactory, visual pattern and color learning in crickets, indicating that this feature is ubiquitous in learning of various sensory stimuli. We also showed that aversive memory decayed much faster than did appetitive memory, and we proposed that this feature is common in insects and humans. Our study also suggested that activation of OA- or DA-ergic neurons is needed for appetitive or aversive memory recall, respectively. To account for this finding, we proposed a model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are strengthened by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus (CS to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing CS to OA- or DA-ergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive US, respectively. The former is called stimulus-response (S-R connection and the latter is called stimulus-stimulus (S-S connection by theorists studying classical conditioning in vertebrates. Results of our studies using a second-order conditioning procedure supported our model. We propose that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of S-S connection and its activation for memory recall, which are often called cognitive processes.

  6. The effects of free recall testing on subsequent source memory.

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    Brewer, Gene A; Marsh, Richard L; Meeks, Joseph T; Clark-Foos, Arlo; Hicks, Jason L

    2010-05-01

    The testing effect is the finding that prior retrieval of information from memory will result in better subsequent memory for that material. One explanation for these effects is that initial free recall testing increases the recollective details for tested information, which then becomes more available during a subsequent test phase. In three experiments we explored this hypothesis using a source-monitoring test phase after the initial free recall tests. We discovered that memory is differentially enhanced for certain recollective details depending on the nature of the free recall task. Thus further research needs to be conducted to specify how different kinds of memorial details are enhanced by free recall testing.

  7. Connection between Eysenck's personality traits and memory recall

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Areh

    2008-01-01

    The research examines the efficiency of episodic memory in the context of eyewitness memory. The purpose of the research was to ascertain the connection between personality traits and memory recall, what may allow us to form a model of reliability prediction of eyewitness testimony. It was hypothesized that high neuroticism, psychoticism and high introversion are connected with low accuracy and quantity of memory recall. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 280) between the ages of 1...

  8. Working memory capacity and the spacing effect in cued recall.

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    Delaney, Peter F; Godbole, Namrata R; Holden, Latasha R; Chang, Yoojin

    2017-12-11

    Spacing repetitions typically improves memory (the spacing effect). In three cued recall experiments, we explored the relationship between working memory capacity and the spacing effect. People with higher working memory capacity are more accurate on memory tasks that require retrieval relative to people with lower working memory capacity. The experiments used different retention intervals and lags between repetitions, but were otherwise similar. Working memory capacity and spacing of repetitions both improved memory in most of conditions, but they did not interact, suggesting additive effects. The results are consistent with the ACT-R model's predictions, and with a study-phase recognition process underpinning the spacing effect in cued recall.

  9. Aversive olfactory associative memory loses odor specificity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Christian; Antwi-Adjei, Emmanuel; Ganesan, Mathangi; Kilonzo, Kasyoka; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Durairaja, Archana; Voigt, Anne; Yarali, Ayse

    2017-05-01

    Avoiding associatively learned predictors of danger is crucial for survival. Aversive memories can, however, become counter-adaptive when they are overly generalized to harmless cues and contexts. In a fruit fly odor-electric shock associative memory paradigm, we found that learned avoidance lost its specificity for the trained odor and became general to novel odors within a day of training. We discuss the possible neural circuit mechanisms of this effect and highlight the parallelism to over-generalization of learned fear behavior after an incubation period in rodents and humans, with due relevance for post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Speed Matters: Relationship between Speed of Eye Movements and Modification of Aversive Autobiographical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Suzanne Chantal; van Schie, Kevin; Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek D N V; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2015-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an efficacious treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. In EMDR, patients recall a distressing memory and simultaneously make eye movements (EM). Both tasks are considered to require limited working memory (WM) resources. Because this leaves fewer resources available for memory retrieval, the memory should become less vivid and less emotional during future recall. In EMDR analogue studies, a standardized procedure has been used, in which participants receive the same dual task manipulation of 1 EM cycle per second (1 Hz). From a WM perspective, the WM taxation of the dual task might be titrated to the WM taxation of the memory image. We hypothesized that highly vivid images are more affected by high WM taxation and less vivid images are more affected by low WM taxation. In study 1, 34 participants performed a reaction time task, and rated image vividness, and difficulty of retrieving an image, during five speeds of EM and no EM. Both a high WM taxing frequency (fast EM; 1.2 Hz) and a low WM taxing frequency (slow EM; 0.8 Hz) were selected. In study 2, 72 participants recalled three highly vivid aversive autobiographical memory images (n = 36) or three less vivid images (n = 36) under each of three conditions: recall + fast EM, recall + slow EM, or recall only. Multi-level modeling revealed a consistent pattern for all outcome measures: recall + fast EM led to less emotional, less vivid and more difficult to retrieve images than recall + slow EM and recall only, and the effects of recall + slow EM felt consistently in between the effects of recall + fast EM and recall only, but only differed significantly from recall + fast EM. Crucially, image vividness did not interact with condition on the decrease of emotionality over time, which was inconsistent with the prediction. Implications for understanding the mechanisms of action in memory modification and directions for

  11. Practice Makes Perfect in Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists.…

  12. Enhancing individual and collaborative eyewitness memory with category clustering recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig

    2018-01-29

    Most crimes have multiple eyewitnesses. The police typically interview co-witnesses separately. In time-sensitive investigations, this could slow down evidence accumulation. Having co-witnesses collaboratively recall a crime could potentially expedite evidence accumulation. However, past research shows that collaborative group members often have conflicting retrieval strategies that disrupt each other, degrading overall recall. This cost could potentially be overcome by aligning group members' retrieval strategies with category clustering recall (CCR), which is a retrieval strategy where information is recalled from a series of forensically relevant categories (e.g., recalling the protagonists' appearance, then actions). This study examined the costs and benefits of collaborative eyewitness memory by having collaborative pairs of strangers, nominal pairs (i.e., two individuals whose recall is pooled) and lone individuals watch a crime and recall it using free recall or CCR. The collaborative pairs recalled the crime faster than the nominal pairs. They also recalled more correct information than individuals but less than nominal pairs, irrespective of the retrieval method. There is therefore a speed-recall completeness trade-off when collaborative groups recall crimes. Importantly, all participants recalled more correct information when using CCR. This provides initial evidence suggesting that CCR is superior to free recall. Further research examining CCR's benefits is recommended.

  13. Dissecting neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila olfactory aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yichun; Hirokawa, Areekul; Ai, Yulian; Zhang, Min; Li, Wanhe; Zhong, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have identified molecular pathways driving forgetting and supported the notion that forgetting is a biologically active process. The circuit mechanisms of forgetting, however, remain largely unknown. Here we report two sets of Drosophila neurons that account for the rapid forgetting of early olfactory aversive memory. We show that inactivating these neurons inhibits memory decay without altering learning, whereas activating them promotes forgetting. These neurons, including a cluster of dopaminergic neurons (PAM-β'1) and a pair of glutamatergic neurons (MBON-γ4>γ1γ2), terminate in distinct subdomains in the mushroom body and represent parallel neural pathways for regulating forgetting. Interestingly, although activity of these neurons is required for memory decay over time, they are not required for acute forgetting during reversal learning. Our results thus not only establish the presence of multiple neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila but also suggest the existence of diverse circuit mechanisms of forgetting in different contexts.

  14. Connection between Eysenck's personality traits and memory recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Areh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The research examines the efficiency of episodic memory in the context of eyewitness memory. The purpose of the research was to ascertain the connection between personality traits and memory recall, what may allow us to form a model of reliability prediction of eyewitness testimony. It was hypothesized that high neuroticism, psychoticism and high introversion are connected with low accuracy and quantity of memory recall. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 280 between the ages of 18 and 21. Personality traits were measured by Eysencks' Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. After the application of questionnaire a video about a robbery assault on a female was shown. Seven days later the accuracy and quantity of memory recall were tested with an extensive checklist. It was established that extraversion is not correlated with memory recall in men, while in females a positive correlation was found. Among females, high neuroticism was correlated negatively with the accuracy and quantity of memory recall, and in men only a negative correlation with quantity of memory recall was found. All correlation coefficients were weak, therefore it was impossible to form an applicable model of reliability prediction of eyewitness testimony. The main weakness of the research presented was the sample anomaly, which was evident in noticeable deviation in the average level of extraversion when it was compared with the expected standard for the Slovenian population.

  15. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel A.; Eidhof, Marloes B.; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic

  16. Amygdala activity related to enhanced memory for pleasant and aversive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S B; Ely, T D; Grafton, S T; Kilts, C D

    1999-03-01

    Pleasant or aversive events are better remembered than neutral events. Emotional enhancement of episodic memory has been linked to the amygdala in animal and neuropsychological studies. Using positron emission tomography, we show that bilateral amygdala activity during memory encoding is correlated with enhanced episodic recognition memory for both pleasant and aversive visual stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and that this relationship is specific to emotional stimuli. Furthermore, data suggest that the amygdala enhances episodic memory in part through modulation of hippocampal activity. The human amygdala seems to modulate the strength of conscious memory for events according to emotional importance, regardless of whether the emotion is pleasant or aversive.

  17. Contrasting Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Reward and Aversive Olfactory Memories in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A Lockett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of what we have learnt from rodent models about the essential role of epigenetic processes in brain plasticity has made use of aversive learning, yet the role of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, a popular invertebrate model for both memory and epigenetics, was previously unknown. We examined the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition on both aversive and reward olfactory associative learning in a discrimination proboscis extension reflex (PER assay. We report that treatment with the HDAC inhibitors APHA compound 8 (C8, phenylbutyrate (PB or sodium butyrate (NaB impaired discrimination memory due to impairment of aversive memory in a dose-dependent manner, while simultaneously having no effect on reward memory. Treatment with C8 1 h before training, 1 h after training or 1 h before testing, impaired aversive but not reward memory at test. C8 treatment 1 h before training also improved aversive but not reward learning during training. PB treatment only impaired aversive memory at test when administered 1 h after training, suggesting an effect on memory consolidation specifically. Specific impairment of aversive memory (but not reward memory by HDAC inhibiting compounds was robust, reproducible, occurred following treatment with three drugs targeting the same mechanism, and is likely to be genuinely due to alterations to memory as sucrose sensitivity and locomotion were unaffected by HDAC inhibitor treatment. This pharmacological dissection of memory highlights the involvement of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, and expands our knowledge of epigenetic control of neural plasticity in invertebrates.

  18. Memories affect mood: evidence from covert experimental assignment to positive, neutral, and negative memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Kessler, Jennifer; Farah, Martha J

    2007-06-01

    Memory recall has been proposed as a common and effective mood regulation strategy. Although several studies have presented results suggesting that recalling valenced memories affects subsequent mood, their designs allow for alternative interpretations of the observed effects. Two such alternatives include the reverse effect (mood effects on memory due to non-experimental assignment to memory recall condition) and demand characteristics of the experiment. We used covert experimental assignment to memory condition, asking subjects (N=314; 56% female) to recall memories that were primarily positive, neutral, or negative. Results showed the expected effect on mood (p<.002), with reported mood worst in the negative memory condition, better in the neutral condition, and best in the positive condition. These results suggest that valenced memory recall does indeed exert an effect on mood, and may do so even without the individual's awareness.

  19. Enhanced long-term fear memory and increased anxiety and depression-like behavior after exposure to an aversive event in mice lacking TIP39 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutellier, Laurence; Usdin, Ted B.

    2011-01-01

    Exaggerated recall for fear-provoking events leads to abnormal behaviors. We hypothesized that tuberoinfundibular-peptide-of-39-residues (TIP39) modulates fear memory by limiting long-term consequences of aversive experiences. We now show that mice lacking TIP39 signaling display enhanced fear-recall, anxiety and depression-like behavior two weeks after a traumatic event. We suggest that TIP39 modulates long-term fear recall and that mice lacking TIP39 or its receptor are tools for investigating fear-related psychopathologies. PMID:21382418

  20. Sleep after Learning Aids Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Jan; Gais, Steffen; Lucas, Brian

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the effect of sleep on memory consolidation has received considerable attention. In humans, these studies concentrated mainly on procedural types of memory, which are considered to be hippocampus-independent. Here, we show that sleep also has a persisting effect on hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. In two experiments, we…

  1. Exposure to and recall of violence reduce short-term memory and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogliacino, Francesco; Grimalda, Gianluca; Ortoleva, Pietro; Ring, Patrick

    2017-08-08

    Previous research has investigated the effects of violence and warfare on individuals' well-being, mental health, and individual prosociality and risk aversion. This study establishes the short- and long-term effects of exposure to violence on short-term memory and aspects of cognitive control. Short-term memory is the ability to store information. Cognitive control is the capacity to exert inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Both have been shown to affect positively individual well-being and societal development. We sampled Colombian civilians who were exposed either to urban violence or to warfare more than a decade earlier. We assessed exposure to violence through either the urban district-level homicide rate or self-reported measures. Before undertaking cognitive tests, a randomly selected subset of our sample was asked to recall emotions of anxiety and fear connected to experiences of violence, whereas the rest recalled joyful or emotionally neutral experiences. We found that higher exposure to violence was associated with lower short-term memory abilities and lower cognitive control in the group recalling experiences of violence, whereas it had no effect in the other group. This finding demonstrates that exposure to violence, even if a decade earlier, can hamper cognitive functions, but only among individuals actively recalling emotional states linked with such experiences. A laboratory experiment conducted in Germany aimed to separate the effect of recalling violent events from the effect of emotions of fear and anxiety. Both factors had significant negative effects on cognitive functions and appeared to be independent from each other.

  2. Ising formulation of associative memory models and quantum annealing recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Siddhartha; Shehab, Omar; Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2017-12-01

    Associative memory models, in theoretical neuro- and computer sciences, can generally store at most a linear number of memories. Recalling memories in these models can be understood as retrieval of the energy minimizing configuration of classical Ising spins, closest in Hamming distance to an imperfect input memory, where the energy landscape is determined by the set of stored memories. We present an Ising formulation for associative memory models and consider the problem of memory recall using quantum annealing. We show that allowing for input-dependent energy landscapes allows storage of up to an exponential number of memories (in terms of the number of neurons). Further, we show how quantum annealing may naturally be used for recall tasks in such input-dependent energy landscapes, although the recall time may increase with the number of stored memories. Theoretically, we obtain the radius of attractor basins R (N ) and the capacity C (N ) of such a scheme and their tradeoffs. Our calculations establish that for randomly chosen memories the capacity of our model using the Hebbian learning rule as a function of problem size can be expressed as C (N ) =O (eC1N) , C1≥0 , and succeeds on randomly chosen memory sets with a probability of (1 -e-C2N) , C2≥0 with C1+C2=(0.5-f ) 2/(1 -f ) , where f =R (N )/N , 0 ≤f ≤0.5 , is the radius of attraction in terms of the Hamming distance of an input probe from a stored memory as a fraction of the problem size. We demonstrate the application of this scheme on a programmable quantum annealing device, the D-wave processor.

  3. Templates in chess memory: a mechanism for recalling several boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, F; Simon, H A

    1996-08-01

    This paper addresses empirically and theoretically a question derived from the chunking theory of memory (Chase & Simon, 1973a, 1973b): To what extent is skilled chess memory limited by the size of short-term memory (about seven chunks)? This question is addressed first with an experiment where subjects, ranking from class A players to grandmasters, are asked to recall up to five positions presented during 5 s each. Results show a decline of percentage of recall with additional boards, but also show that expert players recall more pieces than is predicted by the chunking theory in its original form. A second experiment shows that longer latencies between the presentation of boards facilitate recall. In a third experiment, a Chessmaster gradually increases the number of boards he can reproduce with higher than 70% average accuracy to nine, replacing as many as 160 pieces correctly. To account for the results of these experiments, a revision of the Chase-Simon theory is proposed. It is suggested that chess players, like experts in other recall tasks, use long-term memory retrieval structures (Chase & Ericsson, 1982) or templates in addition to chunks in short-term memory to store information rapidly.

  4. Relationship between Fear Conditionability and Aversive Memories: Evidence from a Novel Conditioned-Intrusion Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegerer, Melanie; Blechert, Jens; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive memories – a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – are often triggered by stimuli possessing similarity with cues that predicted or accompanied the traumatic event. According to learning theories, intrusive memories can be seen as a conditioned response to trauma reminders. However, direct laboratory evidence for the link between fear conditionability and intrusive memories is missing. Furthermore, fear conditioning studies have predominantly relied on standardized aversive stimuli (e.g. electric stimulation) that bear little resemblance to typical traumatic events. To investigate the general relationship between fear conditionability and aversive memories, we tested 66 mentally healthy females in a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with neutral sounds as conditioned stimuli and short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Subsequent aversive memories were assessed through a memory triggering task (within 30 minutes, in the laboratory) and ambulatory assessment (involuntary aversive memories in the 2 days following the experiment). Skin conductance responses and subjective ratings demonstrated successful differential conditioning indicating that naturalistic aversive film stimuli can be used in a fear conditioning experiment. Furthermore, aversive memories were elicited in response to the conditioned stimuli during the memory triggering task and also occurred in the 2 days following the experiment. Importantly, participants who displayed higher conditionability showed more aversive memories during the memory triggering task and during ambulatory assessment. This suggests that fear conditioning constitutes an important source of persistent aversive memories. Implications for PTSD and its treatment are discussed. PMID:24244407

  5. Hypnosis, delayed recall, and the principles of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1994-10-01

    This article reviews the seven principles of memory function that set limits on the degree to which any attempt to recover a long-forgotten memory can succeed: encoding, organization, time dependency, cue dependency, encoding specificity, schematic processing, and reconstruction. In the absence of independent corroboration, there is no "litmus test" that can reliably distinguish true from false memories, or memories that are based on perception from those that are based on imagination. Practicing clinicians should exercise great caution when using hypnosis or any other technique to facilitate delayed recall.

  6. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-tem aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 hour later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus.

  7. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, María C.; Kramar, Cecilia P.; Tomaiuolo, Micol; Katche, Cynthia; Weisstaub, Noelia; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H.

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 h later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus. PMID:25506318

  8. Acute antidepressant drug administration and autobiographical memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Williams, J Mark G

    2012-01-01

    Antidepressants affect memory and neural responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether this extends to autobiographical memory for personally experienced events. The current study investigated the effects of acute administration of the antidepress...... of reboxetine on emotional memory extends to recall of personally experienced events. Such effects may be relevant to the cognitive improvements found with recovery from depression and with the mechanism of action of contemporary antidepressant drugs.......Antidepressants affect memory and neural responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether this extends to autobiographical memory for personally experienced events. The current study investigated the effects of acute administration...... in the processing of positive versus negative memories was reduced following reboxetine compared with placebo in the left frontal lobe (extending into the insula) and the right superior temporal gyrus. This was paired with increased memory speed in volunteers given reboxetine versus placebo. The effect...

  9. Music-dependent memory in immediate and delayed word recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W R; Bowman, K; Mohler, L

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers rated a series of words for pleasantness while hearing a particular background music. The subjects in Experiment 1 received, immediately or after a 48-h delay, an unexpected word-recall test in one of the following musical cue contexts: same cue (S), different cue (D), or no cue (N). For immediate recall, context dependency (S-D) was significant but same-cue facilitation (S-N) was not. No cue effects at all were found for delayed recall, and there was a significant interaction between cue and retention interval. A similar interaction was also found in Experiment 3, which was designed to rule out an alternative explanation with respect to distraction. When the different musical selection was changed specifically in either tempo or form (genre), only pieces having an altered tempo produced significantly lower immediate recall compared with the same pieces (Experiment 2). The results support a stimulus generalization view of music-dependent memory.

  10. Suggestibility, intelligence, memory recall and personality: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1983-01-01

    A new suggestibility test, potentially useful in the context of police interrogation, was administered to 45 subjects who also completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Suggestibility was significantly related to low intelligence, poor memory recall, neuroticism and social desirability.

  11. Repeated Recall and PKM? Maintain Fear Memories in Juvenile Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chicora F.; Kabitzke, Patricia; Serrano, Peter; Egan, Laura J.; Barr, Gordon A.; Shair, Harry N.; Wiedenmayer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We examined the neural substrates of fear memory formation and maintenance when repeated recall was used to prevent forgetting in young animals. In contrast to adult rats, juveniles failed to show contextual fear responses at 4 d post-fear conditioning. Reconsolidation sessions 3 and 6 d after conditioning restored contextual fear responses in…

  12. Galvanic vestibular stimulation speeds visual memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Nicholls, Sophie; Pattenden, Charlotte; Kilduff, Patrick; Milberg, William

    2008-08-01

    The experiments of Alessandro Volta were amongst the first to indicate that visuo-spatial function can be altered by stimulating the vestibular nerves with galvanic current. Until recently, the beneficial effects of the procedure were masked by the high levels of electrical current applied, which induced nystagmus-related gaze deviation and spatial disorientation. However, several neuropsychological studies have shown that much weaker, imperceptible currents that do not elicit unpleasant side-effects can help overcome visual loss after stroke. Here, we show that visual processing in neurologically healthy individuals can also benefit from galvanic vestibular stimulation. Participants first learnt the names of eight unfamiliar faces and then after a short delay, answered questions from memory about how pairs of these faces differed. Mean correct reaction times were significantly shorter when sub-sensory, noise-enhanced anodal stimulation was administered to the left mastoid, compared to when no stimulation was administered at all. This advantage occurred with no loss in response accuracy, and raises the possibility that the procedure may constitute a more general form of cognitive enhancement.

  13. PKMζ maintains drug reward and aversion memory in the basolateral amygdala and extinction memory in the infralimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying-Ying; Xue, Yan-Xue; Wang, Ji-Shi; Fang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Xue, Li-Fen; Lu, Lin

    2011-09-01

    The intense associative memories that develop between drug-paired contextual cues and rewarding stimuli or the drug withdrawal-associated aversive feeling have been suggested to contribute to the high rate of relapse. Various studies have elucidated the mechanisms underlying the formation and expression of drug-related cue memories, but how this mechanism is maintained is unknown. Protein kinase M ζ (PKMζ) was recently shown to be necessary and sufficient for long-term potentiation maintenance and memory storage. In the present study, we used conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA) to examine whether PKMζ maintains both morphine-associated reward memory and morphine withdrawal-associated aversive memory in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). We also investigate the role of PKMζ in the infralimbic cortex in the extinction memory of morphine reward-related cues and morphine withdrawal-related aversive cues. We found that intra-BLA but not central nucleus of the amygdala injection of the selective PKMζ inhibitor ZIP 1 day after CPP and CPA training impaired the expression of CPP and CPA 1 day later, and the effect of ZIP on memory lasted at least 2 weeks. Inhibiting PKMζ activity in the infralimbic cortex, but not prelimbic cortex, disrupted the expression of the extinction memory of CPP and CPA. These results indicate that PKMζ in the BLA is required for the maintenance of associative morphine reward memory and morphine withdrawal-associated aversion memory, and PKMζ in the infralimbic cortex is required for the maintenance of extinction memory of morphine reward-related cues and morphine withdrawal-related aversive cues.

  14. Genetic Dissection of Aversive Associative Olfactory Learning and Memory in Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Widmann, Annekathrin; Artinger, Marc; Biesinger, Lukas; Boepple, Kathrin; Peters, Christina; Schlechter, Jana; Selcho, Mareike; Thum, Andreas S.

    2016-01-01

    Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators a...

  15. Higher-Order Sensory Cortex Drives Basolateral Amygdala Activity during the Recall of Remote, but Not Recently Learned Fearful Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Likhtik, Ekaterina; Mazziotti, Raffaele; Concina, Giulia; Renna, Annamaria; Sacco, Tiziana; Gordon, Joshua A; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2016-02-03

    Negative experiences are quickly learned and long remembered. Key unresolved issues in the field of emotional memory include identifying the loci and dynamics of memory storage and retrieval. The present study examined neural activity in the higher-order auditory cortex Te2 and basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their crosstalk during the recall of recent and remote fear memories. To this end, we obtained local field potentials and multiunit activity recordings in Te2 and BLA of rats that underwent recall at 24 h and 30 d after the association of an acoustic conditioned (CS, tone) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US, electric shock). Here we show that, during the recall of remote auditory threat memories in rats, the activity of the Te2 and BLA is highly synchronized in the theta frequency range. This functional connectivity stems from memory consolidation processes because it is present during remote, but not recent, memory retrieval. Moreover, the observed increase in synchrony is cue and region specific. A preponderant Te2-to-BLA directionality characterizes this dialogue, and the percentage of time Te2 theta leads the BLA during remote memory recall correlates with a faster latency to freeze to the auditory conditioned stimulus. The blockade of this information transfer via Te2 inhibition with muscimol prevents any retrieval-evoked neuronal activity in the BLA and animals are unable to retrieve remote memories. We conclude that memories stored in higher-order sensory cortices drive BLA activity when distinguishing between learned threatening and neutral stimuli. How and where in the brain do we store the affective/motivational significance of sensory stimuli acquired through life experiences? Scientists have long investigated how "limbic" structures, such as the amygdala, process affective stimuli. Here we show that retrieval of well-established threat memories requires the functional interplay between higher-order components of the auditory cortex and the

  16. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eLeue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS and by means of reasoning abilities–a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss. Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict-monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  17. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Weber, Bernd; Beauducel, André

    2014-01-01

    Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS) and by means of reasoning abilities-a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss). Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing) with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  18. Fear memory formation can affect a different memory: fear conditioning affects the extinction, but not retrieval, of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory

    OpenAIRE

    Joels, Gil; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The formation of fear memory to a specific stimulus leads to subsequent fearful response to that stimulus. However, it is not apparent whether the formation of fear memory can affect other memories. We study whether specific fearful experience leading to fear memory affects different memories formation and extinction. We revealed that cued fear conditioning, but not unpaired or naïve training, inhibited the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory that was formed after fear condi...

  19. Imagery rescripting as a clinical intervention for aversive memories : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Lancee, J.; Arntz, A.

    Background and objectives Literature suggests that imagery rescripting (ImRs) is an effective psychological intervention. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of ImRs for psychological complaints that are associated with aversive memories. Relevant publications were collected from the databases

  20. Imagery Rescripting : The Impact of Conceptual and Perceptual Changes on Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic) content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis

  1. Imagery rescripting : The impact of conceptual and perceptual changes on aversive autobiographical memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H.; Holmes, Emily A.; Bockting, C. L. H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic) content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis

  2. Glucocorticoids Enhance Taste Aversion Memory via Actions in the Insular Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function.…

  3. Difference in Subjective Accessibility of On Demand Recall of Visual, Taste, and Olfactory Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here significant difference in the evocation capability between sensory memories (visual, taste, and olfactory throughout certain categories of the population. As object for this memory recall we selected French fries that are simple and generally known. From daily life we may intuitively feel that there is much better recall of the visual and auditory memory compared to the taste and olfactory ones. Our results in young (age 12–21 years mostly females and some males show low capacity for smell and taste memory recall compared to far greater visual memory recall. This situation raises question whether we could train smell and taste memory recall so that it could become similar to visual or auditory ones. In our article we design technique of the volunteers training that could potentially lead to an increase in the capacity of their taste and olfactory memory recollection.

  4. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and fourth groups consisted of 27 undergraduates where each group was trained only to perform one recall type: free recall, cued recall and serial recall respectively. Interference (short-term memory interruption was the independent variable and a number of recalled abstract and concrete words was the dependent variable. The used materials in this study were: abstract and concrete words classification form based on four factors was distributed to the participants (concreteness, imageability, meaningfulness, and age of acquisition, three oral recall forms, three written recall forms, and observation sheets for each type of recall. Also, three methods were used: auditory, visual, and written methods. Results: Findings indicated that interference effect on short-term memory recall of Arabic abstract and concrete words was not significant especially in the case of free and serial recall paradigms. The difference between the total number of recalled Arabic abstract and concrete words was also very slight. One other the hand, we came to the conclusion that Pearson’s correlation between interference at these memory recall paradigms (M: 1.66, SD= .47 and the short-term memory recall (M: 1.75, SD= .43 supported the research hypothesis that those participants with oral interruptions tended to recall slightly less Arabic abstract and concrete words, whereas those participants with no oral interruptions would tend to recall slightly more Arabic abstract and concrete

  5. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data.

  6. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduais, Ahmed Mohammed Saleh; Almukhaizeem, Yasir Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first…

  7. Sex differences in aversive memory in rats: possible role of extinction and reactive emotional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Barbosa, Flávio F; Godinho, Monique R; Fernandes, Valéria S; Munguba, Hermany; Melo, Thieza G; Barbosa, Marla T; Eufrasio, Raí A; Cabral, Alícia; Izídio, Geison S; Silva, Regina H

    2010-11-01

    Studies usually show better spatial learning in males and stronger emotional memory in females. Spatial memory differences could relate to diverse strategies, while dissimilar stress reactions could cause emotional memory differences. We compared male and female rats in two emotional (classical emotional conditioning and aversive discrimination memory) and two emotionally "neutral" tasks: (1) plus-maze discriminative avoidance, containing two open and two enclosed arms, one of which presenting aversive stimuli (light/noise). No differences were found in learning, retrieving, or basal emotional levels, while only male rats presented extinction of the task; (2) contextual fear conditioning--a cage was paired to mild foot shocks. Upon reexposure, freezing behavior was decreased in females; (3) spontaneous alternation--the animals were expected to alternate among the arms of a four-arm maze. No differences between genders were found and (4) open-field habituation was addressed in an arena which the rats were allowed to explore for 10 min. Habituation was similar between genders. Differences were found only in tasks with strong emotional contexts, where different fear responses and stress effects could be determinant. The lack of extinction of discriminative avoidance by females points out to stronger consolidation and/or impaired extinction of aversive memories. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Inhibitor influence on conditional food aversion long-term memory retention and reconsolidation in snail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A

    2014-08-01

    In snails trained for conditional food aversion, the effect of ZIP-protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) inhibitor on mechanisms of memory retention and reconsolidation was studied. It was shown that two days after ZIP injections the dose of 1.25 mg/kg, which were not combined with a reminding procedure, there was no effects, but in dose of 2.5 mg/kg a transient memory impairment after 1 day after the injection with its spontaneous recovery on day 10 was disclosed. ZIP injection in a dose of 5 mg/kg without reminding procedure caused memory impairment and the development of persistent amnesia. During animal repeating training after 11 days after amnesia induction caused by ZIP in dose 5 mg/kg, the number of combined food and reinforcing stimulus needed for memory formation was similar to that seen in the initial training. ZIP in doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg combined with a reminding procedure caused the development of amnesia, however, repeating training after 11 days resulted in a dose-dependent and more rapid formation of memory than in the initial training. It was proposed that in snails trained to conditional food aversion without reminding procedure, inhibition of PKMzeta-like enzyme might cause "erase the memory trace" and in repeating training a new memory was formed. PKMzeta apparently not directly involved in the processes of memory reconsolidation, however, a reminding decreased amnesic effect of ZIP.

  9. Discrete Serotonin Systems Mediate Memory Enhancement and Escape Latencies after Unpredicted Aversive Experience in Drosophila Place Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sitaraman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedback mechanisms in operant learning are critical for animals to increase reward or reduce punishment. However, not all conditions have a behavior that can readily resolve an event. Animals must then try out different behaviors to better their situation through outcome learning. This form of learning allows for novel solutions and with positive experience can lead to unexpected behavioral routines. Learned helplessness, as a type of outcome learning, manifests in part as increases in escape latency in the face of repeated unpredicted shocks. Little is known about the mechanisms of outcome learning. When fruit fly Drosophilamelanogaster are exposed to unpredicted high temperatures in a place learning paradigm, flies both increase escape latencies and have a higher memory when given control of a place/temperature contingency. Here we describe discrete serotonin neuronal circuits that mediate aversive reinforcement, escape latencies, and memory levels after place learning in the presence and absence of unexpected aversive events. The results show that two features of learned helplessness depend on the same modulatory system as aversive reinforcement. Moreover, changes in aversive reinforcement and escape latency depend on local neural circuit modulation, while memory enhancement requires larger modulation of multiple behavioral control circuits.

  10. The effect of androgen on the retention of extinction memory after conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ema; Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Satoh, Ryohei; Saito, Rika; Miyamoto, Takenori

    2013-05-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) induced by the application of a novel taste such as sodium saccharin (Sac) as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and a malaise-inducing agent as the unconditioned stimulus (US), results in acquisition of CTA memory to Sac. In contrast, CTA is extinguished by repeated presentations of the CS without the US, resulting in acquisition of the extinction memory. We examined the effects of androgenic hormones on acquisition and retention of extinction memory in mice. We gonadectomized sexually immature mice and continuously administered androgens to these animals. After sexual maturation, the mice underwent a conditioning period followed by an extinction period. Retrieval tests revealed that the androgen-treated group showed significantly greater retention of extinction memory than the non-treated group 5 weeks later, whereas such significant difference was not observed in acquisition of extinction memory. These results demonstrate the enhancing effect of androgens on retention of extinction memory.

  11. Odor-induced recall of emotional memories in PTSD-Review and new paradigm for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, Judith K.; Vermetten, Eric

    2016-01-01

    It is clinically well known that olfactory intrusions in PTSD can be a disabling phenomena due to the involuntary recall of odor memories. Odorants can trigger involuntary recall of emotional memories as well have the potential to help diminishing emotional arousal as grounding stimuli. Despite

  12. Relations of nostalgia with music to emotional response and recall of autobiographical memory

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 麻美; 岩永, 誠; 生和, 秀敏

    2002-01-01

    Previous researches suggest that musical mood and preferences affects on emotional response, and that context of music also affects on musical-dependent memory. We often feel 'nostalgia' when listening to old familiar tunes. Nostalgia is related to eliciting positive emotions, recall of autobiographical memory and positive evaluations for recall contents. The present study aimed to examine effects of musical mood, preference and nostalgia on emotional responses, the amounts of recall of autob...

  13. Genetic Dissection of Aversive Associative Olfactory Learning and Memory in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Annekathrin; Artinger, Marc; Biesinger, Lukas; Boepple, Kathrin; Peters, Christina; Schlechter, Jana; Selcho, Mareike; Thum, Andreas S

    2016-10-01

    Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches. Compared to adult Drosophila, memory formation was only sporadically analyzed at its larval stage. Here we deconstruct the larval mnemonic organization after aversive olfactory conditioning. We show that after odor-high salt conditioning larvae form two parallel memory phases; a short lasting component that depends on cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) signaling and synapsin gene function. In addition, we show for the first time for Drosophila larvae an anesthesia resistant component, which relies on radish and bruchpilot gene function, protein kinase C activity, requires presynaptic output of mushroom body Kenyon cells and dopamine function. Given the numerical simplicity of the larval nervous system this work offers a unique prospect for studying memory formation of defined specifications, at full-brain scope with single-cell, and single-synapse resolution.

  14. Genetic Dissection of Aversive Associative Olfactory Learning and Memory in Drosophila Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Annekathrin; Artinger, Marc; Biesinger, Lukas; Boepple, Kathrin; Schlechter, Jana; Selcho, Mareike; Thum, Andreas S.

    2016-01-01

    Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes—besides other forms—a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches. Compared to adult Drosophila, memory formation was only sporadically analyzed at its larval stage. Here we deconstruct the larval mnemonic organization after aversive olfactory conditioning. We show that after odor-high salt conditioning larvae form two parallel memory phases; a short lasting component that depends on cyclic adenosine 3’5’-monophosphate (cAMP) signaling and synapsin gene function. In addition, we show for the first time for Drosophila larvae an anesthesia resistant component, which relies on radish and bruchpilot gene function, protein kinase C activity, requires presynaptic output of mushroom body Kenyon cells and dopamine function. Given the numerical simplicity of the larval nervous system this work offers a unique prospect for studying memory formation of defined specifications, at full-brain scope with single-cell, and single-synapse resolution. PMID:27768692

  15. Genetic Dissection of Aversive Associative Olfactory Learning and Memory in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin Widmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches. Compared to adult Drosophila, memory formation was only sporadically analyzed at its larval stage. Here we deconstruct the larval mnemonic organization after aversive olfactory conditioning. We show that after odor-high salt conditioning larvae form two parallel memory phases; a short lasting component that depends on cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP signaling and synapsin gene function. In addition, we show for the first time for Drosophila larvae an anesthesia resistant component, which relies on radish and bruchpilot gene function, protein kinase C activity, requires presynaptic output of mushroom body Kenyon cells and dopamine function. Given the numerical simplicity of the larval nervous system this work offers a unique prospect for studying memory formation of defined specifications, at full-brain scope with single-cell, and single-synapse resolution.

  16. Active Experiencing Training Improves Episodic Memory Recall in Older Adults

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    Sarah E. Banducci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Active experiencing (AE is an intervention aimed at attenuating cognitive declines with mindfulness training via an immersive acting program, and has produced promising results in older adults with limited formal education. Yet, the cognitive mechanism(s of intervention benefits and generalizability of gains across cognitive domains in the course of healthy aging is unclear. We addressed these issues in an intervention trial of older adults (N = 179; mean age = 69.46 years at enrollment; mean education = 16.80 years assigned to an AE condition (n = 86 or an active control group (i.e., theatre history; n = 93 for 4 weeks. A cognitive battery was administered before and after intervention, and again at a 4-month follow-up. Group differences in change in cognition were tested in latent change score models (LCSM. In the total sample, several cognitive abilities demonstrated significant repeated-testing gains. AE produced greater gains relative to the active control only in episodic recall, with gains still evident up to 4 months after intervention. Intervention conditions were similar in the magnitude of gains in working memory, executive function and processing speed. Episodic memory is vulnerable to declines in aging and related neurodegenerative disease, and AE may be an alternative or supplement to traditional cognitive interventions with older adults.

  17. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang improves the aversive memory in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maurmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA-2 is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder without specific therapy identified, and it is related to the loss of function in the cerebellum, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neurotoxic processes. Scientific evidence indicates that Mangifera indica L. aqueous extract (MiE and its major constituent (mangiferin display antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions. Aims: To investigate the MiE and mangiferin effects on behavioral outcomes of neurological function in SCA-2 transgenic mice. Methods: The SCA-2 transgenic mice were daily and orally administered during 12 months with MiE (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, mangiferin (10 mg/kg or vehicle. It was evaluated locomotion (open-field, aversive memory (inhibitory avoidance and declarative memory (object recognition. To explore possible cellular mechanisms underlying the in vivo effects was also evaluated their effects on nerve grow factor (NGF and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels in the human glioblastoma cell line U138-MG supernatant. Results: MiE administration did not affect the object recognition memory, but mangiferin did. The natural extract improved selectively the aversive memory in SCA-2 mice, indicating that MiE can affect behavioral parameters regarding fear-related memory. MiE also induced a significant increase in supernatant levels of NGF and TNF-α in vitro in human U138-MG glioblastoma cells. Conclusions: The results suggest that MiE enhances the aversive memory through a mechanism that might involve an increase in neurotrophin and cytokine levels. These findings constitute the basis for the use of the natural extract in the prevention/treatment of memory deficits in SCA-2.

  18. Savings Memory Is Accompanied by Transcriptional Changes That Persist beyond the Decay of Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leticia; Patel, Ushma; Rivota, Marissa; Calin-Jageman, Irina E.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    Most long-term memories are forgotten. What happens, then, to the changes in neuronal gene expression that were initially required to encode and maintain the memory? Here we show that the decay of recall for long-term sensitization memory in "Aplysia" is accompanied both by a form of savings memory (easier relearning) and by persistent…

  19. Involvement of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 in the Mechanisms of Conditioned Food Aversion Memory Reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A

    2017-02-01

    Experiments were performed on the snails trained in conditioned food aversion for 3 days. Injection of TDZD-8 (glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor, 2 mg/kg) in combination with reminder (presentation of a conditioned food stimulus) led to memory impairment developing 3 days after inhibitor/reminder exposure and followed by spontaneous recovery in 10 days. Injections of TDZD-8 in a dose of 4 or 20 mg/kg before reminder were shown to cause amnesia that persisted for more than 10 days. Memory recovery during repeated training was observed at the earlier period than after initial training. The impairment of memory reconsolidation by TDZD-8 after training of snails for 1 day was less pronounced than under standard training conditions (3 days). The effect of a glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor during memory reconsolidation is probably followed by impairment of memory retrieval and/or partial loss, which can be compensated spontaneously or after repeated training.

  20. Memory in pediatric patients undergoing conscious sedation for aversive medical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Beverly; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Eskenazi, Allen

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated preserved memory in 26 pediatric cancer patients (65% boys, 77% Caucasian, mean age = 12.5 years) undergoing midazolam-induced conscious sedation during painful medical procedures to treat hematological or oncological diseases. The sedative midazolam had a significant anterograde amnesic effect on participants' performance on a visual recognition (explicit) memory task but not on a visual perceptual facilitation (implicit) memory task. That implicit memory scores were relatively unaffected while explicit memory scores deteriorated significantly indicates that leaning occurred while participants were sedated, even when participants did not recollect the learning event. These findings, which replicate those of M. R. Polster, R. A. McCarthy, G. O'Sullivan, P. A. Gray, and G. R. Park (1993) in a study of adults, have implications for the development and treatment of conditioned anxiety reactions associated with aversive medical procedures.

  1. Induction of latent memory for conditioned food aversion and its transformation into "active" state depend on translation and transcription processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, V P

    2014-05-01

    Mechanisms of induction and retrieval of latent (hidden) memory for conditioned food aversion were investigated in snails. After initial training (single combination of a food stimulus with electric shock), aversive reactions to presentation of the conditioned food stimulus were not revealed. Repeated presentation of the stimuli in 12 days after the first combination was followed by the appearance of aversive food reactions that persisted for at least 14 days. Injections of inhibitors of protein (cycloheximide) or RNA (α-amanitin) synthesis immediately after the first or second combined presentation of the stimuli disturbed skill performance. We hypothesized that single combination of food and reinforcing stimuli led to translation- and transcription-dependent induction of latent conditioned food aversion memory. Transformation of this memory into an active state after repeated presentation of the stimulus combination also depends on the synthesis of new proteins and RNA.

  2. Sex-related memory recall and talkativeness for emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto eArnone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have evidenced an increasing interest in sex-related brain mechanisms and cerebral lateralization subserving emotional memory, language processing, and conversational behavior. We used event related potentials (ERP to examine the influence of sex and hemisphere on brain responses to emotional stimuli. Given that the P300 component of ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon, we compared left and right hemisphere P300 responses to emotional stimuli in men and women. As indexed by both amplitude and latency measures, emotional stimuli elicited more robust P300 effects in the left hemisphere in women than in men, while a stronger P300 component was elicited in the right hemisphere in men compared to women. Our findings show that the variables of sex and hemisphere interacted significantly to influence the strength of the P300 component to the emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli were also best recalled when given a long-term, incidental memory test, a fact potentially related to the differential P300 waves at encoding. Moreover, taking into account the sex-related differences in language processing and conversational behaviour, in the present study we evaluated possible talkativeness differences between the two genders in the recollection of emotional stimuli. Our data showed that women used a higher number of words, compared to men, to describe both arousal and neutral stories. Moreover, the present results support the view that sex differences in lateralization may not be a general feature of language processing but may be related to the specific condition, such as the emotional content of stimuli.

  3. Diazepam effects on aversive memory retrieval and extinction: Role of anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Anderson H F F; Cabral, Alícia; Izídio, Geison S; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Silva, Regina H

    2016-02-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are anxiolytic drugs that impair memory acquisition. Previous studies using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT, which assesses memory and anxiety concomitantly) indicated that the effects of BDZs on anxiety and acquisition are related to each other. The possible influence of the anxiolytic action of BDZs on their effects on memory retrieval and extinction are poorly understood. This is relevant considering the relationship between aversive memories and anxiety disorders. We designed a modified protocol of PMDAT that evaluates anxiety during retrieval and extinction of the task. Male Wistar rats were trained in the PMDAT (plus-maze with two open and two enclosed arms) using a standard or a modified protocol. In the standard protocol, the aversive stimuli were presented in one of the enclosed arms during training, and the animal had free access to the whole apparatus. In the modified protocol, the open arms were blocked with glass walls. Twenty-four hours after training, the animals subjected to each of the protocols were treated with saline or 2.0mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) 30min before the test. There was a third session in the maze (retest) 24h after the test. During the test, DZP impaired and improved retrieval in rats that had been trained in the standard and the modified protocol when compared to the respective saline-treated groups. In addition, treatment with DZP prior to the test induced anxiolysis, but only in the animals that were not pre-exposed to the open arms of the apparatus (modified protocol). In these animals, DZP impaired extinction, which was evaluated during retest session. The impairing effect of DZP on extinction seems to be related to its anxiolytic action during the test (extinction learning). Further, we suggest that aversive memory retrieval depends on both the treatment and the arousal elicited by exposure to the apparatus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine impairs long-term food aversion memory in edible snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, O I; Anokhin, K V

    2012-09-01

    We studied the involvement of DNA synthesis into molecular mechanisms of long-term memory. Nucleoside analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is known to incorporate into synthesizing DNA and prevent subsequent DNA replication from this region. To investigate the effect of BrdU administration on long-term memory, terrestrial gastropods edible snails Helix lucorum were trained in the food aversion paradigm. Single-session training (carrot presentation combined with application of 10% quinine solution, three carrot presentations with 10-min intervals) resulted in the formation of long-term memory that persisted for at least 45° days. BrdU administration (250 mg/kg) 30 min before training impaired long-term memory tested 24 h later. Immunohistochemical study revealed BrdU incorporation in the nuclei of identified neurons of defensive behavior.

  5. Two Independent Mushroom Body Output Circuits Retrieve the Six Discrete Components of Drosophila Aversive Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Bouzaiane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the various memory components are encoded and how they interact to guide behavior requires knowledge of the underlying neural circuits. Currently, aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila is behaviorally subdivided into four discrete phases. Among these, short- and long-term memories rely, respectively, on the γ and α/β Kenyon cells (KCs, two distinct subsets of the ∼2,000 neurons in the mushroom body (MB. Whereas V2 efferent neurons retrieve memory from α/β KCs, the neurons that retrieve short-term memory are unknown. We identified a specific pair of MB efferent neurons, named M6, that retrieve memory from γ KCs. Moreover, our network analysis revealed that six discrete memory phases actually exist, three of which have been conflated in the past. At each time point, two distinct memory components separately recruit either V2 or M6 output pathways. Memory retrieval thus features a dramatic convergence from KCs to MB efferent neurons.

  6. Errorless learning and working memory: the impact of errors, distractors, and memory span load on immediate recall in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvik, Jan E; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Landro, Nils I

    2011-06-01

    Errorless learning represents an important contribution to current neuropsychological rehabilitation. Previous research has mainly explained the benefits of errorless learning through properties of long-term memory. This study aims to explore how errors affect immediate recall performance. A new, supplementary perspective focusing on the role of working memory in errorless learning is introduced. Sixty university students participated in a within-subject design experiment measuring the effect of errors, memory span load, and attentional distractors on a digit recall task. Errors were found to have significant negative impact on immediate recall, while distractors had an effect only in interaction with errors.

  7. The Default Mode Network Supports Episodic Memory in Cognitively Unimpaired Elderly Individuals: Different Contributions to Immediate Recall and Delayed Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Huo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While the neural correlates of age-related decline in episodic memory have been the subject of much interest, the spontaneous functional architecture of the brain for various memory processes in elderly adults, such as immediate recall (IR and delayed recall (DR, remains unclear. The present study thus examined the neural correlates of age-related decline of various memory processes. A total of 66 cognitively normal older adults (aged 60–80 years participated in this study. Memory processes were measured using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test as well as resting-state brain images, which were analyzed using both regional homogeneity (ReHo and correlation-based functional connectivity (FC approaches. We found that both IR and DR were significantly correlated with the ReHo of these critical regions, all within the default mode network (DMN, including the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, inferior parietal lobule, and medial prefrontal cortex. In addition, DR was also related to the FC between these DMN regions. These results suggest that the DMN plays different roles in memory retrieval across different retention intervals, and connections between the DMN regions contribute to memory consolidation of past events in healthy older people.

  8. Mushroom body efferent neurons responsible for aversive olfactory memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, Julien; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Aso, Yoshinori; Siwanowicz, Igor; Trannoy, Séverine; Thoma, Vladimiros; Tedjakumala, Stevanus R; Rubin, Gerald M; Tchénio, Paul; Ito, Kei; Isabel, Guillaume; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Preat, Thomas

    2011-06-19

    Aversive olfactory memory is formed in the mushroom bodies in Drosophila melanogaster. Memory retrieval requires mushroom body output, but the manner in which a memory trace in the mushroom body drives conditioned avoidance of a learned odor remains unknown. To identify neurons that are involved in olfactory memory retrieval, we performed an anatomical and functional screen of defined sets of mushroom body output neurons. We found that MB-V2 neurons were essential for retrieval of both short- and long-lasting memory, but not for memory formation or memory consolidation. MB-V2 neurons are cholinergic efferent neurons that project from the mushroom body vertical lobes to the middle superiormedial protocerebrum and the lateral horn. Notably, the odor response of MB-V2 neurons was modified after conditioning. As the lateral horn has been implicated in innate responses to repellent odorants, we propose that MB-V2 neurons recruit the olfactory pathway involved in innate odor avoidance during memory retrieval.

  9. Recall of Childhood Trauma: A Prospective Study of Women's Memories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    1994-01-01

    Of the 129 women interviewed, a large portion (38%) did not recall abuse reported 17 years earlier. Those who were younger when abuse occurred or were molested by an acquaintance were more likely to have no recall. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Periods with no memory should not suggest abuse never occurred. (52 references)…

  10. Effects of gender and recall types on memory loops of working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . However, significant differences existed between recall types on memory loops, and interaction effect was found to exist between the two independent variables. It was recommended that male edlerlies be exposed more on S + V loops while ...

  11. Noradrenergic actions in the basolateral complex of the amygdala modulate Arc expression in hippocampal synapses and consolidation of aversive and non-aversive memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Jayme R.; Anderson, Kelly M.; Donowho, Kyle M.; McIntyre, Christa K.

    2014-01-01

    The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) plays a role in the modulation of emotional memory consolidation through its interactions with other brain regions. In rats, memory enhancing infusions of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol into the BLA immediately after training enhances expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene Arc in the dorsal hippocampus and memory-impairing intra-BLA treatments reduce hippocampal Arc expression. We have proposed that the BLA may modulate memory consolidation through an influence on the local translation of synaptic plasticity proteins, like Arc, in recently active synapses in efferent brain regions. To date, all work related to this hypothesis is based on aversive memory tasks such as inhibitory avoidance (IA). To determine whether BLA modulation of hippocampal Arc protein expression is specific to plasticity associated with inhibitory avoidance memory, or a common mechanism for multiple types of memory, we tested the effect of intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol on memory and hippocampal synaptic Arc expression following IA or object recognition training. Results indicate that intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol enhance memory for both tasks; however, Arc expression in hippocampal synaptoneurosomes was significantly elevated only in rats trained on the aversive IA task. These findings suggest that regulation of Arc expression in hippocampal synapses may depend on co-activation of arousal systems. To test this hypothesis, a “high arousal” version of the OR task was used where rats were not habituated to the testing conditions. Posttraining intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol enhanced consolidation of the high-arousing version of the task and significantly increased Arc protein levels in dorsal hippocampus synaptic fractions. These findings suggest that the BLA modulates multiple forms of memory and affects the synaptic plasticity-associated protein Arc in synapses of the dorsal hippocampus when

  12. Immediate story recall in elderly individuals with memory complaints: how much does it contribute to memory assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Gabriel; Drummond, Cláudia; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Mattos, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    Prose memory tests exhibit ecological validity, but the influence of non-memory functions on immediate recall in elderly subjects with memory complaints has not been fully investigated. This study examined (1) whether the ability to immediately recall a story can distinguish among clinical controls, amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and (2) which cognitive functions contribute to immediate recall performance. A total of 73 consecutive volunteers (50 women and 23 men) aged 47-88 (mean age = 71.85 ± 9.41) and with a mean schooling level of 12.51 (SD = 4.09) participated in the experiment. All individuals were seeking specialized evaluation because of memory complaints. Diagnoses were made by considering clinical, neuropsychological, and MRI assessments collected by a multidisciplinary team of neurologists, neuropsychologists, and speech-language therapists. A total of 26 individuals were classified as clinical controls; 27 as MCI patients; and 20 as having AD dementia. All individuals in the AD group had a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) ≤ 1. Immediate recall was only able to distinguish AD subjects from MCI patients and clinical controls (p > 0.05). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that mental status (MMSE), semantic memory (WAIS-III vocabulary) and episodic memory (RAVLT primacy) explained approximately 62% of the variance in immediate recall. Understanding the value and limitations of immediate story recall in distinguishing between MCI and AD may help clinicians in better choosing cognitive tests to diagnose MCI.

  13. A disproportionate role for the fornix and mammillary bodies in recall versus recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivilis, Dimitris; Vann, Seralynne D; Denby, Christine; Roberts, Neil; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela; Aggleton, John P

    2008-07-01

    Uncovering the functional relationship between temporal lobe amnesia and diencephalic amnesia depends on determining the role of the fornix, the major interlinking fiber tract. In this study relating fornix volume with memory, we made magnetic resonance imaging-based volume estimates of 13 brain structures in 38 individuals with surgically removed colloid cysts. Fornix status was assessed directly by overall volume and indirectly by mammillary body volume (which atrophies after fornix damage). Mammillary body volume significantly correlated with 13 out of 14 tests of episodic memory recall, but correlated poorly with recognition memory. Furthermore, as the volumes of the left fornix and the left mammillary bodies decreased, the difference between recall and recognition scores increased. No other structure was consistently associated with memory. These findings support models of diencephalic memory mechanisms that require hippocampal inputs for recall, but not for key elements of recognition.

  14. Dynamics of dendritic spines in the mouse auditory cortex during memory formation and memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczulska, Kaja Ewa; Tinter-Thiede, Juliane; Peter, Manuel; Ushakova, Lyubov; Wernle, Tanja; Bathellier, Brice; Rumpel, Simon

    2013-11-05

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic connections induced by relevant experiences are believed to represent the physical correlate of memories. Here, we combined chronic in vivo two-photon imaging of dendritic spines with auditory-cued classical conditioning to test if the formation of a fear memory is associated with structural changes of synapses in the mouse auditory cortex. We find that paired conditioning and unpaired conditioning induce a transient increase in spine formation or spine elimination, respectively. A fraction of spines formed during paired conditioning persists and leaves a long-lasting trace in the network. Memory recall triggered by the reexposure of mice to the sound cue did not lead to changes in spine dynamics. Our findings provide a synaptic mechanism for plasticity in sound responses of auditory cortex neurons induced by auditory-cued fear conditioning; they also show that retrieval of an auditory fear memory does not lead to a recapitulation of structural plasticity in the auditory cortex as observed during initial memory consolidation.

  15. The expression of amphetamine sensitization is dissociable from anxiety and aversive memory: Effect of an acute injection of amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica, Rafael Ignacio; Pérez-Valenzuela, Enzo; Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; Fuentealba, José Antonio

    2017-01-18

    The repeated administration of amphetamine can lead to locomotor sensitization. Although the repeated administration of amphetamine has been associated with anxiety and impaired working memory, it is uncertain if expression of amphetamine sensitization is associated with modifications of emotional memories. To address this issue, rats were injected once daily with amphetamine for five consecutive days (1.5mg/kg). After four days of withdrawal, rats were delivered an acute amphetamine injection to assess the expression of sensitization. A single exposure to an elevated plus maze (EPM), 24h after the last injection of amphetamine, showed that amphetamine sensitization is not accompanied by anxiety. Next, aversive memory was assessed using an 11day inter-trial interval between the EPM Trial 1 and EPM Trial 2. Rats administered with saline showed a percentage of open arms time (% OAT) in Trial 2 that was comparable to Trial 1, demonstrating a reduction in the retrieval of aversive memory. However, rats sensitized after the EPM Trial 1 showed a significant decrease in the % OAT in Trial 2. Importantly, a decrease in the % OAT in Trial 2 compared to Trial 1 was also observed after a single injection of amphetamine 24h before Trial 2. These results show a facilitation in the retrieval of aversive memory, and suggest that a previous amphetamine injection is enough to produce a protracted activation of neural circuits necessary for the retrieval of aversive memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibitory Control Mediates the Relationship between Depressed Mood and Overgeneral Memory Recall in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Filip; Verstraeten, Katrien; Bijttebier, Patricia; Vasey, Michael W.; Dalgleish, Tim

    2010-01-01

    It has been well established that depressed mood is related to overgeneral memory recall (OGM), which refers to a relative difficulty in retrieving specific information from one's autobiographical memory (AM). The present study examined whether OGM is also related to depressed mood in children and whether lack of inhibitory control mediates this…

  17. Recall of Remote Episodic Memories Can Appear Deficient because of a Gist-Based Retrieval Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoy, John D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    Determining whether patients with amnesia can succeed in remembering their distant past has pivotal implications for theories of memory storage. However, various factors influence recall. We speculated that some patients with anterograde amnesia adopt a gist-based retrieval orientation for memories from all time periods, thereby exaggerating…

  18. Motivation for Weight Loss affects recall from Autobiographical Memory in Dieters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    -dieters. We expected no differences on memories recalled in response to neutral cue words. Study 1: 29 normal/overweight dieters and 48 non-dieters participated. Study 2: 18 obese dieters and 19 non-dieters participated. We conducted repeated measures tests. The hypotheses were supported, which support......Two studies examined the connection between motivation and autobiographical memories. We expected memories recalled in response to dieting-related cue words to be more central to the person's identity and life story and to contain more body and weight related elements for dieters than for non...

  19. Long-term phase reorganization of conditioned food aversion memory in edible snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, S A; Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, V P

    2014-08-01

    The specific features of memory reconsolidation in edible snails were studied over 30 days after learning of conditioned food aversion. Injections of a NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide in combination with the conditioned food stimulus (reminder) on day 2 after learning were followed by the development of amnesia. Repeated training on day 10 after the induction of amnesia did not result in skill formation. Injections of MK-801 or cycloheximide and reminder by the 10th day after training had no effect on memory retention. Injections of MK-801 or cycloheximide and reminder by the 30th day after training were followed by the development of amnesia. In these experiments, memory was recovered after repeated training. Our results indicate that a complex phase reorganization of memory occurs over 30 days after learning. This process includes memory consolidation over the first days after training, stabilization and resistance to adverse factors after 10 days, and newly acquired ability for reconsolidation by the 30th day after training.

  20. Inhibition of prefrontal protein synthesis following recall does not disrupt memory for trace fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Pramod K

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of similarity between consolidation and reconsolidation is not yet fully understood. One of the differences noted is that not every brain region involved in consolidation exhibits reconsolidation. In trace fear conditioning, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are required for consolidation of long-term memory. We have previously demonstrated that trace fear memory is susceptible to infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin into the hippocampus following recall. In the present study, we examine whether protein synthesis inhibition in the mPFC following recall similarly results in the observation of reconsolidation of trace fear memory. Results Targeted intra-mPFC infusions of anisomycin or vehicle were performed immediately following recall of trace fear memory at 24 hours, or at 30 days, following training in a one-day or a two-day protocol. The present study demonstrates three key findings: 1 trace fear memory does not undergo protein synthesis dependent reconsolidation in the PFC, regardless of the intensity of the training, and 2 regardless of whether the memory is recent or remote, and 3 intra-mPFC inhibition of protein synthesis immediately following training impaired remote (30 days memory. Conclusion These results suggest that not all structures that participate in memory storage are involved in reconsolidation. Alternatively, certain types of memory-related information may reconsolidate, while other components of memory may not.

  1. Involvement of Mζ-Like Protein Kinase in the Mechanisms of Conditioned Food Aversion Memory Reconsolidation in the Helix lucorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

    2015-06-01

    We studied the involvement of Mζ-like protein kinase (PKMζ) into mechanisms of conditioned food aversion memory reconsolidation in Helix lucorum. Injections PKMζ inhibitor ZIP in a dose of 5 mg/kg on day 2 or 10 after learning led to memory impairment and amnesia development. Injections of the inhibitor in doses of 1.5 or 2.5 mg/kg had no effect. Repeated training on day 11 after induction of amnesia resulted in the formation of memory on the same type of food aversion similar to first training. The number of combinations of conditional (food) and reinforcing (electrical shock) stimuli was similar during initial and repeated training. We hypothesize that the inhibition of Mζ-like protein kinase erases the memory trace and a new memory is formed during repeated training.

  2. Cognitive correlates of mnemonics usage and verbal recall memory in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D M; Rakitin, B C; Zubin, N R; Ventura, P R; Stern, Y

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether minimizing requisite processing resources to learn a word list would differentially improve recall of older adults and to examine the associations between memory and nonmemory cognitive abilities. It has been hypothesized that a reduction in general processing resources contributes to age-related declines in memory and other cognitive abilities. Twenty-four young adults and 47 older adults were administered two semantically related word lists, one list with words blocked into their categories and the other with categories intermixed. Tests of attention and working memory, language, and abstract reasoning were interspersed with the memory tasks. Participants were classified as young (age range: 17-30 years), young-old (age range: 65-73 years), and old-old (age range: 74-87 years) to compare the effects of list condition (i.e., blocked vs. unblocked) on recall performance. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the cognitive correlates of recall performance. Expected age differences in recall performance were observed. Based on the resource-reduction hypothesis of cognitive aging, we hypothesized that the blocked presentation of the to-be-remembered list would minimize processing demands and therefore differentially benefit recall in older elderly participants. Contrary to our prediction, however, the relative benefits of blocked list presentation on recall measures were comparable for young and older participants. Correlations and regression analyses revealed that recall performance was more strongly associated with word finding ability than with working memory or abstract reasoning skills. Results suggest that level of recall of a semantically related word list and use of semantic clustering as an encoding strategy are associated more strongly with general word finding skills than with processing capacity.

  3. Delayed Recall and Working Memory MMSE Domains Predict Delirium following Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine C; Garvan, Cynthia; Hizel, Loren P; Lopez, Marcos G; Billings, Frederic T

    2017-01-01

    Reduced preoperative cognition is a risk factor for postoperative delirium. The significance for type of preoperative cognitive deficit, however, has yet to be explored and could provide important insights into mechanisms and prediction of delirium. Our goal was to determine if certain cognitive domains from the general cognitive screener, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), predict delirium after cardiac surgery. Patients completed a preoperative MMSE prior to undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Following surgery, delirium was assessed throughout ICU stay using the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU delirium and the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale. Cardiac surgery patients who developed delirium (n = 137) had lower total MMSE scores than patients who did not develop delirium (n = 457). In particular, orientation to place, working memory, delayed recall, and language domain scores were lower. Of these, only the working memory and delayed recall domains predicted delirium in a regression model adjusting for history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, age, sex, and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. For each word not recalled on the three-word delayed recall assessment, the odds of delirium increased by 50%. For each item missed on the working memory index, the odds of delirium increased by 36%. Of the patients who developed delirium, 47% had a primary impairment in memory, 21% in working memory, and 33% in both domains. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve using only the working memory and delayed recall domains was 0.75, compared to 0.76 for total MMSE score. Delirium risk is greater for individuals with reduced MMSE scores on the delayed recall and working memory domains. Research should address why patients with memory and executive vulnerabilities are more prone to postoperative delirium than those with other cognitive limitations.

  4. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  5. Memory Strategy Instruction, Contextual Learning and ESP Vocabulary Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Derin; Ozbulgan, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in vocabulary learning strategies given that they are found to facilitate second/foreign language vocabulary learning and recall. As many learners do not develop sufficient mastery of the strategy repertoire, explicit instruction on vocabulary learning strategies may help them to become…

  6. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  7. Effect of nitrogen narcosis on free recall and recognition memory in open water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, M; Kneller, W

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that nitrogen narcosis causes decrements in memory performance but the precise aspect of memory impaired is not clear in the literature. The present research investigated the effect of narcosis on free recall and recognition memory by appling signal detection theory (SDT) to the analysis of the recognition data. Using a repeated measures design, the free recall and recognition memory of 20 divers was tested in four learning-recall conditions: shallow-shallow (SS), deep-deep (DD), shallow-deep (SD) and deep-shallow (DS). The data was collected in the ocean offDahab, Egypt with shallow water representing a depth of 0-10m (33ft) and deep water 37-40m (121-131ft). The presence of narcosis was independently indexed with subjective ratings. In comparison to the SS condition there was a clear impairment of free recall in the DD and DS conditions, but not the SD condition. Recognition memory remained unaffected by narcosis. It was concluded narcosis-induced memory decrements cannot be explained as simply an impairment of input into long term memory or of self-guided search and it is suggested instead that narcosis acts to reduce the level of processing/encoding of information.

  8. Engaging in an experiential processing mode increases positive emotional response during recall of pleasant autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeikis, Darius; Bos, Nikita; Schweizer, Susanne; Murphy, Fionnuala; Dunn, Barnaby

    2017-05-01

    It is important to identify effective emotion regulation strategies to increase positive emotion experience in the general population and in clinical conditions characterized by anhedonia. There are indications that engaging in experiential processing (direct awareness of sensory and bodily experience) bolsters positive emotion experience but this has not been extensively tested during memory recall. To further test this notion, 99 community participants recalled two positive autobiographical memories. Prior to the second recall, participants either underwent an experiential, analytical, or distraction induction (n = 33 per condition). Subjective happiness and sadness ratings and heart rate variability (HRV) response were measured during each recall. Greater spontaneous use of experiential processing during the first memory was associated with greater happiness experience, but was unrelated to HRV and sadness experience. Inducing experiential processing increased happiness experience relative to both the analytical and distraction conditions (but had no impact on sadness experience). There was a significant difference in HRV between conditions. The experiential condition led to a trend-significant increase, and the other conditions a non-significant decrease, in HRV from the first to the second memory. These results suggest that engaging in experiential processing is an effective way to up-regulate positive emotion experience during positive memory recall. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Memory recall in a process control system: a measure of expertise and display effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, K J

    1992-07-01

    Previous research has shown that memory-recall performance is correlated with domain expertise. In this study, a process control system was selected as a vehicle for conducting research on memory recall. The primary purposes of the present work were to determine if the classic expertise effects originally obtained in chess generalize to this novel domain and to evaluate the validity of memory recall as a measure of display effectiveness. Experts and novices viewed dynamic event sequences showing the behavior of a thermal-hydraulic system with two different displays, one that only contained information about the physical components in the system (P) and another that also contained information about higher order functional variables (P+F). There were three types of trials: normal, where the system was operating correctly; fault, where a single fault was introduced; and random, where the system's behavior did not obey physical laws. On each trial, subjects were asked to recall the final state of the system and to diagnose the system state. The P+F display resulted in superior diagnosis performance compared with the P display. With regard to memory, there was some evidence of an interaction between trial type and expertise, with experts outperforming novices but primarily on meaningful trials. In addition, memory for the subset of variables most critical to diagnosis was better with the P+F display than with the P display, thereby indicating that memory recall can be a sensitive measure of display effectiveness. The results also clarify a theoretical problem that has existed for some time in the literature, namely, the conditions under which expertise advantages are to be expected in memory-recall tasks. Collectively, these findings point to the potential benefits of adopting an applied context as a test bed for basic research issues.

  10. Recall of Others' Actions after Incidental Encoding Reveals Episodic-like Memory in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Claudia; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-12-05

    The existence of episodic memory in non-human animals is a debated topic that has been investigated using different methodologies that reflect diverse theoretical approaches to its definition. A fundamental feature of episodic memory is recalling after incidental encoding, which can be assessed if the recall test is unexpected [1]. We used a modified version of the "Do as I Do" method [2], relying on dogs' ability to imitate human actions, to test whether dogs can rely on episodic memory when recalling others' actions from the past. Dogs were first trained to imitate human actions on command. Next, they were trained to perform a simple training exercise (lying down), irrespective of the previously demonstrated action. This way, we substituted their expectation to be required to imitate with the expectation to be required to lie down. We then tested whether dogs recalled the demonstrated actions by unexpectedly giving them the command to imitate, instead of lying down. Dogs were tested with a short (1 min) and a long (1 hr) retention interval. They were able to recall the demonstrated actions after both intervals; however, their performance declined more with time compared to conditions in which imitation was expected. These findings show that dogs recall past events as complex as human actions even if they do not expect the memory test, providing evidence for episodic-like memory. Dogs offer an ideal model to study episodic memory in non-human species, and this methodological approach allows investigating memory of complex, context-rich events. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gamma neurons mediate dopaminergic input during aversive olfactory memory formation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongtao; Cressy, Michael; Li, Wanhe; Coravos, Jonathan S; Izzi, Stephanie A; Dubnau, Joshua

    2012-04-10

    Mushroom body (MB)-dependent olfactory learning in Drosophila provides a powerful model to investigate memory mechanisms. MBs integrate olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) inputs with neuromodulatory reinforcement (unconditioned stimuli, US), which for aversive learning is thought to rely on dopaminergic (DA) signaling to DopR, a D1-like dopamine receptor expressed in MBs. A wealth of evidence suggests the conclusion that parallel and independent signaling occurs downstream of DopR within two MB neuron cell types, with each supporting half of memory performance. For instance, expression of the Rutabaga (Rut) adenylyl cyclase in γ neurons is sufficient to restore normal learning to rut mutants, whereas expression of Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in α/β neurons is sufficient to rescue NF1 mutants. DopR mutations are the only case where memory performance is fully eliminated, consistent with the hypothesis that DopR receives the US inputs for both γ and α/β lobe traces. We demonstrate, however, that DopR expression in γ neurons is sufficient to fully support short- and long-term memory. We argue that DA-mediated CS-US association is formed in γ neurons followed by communication between γ and α/β neurons to drive consolidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 5-HT6 receptor blockade differentially affects scopolamine-induced deficits of working memory, recognition memory and aversive learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Dauphin, François

    2012-07-01

    Blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) is known to improve cognitive performances in the rodent. This improvement has been hypothesized to be the result, at least in part, of a modulation of the cholinergic neurotransmission. We assessed the effects of 5-HT6R blockade on selected types of memory relevant to functional deficits of ageing and neurodegenerative diseases, in mice that present a scopolamine-induced cholinergic disruption of memory. Following the selection of an adequate dose of scopolamine to induce cognitive deficits, we have studied the effects of the selective 5-HT6R antagonist SB-271046, alone or in combination with scopolamine, on working memory (spontaneous alternation task in the T-maze), recognition memory (place recognition) and aversive learning (passive avoidance). SB-271046 alone failed to affect working memory, recognition memory and aversive learning performances. In contrast, SB-271046 was able to reverse the scopolamine-induced deficits in working memory (only at 30 mg kg⁻¹) and those of acquisition and retrieval of aversive learning (dose-dependent effect); scopolamine-induced deficits in episodic-like memory (acquisition and retrieval) were partially counteracted by 5-HT6R blockade. The modulation between 5-HT6R and the cholinergic system appears to be predominant for working memory and aversive learning, but not for other types of memory (i.e. episodic-like memory). Interactions between 5-HT6R and alternative neurotransmission systems (i.e. glutamatergic system) should be further studied. The respective involvement of these interactions in the memory disorders related to ageing and neurodegenerative diseases is of pivotal importance regarding the possible use of 5-HT6R antagonists in the treatment of memory disorders in humans.

  13. Reactivation in working memory: an attractor network model of free recall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lansner

    Full Text Available The dynamic nature of human working memory, the general-purpose system for processing continuous input, while keeping no longer externally available information active in the background, is well captured in immediate free recall of supraspan word-lists. Free recall tasks produce several benchmark memory phenomena, like the U-shaped serial position curve, reflecting enhanced memory for early and late list items. To account for empirical data, including primacy and recency as well as contiguity effects, we propose here a neurobiologically based neural network model that unifies short- and long-term forms of memory and challenges both the standard view of working memory as persistent activity and dual-store accounts of free recall. Rapidly expressed and volatile synaptic plasticity, modulated intrinsic excitability, and spike-frequency adaptation are suggested as key cellular mechanisms underlying working memory encoding, reactivation and recall. Recent findings on the synaptic and molecular mechanisms behind early LTP and on spiking activity during delayed-match-to-sample tasks support this view.

  14. Reactivation in Working Memory: An Attractor Network Model of Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansner, Anders; Marklund, Petter; Sikström, Sverker; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic nature of human working memory, the general-purpose system for processing continuous input, while keeping no longer externally available information active in the background, is well captured in immediate free recall of supraspan word-lists. Free recall tasks produce several benchmark memory phenomena, like the U-shaped serial position curve, reflecting enhanced memory for early and late list items. To account for empirical data, including primacy and recency as well as contiguity effects, we propose here a neurobiologically based neural network model that unifies short- and long-term forms of memory and challenges both the standard view of working memory as persistent activity and dual-store accounts of free recall. Rapidly expressed and volatile synaptic plasticity, modulated intrinsic excitability, and spike-frequency adaptation are suggested as key cellular mechanisms underlying working memory encoding, reactivation and recall. Recent findings on the synaptic and molecular mechanisms behind early LTP and on spiking activity during delayed-match-to-sample tasks support this view. PMID:24023690

  15. Memory recall in arousing situations – an emotional von Restorff effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasselbach Simone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Results Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Conclusion Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed.

  16. Effects of divided attention and word concreteness on correct recall and false memory reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mata, M Nieves; Read, J Don; Diges, Margarita

    2002-05-01

    Lists of thematically related words were presented to participants with or without a concurrent task. In Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, English or Spanish word lists were either low or high in concreteness (concrete vs abstract words) and were presented, respectively, auditorily or visually for study. The addition of a concurrent visual or auditory task, respectively, substantially reduced correct recall and doubled the frequency of false memory reports (nonstudied critical or theme words). Divided attention was interpreted as having reduced the opportunity for participants to monitor successfully their elicitations of critical associates. Comparisons of concrete and abstract lists revealed significantly more recalls of false memories for abstract than concrete word lists. Comparisons between two levels of attention, two levels of word concreteness, and two presentation modalities failed to support the "more is less" effect by which enhanced correct recall is accompanied by increased frequencies of false memories.

  17. Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Domain Knowledge on Recall for Grocery Prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Douglas; Gardner, Michael K; Woltz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Hambrick and Engle (2002) proposed 3 models of how domain knowledge and working memory capacity may work together to influence episodic memory: a "rich-get-richer" model, a "building blocks" model, and a "compensatory" model. Their results supported the rich-get-richer model, although later work by Hambrick and Oswald (2005) found support for a building blocks model. We investigated the effects of domain knowledge and working memory on recall of studied grocery prices. Working memory was measured with 3 simple span tasks. A contrast of realistic versus fictitious foods in the episodic memory task served as our manipulation of domain knowledge, because participants could not have domain knowledge of fictitious food prices. There was a strong effect for domain knowledge (realistic food-price pairs were easier to remember) and a moderate effect for working memory capacity (higher working memory capacity produced better recall). Furthermore, the interaction between domain knowledge and working memory produced a small but significant interaction in 1 measure of price recall. This supported the compensatory model and stands in contrast to previous research.

  18. Involuntary and voluntary recall of musical memories: A comparison of temporal accuracy and emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Bashir, Zaariyah; Farrugia, Nicolas; Stewart, Lauren

    2018-01-29

    Comparisons between involuntarily and voluntarily retrieved autobiographical memories have revealed similarities in encoding and maintenance, with differences in terms of specificity and emotional responses. Our study extended this research area into the domain of musical memory, which afforded a unique opportunity to compare the same memory as accessed both involuntarily and voluntarily. Specifically, we compared instances of involuntary musical imagery (INMI, or "earworms")-the spontaneous mental recall and repetition of a tune-to deliberate recall of the same tune as voluntary musical imagery (VMI) in terms of recall accuracy and emotional responses. Twenty participants completed two 3-day tasks. In an INMI task, participants recorded information about INMI episodes as they occurred; in a VMI task, participants were prompted via text message to deliberately imagine each tune they had previously experienced as INMI. In both tasks, tempi of the imagined tunes were recorded by tapping to the musical beat while wearing an accelerometer and additional information (e.g., tune name, emotion ratings) was logged in a diary. Overall, INMI and VMI tempo measurements for the same tune were strongly correlated. Tempo recall for tunes that have definitive, recorded versions was relatively accurate, and tunes that were retrieved deliberately (VMI) were not recalled more accurately in terms of tempo than spontaneous and involuntary instances of imagined music (INMI). Some evidence that INMI elicited stronger emotional responses than VMI was also revealed. These results demonstrate several parallels to previous literature on involuntary memories and add new insights on the phenomenology of INMI.

  19. Acquisition, extinction, and recall of opiate reward memory are signaled by dynamic neuronal activity patterns in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ninglei; Chi, Ning; Lauzon, Nicole; Bishop, Stephanie; Tan, Huibing; Laviolette, Steven R

    2011-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) comprises an important component in the neural circuitry underlying drug-related associative learning and memory processing. Neuronal activation within mPFC circuits is correlated with the recall of opiate-related drug-taking experiences in both humans and other animals. Using an unbiased associative place conditioning procedure, we recorded mPFC neuronal populations during the acquisition, recall, and extinction phases of morphine-related associative learning and memory. Our analyses revealed that mPFC neurons show increased activity both in terms of tonic and phasic activity patterns during the acquisition phase of opiate reward-related memory and demonstrate stimulus-locked associative activity changes in real time, during the recall of opiate reward memories. Interestingly, mPFC neuronal populations demonstrated divergent patterns of bursting activity during the acquisition versus recall phases of newly acquired opiate reward memory, versus the extinction of these memories, with strongly increased bursting during the recall of an extinction memory and no associative bursting during the recall of a newly acquired opiate reward memory. Our results demonstrate that neurons within the mPFC are involved in both the acquisition, recall, and extinction of opiate-related reward memories, showing unique patterns of tonic and phasic activity patterns during these separate components of the opiate-related reward learning and memory recall.

  20. EMDR and mindfulness. Eye movements and attentional breathing tax working memory and reduce vividness and emotionality of aversive ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M; Beetsma, Daniel; Slofstra, Christien; Hornsveld, Hellen; Houtveen, Jan; Leer, Arne

    2011-12-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) are effective in reducing the subjective impact of negative ideation. In both treatments, patients are encouraged to engage in a dual-task (eye movements (EM) in the case of EMDR and attentional breathing (AB) in the case of MBCT) while they experience negative thoughts or images. Working memory theory explains the effects of EM by suggesting that it taxes limited working memory resources, thus rendering the image less vivid and emotional. It was hypothesized that both AB and EM tax working memory and that both reduce vividness and emotionality of negative memories. Working memory taxation by EM and AB was assessed in healthy volunteers by slowing down of reaction times. In a later session, participants retrieved negative memories during recall only, recall + EM and recall + AB (study 1). Under improved conditions the study was replicated (study 2). In both studies and to the same degree, attentional breathing and eye movements taxed working memory. Both interventions reduced emotionality of memory in study 1 but not in study 2 and reduced vividness in study 2 but not in study 1. EMDR is more than EM and MBCT is more than AB. Memory effects were assessed by self reports. EMDR and MBCT may (partly) derive their beneficial effects from taxing working memory during recall of negative ideation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Competition between engrams influences fear memory formation and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Asim J; Yan, Chen; Mercaldo, Valentina; Hsiang, Hwa-Lin Liz; Park, Sungmo; Cole, Christina J; De Cristofaro, Antonietta; Yu, Julia; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Lee, Soo Yeun; Deisseroth, Karl; Frankland, Paul W; Josselyn, Sheena A

    2016-07-22

    Collections of cells called engrams are thought to represent memories. Although there has been progress in identifying and manipulating single engrams, little is known about how multiple engrams interact to influence memory. In lateral amygdala (LA), neurons with increased excitability during training outcompete their neighbors for allocation to an engram. We examined whether competition based on neuronal excitability also governs the interaction between engrams. Mice received two distinct fear conditioning events separated by different intervals. LA neuron excitability was optogenetically manipulated and revealed a transient competitive process that integrates memories for events occurring closely in time (coallocating overlapping populations of neurons to both engrams) and separates memories for events occurring at distal times (disallocating nonoverlapping populations to each engram). Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Remembering your past: The effects of concussion on autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Nicole C; Tomes, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    To date, research focusing on long-term memory functioning post concussion is limited. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of concussion on long-term episodic autobiographical memory, once acute postconcussive symptoms have abated. Individuals with and without a history of concussion were asked to recall autobiographical memories from different life periods. The details, self-reported vividness, ease of recall, and completeness of these memories were assessed. Results indicated that although both control and previously concussed participants were equally able to recall autobiographical memories from all life periods, the transcribed memories of previously concussed participants were less detailed, were less complex, and revealed less active involvement in recollection. Specifically, memories of control participants contained more words and a higher proportion of pronouns, personal pronouns, cognitive process words, perceptual process words, and past-tense words. Deficits were found regardless of the frequency or recency of concussion. Concussion information, limitations, and implications of the current findings are discussed.

  3. The effect of BLA GABAB receptors in anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit induced by ACPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Kangarlu Haghighi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a psychoactive plant, Cannabis sativa (Marijuana is widely used throughout the world. Several investigations have indicated that administration of Marijuana affects various cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors. These include anxiety-like behaviors and learning and memory deficit. It has been shown that three main cannabinoid receptors [i.e. CB1, CB2 and CB3 are involved in cannabinoids’ functions. CB1 receptors are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system regions such as hippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum and the cortex. Therefore, the neuropsychological functions of endocannabinoids are thought to be more linked to CB1 receptors. Among other brain regions, CB1 is highly expressed in the amygdala which is an integral component of the limbic circuitry. The amygdala plays a major role in the control of emotional behavior, including conditioned fear and anxiety. In present study we examined the possible roles of basolateral amygdala (BLA GABAB receptors in arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA-induced anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit in adult male mice. Methods: This experimental study was conducted from September 2013 to December 2014 in Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, School of Cognitive Sciences, Tehran and Male albino NMRI mice (Pasture Institute, Iran, weighting 27-30 g, were used. Bilateral guide-cannulae were implanted to allow intra BLA microinjection of the drugs. We used Elevated Plus Maze (EPM to examine memory and anxiety behavior (test-retest protocol. ACPA administrate intra-peritoneal and GABAB agonist and antagonist administrated intra-amygdala. Results: Data showed that pre-test treatment with ACPA induced anxiolytic-like and aversive memory deficit The results revealed that pre-test intra-BLA infusion of baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist impaired the aversive memory while phaclofen (GABAB receptor antagonist improved it. Interestingly, pretreatment with a sub

  4. Bottled memories: on how alcohol affects eyewitness recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagsand, Angelica; Hjelmsäter, Emma Roos Af; Granhag, Pär Anders; Fahlke, Claudia; Söderpalm-Gordh, Anna

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated how different doses of alcohol affected eyewitness recall. Participants (N = 126) were randomly assigned to three groups with different blood alcohol concentration (BAC), either a control group (mean BAC 0.00%, N = 42), a lower alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.04%, N = 40), or a higher alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.06%, N = 44). After consumption, participants witnessed a movie of a mock crime and were interviewed one week later. The main results showed that witnesses with the higher intoxication level recalled fewer details compared to witnesses with the lower intoxication level. The amount of alcohol consumed did not have an impact on the accuracy rate. No sex differences were found. The results are discussed in the light of past research. We conclude that more studies are needed before recommendations can be made to an applied setting. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  5. Onset and Offset of Aversive Events Establish Distinct Memories Requiring Fear and Reward Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Marta; Fendt, Markus; Muhlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J.; Imobersteg, Stefan; Yarali, Ayse; Gerber, Bertram; Pauli, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Two things are worth remembering about an aversive event: What made it happen? What made it cease? If a stimulus precedes an aversive event, it becomes a signal for threat and will later elicit behavior indicating conditioned fear. However, if the stimulus is presented upon cessation of the aversive event, it elicits behavior indicating…

  6. The effects of eye movements on emotional memories: using an objective measure of cognitive load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C. van Veen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The working memory (WM theory explains its efficacy: recall of an aversive memory and making eye movements (EM both produce cognitive load, and competition for the limited WM resources reduces the memory's vividness and emotionality. The present study tested several predictions from WM theory. Objective: We hypothesized that 1 recall of an aversive autobiographical memory loads WM compared to no recall, and 2 recall with EM reduces the vividness, emotionality, and cognitive load of recalling the memory more than only recall or only cognitive effort (i.e., recall of an irrelevant memory with EM. Method: Undergraduates (N=108 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1 recall relevant memory with EM, 2 recall relevant memory without EM, and 3 recall irrelevant memory with EM. We used a random interval repetition task to measure the cognitive load of recalling the memory. Participants responded to randomly administered beeps, with or without recalling the memory. The degree to which participants slow down during recall provides an index of cognitive load. We measured the cognitive load and self-reported vividness and emotionality before, halfway through (8×24 s, and after (16×24 s the intervention. Results: Reaction times slowed down during memory recall compared to no recall. The recall relevant with EM condition showed a larger decrease in self-reported vividness and emotionality than the control conditions. The cognitive load of recalling the memory also decreased in this condition but not consistently more than in the control conditions. Conclusions: Recall of an aversive memory loads WM, but drops in vividness and emotionality do not immediately reduce the cognitive load of recalling the memory. More research is needed to find objective measures that could capture changes in the quality of the memory.

  7. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.

  8. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; Noone, Martha; Carton, Mary; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recall Performance for Content-Addressable Memory Using Adiabatic Quantum Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imam, Neena [ORNL; Humble, Travis S. [ORNL; McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Schrock, Jonathan [ORNL; Hamilton, Kathleen E. [ORNL

    2017-09-01

    A content-addressable memory (CAM) stores key-value associations such that the key is recalled by providing its associated value. While CAM recall is traditionally performed using recurrent neural network models, we show how to solve this problem using adiabatic quantum optimization. Our approach maps the recurrent neural network to a commercially available quantum processing unit by taking advantage of the common underlying Ising spin model. We then assess the accuracy of the quantum processor to store key-value associations by quantifying recall performance against an ensemble of problem sets. We observe that different learning rules from the neural network community influence recall accuracy but performance appears to be limited by potential noise in the processor. The strong connection established between quantum processors and neural network problems supports the growing intersection of these two ideas.

  10. Short-term social isolation induces depressive-like behaviour and reinstates the retrieval of an aversive task: mood-congruent memory in male mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu-Coleman, André L; Patti, Camilla L; Zanin, Karina A; Zager, Adriano; Carvalho, Rita C; Borçoi, Aline R; Ceccon, Liliane M B; Berro, Laís F; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Although mood-congruent memory (MCM), or the tendency to recall information consistent with one's mood, is a robust phenomenon in human depression, to our knowledge, it has never been demonstrated in animals. Mice were subjected to social isolation (SI) or crowding for 12 hours and had their depressive-like behaviour (evaluated by the forced swim, tail suspension, sucrose preference and splash tests) or their serum corticosterone concentrations evaluated. In addition, we determined the temporal forgetting curve of the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and examined the effects of SI or crowding on memory retrieval in the PM-DAT. Finally, we verified the effects of metyrapone pretreatment on reinstatement of memory retrieval or on the increase of corticosterone levels induced by SI. Twelve hours of SI produced depressive-like behaviour, enhanced corticosterone concentration and reinstated retrieval of a forgotten discriminative aversive (i.e., negatively valenced) task. Depressive-like behaviour was critical for this facilitative effect of SI because 12 hours of crowding neither induced depressive-like behaviour nor enhanced retrieval, although it increased corticosterone levels at the same magnitude as SI. However, corticosterone increase was a necessary condition for MCM in mice, in that the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone abolished SI-induced retrieval reinstatement. Our study did not investigate the effects of the social manipulations proposed here in a positively valenced task. To our knowledge, the present paper provides the first evidence of MCM in animal models.

  11. Eye movement during recall reduces objective memory performance : An extended replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M.; Lenaert, Bert; Struyf, Dieter; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these

  12. Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

  13. CD8 memory T cells have a bioenergetic advantage that underlies their rapid recall ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; O'Sullivan, David; Everts, Bart; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Buck, Michael D.; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Chang, Chih-Hao; Smith, Amber M.; Ai, Teresa; Faubert, Brandon; Jones, Russell G.; Pearce, Edward J.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2013-01-01

    A characteristic of memory T (T-M) cells is their ability to mount faster and stronger responses to reinfection than naive T (T-N) cells do in response to an initial infection. However, the mechanisms that allow this rapid recall are not completely understood. We found that CD8 T-M cells have more

  14. The relationship between end-state comfort effects and memory performance in serial and free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, S Wood; Fischman, Mark G

    2011-07-01

    In two experiments we examined the relationship between end-state comfort effects and memory performance in serial and free recall. In Experiment 1, 24 university students completed a bimanual end-state comfort task and a memory task. Participants viewed a series of 11 letters, then performed the bimanual overturned glass task in which they simultaneously moved two glasses from an upper shelf to a lower shelf, and then recalled the letters in either serial or free recall conditions. Memory recall was evaluated based on the presence or absence of primacy and recency effects. The end-state comfort effect was assessed by the percentage of initial hand positions that allowed the hands to end up in a comfortable thumbs-up posture. The end-state comfort effect was present in both memory conditions. The results revealed the disappearance of the recency effect in serial and free recall, although the effect was much stronger during serial recall. In Experiment 2, we asked whether simpler motor tasks might bring back the recency effect. Forty-eight participants completed either a bimanual or unimanual task that involved moving non-descript plastic cylinder(s) from an upper shelf to a lower shelf. An unexpected finding was that even after performance of the simpler motor tasks, the recency effect was still absent. The disappearance of the recency effect, regardless of the complexity of the motor task, suggests a reciprocal influence of physical action and cognitive processes, which we interpret as a basic concurrence cost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hippocampal and cortical primary cilia are required for aversive memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas F Berbari

    Full Text Available It has been known for decades that neurons throughout the brain possess solitary, immotile, microtubule based appendages called primary cilia. Only recently have studies tried to address the functions of these cilia and our current understanding remains poor. To determine if neuronal cilia have a role in behavior we specifically disrupted ciliogenesis in the cortex and hippocampus of mice through conditional deletion of the Intraflagellar Transport 88 (Ift88 gene. The effects on learning and memory were analyzed using both Morris Water Maze and fear conditioning paradigms. In comparison to wild type controls, cilia mutants displayed deficits in aversive learning and memory and novel object recognition. Furthermore, hippocampal neurons from mutants displayed an altered paired-pulse response, suggesting that loss of IFT88 can alter synaptic properties. A variety of other behavioral tests showed no significant differences between conditional cilia mutants and controls. This type of conditional allele approach could be used to distinguish which behavioral features of ciliopathies arise due to defects in neural development and which result from altered cell physiology. Ultimately, this could lead to an improved understanding of the basis for the cognitive deficits associated with human cilia disorders such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and possibly more common ailments including depression and schizophrenia.

  16. WORKING MEMORY STRUCTURE REVEALED IN ANALYSIS OF RECALL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina V Ershova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed working memory errors stemming from 193 Russian college students taking the Tarnow Unchunkable Test utilizing double digit items on a visual display.In three-item trials with at most one error per trial, single incorrect tens and ones digits (“singlets” were overrepresented and made up the majority of errors, indicating a base 10 organization.These errors indicate that there are separate memory maps for each position and that there are pointers that can move primarily within these maps. Several pointers make up a pointer collection. The number of pointer collections possible is the working memory capacity limit. A model for self-organizing maps is constructed in which the organization is created by turning common pointer collections into maps thereby replacing a pointer collection with a single pointer.The factors 5 and 11 were underrepresented in the errors, presumably because base 10 properties beyond positional order were used for error correction, perhaps reflecting the existence of additional maps of integers divisible by 5 and integers divisible by 11.

  17. Effects of handedness consistency and saccade execution on eyewitness memory in cued- and free-recall procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B

    2018-01-02

    Identifying characteristics that distinguish between people with relatively good versus poor episodic memory is an important goal of eyewitness-memory research, as is identifying activities that can improve people's ability to retrieve episodic memories. Consistency of hand preference is a trait associated with the quality of people's episodic memory and repetitive saccade execution is an activity known to improve people's ability to retrieve episodic memories. These factors were examined in relation to cued and free recall of a staged criminal event. Individuals with inconsistent hand preference (versus consistent) remembered more on a cued-recall test and also freely recalled a larger amount of victim information. Repetitive saccade execution did not increase cued recall but did increase free recall of victim information. Theoretical implications are discussed, as is potential practical significance, with an emphasis on the size of the observed effects.

  18. Anxiety promotes memory for mood-congruent faces but does not alter loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Hindocha, Chandni; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2016-04-21

    Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range of trait anxiety scores. Participants completed a gambling task, embedded within an emotional working memory task, with some blocks under unpredictable threat and others safe from shock. Relative to the safe condition, threat of shock improved recall of threat-congruent (fearful) face location, especially in highly trait anxious participants. This suggests that threat boosts working memory for mood-congruent stimuli in vulnerable individuals, mirroring memory biases in clinical anxiety. By contrast, Bayesian analysis indicated that gambling decisions were better explained by models that did not include threat or treat anxiety, suggesting that: (i) higher-level executive functions are robust to these anxiety manipulations; and (ii) decreased risk-taking may be specific to pathological anxiety. These findings provide insight into the complex interactions between trait anxiety, acute state anxiety and cognition, and may help understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying adaptive anxiety.

  19. Magic memories: young children's verbal recall after a 6-year delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the event, including 2 who were under 3 years old when the event occurred. This may be the most convincing evidence to date that such early experiences can be verbally recalled after long delays. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development and childhood amnesia and underscore some of the problems associated with evaluating the veracity of early memories under less controlled conditions. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice

    2017-01-01

    and affective verbal memory was evaluated using a linear latent variable structural equation model. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association across all regions between 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory performances for positive (p = 5.5 × 10-4) and neutral (p = .004) word recall......, and an inverse but nonsignificant association for negative (p = .07) word recall. Differences in the associations with 5-HT 4R binding between word categories (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Our findings replicate our previous observation of a negative...... association between 5-HT 4R binding and memory performance in an independent cohort and provide novel evidence linking 5-HT 4R binding, as a biomarker for synaptic 5-HT levels, to the mnestic processing of positive and neutral word stimuli in healthy humans....

  1. Reactivation of an aversive memory modulates learning strategy preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Patel, Jessica M; Hodges, Kelly S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-01-01

    Reminders of an aversive event adversely impact retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memories and exacerbate stress-induced levels of anxiety. Interestingly, stress and anxiety shift control over learning away from the hippocampus and toward the striatum. The aims of the current study were to determine whether spatial memory and learning strategy are impacted by reminders of a stressor. Adult male Long-Evans rats (N = 47) were subjected to an inhibitory avoidance (IA) training trial in which 32 rats were exposed (3 s) to a single inescapable electrical footshock (0.6 mA). Prior to the retention trial of a Y-maze task and the probe trials of two different learning strategy tasks, some of the rats that were exposed to the footshock (n = 17) were reminded of the stressor on an IA retrieval trial. Both groups of rats exposed to the initial stressor exhibited hypoactivity, but no impairment in spatial memory, on the Y-maze task conducted 1 week after exposure to the footshock. One month after exposure to footshock, both groups of rats exposed to the initial stressor tended to prefer a striatum-dependent learning strategy on a water T-maze task. However, 2 months after exposure to footshock, only shocked rats that were reminded of the stressor exhibited a preference for a striatum-dependent learning strategy on a visible-platform water maze task, which corresponded with lower levels of activity in an open field. The results indicate that reminders of a stressor perpetuate the deleterious effects of stress on affective and cognitive processes.

  2. Serial position effects in free memory recall--An ERP-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Münte, Thomas F

    2007-05-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by recalled and non-recalled words were recorded from 18 female subjects to investigate primacy and recency effects in free memory recall. The typical pattern of a serial position curve (SPC) was obtained with words presented at first and final positions in a list recalled better than words presented in the middle of a list. A marked positivity is seen in the ERPs for words on Primacy, but not on Recency positions at frontocentral electrodes. In contrast, ERP amplitudes on parietal electrodes resemble the SPC seen in behavioral data: P300 amplitude is largest for words on Primacy and Recency positions and attenuated on Plateau positions. Furthermore, subjects with a clear Primacy effect in behavioral data show a distinct frontal positive slow wave for Primacy words only, whereas subjects without a clear primacy effect show a frontal "difference due to subsequent memory" (DM) effect for Primacy and Plateau words. These results are discussed in the framework of working memory and distinctiveness.

  3. Repeated recall as an intervention to improve memory performance in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Jennifer; Sethares, Kristen; Shapiro, Amy

    2017-12-01

    Up to 50% of heart failure patients demonstrate aspects of cognitive impairment, including memory deficit. Novel interventions are needed to address memory deficit among heart failure patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the testing effect as an intervention to improve memory performance in heart failure patients. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial ( N=84) comparing the memory performance of heart failure patients with and without mild cognitive impairment after a repeated testing intervention. Memory performance was measured by verbal word pair associates recall scores, between attention control and experimental subjects. Patients had a mean age of 71.7 ± 13.3 years and similar baseline memory (immediate p=.79 and delayed p=.47). Overall, there were no significant differences in memory between experimental and control subjects, respectively (67.2±18.87 vs. 61.9±22.3, verbal word pair associates, t = -1.179, p=.24). In the final hierarchical regression model, age ( p=.018) and education ( p=.006) were significant predictors of memory performance, with the intervention approaching significance ( p=.079). Although not statistically significant, the intervention group reported better memory. Age and education continue to be significant contributors to memory performance in the heart failure population. Continued development of interventions to improve memory performance in heart failure patients is indicated.

  4. Working Memory Capacity and Recall from Long-Term Memory: Examining the Influences of Encoding Strategies, Study Time Allocation, Search Efficiency, and Monitoring Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    The relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and recall from long-term memory (LTM) was examined in the current study. Participants performed multiple measures of delayed free recall varying in presentation duration and self-reported their strategy usage after each task. Participants also performed multiple measures of WMC. The results…

  5. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences.

  6. Free recall in Williams syndrome: is there a dissociation between short- and long-term memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Jon; Brown, Gordon D A; Boucher, Jill

    2006-04-01

    Two experiments used the free recall paradigm to investigate verbal memory abilities in Williams syndrome (WS)--a rare genetic disorder. In an earlier free recall study, Vicari et al. (1996a) reported that, unlike TD controls, children with WS showed a recency effect but failed to show a primacy effect. These authors interpreted their findings as evidence for a dissociation between relatively strong verbal short-term memory and relatively impaired verbal long-term memory. In Experiment 1 of the current study, children with WS and TD controls showed comparable improvements in performance with repeated testing of the same material, indicating similar long-term learning of the test items. Neither group showed evidence of primacy effects. However, the extent of primacy effects in free recall is known to depend on the rehearsal strategy that participants adopt. In Experiment 2, therefore, participants were encouraged to engage in overt cumulative rehearsal. This manipulation resulted in significant and comparable primacy effects in both groups, although neither group demonstrated a significant change in overall performance. There was therefore no evidence from either experiment for a dissociation between short- and long-term verbal memory in WS.

  7. The endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 differentially modulates recognition memory in rats depending on environmental aversiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Ratano, Patrizia; Manduca, Antonia; Scattoni, Maria L.; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds may influence both emotional and cognitive processes depending on the level of environmental aversiveness at the time of drug administration. However, the mechanisms responsible for these responses remain to be elucidated. The present experiments investigated the effects induced by the endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 (0.5–5 mg/kg, i.p.) on both emotional and cognitive performances of rats tested in a Spatial Open Field task and subjected to different experimental settings, named High Arousal (HA) and Low Arousal (LA) conditions. The two different experimental conditions influenced emotional reactivity independently of drug administration. Indeed, vehicle-treated rats exposed to the LA condition spent more time in the center of the arena than vehicle-treated rats exposed to the HA context. Conversely, the different arousal conditions did not affect the cognitive performances of vehicle-treated animals such as the capability to discriminate a spatial displacement of the objects or an object substitution. AM404 administration did not alter locomotor activity or emotional behavior of animals exposed to both environmental conditions. Interestingly, AM404 administration influenced the cognitive parameters depending on the level of emotional arousal: it impaired the capability of rats exposed to the HA condition to recognize a novel object while it did not induce any impairing effect in rats exposed to the LA condition. These findings suggest that drugs enhancing endocannabinoid signaling induce different effects on recognition memory performance depending on the level of emotional arousal induced by the environmental conditions. PMID:22454620

  8. Effect of circadian phase on memory acquisition and recall: operant conditioning vs. classical conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine V Garren

    Full Text Available There have been several studies on the role of circadian clocks in the regulation of associative learning and memory processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The results have been quite variable and at present it is unclear to what extent the variability observed reflects species differences or differences in methodology. Previous results have shown that following differential classical conditioning in the cockroach, Rhyparobia maderae, in an olfactory discrimination task, formation of the short-term and long-term memory is under strict circadian control. In contrast, there appeared to be no circadian regulation of the ability to recall established memories. In the present study, we show that following operant conditioning of the same species in a very similar olfactory discrimination task, there is no impact of the circadian system on either short-term or long-term memory formation. On the other hand, ability to recall established memories is strongly tied to the circadian phase of training. On the basis of these data and those previously reported for phylogenetically diverse species, it is suggested that there may be fundamental differences in the way the circadian system regulates learning and memory in classical and operant conditioning.

  9. Recall or evaluation of chess positions revisited: the relationship between memory and evaluation in chess skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultetus, R S; Charness, N

    1999-01-01

    We extend work by Holding and Reynolds (1982) on recall and problem solving with quasirandom chess positions. We tested 17 chess players on both quasirandom and structured chess positions. Consistent with the earlier study, initial recall of quasirandom chess positions is unrelated to chess skill level, and quality of the move selected in subsequent problem solving is related to skill level. However, recall following problem solving is related to chess skill level. These results support the view that pattern recognition processes underlie superior performance by skilled chess players, contrary to the conclusions of Holding and Reynolds (1982). Mechanisms such as long-term working memory retrieval structures (Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) or templates (Gobet & Simon, 1996a) could explain the effective encoding of quasirandom positions during problem solving.

  10. Role of the hippocampus in contextual memory after classical aversive conditioning in pigeons (C. livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of hippocampal lesions with ibotenic acid (IBO on the memory of the sound-context-shock association during reexposure to the conditioning context. Twenty-nine adult pigeons were assigned to a non-lesioned control group (CG, N = 7, a sham-lesioned group (SG, N = 7, a hippocampus-lesioned experimental group (EG, N = 7, and to an unpaired nonlesioned group (tone-alone exposure (NG, N = 8. All pigeons were submitted to a 20-min session in the conditioning chamber with three associations of sound (1000 Hz, 85 dB, 1 s and shock (10 mA, 1 s. Experimental and sham lesions were performed 24 h later (EG and SG when EG birds received three bilateral injections (anteroposterior (A, 4.5, 5.25 and 7.0 of IBO (1 µl and 1 µg/µl and SG received one bilateral injection (A, 5.25 of PBS. The animals were reexposed to the training context 5 days after the lesion. Behavior was videotaped for 20 min and analyzed at 30-s intervals. A significantly higher percent rating of immobility was observed for CG (median, 95.1; range, 79.2 to 100.0 and SG (median, 90.0; range, 69.6 to 95.0 compared to EG (median, 11.62; range, 3.83 to 50.1 and NG (median, 7.33; range, 6.2 to 28.1 (P<0.001 in the training context. These results suggest impairment of contextual fear in birds who received lesions one day after conditioning and a role for the hippocampus in the modulation of emotional aversive memories in pigeons.

  11. Abstract recall of a happy memory to repair sad mood in dysphoria: A possible link to negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Kate; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to repair sad mood through the deliberate recall of happy memories has been found to be impaired in dysphoric individuals. Rumination, or adopting an abstract processing mode, has been proposed as a possible mechanism underpinning this effect. In low and high dysphoric participants, we examined the relative consequences of adopting an abstract or concrete processing mode during happy memory recall or engaging in distraction for (1) mood repair and (2) cognitive content. Recalling a happy memory in either an abstract or concrete way resulted in greater happiness than distraction. Engaging in abstract recall of a happy memory resulted in high dysphoric participants generating negative evaluations and negative generalisations. These findings raise the interesting possibility that abstract processing of positive memories has the potential to generate negative cognition.

  12. Recalling sexual behavior: a methodological analysis of memory recall bias via interview using the diary as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Cynthia A; Catania, Joseph A; Brand, Richard; Duong, Tu; Canchola, Jesse A

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the effect of time lag on the validity of retrospective self-reports of sexual behavior. Seventy-five heterosexual students (44 women, 31 men) made daily recordings of sexual behavior, condom use, and alcohol or substance use for 1 month. Ability of respondents to recall sexual behavior recorded during this period was assessed at 1, 2, and 3 months after diary completion using recall interviews (25 interviewed at each interval). For vaginal intercourse, total recall error was significantly greater at 3 months than at 1 month post-diary. For all other variables assessed, the 2- and 3-month time intervals did not produce significant increase in total recall error. Higher frequency of vaginal intercourse, orgasm, and alcohol use prior to sexual activity were associated with total recall error for some but not all behaviors and outcomes. The results provide a partial validation of the diary-interview recall model as a method for studying recall error.

  13. Stress-related biomarkers of dream recall and implicit memory under anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, P; Lai, C; Perilli, V; Dello Russo, C; Federico, B; Navarra, P; Proietti, R; Sollazzi, L

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether auditory presentation of a story during general anaesthesia might influence stress hormone changes and thus affecting dream recall and/or implicit memory. One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned either to hear a recording of a story through headphones or to have routine care with no auditory recording while undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anaesthesia was standardised. Blood samples for cortisol and prolactin assays were collected 20 min before anaesthesia and 5 min after pneumoperitoneum. Dream recall and explicit/implicit memory were investigated upon awakening from anaesthesia and approximately 24 h after the end of the operation. Auditory presentation was associated with lower intra-operative serum prolactin concentration compared with control (p = 0.0006). Twenty-seven patients with recall of dreaming showed higher intra-operative prolactin (p = 0.004) and lower cortisol (p = 0.03) concentrations compared with those without dream recall. The knowledge of this interaction might be useful in the quest to ensure postoperative amnesia. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Facilitating role of 3D multimodal visualization and learning rehearsal in memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phuong T; Moreland, John R

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the influence of 3D multimodal visualization and learning rehearsal on memory recall. Participants (N = 175 college students ranging from 21 to 25 years) were assigned to different training conditions and rehearsal processes to learn a list of 14 terms associated with construction of a wood-frame house. They then completed a memory test determining their cognitive ability to free recall the definitions of the 14 studied terms immediately after training and rehearsal. The audiovisual modality training condition was associated with the highest accuracy, and the visual- and auditory-modality conditions with lower accuracy rates. The no-training condition indicated little learning acquisition. A statistically significant increase in performance accuracy for the audiovisual condition as a function of rehearsal suggested the relative importance of rehearsal strategies in 3D observational learning. Findings revealed the potential application of integrating virtual reality and cognitive sciences to enhance learning and teaching effectiveness.

  15. Serial position effects in a singer's long term recall identify landmarks and lacunae in memory

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffin, Roger; Ginsborg, Jane; Dixon, James

    2009-01-01

    An experienced singer learned Stravinsky’s Ricercar 1, for soprano and small instrumental ensemble for public performance and annotated copies of the score to indicate the location of musical features that she attended to during practice and performance cues that she attended to during performance. During the next five years, she wrote out the words and music from memory six times. Recall was initially perfect, but declined over time as portions of the piece were progressively forgotten. Land...

  16. Forgotten but not gone: the recall and recognition of self-threatening memories

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jeffrey D.; Sedikides, Constantine; Gregg, Aiden P.

    2007-01-01

    When people selectively forget feedback that threatens the self (mnemic neglect), are those memories permanently lost or potentially recoverable? In two experiments, participants processed feedback pertaining either to themselves or to another person. Feedback consisted of a mixture of positive and negative behaviors exemplifying traits that were both central and peripheral to participants’ self-definition. In Experiment 1, participants exhibited poorer recall for, but unimpaired recognition ...

  17. The Use of Melodic and Rhythmic Mnemonics to Improve Memory and Recall in Elementary Students in the Content Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Orla C.

    2009-01-01

    Mnemonic strategies that use imagery and visual cues to facilitate memory recall are commonly used in the classroom. A familiar tune, song or jingle, used as a mnemonic device is another popular memory aid. Studies of the brain and memory reveal that exposure to music not only alters but increases brain function in students. The purpose of this…

  18. Memory Recall after Learning by Doing and Learning by Viewing: Boundary Conditions of an Enactment Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C Steffens

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to common sense, things one has done are remembered better than things done by others that one has observed. On first sight, findings concerning memory for actions appear in line with that preconception: Performed actions (subject-performed tasks appear to be remembered particularly well, and better than observed actions (experimenter-performed tasks. A closer look, however, reveals important exceptions regarding this enactment effect. The aim of the present paper is critically evaluating the literature that compares memory for performed and observed tasks. In recognition memory, an enactment effect has regularly been observed. In free recall, however, findings depended on the experimental design: When performed and observed actions were intermixed, an enactment effect was typically found. In contrast, in designs where actions were either all performed or all observed, this was rarely the case. We discuss underlying memory processes, potential moderator variables, open questions, and implications.

  19. The drawing effect: Evidence for reliable and robust memory benefits in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Jeffrey D; Meade, Melissa E; Fernandes, Myra A

    2016-01-01

    In 7 free-recall experiments, the benefit of creating drawings of to-be-remembered information relative to writing was examined as a mnemonic strategy. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were presented with a list of words and were asked to either draw or write out each. Drawn words were better recalled than written. Experiments 3-5 showed that the memory boost provided by drawing could not be explained by elaborative encoding (deep level of processing, LoP), visual imagery, or picture superiority, respectively. In Experiment 6, we explored potential limitations of the drawing effect, by reducing encoding time and increasing list length. Drawing, relative to writing, still benefited memory despite these constraints. In Experiment 7, the drawing effect was significant even when encoding trial types were compared in pure lists between participants, inconsistent with a distinctiveness account. Together these experiments indicate that drawing enhances memory relative to writing, across settings, instructions, and alternate encoding strategies, both within- and between-participants, and that a deep LoP, visual imagery, or picture superiority, alone or collectively, are not sufficient to explain the observed effect. We propose that drawing improves memory by encouraging a seamless integration of semantic, visual, and motor aspects of a memory trace.

  20. Elaboration versus suppression of cued memories: influence of memory recall instruction and success on parietal lobe, default network, and hippocampal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Sarah I; Brewer, James B

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of episodic memory retrieval consistently report task-evoked and memory-related activity in the medial temporal lobe, default network and parietal lobe subregions. Associated components of memory retrieval, such as attention-shifts, search, retrieval success, and post-retrieval processing also influence regional activity, but these influences remain ill-defined. To better understand how top-down control affects the neural bases of memory retrieval, we examined how regional activity responses were modulated by task goals during recall success or failure. Specifically, activity was examined during memory suppression, recall, and elaborative recall of paired-associates. Parietal lobe was subdivided into dorsal (BA 7), posterior ventral (BA 39), and anterior ventral (BA 40) regions, which were investigated separately to examine hypothesized distinctions in sub-regional functional responses related to differential attention-to-memory and memory strength. Top-down suppression of recall abolished memory strength effects in BA 39, which showed a task-negative response, and BA 40, which showed a task-positive response. The task-negative response in default network showed greater negatively-deflected signal for forgotten pairs when task goals required recall. Hippocampal activity was task-positive and was influenced by memory strength only when task goals required recall. As in previous studies, we show a memory strength effect in parietal lobe and hippocampus, but we show that this effect is top-down controlled and sensitive to whether the subject is trying to suppress or retrieve a memory. These regions are all implicated in memory recall, but their individual activity patterns show distinct memory-strength-related responses when task goals are varied. In parietal lobe, default network, and hippocampus, top-down control can override the commonly identified effects of memory strength.

  1. Effects of age, acoustic challenge, and verbal working memory on recall of narrative speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Caitlin M.; Rogers, Chad S.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common goal during speech comprehension is to remember what we have heard. Encoding speech into long-term memory frequently requires processes such as verbal working memory that may also be involved in processing degraded speech. Here we tested whether young and older adult listeners’ memory for short stories was worse when the stories were acoustically degraded, or whether the additional contextual support provided by a narrative would protect against these effects. Methods We tested 30 young adults (aged 18–28 years) and 30 older adults (aged 65–79 years) with good self-reported hearing. Participants heard short stories that were presented as normal (unprocessed) speech, or acoustically degraded using a noise vocoding algorithm with 24 or 16 channels. The degraded stories were still fully intelligible. Following each story, participants were asked to repeat the story in as much detail as possible. Recall was scored using a modified idea unit scoring approach, which included separately scoring hierarchical levels of narrative detail. Results Memory for acoustically degraded stories was significantly worse than for normal stories at some levels of narrative detail. Older adults’ memory for the stories was significantly worse overall, but there was no interaction between age and acoustic clarity or level of narrative detail. Verbal working memory (assessed by reading span) significantly correlated with recall accuracy for both young and older adults, whereas hearing ability (better ear pure-tone average) did not. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with a framework in which the additional cognitive demands caused by a degraded acoustic signal use resources that would otherwise be available for memory encoding for both young and older adults. Verbal working memory is a likely candidate for supporting both of these processes. PMID:26683044

  2. Effects of Age, Acoustic Challenge, and Verbal Working Memory on Recall of Narrative Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Caitlin M; Rogers, Chad S; Van Engen, Kristin J; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    A common goal during speech comprehension is to remember what we have heard. Encoding speech into long-term memory frequently requires processes such as verbal working memory that may also be involved in processing degraded speech. Here the authors tested whether young and older adult listeners' memory for short stories was worse when the stories were acoustically degraded, or whether the additional contextual support provided by a narrative would protect against these effects. The authors tested 30 young adults (aged 18-28 years) and 30 older adults (aged 65-79 years) with good self-reported hearing. Participants heard short stories that were presented as normal (unprocessed) speech or acoustically degraded using a noise vocoding algorithm with 24 or 16 channels. The degraded stories were still fully intelligible. Following each story, participants were asked to repeat the story in as much detail as possible. Recall was scored using a modified idea unit scoring approach, which included separately scoring hierarchical levels of narrative detail. Memory for acoustically degraded stories was significantly worse than for normal stories at some levels of narrative detail. Older adults' memory for the stories was significantly worse overall, but there was no interaction between age and acoustic clarity or level of narrative detail. Verbal working memory (assessed by reading span) significantly correlated with recall accuracy for both young and older adults, whereas hearing ability (better ear pure tone average) did not. The present findings are consistent with a framework in which the additional cognitive demands caused by a degraded acoustic signal use resources that would otherwise be available for memory encoding for both young and older adults. Verbal working memory is a likely candidate for supporting both of these processes.

  3. Opiate exposure state controls dopamine D3 receptor and cdk5/calcineurin signaling in the basolateral amygdala during reward and withdrawal aversion memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura G; Rushlow, Walter J; Laviolette, Steven R

    2017-10-03

    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) is highly expressed in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), a neural region critical for processing opiate-related reward and withdrawal aversion-related memories. Functionally, D3R transmission is linked to downstream Cdk5 and calcineurin signaling, both of which regulate D3R activity states and play critical roles in memory-related synaptic plasticity. Previous evidence links D3R transmission to opiate-related memory processing, however little is known regarding how chronic opiate exposure may alter D3R-dependent memory mechanisms. Using conditioned place preference (CPP) and withdrawal aversion (conditioned place aversion; CPA) procedures in rats, combined with molecular analyses of BLA protein expression, we examined the effects of chronic opiate exposure on the functional role of intra-BLA D3R transmission during the acquisition of opiate reward or withdrawal aversion memories. Remarkably, we report that the state of opiate exposure during behavioural conditioning (opiate-naïve/non-dependent vs. chronically exposed and in withdrawal) controlled the functional role of intra-BLA D3R transmission during the acquisition of both opiate reward memories and withdrawal-aversion associative memories. Thus, whereas intra-BLA D3R blockade had no effect on opiate reward memory formation in the non-dependent state, blockade of intra-BLA D3R transmission prevented the formation of opiate reward and withdrawal aversion memory in the chronically exposed state. This switch in the functional role of D3R transmission corresponded to significant increases in Cdk5 phosphorylation and total expression levels of calcineurin, and a corresponding decrease in intra-BLA D3R expression. Inhibition of either intra-BLA Cdk5 or calcineurin reversed these effects, switching intra-BLA associative memory formation back to a D3R-independent mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Functional Determinants of Short-Term Memory: Evidence from Perceptual-Motor Interference in Verbal Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.

    2017-01-01

    A functional, perceptual-motor, account of serial short-term memory (STM) is examined by investigating the way in which an irrelevant spoken sequence interferes with verbal serial recall. Even with visual list-presentation, verbal serial recall is particularly susceptible to disruption by irrelevant spoken stimuli that have the same identity…

  5. Delayed recall of childhood sexual abuse memories and the awakening rise and diurnal pattern of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Geraerts, Elke; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2007-08-30

    Traumatic stress associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may result in chronic alterations of stress-sensitive neurochemical systems (e.g., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal medullary activity). Some authors have suggested that these alterations might help explain why some individuals, after a period of inability to remember, demonstrate delayed recall of CSA memories (i.e., "recovered" memories). The present study is the first study that explored morning cortisol responses and circadian cortisol profiles among women with recovered (n=7), repressed (n=8), or continuous (n=6) memories of CSA and women without a history of CSA (n=9). Although there were group differences in current depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms, we found no differences in cortisol awakening response or daytime profile between women reporting recovered, repressed, or continuous memories of CSA as compared to women without a history of CSA. Implications for neurobiological models intended to explain the delayed recall of CSA are discussed.

  6. Not all memories are the same: Situational context influences spatial recall within one's city of residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilinger, Tobias; Frankenstein, Julia; Simon, Nadine; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Reference frames in spatial memory encoding have been examined intensively in recent years. However, their importance for recall has received considerably less attention. In the present study, passersby used tags to arrange a configuration map of prominent city center landmarks. It has been shown that such configurational knowledge is memorized within a north-up reference frame. However, participants adjusted their maps according to their body orientations. For example, when participants faced south, the maps were likely to face south-up. Participants also constructed maps along their location perspective-that is, the self-target direction. If, for instance, they were east of the represented area, their maps were oriented west-up. If the location perspective and body orientation were in opposite directions (i.e., if participants faced away from the city center), participants relied on location perspective. The results indicate that reference frames in spatial recall depend on the current situation rather than on the organization in long-term memory. These results cannot be explained by activation spread within a view graph, which had been used to explain similar results in the recall of city plazas. However, the results are consistent with forming and transforming a spatial image of nonvisible city locations from the current location. Furthermore, prior research has almost exclusively focused on body- and environment-based reference frames. The strong influence of location perspective in an everyday navigational context indicates that such a reference frame should be considered more often when examining human spatial cognition.

  7. Working memory capacity and recall from long-term memory: Examining the influences of encoding strategies, study time allocation, search efficiency, and monitoring abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    The relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and recall from long-term memory (LTM) was examined in the current study. Participants performed multiple measures of delayed free recall varying in presentation duration and self-reported their strategy usage after each task. Participants also performed multiple measures of WMC. The results suggested that WMC and LTM recall were related, and part of this relation was due to effective strategy use. However, adaptive changes in strategy use and study time allocation were not related to WMC. Examining multiple variables with structural equation modeling suggested that the relation between WMC and LTM recall was due to variation in effective strategy use, search efficiency, and monitoring abilities. Furthermore, all variables were shown to account for individual differences in LTM recall. These results suggest that the relation between WMC and recall from LTM is due to multiple strategic factors operating at both encoding and retrieval. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Composite holographic associative recall model (CHARM) and blended memories in eyewitness testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, J

    1990-06-01

    The idea that compositing or blending occurs in human episodic memory stems from two sources: (a) distributed memory models and (b) studies on the errors that occur in eyewitness testimony. These two traditions of research--theoretical and empirical--have been independent and distinct. Here, data from the eyewitness testimony paradigm are simulated by the distributed model CHARM (Composite Holographic Associative Recall Model). Of focal concern are Loftus's studies, which have been interpreted in favor of the blending hypothesis, and McCloskey and Zaragoza's studies, which have been interpreted as refuting Loftus's position. Both of these seemingly contradictory results, as well as recent findings with yes/no recognition, fall out of the model. Finally, the model predicts empirically found color shifts and provides specifications for when blends and memory impairments will and will not be expected.

  9. Does recall after sleep-dependent memory consolidation reinstate sensitivity to retroactive interference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétane Deliens

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that newly encoded memories are more resistant to retroactive interference when participants are allowed to sleep after learning the original material, suggesting a sleep-related strengthening of memories. In the present study, we investigated delayed, long-term effects of sleep vs. sleep deprivation (SD on the first post-training night on memory consolidation and resistance to interference. On day 1, participants learned a list of unrelated word pairs (AB, either in the morning or in the evening, then spent the post-training night in a sleep or sleep deprivation condition, in a within-subject paradigm. On day 4, at the same time of day, they learned a novel list of word pairs (AC in which 50% of the word pairs stemmed with the same word than in the AB list, resulting in retroactive interference. Participants had then to recall items from the AB list upon presentation of the "A" stem. Recall was marginally improved in the evening, as compared to the morning learning group. Most importantly, retroactive interference effects were found in the sleep evening group only, contrary to the hypothesis that sleep exerts a protective role against intrusion by novel but similar learning. We tentatively suggest that these results can be explained in the framework of the memory reconsolidation theory, stating that exposure to similar information sets back consolidated items in a labile form again sensitive to retroactive interference. In this context, sleep might not protect against interference but would promote an update of existing episodic memories while preventing saturation of the memory network due to the accumulation of dual traces.

  10. Improvement of memory recall by quercetin in rodent contextual fear conditioning and human early-stage Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masanori; Ohta, Kazunori; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Miki; Yamada, Yasushi; Akanabe, Hiroshi; Chikaishi, Tokio; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Muro, Takato; Yanagida, Daisuke; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki; Ohzawa, Kaori; Suzuki, Chihiro; Li, Shimo; Ueda, Masashi; Wang, Miao-Xing; Nishida, Emika; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Kobori, Masuko; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-06-15

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a wide array of cognitive deficits, which typically include the impairment of explicit memory. In previous studies, the authors reported that a flavonoid, quercetin, reduces the expression of ATF4 and delays memory deterioration in an early-stage AD mouse model. In the present study, the effects of long-term quercetin intake on memory recall were assessed using contextual fear conditioning in aged wild-type mice. In addition, the present study examined whether memory recall was affected by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (a new cultivar of hybrid onion 'Quergold') powder in early-stage AD patients. In-vivo analysis indicated that memory recall was enhanced in aged mice fed a quercetin-containing diet. Memory recall in early-stage AD patients, determined using the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, was significantly improved by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (Quergold) powder for 4 weeks compared with the intake of control onion ('Mashiro' white onion) powder. These results indicate that quercetin might influence memory recall.

  11. NCS-1 deficiency causes anxiety and depressive-like behavior with impaired non-aversive memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Vitor Bortolo; Rosa, Daniela Valadão; Comim, Clarissa Martinelli; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Rodrigues, Ana Lucia Severo; Vidigal, Paula; Jeromin, Andreas; Quevedo, João; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2014-05-10

    Sensing and regulating intracellular levels of calcium are essential for proper cellular function. In neurons, calcium sensing plays important roles in neuronal plasticity, neurotransmitter release, long-term synapse modification and ion channel activity. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a member of the highly conserved neuronal calcium sensor family. Although NCS-1 has been associated with psychiatric conditions including autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, it is unclear which role NCS-1 plays in behavior. To understand the involvement of NCS-1 in psychiatric conditions, we provided a comprehensive behavioral characterization of NCS-1 knockout (KO) mice. These mice grow and develop normally without apparent abnormalities in comparison to wild type littermates. However, open field showed that NCS-1 deficiency impairs novelty-induced exploratory activity in both KO and heterozygote (HT) mice. Moreover, NCS-1-deficiency also resulted in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors as demonstrated by elevated plus maze, large open field, forced swim and tail suspension tasks. Furthermore, based on spontaneous object recognition test, non-aversive long-term memory was impaired in NCS-1 KO mice. In contrast, neither social behavior nor a kind of aversive memory was affected under NCS-1 deficiency. These data implicate NCS-1 in exploratory activity, memory and mood-related behaviors, suggesting that NCS-1 gene ablation may result in phenotypic abnormalities associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serial recall of colors: Two models of memory for serial order applied to continuous visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteranderl, Sonja; Oberauer, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of serial position and temporal distinctiveness on serial recall of simple visual stimuli. Participants observed lists of five colors presented at varying, unpredictably ordered interitem intervals, and their task was to reproduce the colors in their order of presentation by selecting colors on a continuous-response scale. To control for the possibility of verbal labeling, articulatory suppression was required in one of two experimental sessions. The predictions were derived through simulation from two computational models of serial recall: SIMPLE represents the class of temporal-distinctiveness models, whereas SOB-CS represents event-based models. According to temporal-distinctiveness models, items that are temporally isolated within a list are recalled more accurately than items that are temporally crowded. In contrast, event-based models assume that the time intervals between items do not affect recall performance per se, although free time following an item can improve memory for that item because of extended time for the encoding. The experimental and the simulated data were fit to an interference measurement model to measure the tendency to confuse items with other items nearby on the list-the locality constraint-in people as well as in the models. The continuous-reproduction performance showed a pronounced primacy effect with no recency, as well as some evidence for transpositions obeying the locality constraint. Though not entirely conclusive, this evidence favors event-based models over a role for temporal distinctiveness. There was also a strong detrimental effect of articulatory suppression, suggesting that verbal codes can be used to support serial-order memory of simple visual stimuli.

  13. Recalling happy memories in remitted depression: A neuroimaging investigation of the repair of sad mood

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    Cooney, Rebecca E.; Joormann, Jutta; Henry, Melissa L.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mood disorder. The high rate of recurrence of MDD suggests the presence of stable vulnerability factors that place individuals with a history of major depression at an increased risk for the onset of another episode. Previous research has linked the remitted state, and therefore increased vulnerability for depressive relapse, with difficulties in the use of pleasant autobiographical memories to repair sad mood. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates of these difficulties. Groups of 16 currently euthymic, remitted depressed individuals and 16 healthy (control) women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sad mood induction and during recovery from a sad mood state through recall of mood-incongruent positive autobiographical memories. Sad mood was induced in participants by using film clips; participants then recalled positive autobiographical memories, a procedure previously shown to repair negative affect. During both the sad mood induction and automatic mood regulation, control participants exhibited activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and cuneus; in contrast, remitted participants exhibited a decrease in activation in these regions. Furthermore, exploratory analyses revealed that reduced activation levels during mood regulation predicted a worsening of depressive symptoms at a 20-month follow-up assessment. These findings highlight a dynamic role of the vlPFC and cuneus in the experience and modulation of emotional states and suggest that functional anomalies of these brain regions are associated with a history of, and vulnerability to, depression. PMID:24146315

  14. Acute administration of roflumilast enhances immediate recall of verbal word memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duinen, M A; Sambeth, A; Heckman, P R A; Smit, S; Tsai, M; Lahu, G; Uz, T; Blokland, A; Prickaerts, J

    2018-03-15

    The need for new and effective treatments for dementia remains indisputably high. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) have proven efficacy as cognitive enhancers based on their positive effects in numerous preclinical studies. Especially the PDE4 subfamily is of interest due to its expression in the hippocampus, the key structure for memory formation. The current study investigates the memory enhancing effects of the clinically approved PDE4-I roflumilast in a test battery including the Verbal Learning Task (VLT) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) recording. This acute study was conducted according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 4-way crossover design. Three capsulated dosages of roflumilast HCl (Daxas) and a placebo were administered in four study periods. Administration occurred 1 h before testing to reach maximal plasma concentrations. Memory performance was assessed using a 30 word Verbal Learning Task. The number of words recalled both immediately and after 45 min and 24 h were included as outcome measures. EEG was recorded during the cognitive tasks on the first day. Different event-related potentials (ERPs) were considered with special emphasis on P600, as this peak has been related to word learning. Memory performance was significantly improved after acute administration of 100 μg roflumilast. Specifically, immediate recall performance on the VLT increased 2-3 words, accompanied by an enhanced P600 peak during word presentation at the third learning trial. No side effects typical for PDE4-Is were reported for the lowest and effective dose of 100 μg roflumilast. The current proof-of-concept study shows for the first time the potential of low-dose roflumilast administration as a memory enhancer in humans. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Mnemonic Effect of Iconic Gesture and Beat Gesture in Adults and Children: Is Meaning in Gesture Important for Memory Recall?

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    So, Wing Chee; Chen-Hui, Colin Sim; Wei-Shan, Julie Low

    2012-01-01

    Abundant research has shown that encoding meaningful gesture, such as an iconic gesture, enhances memory. This paper asked whether gesture needs to carry meaning to improve memory recall by comparing the mnemonic effect of meaningful (i.e., iconic gestures) and nonmeaningful gestures (i.e., beat gestures). Beat gestures involve simple motoric…

  16. Histaminergic modulation of cholinergic release from the nucleus basalis magnocellularis into insular cortex during taste aversive memory formation.

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    Liliana Purón-Sierra

    Full Text Available The ability of acetylcholine (ACh to alter specific functional properties of the cortex endows the cholinergic system with an important modulatory role in memory formation. For example, an increase in ACh release occurs during novel stimulus processing, indicating that ACh activity is critical during early stages of memory processing. During novel taste presentation, there is an increase in ACh release in the insular cortex (IC, a major structure for taste memory recognition. There is extensive evidence implicating the cholinergic efferents of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM in cortical activity changes during learning processes, and new evidence suggests that the histaminergic system may interact with the cholinergic system in important ways. However, there is little information as to whether changes in cholinergic activity in the IC are modulated during taste memory formation. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the influence of two histamine receptor subtypes, H1 in the NBM and H3 in the IC, on ACh release in the IC during conditioned taste aversion (CTA. Injection of the H3 receptor agonist R-α-methylhistamine (RAMH into the IC or of the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine into the NBM during CTA training impaired subsequent CTA memory, and simultaneously resulted in a reduction of ACh release in the IC. This study demonstrated that basal and cortical cholinergic pathways are finely tuned by histaminergic activity during CTA, since dual actions of histamine receptor subtypes on ACh modulation release each have a significant impact during taste memory formation.

  17. Effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Jager, Gerry; van Hell, Hendrika H; Zuurman, Lineke; Jansma, J Martijn; Mehta, Mitul A; van Gerven, Joop M A; Kahn, René S; Ramsey, Nick F

    2012-03-01

    Deficits in memory function are an incapacitating aspect of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Animal studies have recently provided strong evidence for involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in memory function. Neuropsychological studies in humans have shown less convincing evidence but suggest that administration of cannabinoid substances affects encoding rather than recall of information. In this study, we examined the effects of perturbation of the eCB system on memory function during both encoding and recall. We performed a pharmacological MRI study with a placebo-controlled, crossover design, investigating the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhalation on associative memory-related brain function in 13 healthy volunteers. Performance and brain activation during associative memory were assessed using a pictorial memory task, consisting of separate encoding and recall conditions. Administration of THC caused reductions in activity during encoding in the right insula, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the left middle occipital gyrus and a network-wide increase in activity during recall, which was most prominent in bilateral cuneus and precuneus. THC administration did not affect task performance, but while during placebo recall activity significantly explained variance in performance, this effect disappeared after THC. These findings suggest eCB involvement in encoding of pictorial information. Increased precuneus activity could reflect impaired recall function, but the absence of THC effects on task performance suggests a compensatory mechanism. These results further emphasize the eCB system as a potential novel target for treatment of memory disorders and a promising target for development of new therapies to reduce memory deficits in humans.

  18. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

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    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  19. Spatial-sequential working memory in younger and older adults: age predicts backward recall performance within both age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years and older (64-85 years adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998. Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial, and recall type (forward and backward, were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward. Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age

  20. Storage and recall capabilities of fuzzy morphological associative memories with adjunction-based learning.

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    Valle, Marcos Eduardo; Sussner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We recently employed concepts of mathematical morphology to introduce fuzzy morphological associative memories (FMAMs), a broad class of fuzzy associative memories (FAMs). We observed that many well-known FAM models can be classified as belonging to the class of FMAMs. Moreover, we developed a general learning strategy for FMAMs using the concept of adjunction of mathematical morphology. In this paper, we describe the properties of FMAMs with adjunction-based learning. In particular, we characterize the recall phase of these models. Furthermore, we prove several theorems concerning the storage capacity, noise tolerance, fixed points, and convergence of auto-associative FMAMs. These theorems are corroborated by experimental results concerning the reconstruction of noisy images. Finally, we successfully employ FMAMs with adjunction-based learning in order to implement fuzzy rule-based systems in an application to a time-series prediction problem in industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Steroid Hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) Modulates the Acquisition of Aversive Olfactory Memories in Pollen Forager Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Lisa H.; McQuillan, H. James; Aiken, Alastair; Vergoz, Vanina; Mercer, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we examine effects of the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), on associative olfactory learning in the honeybee, "Apis mellifera." 20-E impaired the bees' ability to associate odors with punishment during aversive conditioning, but did not interfere with their ability to associate odors with a food reward (appetitive…

  2. Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual memory recall and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Gi-Eun; An, Ji-Hyang; Yoon, Se-Won; Heo, Myoung; Kim, Hwang-Yong

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on visual memory recall and EEG. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, 42 adults were selected and divided equally into two groups of 21 adults, the GVS group and the Sham group. The error rate was calculated as a percentage based on the total number of errors in the answers to 24 questions after stimulation, while the reaction time was measured in intervals between the time the questions were asked and the time it took the subjects to answer the questions. EEG data were obtained by attaching electrodes to the Fz, Cz, and Pz points during the question and answer phase. [Results] The error rate showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. The reaction time showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. When relative band power parameters were analyzed, alpha waves showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group, but only the Fz area of beta waves showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. [Conclusion] GVS may improve visual memory recall in relation to a flower, a person, an animal, or a building.

  3. The Neural Correlates of Cognitive Reappraisal during Emotional Autobiographical Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    We used fMRI to investigate the neural processes engaged as individuals down- and up-regulated the emotions associated with negative autobiographical memories (AMs) using cognitive reappraisal strategies. Our analyses examined neural activity during 3 separate phases, as participants: (a) viewed a reappraisal instruction (i.e., Decrease, Increase, Maintain), (b) searched for an AM referenced by a self-generated cue, and (c) elaborated upon the details of the AM being held in mind. Decreasing emotional intensity primarily engaged activity in regions previously implicated in cognitive control (e.g., dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex), emotion generation and processing (e.g., amygdala, insula), and visual imagery (e.g., precuneus) as participants searched for and retrieved events. In contrast, increasing emotional intensity engaged similar regions during the instruction phase (i.e., before a memory cue was presented) and again as individuals later elaborated upon the details of the events they had recalled. These findings confirm that reappraisal can modulate neural activity during the recall of personally-relevant events, though the time course of this modulation appears to depend on whether individuals are attempting to down- or up-regulate their emotions. PMID:22905826

  4. How can the recall of early affiliative memories with peers influence on disordered eating behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana Laura; Marta-Simões, Joana; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the role of early affiliative memories with peers on the adoption of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours through the mechanisms of external shame and self-judgment. The sample used in the current study comprised 632 women from the community, aged between 18 and 60 years old.The tested model explained 22 % of eating psychopathology's variance and showed excellent model fit indices. Results indicated that the impact of the recall of early positive memories with peers on eating psychopathology was fully carried through the mechanisms of external shame and self-judgment. In fact, these findings seem to suggest that the lack of warm and safe affiliative memories with peers is linked to higher levels of shame (e.g., feelings of inferiority and inadequacy), and also to higher vulnerability to engage in maladaptive emotional strategies (such as self-judgmental attitudes), which appears to explain the increase of disordered eating behaviours.These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of peer-related early affiliative memories in the engagement in disordered eating. Furthermore, this study has significant clinical implications, emphasizing the importance of targeting shame and maladaptive emotional strategies, especially in a context involving early adverse emotional experiences with peers.

  5. Effects of voice timbre and accompaniment on working memory as measured by sequential monosyllabic digit recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J; Schwartzberg, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    Information is often paired with music in an attempt to facilitate recall and enhance learning. However, there is a lack of basic research investigating how music carrying information might facilitate recall and subsequent learning. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of voice timbre and accompaniment on working memory as measured by recall performance on a sequential digit recall task. Specific research questions were as follows: (a) How might female and male voice timbres affect serial recall? (b) How might piano, guitar, and no accompaniment affect serial recall? (c) Do music majors have enhanced recall accuracy when compared to nonmusic majors? The recall of information paired with six different melodies was tested on 60 university students. Melodies were composed and recorded using female and male voices with three levels of accompaniment: guitar, piano, and no accompaniment. Participants had more accurate recall during the male voice and piano and no accompaniment conditions and least accurate recall during the female voice and guitar accompaniment conditions. As participants had most accurate recall during the male voice and with piano or no accompaniment, clinicians are encouraged to consider using no accompaniment or piano accompaniment when initially teaching social and academic information paired with music for later recall. When possible, vocal timbre (i.e., the potential benefit of male voicing) should also be considered. Implications for clinical practice, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA global expression patterns elicited by memory recall in cerebral cortex differ for remote versus recent spatial memories

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    Pavel A Gusev

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex plays a critical role in the gradual formation and storage of remote declarative memories. Because the circuitry mechanisms of systems-level consolidation are not well understood, the precise cortical sites for memory storage and the nature of enduring memory correlates (mnemonic plasticity are largely unknown. Detailed maps of neuronal activity underlying recent and remote memory recall highlight brain regions that participate in systems consolidation and constitute putative storage sites, and thus may facilitate detection of mnemonic plasticity. To localize cortical regions involved in the recall of a spatial memory task, we trained rats in a water maze and then mapped mRNA expression patterns of a neuronal activity marker Arc/Arg3.1 (Arc upon recall of recent (24 hours after training or remote (one month after training memories and compared them with swimming and naive controls. Arc gene expression was significantly more robust 24 hours after training compared to one month after training. Arc expression diminished in the parietal, cingulate and visual areas, but select segments in the prefrontal, retrosplenial, somatosensory and motor cortical showed similar robust increases in the Arc expression. When Arc expression was compared across select segments of sensory, motor and associative regions within recent and remote memory groups, the overall magnitude and cortical laminar patterns of task-specific Arc expression were similar (stereotypical. Arc mRNA fractions expressed in the upper cortical layers (2/3, 4 increased after both recent and remote recall, while layer 6 fractions decreased only after the recent recall. The data suggest that robust recall of remote memory requires an overall smaller increase in neuronal activity within fewer cortical segments. This activity trend highlights the difficulty in detecting the storage sites and plasticity underlying remote memory. Application of the Arc maps may ameliorate this

  7. Two Components of Aversive Memory in Drosophila, Anesthesia-Sensitive and Anesthesia-Resistant Memory, Require Distinct Domains Within the Rgk1 Small GTPase.

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    Murakami, Satoshi; Minami-Ohtsubo, Maki; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Tabata, Tetsuya

    2017-05-31

    Multiple components have been identified that exhibit different stabilities for aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila These components have been defined by behavioral and genetic studies and genes specifically required for a specific component have also been identified. Intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We determined that the ASM and ARM pathways converged on the Rgk1 small GTPase and that the N-terminal domain-deleted Rgk1 was sufficient for ASM formation, whereas the full-length form was required for ARM formation. Rgk1 is specifically accumulated at the synaptic site of the Kenyon cells (KCs), the intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies, which play a pivotal role in olfactory memory formation. A higher than normal Rgk1 level enhanced memory retention, which is consistent with the result that Rgk1 suppressed Rac-dependent memory decay; these findings suggest that rgk1 bolsters ASM via the suppression of forgetting. We propose that Rgk1 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of memory stabilization by serving as a molecular node that resides at KC synapses, where the ASM and ARM pathway may interact. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory consists of multiple components. Drosophila olfactory memory serves as a fundamental model with which to investigate the mechanisms that underlie memory formation and has provided genetic and molecular means to identify the components of memory, namely short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term memory, depending on how long the memory lasts. Intermediate memory is further divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We have identified a small GTPase in Drosophila , Rgk1, which plays a pivotal role in the regulation of olfactory memory stability. Rgk1 is required for both ASM and ARM. Moreover, N

  8. Aversive Memory Reactivation Engages in the Amygdala Only Some Neurotransmitters Involved in Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucherelli, Corrado; Baldi, Elisabetta; Mariottini, Chiara; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Blandina, Patrizio

    2006-01-01

    Consolidation refers to item stabilization in long-term memory. Retrieval renders a consolidated memory sensitive, and a "reconsolidation" process has been hypothesized to keep the original memory persistent. Some authors could not detect this phenomenon. Here we show that retrieved contextual fear memory is vulnerable to amnesic treatments and…

  9. [Mood-congruent effect in self-relevant information processing: a study using an autobiographical memory recall task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.

  10. Can an aversive, extinction-resistant memory trigger impairments in walking adaptability? An experimental study using adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Filipe Mello; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; Neves, Laura Tartari; Martins, Lucas Athaydes; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Izquierdo, Iván; Xavier, Léder Leal; Hollands, Kristen; Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca

    2018-02-05

    Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first part (n=16), the aversive, extinction-resistance memory paradigm was established using a fear-conditioning chamber. In the second, rats (n=20) were assessed in a neutral room using the ladder rung walking test before and tree days after inducing an extinction-resistance memory. In addition, the elevated plus-maze test was used to control the influence of the anxiety-like status on gait adaptability. Our results revealed the shock group exhibited worse walking adaptability (lower skilled walking score), when compared to the sham group. Moreover, the immobility time in the ladder rung walking test was similar to the controls, suggesting that gait adaptability performance was not a consequence of the fear generalization. No anxiety-like behavior was observed in the plus maze test. Finally, correlation coefficients also showed the skilled walking performance score was positively correlated with the number of gait cycles and trial time in the ladder rung walking test and the total crossings in the plus maze. Overall, these preliminary findings provide evidence to hypothesize an aversive, extinction-resistant experience might change the emotional load, affecting the ability to adapt walking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The effect of paired pitch, rhythm, and speech on working memory as measured by sequential digit recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Educational and therapeutic objectives are often paired with music to facilitate the recall of information. The purpose of this study was to isolate and determine the effect of paired pitch, rhythm, and speech on undergraduate's memory as measured by sequential digit recall performance. Participants (N = 120) listened to 4 completely counterbalanced treatment conditions each consisting of 9 randomized monosyllabic digits paired with speech, pitch, rhythm, and the combination of pitch and rhythm. No statistically significant learning or order effects were found across the 4 trials. A 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference in digit recall performance across treatment conditions, positions, groups, and treatment by position. No other comparisons resulted in statistically significant differences. Participants were able to recall digits from the rhythm condition most accurately while recalling digits from the speech and pitch only conditions the least accurately. Consistent with previous research, the music major participants scored significantly higher than non-music major participants and the main effect associated with serial position indicated that recall performance was best during primacy and recency positions. Analyses indicated an interaction between serial position and treatment condition, also a result consistent with previous research. The results of this study suggest that pairing information with rhythm can facilitate recall but pairing information with pitch or the combination of pitch and rhythm may not enhance recall more than speech when participants listen to an unfamiliar musical selection only once. Implications for practice in therapy and education are made as well as suggestions for future research.

  12. The Small GTPase Rac1 Contributes to Extinction of Aversive Memories of Drug Withdrawal by Facilitating GABAA Receptor Endocytosis in the vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weisheng; Ju, Yun-Yue; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Tang, Jian-Xin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Shuo; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Wang, Yu-Jun; Ji, Hui; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2017-07-26

    Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABA A receptor (GABA A R) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization. Active Rac1 is essential and sufficient for GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction. Knockdown of Rac1 expression within the vmPFC of rats using Rac1-shRNA suppressed GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction, whereas expression of a constitutively active form of Rac1 accelerated GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction. The crucial role of GABA A R endocytosis in the LTP induction and CPA extinction is evinced by the findings that blockade of GABA A R endocytosis by a dynamin function-blocking peptide (Myr-P4) abolishes LTP induction and CPA extinction. Thus, the present study provides first evidence that Rac1-dependent GABA A R endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories and reveals the sequence of molecular events that contribute to learning experience modulation of synaptic GABA A R endocytosis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reveals that Rac1-dependent GABA A R endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories associated with drug withdrawal and identifies Arc as a downstream effector of Rac1 regulations of synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory, thereby suggesting therapeutic targets to promote extinction of the unwanted memories. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377096-15$15.00/0.

  13. Aroma sebagai Komunikasi Artifaktual Pencetus Emosi Cinta: Studi Olfactics pada Memory Recall Peristiwa Romantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhernadetta Pravita Wahyuningtyas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes how scents can be a trigger for the memories about relationships. Scents inhaled do not only awaken a person's thoughts and feelings about the beautiful and fun memories in the past, but can trigger emotions also, especially the emotion of love ending up in miserable way, without power to strengthen it. Change is constant, as well as scent, its existence can always be a trigger of the emotional memories of love that is still tethered. Scents send specific messages of communication. They are associated with attraction and often trigger emotional romantic feelings. What can be triggered by scent or what sort of emotions that can be caused by a particular scent really depends on the experience, memories, and, to some extent, cultural background because every culture has various mapping on scent. Scent is closely linked to perception. In communications, scent is classified as artifactual communication or nonverbal communication. Olfactics or olfactory communication, or the study of scent is very important in a variety of communication situations. Olfactics in communications is to attract people's attention, to complement the flavors and tastes, to recall the events of emotional situations, and to form an image of one self and identity. Scents specifically trigger the memories of romantic feelings and affect a person’s feelings. This study analyzed the love relationships experienced by informants who have had romantic relationship for at least one year. The paradigm used in this study is positivism, with descriptive qualitative approach. Data collection techniques are in-depth interview and observation. 

  14. Fine motor movements while drawing during the encoding phase of a serial verbal recall task reduce working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G

    2016-02-01

    The time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of working memory indicates that secondary tasks that capture attention for relatively long periods can result in the interference of working memory processing and maintenance. The current study investigates if discrete and continuous movements have differing effects on a concurrent, verbal serial recall task. In the listening condition, participants were asked to recall spoken words presented in lists of six. In the drawing conditions, participants performed the same task while producing discrete (star) or continuous (circle) movements. As hypothesised, participants recalled more words overall in the listening condition compared to the combined drawing conditions. The prediction that the continuous movement condition would reduce recall compared to listening was also supported. Fine-grained analysis at each serial position revealed significantly more words were recalled at mid serial positions in the listening condition, with worst recall for the continuous condition at position 5 compared to the listening and discrete conditions. Kinematic analysis showed that participants increased the size and speed of the continuous movements resulting in a similar duration and number of strokes for each condition. The duration of brief pauses in the discrete condition was associated with the number of words recalled. The results indicate that fine motor movements reduced working memory performance; however, it was not merely performing a movement but the type of the movement that determined how resources were diverted. In the context of the TBRS, continuous movements could be capturing attention for longer periods relative to discrete movements, reducing verbal serial recall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How do selective attentional processes contribute to maintenance and recall in children’s working memory capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Elizabeth Roome

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of working memory capacity is considered from the perspective of the active maintenance of items in primary memory (PM and a cue-dependent search component, secondary memory (SM. Using, free recall, plus a more novel serial interleaved items task, age-related increases in PM estimates were evident in both paradigms. In addition to this, age-related improvements in attentional selectivity were observed, indexed by the recall of target and non-target information respectively. To further characterize PM, presentation modality was varied in the serial interleaved items task (auditory, visual and dual presentation. Developmental differences were found in the effectiveness of presentation formats. Older children’s recall was enhanced by the combination of labeled visual items and enduring auditory information, whilst the same format was detrimental to younger children’s recall of target information. The present results show how estimates of PM and SM in children relate to the development of working memory capacity, but measurement of these constructs in children is not straightforward. Data also points to age related changes in selective attention, which in turn contributes to children’s ability to process and maintain information in working memory.

  16. The effect of midazolam on implicit and explicit memory in category exemplar production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason; Passannante, Anthony; Hirshman, Elliot

    2004-03-01

    Transfer-appropriate processing theory (Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989) proposes that dissociations between performance on explicit and implicit memory tests arise because these tests often rely on different types of information processing (e.g., perceptual processing vs conceptual processing). This perspective predicts that implicit and explicit memory tasks that rely primarily on conceptual processing should show comparable results, not dissociations. Numerous studies have demonstrated such similarities. It is, however, possible that these results arise from explicit memory contamination of performance on implicit memory tasks. To address this issue, an experiment was conducted in which participants were administered the sedative midazolam prior to study. Midazolam is known to create a temporary, but dense, period of anterograde amnesia. The effects of blocking stimulus materials by semantic category at study and generation at study were investigated on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. The results of this study demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of midazolam on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. Specifically, midazolam reduced the effect of blocking stimulus materials in category-cued recall, but not in category exemplar production. The differential effect of midazolam on explicit and implicit memory is at odds with transfer-appropriate processing theory and suggests that theories of memory must distinguish the roles of different types of conceptual processing on implicit and explicit memory tests.

  17. Using eye movement analysis to study auditory effects on visual memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Ramtin Zargari; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojjat

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in affective computing are focused on sensing human cognitive context using biosignals. In this study, electrooculography (EOG) was utilized to investigate memory recall accessibility via eye movement patterns. 12 subjects were participated in our experiment wherein pictures from four categories were presented. Each category contained nine pictures of which three were presented twice and the rest were presented once only. Each picture presentation took five seconds with an adjoining three seconds interval. Similarly, this task was performed with new pictures together with related sounds. The task was free viewing and participants were not informed about the task's purpose. Using pattern recognition techniques, participants' EOG signals in response to repeated and non-repeated pictures were classified for with and without sound stages. The method was validated with eight different participants. Recognition rate in "with sound" stage was significantly reduced as compared with "without sound" stage. The result demonstrated that the familiarity of visual-auditory stimuli can be detected from EOG signals and the auditory input potentially improves the visual recall process.

  18. Physical exercise prevents short and long-term deficits on aversive and recognition memory and attenuates brain oxidative damage induced by maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ben-Hur; Menezes, Jefferson; Souza, Mauren Assis; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    It is known from previous research that physical exercise prevents long-term memory deficits induced by maternal deprivation in rats. But we could not assume similar effects of physical exercise on short-term memory, as short- and long-term memories are known to result from some different memory consolidation processes. Here we demonstrated that, in addition to long-term memory deficit, the short-term memory deficit resultant from maternal deprivation in object recognition and aversive memory tasks is also prevented by physical exercise. Additionally, one of the mechanisms by which the physical exercise influences the memory processes involves its effects attenuating the oxidative damage in the maternal deprived rats' hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  19. Output Position and Word Relatedness Effects in a DRM Paradigm: Support for a Dual-Retrieval Process Theory of Free Recall and False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, T. M.; Choi, H.; Gerkens, D. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Five experiments investigated predictions--derived from a dual-retrieval process approach to free recall (Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V. F., & Payne, D. G. (2002). Dual-retrieval processes in free and associative recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 120-152.)--about false memories in a DRM-like paradigm. In all the experiments, the…

  20. The effect of pitch, rhythm, and familiarity on working memory and anxiety as measured by digit recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and quantitatively evaluate the effects of pitch and rhythm of unfamiliar and familiar melodies on working memory and anxiety as measured by sequential digit recall performance. Participants (N = 60) listened to 6 treatment conditions each consisting of 9 randomized monosyllabic digits. The digits were paired with (a) a familiar melody and pitch only, (b) a familiar melody and rhythm only, (c) a familiar melody with both pitch and rhythm, (d) an unfamiliar melody with pitch only, (e) an unfamiliar melody with rhythm only, and (f) an unfamiliar melody with both pitch and rhythm. The 6 different treatments were counterbalanced using a Latin square design in an attempt to control for order effects. Participants rated their state anxiety on a Likert-type scale before, midway through, and after the digits test. No statistically significant order, learning, or practice effects were found. A 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference in digit recall performance across musical element conditions and groups. Results indicated that music majors outperformed nonmusic majors on the digit recall task. Participants were able to recall digits from the rhythm condition most accurately while recalling digits from pitch only and both pitch and rhythm conditions the least accurately. Graphic analysis of treatment as a function of sequential position indicated digit recall was best during conditions of primacy and recency. No main effects were found for the familiarity condition. Additionally, no main effects or interactions were found for the anxiety variable. The results of this study are congruent with existing working memory and music literature suggesting that pairing information with rhythm can facilitate recall, music majors outperform non-music majors, and recall accuracy is best in positions of primacy and recency. Implications for practice in therapy and education are made as well as suggestions for

  1. Influence of stress on fear memory processes in an aversive differential conditioning paradigm in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Wilhelm, Frank H; Hartmann, Francina R; Kunz, Sabrina; von Rohr, Isabelle R Rudolf; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2013-07-01

    It is widely assumed that learning and memory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis, expression, maintenance and therapy of anxiety disorders, such as phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Memory retrieval is involved in symptom expression and maintenance of these disorders, while memory extinction is believed to be the underlying mechanism of behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders. There is abundant evidence that stress and stress hormones can reduce memory retrieval of emotional information, whereas they enhance memory consolidation of extinction training. In this study we aimed at investigating if stress affects these memory processes in a fear conditioning paradigm in healthy human subjects. On day 1, fear memory was acquired through a standard differential fear conditioning procedure. On day 2 (24h after fear acquisition), participants either underwent a stressful cold pressor test (CPT) or a control condition, 20 min before memory retrieval testing and extinction training. Possible prolonged effects of the stress manipulation were investigated on day 3 (48 h after fear acquisition), when memory retrieval and extinction were tested again. On day 2, men in the stress group showed a robust cortisol response to stress and showed lower unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy ratings than men in the control group. This reduction in fear memory retrieval was maintained on day 3. In women, who showed a significantly smaller cortisol response to stress than men, no stress effects on fear memory retrieval were observed. No group differences were observed with respect to extinction. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that stress can reduce memory retrieval of conditioned fear in men. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of stress and glucocorticoids on fear symptoms in anxiety disorders and suggest that such effects may be sex-specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure: A Working Memory Test for Use in Rehabilitative Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Alexander, Genevieve

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure (WARRM) and to conduct the inaugural evaluation of the performance of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal to near-normal hearing, and older adults with pure-tone hearing loss on the WARRM. The WARRM is a new test designed for concurrently assessing word recognition and auditory working memory performance in adults who may have pure-tone hearing loss. The test consists of 100 monosyllabic words based on widely used speech-recognition test materials. The 100 words are presented in recall set sizes of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 items, with 5 trials in each set size. The WARRM yields a word-recognition score and a recall score. The WARRM was administered to all participants in three listener groups under two processing conditions in a mixed model (between-subjects, repeated measures) design. The between-subjects factor was group, with 48 younger listeners with normal audiometric thresholds (younger listeners with normal hearing [YNH]), 48 older listeners with normal thresholds through 3000 Hz (older listeners with normal hearing [ONH]), and 48 older listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (older listeners with hearing loss [OHL]). The within-subjects factor was WARRM processing condition (no additional task or with an alphabet judgment task). The associations between results on the WARRM test and results on a battery of other auditory and memory measures were examined. Word-recognition performance on the WARRM was not affected by processing condition or set size and was near ceiling for the YNH and ONH listeners (99 and 98%, respectively) with both groups performing significantly better than the OHL listeners (83%). The recall results were significantly better for the YNH, ONH, and OHL groups with no processing (93, 84, and 75%, respectively) than with the alphabet processing (86, 77, and 70%). In both processing conditions, recall was best for YNH, followed by

  3. Opposite Actions of Dopamine on Aversive and Appetitive Memories in the Crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klappenbach, Martin; Maldonado, Hector; Locatelli, Fernando; Kaczer, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of how the reinforcement is represented in the central nervous system during memory formation is a current issue in neurobiology. Several studies in insects provide evidence of the instructive role of biogenic amines during the learning and memory process. In insects it was widely accepted that dopamine (DA) mediates aversive…

  4. The effect of long-term working memory through personalization applied to free recall: uncurbing the primacy-effect enthusiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Alessandro; Gras, Doriane; Noel, Yvonnick; Le Bohec, Olivier; Quaireau, Christophe; Nicolas, Serge

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a personalization method (Guida, Tardieu, & Nicolas, European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21: 862-896 2009) was applied to a free-recall task. Fifteen pairs of words, composed of an object and a location, were presented to 93 participants, who had to mentally associate each pair and subsequently recall the objects. A 30-s delay was introduced on half of the trials, the presentation rate was manipulated (5 or 10 s per item), and verbal and visuospatial working memory tests were administered to test for their effects on the serial curve. Two groups were constituted: a personalized group, for whom the locations were well-known places on their university campus, and a nonpersonalized group, for whom the locations did not refer to known places. Since personalization putatively operationalizes long-term working memory (Ericsson & Kintsch, Psychological Review, 102: 211-245 1995)-namely, the capacity to store information reliably and rapidly in long-term memory-and if we take a dual-store approach to memory, the personalization advantage would be expected to be greater for pre-recency than for recency items. Overall, the results were compatible with long-term working memory theory. They contribute to validating the personalization method as a methodology to characterize the contribution of long-term memory storage to performance in working memory tasks.

  5. Differential recall of derived and inflected word forms in working memory: Examining the role of morphological information in simple and complex working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet eService

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory has been described as an interface between cognition and action, or a system for access to a limited amount of information needed in complex cognition. Access to morphological information is needed for comprehending and producing sentences. The present study probed working memory for morphologically complex word forms in Finnish, a morphologically rich language. We studied monomorphemic (boy, inflected (boy+’s and derived (boy+hood words in three tasks. Simple span, immediate serial recall of words, in Experiment 1, is assumed to mainly rely on information in the focus of attention. Sentence span, a dual task combining sentence reading with recall of the last word (Experiment 2 or of a word not included in the sentence (Experiment 3 is assumed to involve establishment of a search set in long-term memory for fast activation into the focus of attention. Recall was best for monomorphemic and worst for inflected word forms with performance on derived words in between. However, there was an interaction between word type and experiment, suggesting that complex span is more sensitive to morphological complexity in derivations than simple span. This was explored in a within-subjects Experiment 4 combining all three tasks. An interaction between morphological complexity and task was replicated. Both inflected and derived forms increased load in working memory. In simple span, recall of inflectional forms resulted in form errors. Complex span tasks were more sensitive to morphological load in derived words, possibly resulting from interference from morphological neighbors in the mental lexicon. The results are best understood as involving competition among inflectional forms when binding words from input into an output structure, and competition from morphological neighbors in secondary memory during cumulative retrieval-encoding cycles. Models of verbal recall need to be able to represent morphological as well as phonological and

  6. G(o) Activation Is Required for Both Appetitive and Aversive Memory Acquisition in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madalan, Adrian; Yang, Xiao; Ferris, Jacob; Zhang, Shixing; Roman, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G(o) is an abundant brain protein required for negatively reinforced short-term associative olfactory memory in "Drosophila". G(o) is the only known substrate of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin (PTX) in fly, and acute expression of PTX within the mushroom body neurons (MB) induces a reversible deficit in associative olfactory…

  7. Aversive Olfactory Learning and Associative Long-Term Memory in "Caenorhabditis elegans"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hisayuki; Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2011-01-01

    The nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans" ("C. elegans") adult hermaphrodite has 302 invariant neurons and is suited for cellular and molecular studies on complex behaviors including learning and memory. Here, we have developed protocols for classical conditioning of worms with 1-propanol, as a conditioned stimulus (CS), and hydrochloride (HCl) (pH…

  8. Short term memory decays and high presentation rates hurry this decay: The Murdock free recall experiments interpreted in the Tagging/Retagging model

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr. Eugen

    2009-01-01

    I show that the curious free recall data of Murdock (1962) can be explained by the Tagging/Retagging model of short term memory (Tarnow, 2009 and 2008) in which a short term memory item is a tagged long term memory item. The tagging (linear in time) corresponds to the synaptic process of exocytosis and the loss of tagging (logarithmic in time) corresponds to synaptic endocytosis. The Murdock recent item recall probabilities follow a logarithmic decay with time of recall. The slope of the d...

  9. Sleeping like a baby: Examining relations between habitual infant sleep, recall memory, and generalization across cues at 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Previous research suggests that sleep is related to cognitive functioning in infants and adults. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in infant sleep habits over the seven days prior to elicited imitation testing were associated with variability in (a) the encoding of 2-step event sequences and (b) memory for the presented information and generalization across cues after a 2-h delay in 10-month-olds. Significant correlations indicated that both daytime napping and nighttime sleep were related to encoding and generalization across cues after the 2-h delay; significant findings were not found in relation to baseline or delayed recall performance. We suggest that individual differences in infant sleep habits may be one mechanism underlying the observed variability in recall memory and generalization as these abilities are coming online late in the first year of life. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Runge, Matthew; Faulkner, Andrew; Zakizadeh, Jila; Chan, Aldrich; Morcos, Selvana

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall) was replicated, refined, and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal cues (controlled on several verbal properties) and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; 30 min later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest). Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

  11. Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo eD'Angiulli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall was replicated, refined and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal-cues (controlled on several verbal properties and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; thirty minutes later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest. Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ, as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

  12. Quality of education and memory test performance in older men: the New York University Paragraph Recall Test normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

    2013-09-01

    Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders.One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one's literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. The current study provides evidence and support for normativedata stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education.

  13. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-11-02

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Dop1. To resolve the discrepancy between studies in different insect species, we produced Dop1 knockout crickets using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that they are defective in aversive learning with sodium chloride punishment but not appetitive learning with water or sucrose reward. The results suggest that dopamine and octopamine neurons mediate aversive and appetitive reinforcement, respectively, in crickets. We suggest unexpected diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement between crickets and fruit-flies, although the neurotransmitter mediating aversive reinforcement is conserved. This study demonstrates usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for producing knockout animals for the study of learning and memory.

  14. Degrading emotional memories induced by a virtual reality paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Anne; Laken, Maarten; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives In Eye Movement and Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, a dual-task approach is used: patients make horizontal eye movements while they recall aversive memories. Studies showed that this reduces memory vividness and/or emotionality. A strong explanation is

  15. Why Do Participants Initiate Free Recall of Short Lists of Words with the First List Item? Toward a General Episodic Memory Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Participants who are presented with a short list of words for immediate free recall (IFR) show a strong tendency to initiate their recall with the 1st list item and then proceed in forward serial order. We report 2 experiments that examined whether this tendency was underpinned by a short-term memory store, of the type that is argued by some to…

  16. Modulation of working memory function by motivation through loss-aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by motivation. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural mechanisms of the influence of motivation through potential monetary punishment on working memory. We employed functional MRI during a delayed recognition task that manipulated top-down control demands with added monetary incentives to some trials in the form of potential losses of bonus money. Behavioral performance on the task was influenced by loss-threatening incentives in the form of faster and more accurate performance. As shown previously, we found enhancement of activity for relevant stimuli occurs throughout all task periods (e.g., stimulus encoding, maintenance, and response) in both prefrontal and visual association cortex. Further, these activation patterns were enhanced for trials with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. During the incentive cue, the amygdala and striatum showed significantly greater activation when money was at a possible loss on the trial. We also evaluated patterns of functional connectivity between regions responsive to monetary consequences and prefrontal areas responsive to the task. This analysis revealed greater delay period connectivity between and the left insula and prefrontal cortex with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. Overall, these results reveal that incentive motivation can modulate performance on working memory tasks through top-down signals via amplification of activity within prefrontal and visual association regions selective to processing the perceptual inputs of the stimuli to be remembered. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Functional Integrity of the Retrosplenial Cortex Is Essential for Rapid Consolidation and Recall of Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katche, Cynthia; Dorman, Guido; Slipczuk, Leandro; Cammarota, Martin; Medina, Jorge H.

    2013-01-01

    Memory storage is a temporally graded process involving different phases and different structures in the mammalian brain. Cortical plasticity is essential to store stable memories, but little is known regarding its involvement in memory processing. Here we show that fear memory consolidation requires early post-training macromolecular synthesis in…

  18. Extinction of aversive taste memory homeostatically prevents the maintenance of in vivo insular cortex LTP: Calcineurin participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olvera, Alejandro; Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Gonsebatt, María E; Escobar, Martha L

    2018-04-06

    Accumulating evidence indicates that homeostatic plasticity mechanisms dynamically adjust synaptic strength to promote stability that is crucial for memory storage. Our previous studies have shown that prior training in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) prevents the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC) in vivo. We have also reported that induction of LTP in the Bla-IC pathway modifies the CTA extinction. Memoryextinction involves the formation of a new associativememorythat inhibits a previously conditioned association. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of CTA extinction on the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Thus, 48 h after CTA extinction animals received high frequency stimulation in order to induce IC-LTP. Our results show that extinction training allows the induction but not the maintenance of IC-LTP. In addition, with the purpose of exploring part of the mechanisms involved in this process and since a body of evidence suggests that protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) is involved in the extinction of some behavioral tasks, we analyzed the participation of this phosphatase. The present results show that extinction training increases the CaN expression in the IC, as well as that the inhibition of this phosphatase reverts the effects of the CTA-extinction on the IC-LTP. These findings reveal that CTA extinction promotes a homeostatic regulation of subsequent IC synaptic plasticity maintenance through increases in CaN levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on affective memory recall dynamics in depression: a mechanistic model of rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Karlijn Van Vugt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Converging research suggests that mindfulness training exerts its therapeutic effectson depression by reducing rumination. Theoretically, rumination is a multifaceted construct thataggregates multiple neurocognitive aspects of depression, including poor executive control,negative and overgeneral memory bias, and persistence or stickiness of negative mind states.Current measures of rumination, most often self-reports, do not capture these different aspects ofruminative tendencies, and therefore are limited in providing detailed information about themechanisms of mindfulness.Methods: We developed new insights into the potential mechanisms of rumination, based onthree model-based metrics of free recall dynamics. These three measures reflect the patterns ofmemory retrieval of valenced information: The probability of first recall (Pstart whichrepresents initial affective bias, the probability of staying with the same valence category ratherthan switching, which indicates strength of positive or negative association networks (Pstay;and probability of stopping (Pstop or ending recall within a given valence, which indicatesdrift persistence or stickiness of a mind state. We then investigated the effects of MBCT(N=29 vs wait-list control (N=23 on these recall dynamics in a Randomized Controlled Trial(RCT in individuals with recurrent depression. Participants completed a standard laboratorystressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, to induce negative mood and activate ruminativetendencies. Then, participants completed a free recall task consisting of three word lists. Thisassessment was conducted both before and after treatment or wait-list.Results: While MBCT participant’s Pstart remained relatively stable, controls showed multipleindications of depression-related deterioration towards more negative and less positive bias.Following the intervention, MBCT participants decreased in their tendency to sustain trains ofnegative words

  20. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christina M; Elmore, Christopher; Hladun, Kristen R; Trumble, John T; Smith, Brian H

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of toxic compounds - including pesticides, heavy metals, and metalloids - have been detected in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their colonies. One such compound is selenium, which bees are exposed to by consuming nectar and pollen from flowers grown in contaminated areas. Though selenium is lethal at high concentrations, sublethal exposure may also impair honey bees' ability to function normally. Examining the effect of selenium exposure on learning and memory provides a sensitive assay with which to identify sublethal effects on honey bee health and behavior. To determine whether sublethal selenium exposure causes learning and memory deficits, we used proboscis extension reflex conditioning coupled with recall tests 30min and 24h post-conditioning. We exposed forager honey bees to a single sublethal dose of selenium, and 3h later we used an olfactory conditioning assay to train the bees to discriminate between one odor associated with sucrose-reinforcement and a second unreinforced odor. Following conditioning we tested short- and long-term recall of the task. Acute exposure to as little as 1.8ng of an inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenate) before conditioning caused a reduction in behavioral performance during conditioning. And, exposure to 18ng of either an inorganic form (sodium selenate) or an organic form (methylseleno-l-cysteine) of selenium caused a reduction in the bees' performance during the long-term recall test. These concentrations of selenium are lower than those found in the nectar of plants grown in selenium-contaminated soil, indicating that even low-grade selenium toxicity produces significant learning and memory impairments. This may reduce foragers' ability to effectively gather resources for the colony or nurse bees' ability to care for and maintain a healthy colony. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Flashbulb memories of Paris attacks: Recall of these events and subjective reliving of these memories in a case with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Wawrziczny, Emilie; Antoine, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Flashbulb memories are detailed and vivid memories of attributes of the reception context of surprising and emotionally arousing public events. This paper offers a fine-grained view of flashbulb memories in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The patient underwent a directed interview about the 13 November 2015 attacks in Paris. Unlike her memory about the date and month of the attacks, the patient provided accurate information about the year, time and places they occurred. The patient also provided accurate information about how she first became aware of the attacks, where she was, with whom, what she was doing, and what time it was when she learned about them. As for the affective characteristics of these memories, she tended to have high ratings of vividness and rehearsal. Negative emotional states and great surprise and novelty were also reported. By assessing the impact of flashbulb memories in this patient with AD, this paper offers a unique view into how such memories may trigger a considerable recall of context as well much subjective reliving.

  2. Hypofunction of prefrontal cortex NMDA receptors does not change stress-induced release of dopamine and noradrenaline in amygdala but disrupts aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Arco, Alberto; Ronzoni, Giacomo; Mora, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    A dysfunction of prefrontal cortex has been associated with the exacerbated response to stress observed in schizophrenic patients and high-risk individuals to develop psychosis. The hypofunction of NMDA glutamatergic receptors induced by NMDA antagonists produces cortico-limbic hyperactivity, and this is used as an experimental model to resemble behavioural abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether injections of NMDA antagonists into the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat change (1) the increases of dopamine, noradrenaline and corticosterone concentrations produced by acute stress in amygdala, and (2) the acquisition of aversive memory related to a stressful event. Male Wistar rats were implanted with guide cannulae to perform microdialysis and bilateral microinjections (0.5 μl/side) of the NMDA antagonist 3-[(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phophonic acid (CPP) (25 and 100 ng). Prefrontal injections were performed 60 min before restraint stress in microdialysis experiments, or training (footshock; 0.6 mA, 2 s) in inhibitory avoidance test. Retention latency was evaluated 24 h after training as an index of aversive memory. Acute stress increased amygdala dialysate concentrations of dopamine (160% of baseline), noradrenaline (145% of baseline) and corticosterone (170% of baseline). Prefrontal injections of CPP did not change the increases of dopamine, noradrenaline or corticosterone produced by stress. In contrast, CPP significantly reduced the retention latency in the inhibitory avoidance test. These results suggest that the hypofunction of prefrontal NMDA receptors does not change the sensitivity to acute stress of dopamine and noradrenaline projections to amygdala but impairs the acquisition of aversive memory.

  3. Developmental Changes in Memory-Related Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship to Episodic Recall in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Uehara, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of nine children examined two issues concerning infantile amnesia: the time at which memories for events experienced before the age of 3-4 years disappear from consciousness and whether this timing of memory loss is related to the development of specific aspects of episodic and autobiographical memory. This study followed children from infancy to early childhood and examined the central role of three verbal-cognitive milestones related to autobiographical memory: the a...

  4. Memory development: implications for adults recalling childhood experiences in the courtroom

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in ca...

  5. Memory development: implications for adults recalling childhood experiences in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L

    2013-12-01

    Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in cases involving adult recollections of childhood experiences.

  6. IL-2 and IL-15 regulate CD8+ memory T-cell differentiation but are dispensable for protective recall responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cédric; Beltra, Jean-Christophe; Charpentier, Tania; Bourbonnais, Sara; Di Santo, James P; Lamarre, Alain; Decaluwe, Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The ability to mount effective secondary responses is a cardinal feature of memory CD8(+) T cells. An understanding of the factors that regulate the generation and recall capacities of memory T cells remains to be ascertained. Several cues indicate that two highly related cytokines, IL-2 and IL-15, share redundant functions in this process. To establish their combined roles in memory CD8(+) T-cell development, maintenance, and secondary responses, we compared the outcome of adoptively transferred IL2Rβ(+/-) or IL2Rβ(-/-) CD8(+) T cells after an acute viral infection in mice. Our results demonstrate that both IL-2 and IL-15 signals condition the differentiation of primary and secondary short-lived effector cells by altering the transcriptional network governing lineage choices. These two cytokines also regulate the homeostasis of the memory T-cell pool, with effector memory CD8(+) T cells being the most sensitive to these two interleukins. Noticeably, the inability to respond to both cytokines limits the proliferation and survival of primary and secondary effectors cells, whereas it does not preclude potent cytotoxic functions and viral control either initially or upon rechallenge. Globally, these results indicate that lack of IL-2 and IL-15 signaling modulates the CD8(+) T-cell differentiation program but does not impede adequate effector functions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Memory of What We Do Not Recall: Dissociations and Theoretical Debates in the Study of Implicit Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tania; Marques, João; Garcia-Marques, Leonel

    2017-01-01

    Implicit memory reflects itself on situations in which previously acquired information is expressed, without awareness or intention. The study of implicit memory has had a profound impact on how researchers have investigated the human memory. In this paper, we review the main studies which have revealed dissociations between direct and indirect…

  8. Context effects in short-term memory : Confirmatory evidence from recall of visually presented lists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-two subjects had tests of serial recall of visually presented nine-digit lists which were either presented in a single block of trials (constant context) or in between lists of much longer length (variable context). Other variables were vocalization-during-presentation versus silent

  9. Stressing Memory: Long-Term Relations among Children's Stress, Recall and Psychological Outcome following Hurricane Andrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Fivush, Robyn; Parker, Janat; Bahrick, Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    We examined relations among stress, children's recall, and psychological functioning following Hurricane Andrew. Thirty-five children from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds were divided into low-, moderate-, and high-stress groups and were interviewed about the hurricane immediately after the storm and 6 years later. Our primary interest, stemming…

  10. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  11. Developing a hippocampal neural prosthetic to facilitate human memory encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Robert E; Song, Dong; Robinson, Brian S; Fetterhoff, Dustin; Dakos, Alexander S; Roeder, Brent M; She, Xiwei; Wicks, Robert T; Witcher, Mark R; Couture, Daniel E; Laxton, Adrian W; Munger-Clary, Heidi; Popli, Gautam; Sollman, Myriam J; Whitlow, Christopher T; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Berger, Theodore W; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2018-03-28

    We demonstrate here the first successful implementation in humans of a proof-of-concept system for restoring and improving memory function via facilitation of memory encoding using the patient's own hippocampal spatiotemporal neural codes for memory. Memory in humans is subject to disruption by drugs, disease and brain injury, yet previous attempts to restore or rescue memory function in humans typically involved only nonspecific, modulation of brain areas and neural systems related to memory retrieval. We have constructed a model of processes by which the hippocampus encodes memory items via spatiotemporal firing of neural ensembles that underlie the successful encoding of short-term memory. A nonlinear multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) model of hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural firing is computed that predicts activation patterns of CA1 neurons during the encoding (sample) phase of a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) human short-term memory task. MIMO model-derived electrical stimulation delivered to the same CA1 locations during the sample phase of DMS trials facilitated short-term/working memory by 37% during the task. Longer term memory retention was also tested in the same human subjects with a delayed recognition (DR) task that utilized images from the DMS task, along with images that were not from the task. Across the subjects, the stimulated trials exhibited significant improvement (35%) in both short-term and long-term retention of visual information. These results demonstrate the facilitation of memory encoding which is an important feature for the construction of an implantable neural prosthetic to improve human memory.

  12. Meaningful Memory in Acute Anorexia Nervosa Patients-Comparing Recall, Learning, and Recognition of Semantically Related and Semantically Unrelated Word Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhoeven, Valentin; Kallen, Ursula; Ingenerf, Katrin; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Herzog, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Timo; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Nikendei, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    It is unclear whether observed memory impairment in anorexia nervosa (AN) depends on the semantic structure (categorized words) of material to be encoded. We aimed to investigate the processing of semantically related information in AN. Memory performance was assessed in a recall, learning, and recognition test in 27 adult women with AN (19 restricting, 8 binge-eating/purging subtype; average disease duration: 9.32 years) and 30 healthy controls using an extended version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, applying semantically related and unrelated word stimuli. Short-term memory (immediate recall, learning), regardless of semantics of the words, was significantly worse in AN patients, whereas long-term memory (delayed recall, recognition) did not differ between AN patients and controls. Semantics of stimuli do not have a better effect on memory recall in AN compared to CO. Impaired short-term versus long-term memory is discussed in relation to dysfunctional working memory in AN. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. How eye movements in EMDR work : Changes in memory vividness and emotionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, Arne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/381059650; Engelhard, Iris M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; Van Den Hout, Marcel A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Eye movements (EM) during recall of an aversive memory is a treatment element unique to Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). Experimental studies have shown that EM reduce memory vividness and/or emotionality shortly after the intervention. However, it is

  14. Memory and the operational witness: Police officer recall of firearms encounters as a function of active response role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lorraine; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona; Sauer, James D; Lewinski, William; Mirashi, Arta; Atuk, Emel

    2016-02-01

    Investigations after critical events often depend on accurate and detailed recall accounts from operational witnesses (e.g., law enforcement officers, military personnel, and emergency responders). However, the challenging, and often stressful, nature of such events, together with the cognitive demands imposed on operational witnesses as a function of their active role, may impair subsequent recall. We compared the recall performance of operational active witnesses with that of nonoperational observer witnesses for a challenging simulated scenario involving an armed perpetrator. Seventy-six police officers participated in pairs. In each pair, 1 officer (active witness) was armed and instructed to respond to the scenario as they would in an operational setting, while the other (observer witness) was instructed to simply observe the scenario. All officers then completed free reports and responded to closed questions. Active witnesses showed a pattern of heart rate activity consistent with an increased stress response during the event, and subsequently reported significantly fewer correct details about the critical phase of the scenario. The level of stress experienced during the scenario mediated the effect of officer role on memory performance. Across the sample, almost one-fifth of officers reported that the perpetrator had pointed a weapon at them although the weapon had remained in the waistband of the perpetrator's trousers throughout the critical phase of the encounter. These findings highlight the need for investigator awareness of both the impact of operational involvement and stress-related effects on memory for ostensibly salient details, and reflect the importance of careful and ethical information elicitation techniques. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Developmental Changes in Memory-Related Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship to Episodic Recall in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Uehara

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study of nine children examined two issues concerning infantile amnesia: the time at which memories for events experienced before the age of 3-4 years disappear from consciousness and whether this timing of memory loss is related to the development of specific aspects of episodic and autobiographical memory. This study followed children from infancy to early childhood and examined the central role of three verbal-cognitive milestones related to autobiographical memory: the age at which children begin to report autobiographical memories using the past tense (Milestone 1; the age at which they begin to verbally acknowledge past events (Milestone 2; and the age at which they begin to spontaneously use memory-related verbs (Milestone 3. As expected, memories of events that occurred before 3-4 years of age were affected by infantile amnesia. Achievement of these milestones followed almost the same developmental progression: Milestone 1 (1 year; 10 months (1;10 to 3 years; 4 months (3;4 was followed by Milestones 2 (3;1 to 4;0 and 3 (3;5 to 4;4. Milestone 2 was typically related to the onset of infantile amnesia, whereas Milestone 1 occurred during the period for which the children became amnesic as they aged. These data suggest that linguistic meta-cognitive awareness of personal memory is the key feature in infantile amnesia.

  16. Motivation for weight loss affects recall from autobiographical memory in dieters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the connection between motivation for weight loss and autobiographical memory by comparing characteristics of autobiographical memories between dieters and non-dieters. Study 1 involved 29 normal/overweight dieters and 48 non-dieters, and Study 2 involved 18 obese dieters...

  17. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining t...

  18. Developmental Changes in Memory-Related Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship to Episodic Recall in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of nine children examined two issues concerning infantile amnesia: the time at which memories for events experienced before the age of 3-4 years disappear from consciousness and whether this timing of memory loss is related to the development of specific aspects of episodic and autobiographical memory. This study followed children from infancy to early childhood and examined the central role of three verbal-cognitive milestones related to autobiographical memory: the age at which children begin to report autobiographical memories using the past tense (Milestone 1); the age at which they begin to verbally acknowledge past events (Milestone 2); and the age at which they begin to spontaneously use memory-related verbs (Milestone 3). As expected, memories of events that occurred before 3-4 years of age were affected by infantile amnesia. Achievement of these milestones followed almost the same developmental progression: Milestone 1 (1 year; 10 months (1;10) to 3 years; 4 months (3;4)) was followed by Milestones 2 (3;1 to 4;0) and 3 (3;5 to 4;4). Milestone 2 was typically related to the onset of infantile amnesia, whereas Milestone 1 occurred during the period for which the children became amnesic as they aged. These data suggest that linguistic meta-cognitive awareness of personal memory is the key feature in infantile amnesia.

  19. Post-Acquisition Release of Glutamate and Norepinephrine in the Amygdala Is Involved in Taste-Aversion Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gomez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Amygdala activity mediates the acquisition and consolidation of emotional experiences; we have recently shown that post-acquisition reactivation of this structure is necessary for the long-term storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the specific neurotransmitters involved in such reactivation are not known. The aim of the present…

  20. Differential requirement of de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex and the amygdala for safe and aversive taste long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Venkataraman, Archana; Morin, Jean-Pascal; Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2018-04-16

    Several immediate early genes products are known to be involved in the facilitation of structural and functional modifications at distinct synapses activated through experience. The IEG-encoded protein Arc (activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) has been widely implicated in long-term memory formation and stabilization. In this study, we sought to evaluate a possible role for de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex (IC) and in the amygdala (AMY) during long-term taste memory formation. We found that acute inhibition of Arc protein synthesis through the infusion of antisense oligonucleotides administered in the IC before a novel taste presentation, affected consolidation of a safe taste memory trace (ST) but spared consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Conversely, blocking Arc synthesis within the AMY impaired CTA consolidation but had no effect on ST long-term memory formation. Our results suggest that Arc-dependent plasticity during taste learning is required within distinct structures of the medial temporal lobe, depending on the emotional valence of the memory trace. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between masking and short-term consolidation during recall from visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J; Sandry, Joshua

    2018-04-10

    The presentation of a similar but irrelevant stimulus immediately following presentation of a memory item is called masking. Masking is known to reduce performance on working memory tests. This is the type of memory used to hold information in mind for brief periods of time for use in ongoing cognition. Two approaches to understanding masking effects have been proposed in different literatures. Working memory researchers often assume that the reduction in working memory performance after masking is because masking interferes with a transient sensory representation that is needed to complete consolidation into a working memory state. Researchers focused on the attentional blink, a finding that attention cannot be directed to new stimuli during working memory consolidation, have an alternative theory. Attentional blink researchers assume that masking slows the short-term consolidation process, thereby extending the length of the attentional blink. In two experiments, we contrast these two approaches to explaining masking effects and investigate the validity of both hypotheses. Some aspects of both approaches are validated, but neither theoretical perspective alone sufficiently explains the entire pattern of results. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Effects of erythropoietin on memory-relevant neurocircuitry activity and recall in mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Macoveanu, J; Vinberg, M

    2016-01-01

    cohort. The effects of EPO were not correlated with change in mood, red blood cells, blood pressure, or medication. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight enhanced encoding-related dlPFC and temporo-parietal activity as key neuronal underpinnings of EPO-associated memory improvement.......OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) improves verbal memory and reverses subfield hippocampal volume loss across depression and bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to investigate with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether these effects were accompanied by functional changes in memory...

  3. Aroma sebagai Komunikasi Artifaktual Pencetus Emosi Cinta: Studi Olfactics pada Memory Recall Peristiwa Romantis

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningtyas, Bhernadetta Pravita

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how scents can be a trigger for the memories about relationships. Scents inhaled do not only awaken a person's thoughts and feelings about the beautiful and fun memories in the past, but can trigger emotions also, especially the emotion of love ending up in miserable way, without power to strengthen it. Change is constant, as well as scent, its existence can always be a trigger of the emotional memories of love that is still tethered. Scents send specific messages of comm...

  4. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. memory biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions.Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music. Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course.Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .02. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [(F(1, 56 = 3.0, p = .09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being [r = 0.31, p = .02] and decreased clinical symptoms [r = -0.29, p = .03].Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing.

  5. Smell test predicts performance on delayed recall memory test in elderly with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Monica Z; Streiner, David L; Rewilak, Dmytro; Castel, Saulo; Van Reekum, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Elderly with depression are at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Smell tests are correlated with performance on cognitive tests in the elderly and therefore might serve as a screening test for cognitive impairment in depressed elderly. To assess the validity of the CC-SIT (Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test) as a screening test for cognitive impairment in elderly with depression. Forty-one patients, aged 60 and over, were assessed with the CC-SIT and CVLT (California Verbal Learning Test) after 3 months treatment of a Major Depressive Episode (DSM-IV) at the Day Hospital for Depression, Baycrest. Patients already diagnosed with dementia, or other psychiatric and neurological disorders, were excluded. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was applied to assess the CC-SIT's accuracy in identifying individuals with impairment (2 SD below the mean for age and education or less) on CVLT delayed recall trials. Forty-one patients (33 women and eight men) were assessed. Mean age was 76.8 (SD: 6.5), mean HRSD scores before treatment was 22.0 (SD: 5.1). Nine patients had impairment on CVLT delayed recall measures. The area under the ROC curve was 0.776 (95% CI = 0.617-0.936). Our results support the use of the CC-SIT as a screening tool for cognitive impairment among elderly with depression as an indicator for the need of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Replication with larger samples is necessary. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Self-Regulatory Private Speech Relates to Children's Recall and Organization of Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relations between 4- and 7-year-olds' (N=58) autobiographical memory and their use of self-regulatory private speech in a non-mnemonic context (a cognitive planning task). Children's use of self-regulatory private speech during the planning task was associated with longer autobiographical narratives which included specific rather…

  7. Children's and Adults' Recall of Sex-Stereotyped Toy Pictures: Effects of Presentation and Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2005-01-01

    Gender schema theories predict a memory bias toward sex-congruent information. The present study examined how presentation of stimuli and encoding conditions influence gender schematic processing in children and adults. One hundred and sixty 5- to 13-year olds and adult males and females viewed 36 sex-stereotyped toy pictures that were presented…

  8. Does visuo-spatial working memory generally contribute to immediate serial letter recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, A; Rummer, R; Schweppe, J

    2013-01-01

    This work contributes to the understanding of the visual similarity effect in verbal working memory, a finding that suggests that the visuo-spatial sketch pad-the system in Baddeley's working memory model specialised in retaining nonverbal visual information-might be involved in the retention of visually presented verbal materials. Crucially this effect is implicitly interpreted by the most influential theory of multimedia learning as evidence for an obligatory involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad. We claim that it is only involved when the functioning of the working memory component normally used for processing verbal material is impaired. In this article we review the studies that give rise to the idea of obligatory involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad and suggest that some findings can be understood with reference to orthographic rather than visual similarity. We then test an alternative explanation of the finding that is most apt to serve as evidence for obligatory involvement of the visuo-spatial sketch pad. We conclude that, in healthy adults and under normal learning conditions, the visual similarity effect can be explained within the framework of verbal working memory proposed by Baddeley (e.g., 1986, 2000) without additional premises regarding the visuo-spatial sketch.

  9. Free Recall Test Experience Potentiates Strategy-Driven Effects of Value on Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael S.; Rissman, Jesse; Hovhannisyan, Mariam; Castel, Alan D.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in…

  10. The roles of gender and temporal distance in the recall of dissonant self-related memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel

    2014-10-01

    This study examined strategies employed to support a positive self-image in the face of dissonant self-related memories, especially focusing on the role of gender. Participants (N=498) were recruited online and identified a self-descriptive trait. They then reported a memory of a time when they did or did not act according to that trait. Participants distanced themselves from dissonant, self-related memories by downplaying the event's importance and relevance to identity and by emphasizing their lack of agency and the degree to which they had changed. Additionally, participants reported dissonant events from further in the past than consonant events, a tendency displayed more strongly amongst women than men. Women also rated events as more pertinent to the self on questionnaire measures. Findings demonstrate ways that autobiographical memories are reported and organized to support a positive self-image, and deepen an understanding of the role of gender in this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Abel, Joseph W; Knott, Lauren M

    2016-07-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood during encoding had no impact upon the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at retrieval) but a negative mood during retrieval impaired the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at encoding). A negative mood at both time points enhanced the number of correct details recalled, demonstrating a mood-dependent memory enhancement. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Recalling Arabic and English Prefixed and Suffixed Verbs among Arabic-English Bilingual Speakers: An Experimental Study in Relation to Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyar Othman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on how prefixes and suffixes in Arabic and English impact one’s working memory capacity to recall verbs.  Further, it deals with whether or not Arabic-English bilingual speakers recall Arabic and English prefixed and suffixed verbs differently. To investigate this, the study was conducted in the form of two experiments on a group of 10 graduate students. The first experiment was on Arabic prefixed and suffixed verbs, whereas the second experiment was conducted similarly on English. The study concluded that suffixed Arabic verbs were recalled more than the prefixed ones, whereas in English the result was contrary where the participants could recall prefixed verbs more than the suffixed ones. This shows that L2 (Second Language does not differ from L1 (First Language in the effort exerted to recall words. Rather, the findings may suggest that it is easier to recall words in the second language, which might be due to the intensive instruction received in the second language. The study also discovered that several other factors played important roles in making the participants recall the items such as word-length effect, frequency and recency of the words.

  13. Delayed Memory Effects after Intense Stress in Special Forces Candidates: Exploring Path Processes between Cortisol Secretion and Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    impair memory retrieval regardless of the time of the day (De Quervain et al. 1998, 2000; Oei et al. 2007; Buchanan and Tranel 2008; Smeets 2011). The...physiological research methods in health psychology. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. pp 37–74. Oei NYL, Elzinga BM, Wolf OT, De Ruiter MB, Damoiseaux

  14. Effects of Spatial Ability, Gender Differences, and Pictorial Training on Children Using 2-D and 3-D Environments to Recall Landmark Locations from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcha, Theodore J.; Otumfuor, Beryl A.; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of spatial ability, gender differences, and pictorial training on fourth grade students' ability to recall landmark locations from memory. Ninety-six students used Google Earth over a 3-week period to locate landmarks (3-D) and mark their location on a 2-D topographical map. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores…

  15. Visual associations cued recall A Paradigm for Measuring Episodic Memory Decline in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sascha R A; Spaan, Pauline E J; Boelaarts, Leo; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Schmand, Ben; de Jonghe, Jos F M

    2016-09-01

    Repeated measurements of episodic memory are needed for monitoring amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most episodic memory tests may pose a challenge to patients, even when they are in the milder stages of the disease. This cross-sectional study compared floor effects of the Visual Association Test (VAT) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in healthy elderly controls and in patients with aMCI or AD (N = 125). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted the data of cognitive test performance across global cognitive impairment. Results showed that VAT total scores decreased linearly across the range of global cognitive impairment, whereas RAVLT total scores showed a quadratic trend, with total scores levelling off for 90% of aMCI patients and 94% of AD patients. We conclude that the VAT shows few if any floor effects in patients with aMCI and mild AD and is therefore a potentially promising cognitive test for monitoring episodic memory impairment.

  16. Color Difference and Memory Recall in Free-Flying Honeybees: Forget the Hard Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian G. Dyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Free-flying honeybees acquire color information differently depending upon whether a target color is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning, or in relation to a perceptually similar color (differential conditioning. Absolute conditioning allows for rapid learning, but color discrimination is coarse. Differential conditioning requires more learning trials, but enables fine discriminations. Currently it is unknown whether differential conditioning to similar colors in honeybees forms a long-term memory, and the stability of memory in a biologically relevant scenario considering similar or saliently different color stimuli. Individual free-flying honeybees (N = 6 were trained to similar color stimuli separated by 0.06 hexagon units for 60 trials and mean accuracy was 81.7% ± 12.2% s.d. Bees retested on subsequent days showed a reduction in the number of correct choices with increasing time from the initial training, and for four of the bees this reduction was significant from chance expectation considering binomially distributed logistic regression models. In contrast, an independent group of 6 bees trained to saliently different colors (>0.14 hexagon units did not experience any decay in memory retention with increasing time. This suggests that whilst the bees’ visual system can permit fine discriminations, flowers producing saliently different colors are more easily remembered by foraging bees over several days.

  17. Assessing Working Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment with Serial Order Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrani, Sheina; Libon, David J; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Jefferson, Angela L; Gifford, Katherine A; Hohman, Timothy J; Nation, Daniel A; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Jak, Amy; Bangen, Katherine J; Bondi, Mark W; Brickman, Adam M; Manly, Jennifer; Swenson, Rodney; Au, Rhoda

    2018-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often assessed with serial order tests such as repeating digits backward. In prior dementia research using the Backward Digit Span Test (BDT), only aggregate test performance was examined. The current research tallied primacy/recency effects, out-of-sequence transposition errors, perseverations, and omissions to assess WM deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Memory clinic patients (n = 66) were classified into three groups: single domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), combined mixed domain/dysexecutive MCI (mixed/dys MCI), and non-MCI where patients did not meet criteria for MCI. Serial order/WM ability was assessed by asking participants to repeat 7 trials of five digits backwards. Serial order position accuracy, transposition errors, perseverations, and omission errors were tallied. A 3 (group)×5 (serial position) repeated measures ANOVA yielded a significant group×trial interaction. Follow-up analyses found attenuation of the recency effect for mixed/dys MCI patients. Mixed/dys MCI patients scored lower than non-MCI patients for serial position 3 (p operational definition as well as additional diagnostic information regarding working memory deficits in MCI.

  18. Telephone word-list recall tested in the rural aging and memory study: two parallel versions for the TICS-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Eva; Bandelow, Stephan; Hart, John; Henderson, Victor W

    2004-09-01

    Parallel versions of memory tasks are useful in clinical and research settings to reduce practice effects engendered by multiple administrations. We aimed to investigate the usefulness of three parallel versions of ten-item word list recall tasks administered by telephone. A population based telephone survey of middle-aged and elderly residents of Bradley County, Arkansas was carried out as part of the Rural Aging and Memory Study (RAMS). Participants in the study were 1845 persons aged 40 to 95 years. Word lists included that used in the telephone interview of cognitive status (TICS) as a criterion standard and two newly developed lists. The mean age of participants was 61.05 (SD 12.44) years; 39.5% were over age 65. 78% of the participants had completed high school, 66% were women and 21% were African-American. There was no difference in demographic characteristics between groups receiving different word list versions, and performances on the three versions were equivalent for both immediate (mean 4.22, SD 1.53) and delayed (mean 2.35 SD 1.75) recall trials. The total memory score (immediate+delayed recall) was negatively associated with older age (beta = -0.41, 95%CI=-0.11 to -0.04), lower education (beta = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.36 to 0.51), male gender (beta = -0.18, 95%CI = -1.39 to -0.90) and African-American race (beta = -0.15, 95%CI = -1.41 to -0.82). The two RAMS word recall lists and the TICS word recall list can be used interchangeably in telephone assessment of memory of middle-aged and elderly persons. This finding is important for future studies where parallel versions of a word-list memory task are needed. (250 words).

  19. Aberrant default-mode network-hippocampus connectivity after sad memory-recall in remitted-depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Caroline A; Mocking, Roel J T; van Wingen, Guido; Martens, Suzanne; Ruhé, Henricus G; Schene, Aart H

    2017-11-01

    Rumination and cognitive reactivity (dysfunctional cognitions after sad mood-induction) remain high in remitted Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and can contribute to new episodes. These factors have been linked to increased fMRI resting-state functional-connectivity within the Default-Mode Network (DMN). It remains unclear whether (I) increased DMN-connectivity persists during MDD-remission, and (II) whether sad mood-induction differentially affects DMN-connectivity in remitted-MDD vs controls. Moreover, DMN-connectivity studies in remitted-MDD were previously confounded by antidepressant-use. Sixty-two MDD-patients remitted from ≥2 episodes, psychotropic-medication free, and 41 controls, participated in two 5-min neutral and sad mood-inductions by autobiographical-recall and neutral/sad music, each followed by 8-min resting-state fMRI-scanning. We identified DMN-components using Independent Component Analysis and entered subject- and sessions-specific components into a repeated measures analysis of variance. Connectivity-differences were extracted and correlated with baseline cognitive reactivity and rumination as measures of vulnerability for recurrence. After sad vs neutral mood-induction, controls, but not remitted-MDD, showed an increase in connectivity between the posterior-DMN and a cluster consisting mostly of the hippocampus (P = 0.006). Less posterior-DMN-hippocampal connectivity was associated with higher cognitive reactivity (r = -0.21, P = 0.046) and rumination (r = -0.27, P = 0.017). After recalling sad autobiographical-memories, aberrant posterior-DMN-hippocampal connectivity, associated with cognitive reactivity and rumination, remains a neural vulnerability in MDD-remission. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. The MoCA-Memory Index Score: An Efficient Alternative to Paragraph Recall for the Detection of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Antarpreet; Edland, Steven D; Peavy, Guerry M

    2018-01-09

    To compare ability of 2 measures of delayed memory (word list, story paragraph) to discriminate Normal Control (NC) subjects from those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Demographic, neuropsychological, and diagnostic data contributed by 34 Alzheimer's Disease Centers to the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center characterized 2717 individuals with a diagnosis of either NC (n=2205) or aMCI (n=512). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) assessed delayed word recall, and the Craft Story 21, delayed story recall. Logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves controlling for age, sex, and education assessed the ability of each test to differentiate NCs from subjects with aMCI. The MoCA-MIS had significantly better sensitivity and specificity (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.83 vs. 0.80, P=0.004). At sensitivity 80%, the specificity of the MoCA-MIS was 69.1%, compared with 62.8% for the Craft Story. These data suggest that the MoCA-MIS, a recall score from items within the MoCA, is better at discriminating NCs from subjects with aMCI than the Craft Story. Word recall may be an efficient alternative to paragraph recall for diagnostic screening within clinical practice and research settings.

  1. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., memory) biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions. Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years) participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music). Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course. Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.02]. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [F(1, 56) = 3.0, p = 0.09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being (r = 0.31, p = 0.02) and decreased clinical symptoms (r = -0.29, p = 0.03). Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing. Future research with a fully randomized design will be

  2. Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., memory) biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions. Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years) participated in either a 12-week course containing a “meditation laboratory” or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music). Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course. Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.02]. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [F(1, 56) = 3.0, p = 0.09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being (r = 0.31, p = 0.02) and decreased clinical symptoms (r = −0.29, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing. Future

  3. Immediate recall influences the effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional episodic long-term memory consolidation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-05-01

    The stress-associated activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis influences memory. Several studies have supported the notion that post-learning stress enhances memory consolidation, while pre-retrieval stress impairs retrieval. Findings regarding the effects of pre-encoding stress, in contrast, have been rather inconsistent. In the current two studies, the impact of an immediate retrieval task on these effects was explored. In the first study, 24 healthy young male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition before viewing positive, negative, and neutral photographs, which were accompanied by a brief narrative. Immediate as well as delayed (24 h later) free recall was assessed. Stress was expected to enhance emotional long-term memory without affecting immediate recall performance. Stress caused a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations but had no significant effects on immediate or delayed retrieval performance, even though a trend toward poorer memory of the stress group was apparent. Based on these findings, the second experiment tested the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of stress on emotional long-term memory performance might be abolished by an immediate recall test. In the second study (n = 32), the same design was used, except for the omission of the immediate retrieval test. This time stressed participants recalled significantly more negative photographs compared to the control group. The present study indicates that an immediate retrieval attempt of material studied after stress exposure can prevent or even reverse the beneficial effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional long-term memory consolidation.

  4. Digit-color synaesthesia only enhances memory for colors in a specific context: A new method of duration thresholds to measure serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, A Lina; Nieuwenstein, Mark R; Rich, Anina N

    2017-08-01

    For digit-color synaesthetes, digits elicit vivid experiences of color that are highly consistent for each individual. The conscious experience of synaesthesia is typically unidirectional: Digits evoke colors but not vice versa. There is an ongoing debate about whether synaesthetes have a memory advantage over non-synaesthetes. One key question in this debate is whether synaesthetes have a general superiority or whether any benefit is specific to a certain type of material. Here, we focus on immediate serial recall and ask digit-color synaesthetes and controls to memorize digit and color sequences. We developed a sensitive staircase method manipulating presentation duration to measure participants' serial recall of both overlearned and novel sequences. Our results show that synaesthetes can activate digit information to enhance serial memory for color sequences. When color sequences corresponded to ascending or descending digit sequences, synaesthetes encoded these sequences at a faster rate than their non-synaesthetes counterparts and faster than non-structured color sequences. However, encoding color sequences is approximately 200 ms slower than encoding digit sequences directly, independent of group and condition, which shows that the translation process is time consuming. These results suggest memory advantages in synaesthesia require a modified dual-coding account, in which secondary (synaesthetically linked) information is useful only if it is more memorable than the primary information to be recalled. Our study further shows that duration thresholds are a sensitive method to measure subtle differences in serial recall performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Mood repair via attention refocusing or recall of positive autobiographical memories by adolescents with pediatric-onset major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; George, Charles J; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kiss, Enikő; Vetró, Ágnes; Kapornai, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Impaired emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of depressive disorders. Indeed, currently and previously depressed adults both report greater problems in attenuating sadness (mood repair) in daily life than healthy controls. In contrast, studies of various strategies to attenuate sad affect have mostly found that currently or previously depressed adults and controls were similarly successful at mood repair in the laboratory. But few studies have examined mood repair among depression-prone youths or the effects of trait characteristics on mood repair outcomes in the laboratory. Adolescents, whose first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) had onset at age 9, on average (probands), and were either in remission or depressed, and control peers, watched a sad film clip. Then, they were instructed to engage in refocusing attention (distraction) or recalling happy memories. Using affect ratings provided by the youths, we tested two developmentally informed hypotheses about whether the subject groups would be similarly able to attenuate sadness via the two mood repair strategies. We also explored if self-reported habitual (trait) mood repair influenced laboratory performance. Contrary to expectations, attention refocusing and recall of happy memories led to comparable mood benefits across subjects. Control adolescents reported significantly greater reductions in sadness than did depressed (Cohen's d = .48) or remitted (Cohen's d = .32) probands, regardless of mood repair strategy, while currently depressed probands remained the saddest after mood repair. Habitual mood repair styles moderated the effects of instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. Whether depressed or in remission, adolescents with MDD histories are not as efficient at mood repair in the laboratory as controls. But proband-control group differences in mood repair outcomes were modest in scope, suggesting that the abilities that subserve affect regulation have been

  6. Mood repair via attention refocusing or recall of positive autobiographical memories by adolescents with pediatric onset major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; George, Charles J.; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kiss, Enikő; Vetró, Ágnes; Kapornai, Krisztina

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of depressive disorders. Indeed, currently and previously depressed adults both report greater problems in attenuating sadness (mood repair) in daily life than healthy controls. In contrast, studies of various strategies to attenuate sad affect have mostly found that currently or previously depressed adults and controls were similarly successful at mood repair in the laboratory. But few studies have examined mood repair among depression-prone youths or the effects of trait characteristics on mood repair outcomes in the laboratory. Methods Adolescents, whose first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) had onset at age 9, on average (probands), and were either in remission or depressed, and control peers, watched a sad film clip. Then, they were instructed to engage in re-focusing attention (distraction) or recalling happy memories. Using affect ratings provided by the youths, we tested two developmentally informed hypotheses about whether the subject groups would be similarly able to attenuate sadness via the two mood repair strategies. We also explored if self-reported habitual (trait) mood repair influenced laboratory performance. Results Contrary to expectations, attention re-focusing and recall of happy memories led to comparable mood benefits across subjects. Control adolescents reported significantly greater reductions in sadness than did depressed (Cohen’s d=.48) or remitted (Cohen’s d=.32) probands, regardless of mood repair strategy, while currently depressed probands remained the saddest after mood repair. Habitual mood repair styles moderated the effects of instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. Conclusions Whether depressed or in remission, adolescents with MDD histories are not as efficient at mood repair in the laboratory as controls. But proband-control group differences in mood repair outcomes were modest in scope, suggesting that the abilities

  7. Recalling items from a category for 1 hour: an inquiry into power-law behavior and memory foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Theo

    2013-07-01

    There are two complementary approaches to characterizing performance in a free recall task (retrieving items from a specified category). The historic, or top down approach, considers the overall structure of the produced responses, generally as the parameters of a fitted cumulative recall curve. Alternatively, free recall can be considered as a time series of recalls or inter-recall intervals. Earlier work employing this approach (Rhodes & Turvey, 2007) suggested power law behavior. Long trial durations (1 hour) are employed to more rigorously test for the presence of power law behavior and more generally, the hypothesis that the dynamics of free recall reflect complex, multiplicative processes. The outlined empirical methods are also employed to test predictions about the relative structure of differently sized categories. Consequences for an asymptotic curve based understanding of free recall and foraging metaphors of retrieval are discussed.

  8. Long term recall of memory CD8 T cells in mice to first and third generation smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sharone; Ennis, Francis A; Mathew, Anuja

    2011-02-11

    Since long-term immunity is a critical component of any effective vaccine, we compared over a 15-month period, the strength, durability and specificity of immunity of an attenuated smallpox vaccine Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) to the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) vaccine. The frequencies of CD8(+) T cells to an immunodominant CD8 T cell epitope B8R(20-27) remained remarkably stable in mice given either MVA or NYCBH. Both groups were also protected from a lethal intranasal challenge with Western Reserve strain of vaccinia virus (VACV-WR). Cytokine responses to virus-specific peptides were detectable with significant boosting upon challenge. Expression of most phenotypic markers that define antigen-specific memory CD8 T cells was similar while CD27 was differentially expressed on lung-specific T cells compared to the spleen. Our data indicate robust vaccinia-specific CD8(+) T cell recall responses to lethal secondary challenge in protected mice with no apparent effect of age on T cell pools established much earlier in life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reminiscence spike in reading recall between the ages of 8–11: The influence of early memories on attitudes and actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Freestone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the recalled reading of 31 environmental educators has uncovered a potential link between early reading and pro-environmental attitudes. The recalled books are not only from the recognised “reminiscence bump” of adolescence and early adulthood, but there also appears to be a spike in recall of books within the 8–11-year reading age group. This 8–11-year age group, also known as middle childhood is recognised within other disciplines as being an influential or significant time for learning. The discovery of these earlier memories from stories and their ongoing influence highlights the potential of incidental learning and pre-adolescent attitude formation.

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Almond Prevents Oxidative Stress by Advocating Antioxidants and Attenuates Impaired Aversive Memory in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Siddiqui, Rafat Ali; Haider, Saida

    2018-03-01

    Scopolamine, an anti-muscarinic agent, has been shown to induce amnesia and oxidative stress similar to that observed in the older age. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between the oxidative status and memory improvement in scopolamine injected rats pre-administered with almonds. Rats (n = 8) in the almond group were administered orally with 400 mg/kg almond suspension for 28 days daily before the intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg). Passive avoidance task (PAT) was used to assess memory function at the end of treatment. The present study revealed that scopolamine injection significantly impaired the memory function in rats pre-treated with saline which was accompanied by increased oxidative stress as evident by increased brain malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes as compared to healthy controls. Pre-treatment with almond significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced oxidative stress and memory dysfunction. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with almonds may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk of oxidative stress-induced memory loss and delaying or preventing the onset of age-related memory impairment.

  11. Natural aversive learning in Tetramorium ants reveals ability to form a generalizable memory of predators' pit traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L; McNew, Kelsey; Sosa, Talisa; Harrsch, Felicia A; Nowbahari, Elise

    2017-06-01

    Many species of ants fall prey to pit-digging larval antlions (Myrmeleon spp.), extremely sedentary predators that wait, nearly motionless at the bottom of their pit traps, for prey to stumble inside. Previous research, both in the field and laboratory, has demonstrated a remarkable ability of these ants to rescue trapped nestmates, thus sabotaging antlions' attempts to capture them. Here we show that pavement ants, Tetramorium sp. E, an invasive species and a major threat to biodiversity, possess yet another, more effective, antipredator strategy, namely the ability to learn to avoid antlion traps following a single successful escape from a pit. More importantly, we show that this learned antipredator behavior, an example of natural aversive learning in insects, is more complicated than a single cue-to-consequence form of associative learning. That is, pavement ants were able to generalize, after one experience, from the learned characteristics of the pit and its specific location, to other pits and other contexts that differed in many features. Such generalization, often described as a lack of precise stimulus control, nonetheless would be especially adaptive in nature, enabling ants to negotiate antlions' pit fields, which contain a hundred or more pits within a few centimetres of one another. Indeed, the ability to generalize in exactly this way almost certainly is responsible for the sudden, and heretofore inexplicable, behavioural modifications of ants in response to an invasion of antlions in the vicinity of an ant colony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vividness of Visual Imagery and Incidental Recall of Verbal Cues, When Phenomenological Availability Reflects Long-Term Memory Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Runge, Matthew; Faulkner, Andrew; Zakizadeh, Jila; Chan, Aldrich; Morcos, Selvana

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall) was replicated, refined and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal-cues (controlled on several verbal properties) and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; thirty minutes later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental ...

  13. Bender Gestalt Recall as a measure of short-term visual memory in children and adolescents with psychotic and other severe disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James; Rabinowitz, Dena; Habib, Mandy; Goldman, Heather; Miley, Diana; Stefanyshyn, Hanna Yim; Freeman, Shuamis; Murray, Tracey; Clauselle, Renee

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the short-term visual memory ability of children and adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders, 82 child and adolescent inpatients and day hospital patients in a state psychiatric hospital were administered the Bender Gestalt Test as part of a psychological assessment and then asked to reproduce the designs from memory. No significant differences were found between groups on either the Bender Gestalt Recall, or the WISC-III IQs and the Digit Span and Symbol Search subtests for Psychotic Disorders (Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Mood Disorders or Mood Disorders with co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Coding subtest scores of the Psychotic Disorders group were significantly lower than the ADHD group. Analyses showed that the Bender Gestalt Recall was significantly related to age. Performance IQ, and sex. The results were discussed in terms of both the poor cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with persistent, severe mental illness, and the importance of developmental level when using the Bender Gestalt Recall as a rough measure of short-term visual memory.

  14. Effects of previous physical exercise to chronic stress on long-term aversive memory and oxidative stress in amygdala and hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Kolling, Janaína; Siebert, Cassiana; Biasibetti, Helena; Bertó, Carolina Gessinger; Grun, Lucas Kich; Dalmaz, Carla; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia María; Wyse, Angela T S

    2017-02-01

    Since stressful situations are considered risk factors for the development of depression and there are few studies evaluating prevention therapies for this disease, in the present study we evaluated the effect of previous physical exercise in animals subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS), an animal model of depression, on behavior tasks. We also investigated some parameters of oxidative stress and Na + , K + -ATPase activity, immunocontent and gene expression of alpha subunits in amygdala and hippocampus of rats. Young male rats were randomized into four study groups (control, exercised, stressed, exercised+stressed). The animals were subjected to controlled exercise treadmill for 20min,three times a week, for two months prior to submission to the CVS (40days). Results show that CVS impaired performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h and 7days after training session. CVS induced oxidative stress, increasing reactive species, lipoperoxidation and protein damage, and decreasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activity of Na + , K + -ATPase was decreased, but the immunocontents and gene expression of catalytic subunits were not altered. The previous physical exercise was able to improve performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h after training; additionally, exercise prevented oxidative damage, but was unable to reverse completely the changes observed on the enzymatic activities. Our findings suggest that physical exercise during the developmental period may protect against aversive memory impairment and brain oxidative damage caused by chronic stress exposure later in life. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Histamine acting on the basolateral amygdala reverts the impairment of aversive memory of rats submitted to neonatal maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Fernando; da Silveira, Clarice Kras Borges; Rosa, Jessica; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-02-01

    Recent findings suggest a role of brain histamine in the regulation of memory consolidation, particularly in one-trial inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning and that disruption in the mother infant relationship i.e. maternal deprivation induces cognitive deficits. We investigate whether histamine itself, and histaminergic compounds given into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) immediately post-training can affect retention (24 h after training) of one-trial (IA) in rats submitted to early postnatal maternal deprivation. In all cases, deprived (Dep) animals had lower retention scores than non-deprived controls (N-dep). Histamine induced memory enhancement on its own in N-dep animals and was able to overcome the deleterious effect of Dep. The effects by SKF-91488 is similar to histamine. The H3 agonist, imetit mimetized the enhancing effects of histamine; neither agonist H1 pyridylethylamine nor the H2 dimaprit had any effect. Ranitidine and thioperamide (50 nmol) co-infused with histamine (10 nmol) fully blocked the restorative effect of histamine on retention in Dep animals. Thioperamide, in addition, blocked the enhancing effect of histamine on memory of the N-dep animals as well. None of the drugs used given into BLA had any effect on open-field or elevated plus-maze behavior in N-dep or Dep rats. Our results are limited to experimental design in rats. Extrapolation i.e. in humans requires further experimentations. The present results suggest that the memory deficit induced by early postnatal maternal deprivation in rats may at least in part be due to an impairment of histamine H3 receptor-mediated mediated mechanisms in the BLA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Can an aversive, extinction-resistant memory trigger impairments in walking adaptability? An experimental study using adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, FM; Myskiw, J; Baptista, P; Neves, L; Martins, LA; Izquierdo, I; Furini, C; Xavier, L; Hollands, KL; Mestriner, RG

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first pa...

  17. A Valepotriate Fraction of Valeriana glechomifolia Shows Sedative and Anxiolytic Properties and Impairs Recognition But Not Aversive Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurmann, Natasha; Reolon, Gustavo Kellermann; Rech, Sandra Beatriz; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Roesler, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Plants of the genus Valeriana (Valerianaceae) are used in traditional medicine as a mild sedative, antispasmodic and tranquilizer in many countries. This study was undertaken to explore the neurobehavioral effects of systemic administration of a valepotriate extract fraction of known quantitative composition of Valeriana glechomifolia (endemic of southern Brazil) in mice. Adult animals were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of valepotriate fraction (VF) in the concentrations of 1, 3 or 10 mg kg−1, or with vehicle in the pre-training period before each behavioral test. During the exploration of an open field, mice treated with 10 mg kg−1 of VF showed reduced locomotion and exploratory behavior. Although overall habituation sessions for locomotion and exploratory behavior among vehicle control and doses of VF were not affected, comparison between open-field and habituation sessions within each treatment showed that VF administration at 1 and 10 mg kg−1 impaired habituation. In the elevated plus-maze test, mice treated with VF (10 mg kg−1) showed a significant increase in the percentage of time spent in the open arms without significant effects in the number of total arm entries. VF at 3 mg kg−1 produced an impairment of novel-object recognition memory. In contrast, VF did not affect fear-related memory assessed in an inhibitory avoidance task. The results indicate that VF can have sedative effects and affect behavioral parameters related to recognition memory. PMID:20047889

  18. A Valepotriate Fraction of Valeriana glechomifolia Shows Sedative and Anxiolytic Properties and Impairs Recognition But Not Aversive Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maurmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Valeriana (Valerianaceae are used in traditional medicine as a mild sedative, antispasmodic and tranquilizer in many countries. This study was undertaken to explore the neurobehavioral effects of systemic administration of a valepotriate extract fraction of known quantitative composition of Valeriana glechomifolia (endemic of southern Brazil in mice. Adult animals were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of valepotriate fraction (VF in the concentrations of 1, 3 or 10 mg kg-1, or with vehicle in the pre-training period before each behavioral test. During the exploration of an open field, mice treated with 10 mg kg-1 of VF showed reduced locomotion and exploratory behavior. Although overall habituation sessions for locomotion and exploratory behavior among vehicle control and doses of VF were not affected, comparison between open-field and habituation sessions within each treatment showed that VF administration at 1 and 10 mg kg-1 impaired habituation. In the elevated plus-maze test, mice treated with VF (10 mg kg-1 showed a significant increase in the percentage of time spent in the open arms without significant effects in the number of total arm entries. VF at 3 mg kg-1 produced an impairment of novel-object recognition memory. In contrast, VF did not affect fear-related memory assessed in an inhibitory avoidance task. The results indicate that VF can have sedative effects and affect behavioral parameters related to recognition memory.

  19. Randomized Clinical Trial of Real-Time fMRI Amygdala Neurofeedback for Major Depressive Disorder: Effects on Symptoms and Autobiographical Memory Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Siegle, Greg J; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Misaki, Masaya; Yuan, Han; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2017-08-01

    Patients with depression show blunted amygdala hemodynamic activity to positive stimuli, including autobiographical memories. The authors examined the therapeutic efficacy of real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training aimed at increasing the amygdala's hemodynamic response to positive memories in patients with depression. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, unmedicated adults with depression (N=36) were randomly assigned to receive two sessions of rtfMRI-nf either from the amygdala (N=19) or from a parietal control region not involved in emotional processing (N=17). Clinical scores and autobiographical memory performance were assessed at baseline and 1 week after the final rtfMRI-nf session. The primary outcome measure was change in score on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the main analytic approach consisted of a linear mixed-model analysis. In participants in the experimental group, the hemodynamic response in the amygdala increased relative to their own baseline and to the control group. Twelve participants in the amygdala rtfMRI-nf group, compared with only two in the control group, had a >50% decrease in MADRS score. Six participants in the experimental group, compared with one in the control group, met conventional criteria for remission at study end, resulting in a number needed to treat of 4. In participants receiving amygdala rtfMRI-nf, the percent of positive specific memories recalled increased relative to baseline and to the control group. rtfMRI-nf training to increase the amygdala hemodynamic response to positive memories significantly decreased depressive symptoms and increased the percent of specific memories recalled on an autobiographical memory test. These data support a role of the amygdala in recovery from depression.

  20. Further differentiating item and order information in semantic memory: students' recall of words from the "CU Fight Song", Harry Potter book titles, and Scooby Doo theme song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F; Neath, Ian

    2017-01-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested for both order and item information in their semantic memory for the "CU Fight Song". Following an earlier study by Overstreet and Healy [(2011). Item and order information in semantic memory: Students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics. Memory & Cognition, 39, 251-259. doi: 10.3758/s13421-010-0018-3 ], a symmetrical bow-shaped serial position function (with both primacy and recency advantages) was found for reconstructing the order of the nine lines in the song, whereas a function with no primacy advantage was found for recalling a missing word from each line. This difference between order and item information was found even though students filled in missing words without any alternatives provided and missing words came from the beginning, middle, or end of each line. Similar results were found for CU students' recall of the sequence of Harry Potter book titles and the lyrics of the Scooby Doo theme song. These findings strengthen the claim that the pronounced serial position function in semantic memory occurs largely because of the retention of order, rather than item, information.

  1. The sexual aversion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, T L

    1985-01-01

    Sexual aversion is a widespread, poorly recognized syndrome occurring in both males and females. Once diagnosed, it is relatively resistant to conventional forms of therapy. Aversion is characterized by an unwillingness to get involved in sexual activity, with avoidance of any touching or communication that might lead to sexual involvement. This syndrome usually presents as a lack of libido, low sex drive, inhibited sexual desire or arousal dysfunction. Aversion may be seen along with other sexual dysfunctions, as a precipitating cause or as a consequence. However, aversion can also be the only dysfunction present. Once aversion is correctly diagnosed, identifying the type of aversion present is a prerequisite to appropriate therapy. Primary and secondary aversion are treated differently and have a different prognosis. This article describes the Sexual Aversion Syndrome, and distinguishes between primary and secondary aversion for the purpose of treatment and prognosis.

  2. Homologue of Protein Kinase Mζ Maintains Context Aversive Memory and Underlying Long-Term Facilitation in Terrestrial Snail Helix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel M. Balaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that a variety of long-term memories in different regions of the brain and in different species are quickly erased by local inhibition of PKMζ. Using antibodies to mammalian PKMζ, we describe in the present study the localization of immunoreactive molecules in the nervous system of the terrestrial snail Helix lucorum. Presence of a homologue of PKMζ was confirmed with transcriptomics. We have demonstrated in behavioral experiments that contextual fear memory disappeared under a blockade of PKMζ with a selective peptide blocker of PKMζ (ZIP, but not with scrambled ZIP. If ZIP was combined with a reminder (20 min in noxious context, no impairment of the long-term contextual memory was observed. In electrophysiological experiments we investigated whether PKMζ takes part in the maintenance of long-term facilitation (LTF in the neural circuit mediating tentacle withdrawal. LTF of excitatory synaptic inputs to premotor interneurons was induced by high-frequency nerve stimulation combined with serotonin bath applications and lasted at least four hours. We found that bath application of 2x10-6 M ZIP at the 90th min after the tetanization reduced the EPSP amplitude to the non-tetanized EPSP values. Applications of the scrambled ZIP peptide at a similar time and concentration didn't affect the EPSP amplitudes. In order to test whether effects of ZIP are specific to the synapses, we performed experiments with LTF of somatic membrane responses to local glutamate applications. It was shown earlier that serotonin application in such an artificial synapse condition elicits LTF of responses to glutamate. It was found that ZIP had no effect on LTF in these conditions, which may be explained by the very low concentration of PKMζ molecules in somata of these identified neurons, as evidenced by immunochemistry. Obtained results suggest that the Helix homologue of PKMζ might be involved in post-induction maintenance of long-term changes in

  3. How eye movements in EMDR work: changes in memory vividness and emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2014-09-01

    Eye movements (EM) during recall of an aversive memory is a treatment element unique to Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). Experimental studies have shown that EM reduce memory vividness and/or emotionality shortly after the intervention. However, it is unclear whether the immediate effects of the intervention reflect actual changes in memory. The aim of this study was to test whether immediate reductions in memory vividness and emotionality persist at a 24 h follow up and whether the magnitude of these effects is related to the duration of the intervention. Seventy-three undergraduates recalled two negative autobiographical memories, one with EM ("recall with EM") and one without ("recall only"). Half of participants recalled each memory for four periods of 24 s, the other half for eight periods of 24 s. Memory vividness/emotionality were self-rated at a pre-test, an immediate post-test, and a 24 h follow-up test. In both duration groups, recall with EM, but not recall only, caused an immediate decrease in memory vividness. There were no immediate reductions in memory emotionality. Furthermore, only the 'eight periods' group showed that recall with EM, but not recall only, caused a decrease in both memory emotionality and memory vividness from the pre-test to the follow-up. Only self-report measures were used. The findings suggest that recall with EM causes 24-h changes in memory vividness/emotionality, which may explain part of the EMDR treatment effect, and these effects are related to intervention duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do not respond! Doing the think/no-think and go/no-go task concurrently leads to memory impairment of unpleasant items during later recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eHerbert

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research using neuroimaging methods proposed a link between mechanisms controlling motor response inhibition and suppression of unwanted memories. The present study investigated this hypothesis behaviorally by combining the think-no-think paradigm (TNT with a go/no-go motor inhibition task. Participants first learned unpleasant cue-target pairs. Cue words were then presented as go or no-go items in the TNT. Participants’ task was to respond to the cues and think of the target word aloud or to inhibit their response to the cue and the target word from coming to mind. Cued recall assessed immediately after the TNT revealed reduced recall performance for no-go targets compared to go targets or baseline cues, not presented in the TNT. The results demonstrate that doing the no-think and no-go task concurrently leads to memory suppression of unpleasant items during later recall. Results are discussed in line with recent empirical research and theoretical positions.

  5. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  6. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC provides accessibility to recalls via a recall database. The information is publicly available to consumers and businesses as well as software and application...

  7. Genetics, sleep and memory: a recall-by-genotype study of ZNF804A variants and sleep neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmich, Charlotte; Durant, Claire; Jones, Matthew W; Timpson, Nicholas J; Bartsch, Ullrich; Corbin, Laura J

    2015-10-24

    Schizophrenia is a complex, polygenic disorder for which over 100 genetic variants have been identified that correlate with diagnosis. However, the biological mechanisms underpinning the different symptom clusters remain undefined. The rs1344706 single nucleotide polymorphism within ZNF804A was among the first genetic variants found to be associated with schizophrenia. Previously, neuroimaging and cognitive studies have revealed several associations between rs1344706 and brain structure and function. The aim of this study is to use a recall-by-genotype (RBG) design to investigate the biological basis for the association of ZNF804A variants with schizophrenia. A RBG study, implemented in a population cohort, will be used to evaluate the impact of genetic variation at rs1344706 on sleep neurophysiology and procedural memory consolidation in healthy participants. Participants will be recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) on the basis of genotype at rs1344706 (n = 24). Each participant will be asked to take part in two nights of in-depth sleep monitoring (polysomnography) allowing collection of neurophysiological sleep data in a manner not amenable to large-scale study. Sleep questionnaires will be used to assess general sleep quality and subjective sleep experience after each in-house recording. A motor sequencing task (MST) will be performed before and after the second night of polysomnography. In order to gather additional data about habitual sleep behaviour participants will be asked to wear a wrist worn activity monitor (actiwatch) and complete a sleep diary for two weeks. This study will explore the biological function of ZNF804A genotype (rs1344706) in healthy volunteers by examining detailed features of sleep architecture and physiology in relation to motor learning. Using a RBG approach will enable us to collect precise and detailed phenotypic data whilst achieving an informative biological gradient. It would not be

  8. Myopic loss aversion revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Blavatskyy, Pavlo; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we reexamine several experimental papers on myopic loss aversion by analyzing individual rather than aggregate choice patterns. We find that the behavior of the majority of subjects is inconsistent with the hypothesis of myopic loss aversion.

  9. Endocannabinoid-mediated improvement on a test of aversive memory in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mei; Zeidler, Zachary; Moulton, Kristen; Krych, Leland; Xia, Zengyan; Smith, Carolyn B

    2015-09-15

    Silencing the gene FMR1 in fragile X syndrome (FXS) with consequent loss of its protein product, FMRP, results in intellectual disability, hyperactivity, anxiety, seizure disorders, and autism-like behavior. In a mouse model (Fmr1 knockout (KO)) of FXS, a deficit in performance on the passive avoidance test of learning and memory is a robust phenotype. We report that drugs acting on the endocannabinoid (eCB) system can improve performance on this test. We present three lines of evidence: (1) Propofol (reported to inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity) administered 30 min after training on the passive avoidance test improved performance in Fmr1 KO mice but had no effect on wild type (WT). FAAH catalyzes the metabolism of the eCB, anandamide, so its inhibition should result in increased anandamide levels. (2) The effect of propofol was blocked by prior administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist AM-251. (3) Treatment with the FAAH inhibitor, URB-597, administered 30 min after training on the passive avoidance test also improved performance in Fmr1 KO mice but had no effect on WT. Our results indicate that the eCB system is involved in FXS and suggest that the eCB system is a promising target for treatment of FXS. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: Positional versus object-location recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been Studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while Studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  11. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: positional versus object-location recall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  12. The self-imagination effect: benefits of a self-referential encoding strategy on cued recall in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of oneself is preserved in many memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage. Therefore, cognitive strategies that capitalize on mechanisms related to the self may be particularly effective at enhancing memory in this population. The present study investigated the effect of "self-imagining," imagining an event from a personal perspective, on short and long delayed cued recall in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage. Sixteen patients intentionally encoded word pairs under four separate conditions: visual imagery, semantic elaboration, other person imagining, and self-imagining. The results revealed that self-imagining led to better performance than other-imagining, semantic elaboration, and visual imagery. Furthermore, the "self-imagination effect" (SIE) was preserved after a 30-min delay and was independent of memory functioning. These findings indicate that self-imagining provides a mnemonic advantage in brain-injured individuals, even those with relatively poor memory functioning, and suggest that self-imagining may tap into mnemonic mechanisms related to the self.

  13. Recall Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  14. The Magic Shrinking Machine Revisited: The Presence of Props at Recall Facilitates Memory in 3-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jonna J.; Kingo, Osman S.; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing…

  15. Effects of ¿9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Hell, van H.H.; Zuurman, L.; Jansma, J.M.; Mehta, M.A.; Gerven, van J.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in memory function are an incapacitating aspect of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Animal studies have recently provided strong evidence for involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in memory function. Neuropsychological studies in humans have shown less convincing

  16. Emotion causes targeted forgetting of established memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. Strange

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Reconsolidation postulates that reactivation of a memory trace renders it susceptible to disruption by treatments similar to those that impair initial memory consolidation. Despite evidence that implicit, or non-declarative, human memories can be disrupted at retrieval, a convincing demonstration of selective impairment in retrieval of target episodic memories following reactivation is lacking. In human subjects, we demonstrate that if reactivation of a verbal memory, through successful retrieval, is immediately followed by an emotionally aversive stimulus, a significant impairment is evident in its later recall. This effect is time-dependent and persists for at least six days. Thus, in line with a reconsolidation hypothesis, established human episodic memories can be selectively impaired following their retrieval.

  17. Do emotional stimuli enhance or impede recall relative to neutral stimuli? An investigation of two "false memory" tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monds, Lauren A; Paterson, Helen M; Kemp, Richard I

    2017-09-01

    Many eyewitness memory situations involve negative and distressing events; however, many studies investigating "false memory" phenomena use neutral stimuli only. The aim of the present study was to determine how both the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and the Misinformation Effect Paradigm tasks were related to each other using distressing and neutral stimuli. Participants completed the DRM (with negative and neutral word lists) and viewed a distressing or neutral film. Misinformation for the film was introduced and memory was assessed. Film accuracy and misinformation susceptibility were found to be greater for those who viewed the distressing film relative to the neutral film. Accuracy responses on both tasks were related, however, susceptibility to the DRM illusion and Misinformation Effect were not. The misinformation findings support the Paradoxical Negative Emotion (PNE) hypothesis that negative stimuli will lead to remembering more accurate details but also greater likelihood of memory distortion. However, the PNE hypothesis was not supported for the DRM results. The findings also suggest that the DRM and Misinformation tasks are not equivalent and may have differences in underlying mechanisms. Future research should focus on more ecologically valid methods of assessing false memory.

  18. Developmental changes in consistency of autobiographical memories: adolescents' and young adults' repeated recall of recent and distance events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkina, Marina; Merrill, Natalie A; Bauer, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memories contribute continuity and stability to one's self yet they also are subject to change: they can be forgotten or be inconsistently remembered and reported. In the present research, we compared the consistency of two reports of recent and distant personal events in adolescents (12- to 14-year-olds) and young adults (18- to 23-year-olds). In line with expectations of greater mnemonic consistency among young adults relative to adolescents, adolescents reported the same events 80% of the time compared with 90% consistency among young adults; the significant difference disappeared after taking into consideration narrative characteristics of individual memories. Neither age group showed high levels of content consistency (30% vs. 36%); young adults were more consistent than adolescents even after controlling for other potential predictors of content consistency. Adolescents and young adults did not differ in consistency of estimating when their past experiences occurred. Multilevel modelling indicated that the level of thematic coherence of the initial memory report and ratings of event valence significantly predicted memory consistency at the level of the event. Thematic coherence was a significant negative predictor of content consistency. The findings suggest a developmental progression in the robustness and stability of personal memories between adolescence and young adulthood.

  19. The Relation of Hypertension to Performance in Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall and Working Memory in Old Age: The Role of Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Machado, Floramara T; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the relation of hypertension to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. We assessed tests of immediate and delayed cued recall and working memory in 701 older adults. We measured systolic blood pressure and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Hypertension (≥140 mmHg) was related to lower performance in all three cognitive measures. Moderation analyses suggested that these relations were reduced in individuals with greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that hypertension was not related to any of the three investigated cognitive performance measures when education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity were simultaneously taken into account. The detrimental influences of hypertension on cognitive functioning in old age may be reduced in individuals with greater cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course.

  20. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults: The Role of Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. A critically low HDL-C level (cognitive level of the job, and greater engagement in cognitive leisure activity. Cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course may reduce the detrimental influences of a critically low HDL-C level on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi vaccine candidate antigens Tc24 and TSA-1 recall memory immune response associated with HLA-A and -B supertypes in Chagasic chronic patients from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Lizama, Liliana E; Cruz-Chan, Julio V; Aguilar-Cetina, Amarú Del C; Herrera-Sanchez, Luis F; Rodriguez-Perez, Jose M; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel E; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria J; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Jones, Kathryn; Hotez, Peter; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi antigens TSA-1 and Tc24 have shown promise as vaccine candidates in animal studies. We evaluated here the recall immune response these antigens induce in Chagasic patients, as a first step to test their immunogenicity in humans. We evaluated the in vitro cellular immune response after stimulation with recombinant TSA-1 (rTSA-1) or recombinant Tc24 (rTc24) in mononuclear cells of asymptomatic Chagasic chronic patients (n = 20) compared to healthy volunteers (n = 19) from Yucatan, Mexico. Proliferation assays, intracellular cytokine staining, cytometric bead arrays, and memory T cell immunophenotyping were performed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Chagasic patients showed significant proliferation after stimulation with rTc24 and presented a phenotype of T effector memory cells (CD45RA-CCR7-). These cells also produced IFN-γ and, to a lesser extent IL10, after stimulation with rTSA-1 and rTc24 proteins. Overall, both antigens recalled a broad immune response in some Chagasic patients, confirming that their immune system had been primed against these antigens during natural infection. Analysis of HLA-A and HLA-B allele diversity by PCR-sequencing indicated that HLA-A03 and HLA-B07 were the most frequent supertypes in this Mexican population. Also, there was a significant difference in the frequency of HLA-A01 and HLA-A02 supertypes between Chagasic patients and controls, while the other alleles were evenly distributed. Some aspects of the immune response, such as antigen-induced IFN-γ production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD8+ proliferation, showed significant association with specific HLA-A supertypes, depending on the antigen considered. In conclusion, our results confirm the ability of both TSA-1 and Tc24 recombinant proteins to recall an immune response induced by the native antigens during natural infection in at least some patients. Our data support the further development of these antigens as therapeutic

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi vaccine candidate antigens Tc24 and TSA-1 recall memory immune response associated with HLA-A and -B supertypes in Chagasic chronic patients from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana E Villanueva-Lizama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi antigens TSA-1 and Tc24 have shown promise as vaccine candidates in animal studies. We evaluated here the recall immune response these antigens induce in Chagasic patients, as a first step to test their immunogenicity in humans. We evaluated the in vitro cellular immune response after stimulation with recombinant TSA-1 (rTSA-1 or recombinant Tc24 (rTc24 in mononuclear cells of asymptomatic Chagasic chronic patients (n = 20 compared to healthy volunteers (n = 19 from Yucatan, Mexico. Proliferation assays, intracellular cytokine staining, cytometric bead arrays, and memory T cell immunophenotyping were performed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from Chagasic patients showed significant proliferation after stimulation with rTc24 and presented a phenotype of T effector memory cells (CD45RA-CCR7-. These cells also produced IFN-γ and, to a lesser extent IL10, after stimulation with rTSA-1 and rTc24 proteins. Overall, both antigens recalled a broad immune response in some Chagasic patients, confirming that their immune system had been primed against these antigens during natural infection. Analysis of HLA-A and HLA-B allele diversity by PCR-sequencing indicated that HLA-A03 and HLA-B07 were the most frequent supertypes in this Mexican population. Also, there was a significant difference in the frequency of HLA-A01 and HLA-A02 supertypes between Chagasic patients and controls, while the other alleles were evenly distributed. Some aspects of the immune response, such as antigen-induced IFN-γ production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD8+ proliferation, showed significant association with specific HLA-A supertypes, depending on the antigen considered. In conclusion, our results confirm the ability of both TSA-1 and Tc24 recombinant proteins to recall an immune response induced by the native antigens during natural infection in at least some patients. Our data support the further development of these antigens as

  4. Requirement of the Combination of Mushroom Body ? Lobe and a/ß Lobes for the Retrieval of Both Aversive and Appetitive Early Memories in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Cheng; Ci, Bo; Lianzhang, Wang; Zhong, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Extensive studies of "Drosophila" mushroom body in formation and retrieval of olfactory memories allow us to delineate the functional logic for memory storage and retrieval. Currently, there is a questionable disassociation of circuits for memory storage and retrieval during "Drosophila" olfactory memory processing. Formation…

  5. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Do...

  6. Cross-modal and intra-modal binding between identity and location in spatial working memory: The identity of objects does not help recalling their locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gatto, Claudia; Brunetti, Riccardo; Delogu, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In this study we tested incidental feature-to-location binding in a spatial task, both in unimodal and cross-modal conditions. In Experiment 1 we administered a computerised version of the Corsi Block-Tapping Task (CBTT) in three different conditions: the first one analogous to the original CBTT test; the second one in which locations were associated with unfamiliar images; the third one in which locations were associated with non-verbal sounds. Results showed no effect on performance by the addition of identity information. In Experiment 2, locations on the screen were associated with pitched sounds in two different conditions: one in which different pitches were randomly associated with locations and the other in which pitches were assigned to match the vertical position of the CBTT squares congruently with their frequencies. In Experiment 2 we found marginal evidence of a pitch facilitation effect in the spatial memory task. We ran a third experiment to test the same conditions of Experiment 2 with a within-subject design. Results of Experiment 3 did not confirm the pitch-location facilitation effect. We concluded that the identity of objects does not affect recalling their locations. We discuss our results within the framework of the debate about the mechanisms of "what" and "where" feature binding in working memory.

  7. [Magneto-encephalographic (MEG) brain recordings during traumatic memory recall in women with post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottraux, J; Lecaignard, F; Yao, S-N; De Mey-Guillard, C; Haour, F; Delpuech, C; Servan-Schreiber, D

    2015-06-01

    of only female patients with milder dissociative symptoms limit our conclusions. The MEG protocol we used may also explain some partial discrepancies with previous MEG studies. However, our aim was to provoke a specific autobiographic recall of a traumatic event unfolding several sequential mental images along three minutes as in exposure therapy for PTSD. Despite its limitations, this pilot study is the first to provide MEG data during trauma recall. It suggests that recalling a specific traumatic event along three minutes results in hypo-activations of the brain regions regulating language and emotions. This paves the way to recording whole sessions of specific therapies for PTSD, with MEG using the millisecond resolution. MEG might be of interest to study the suppression of traumatic memories and their activation and habituation through prolonged graduated exposure in imagination across several sessions. MEG could also be used to study the effects of medication on PTSD symptoms. A controlled replication in a larger sample including male and female patients with various traumatic experiences is needed. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamagishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Results: Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Conclusion: The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients’ memory impairments in daily living.

  9. Multimodal assessment of long-term memory recall and reinstatement in a combined cue and context fear conditioning and extinction paradigm in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Haaker

    Full Text Available Learning to predict danger via associative learning processes is critical for adaptive behaviour. After successful extinction, persisting fear memories often emerge as returning fear. Investigation of return of fear phenomena, e.g. reinstatement, have only recently began and to date, many critical questions with respect to reinstatement in human populations remain unresolved. Few studies have separated experimental phases in time even though increasing evidence shows that allowing for passage of time (and consolidation between experimental phases has a major impact on the results. In addition, studies have relied on a single psychophysiological dimension only (SCRs/SCL or FPS which hampers comparability between different studies that showed both differential or generalized return of fear following a reinstatement manipulation. In 93 participants, we used a multimodal approach (fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance responses, fear ratings to asses fear conditioning (day 1, extinction (day 2 as well as delayed memory recall and reinstatement (day 8 in a paradigm that probed contextual and cued fear intra-individually. Our findings show persistence of conditioning and extinction memory over time and demonstrate that reinstated fear responses were qualitatively different between dependent variables (subjective fear ratings, FPS, SCRs as well as between cued and contextual CSs. While only the arousal-related measurement (SCRs showed increasing reactions following reinstatement to the cued CSs, no evidence of reinstatement was observed for the subjective ratings and fear-related measurement (FPS. In contrast, for contextual CSs, reinstatement was evident as differential and generalized reinstatement in fear ratings as well as generally elevated physiological fear (FPS and arousal (SCRs related measurements to all contextual CSs (generalized non-differential reinstatement. Returning fear after reinstatement likely depends on a variety of variables

  10. MOOD AND MEMORIES OF PARENTAL REARING STYLES - A COMPARISON OF MOOD EFFECTS ON QUESTIONNAIRE-CUED AND FREE-RECALL OF AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERLSMA, C; MOSTERMAN, [No Value; BUWALDA, S; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between memories of childhood experiences (e.g., adverse parenting) and adult depression often found raises questions of interpretation. On the one hand, both laboratory studies and clinicians' experiences suggest that subjects in a depressed mood frequently show a negative bias in

  11. Reminiscence Spike in Reading Recall between the Ages of 8-11: The Influence of Early Memories on Attitudes and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Margaret; O'Toole, J. Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into the recalled reading of 31 environmental educators has uncovered a potential link between early reading and pro-environmental attitudes. The recalled books are not only from the recognised "reminiscence bump" of adolescence and early adulthood, but there also appears to be a spike in recall of books within the…

  12. C-type allatostatins mimic stress-related effects of alarm pheromone on honey bee learning and memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Elodie; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Mercer, Alison R

    2017-01-01

    As honey bee populations worldwide are declining there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of stress reactivity in these important insects. Our data indicate that stress responses in bees (Apis mellifera L.) may be mediated by neuropeptides identified, on the basis of sequence similarities, as allatostatins (ASTA, ASTC and ASTCC). Effects of allatostatin injection are compared with stress-related changes in learning performance induced by the honeybee alarm pheromone, isopentylacetate (IPA). We find that bees can exhibit two markedly different responses to IPA, with opposing effects on learning behaviour and memory generalisation, and that strikingly similar responses can be elicited by allatostatins, in particular ASTCC. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that allatostatins mediate stress reactivity in honey bees and suggest responses to stress in these insects are state dependent.

  13. Loss aversion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Brady, Melissa; Saccente, Erica; Moreno, Alexis; Epstein, Henry; Citrome, Leslie; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    Loss aversion in decision-making refers to a higher sensitivity to losses than to gains. Loss aversion is conceived as an affective interference in cognitive processes such as judgment and decision-making. Loss aversion in non-risky choices has not been studied in schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 42 non-patient control subjects, matched by gender and age, were randomized to two different scenarios (a buying scenario and a selling scenario). Subjects were asked to evaluate the price of a decorated mug. Schizophrenia subjects were re-tested four weeks later with the other scenario. Contrary to non-patient controls, schizophrenia subjects did not show loss aversion. In the schizophrenia group, absence of loss aversion was correlated with age, duration of illness, number of months in State hospitals, and poorer performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, but not with current psychopathology and two domains of emotional experience. Absence of loss aversion in schizophrenia represents a deficit in the processing of emotional information during decision-making. It can be interpreted as a lack of integration between the emotional and the cognitive systems, or to a more diffuse and de-differentiated impact of emotional information on decision-making. Future studies should bring more clarity to this question.

  14. Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihisa eMatsumoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies.

  15. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abildgaard Steffensen

    Full Text Available Adenoviral vectors have shown a great potential for vaccine development due to their inherent ability to induce potent and protective CD8 T-cell responses. However, a critical issue regarding the use of these vectors is the existence of inhibitory immunity against the most commonly used Ad5 vector in a large part of the human population. We have recently developed an improved adenoviral vaccine vector system in which the vector expresses the transgene tethered to the MHC class II associated invariant chain (Ii. To further evaluate the potential of this system, the concept of pre-existing inhibitory immunity to adenoviral vectors was revisited to investigate whether the inhibition previously seen with the Ad5 vector also applied to the optimized vector system. We found this to be the case, and antibodies dominated as the mechanism underlying inhibitory vector immunity. However, presence of CD8 T cells directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity.

  16. CpG-ODN Facilitates Effective Intratracheal Immunization and Recall of Memory against Neoantigen-Expressing Alveolar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Riehn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrapulmonary immune reactions are impaired by the tolerogenic environment of the lung. This is manifested by the absence of effective endogenous T cell responses upon neoantigen expression. This tolerance is considered to contribute to lung cancer and inefficient immune therapeutic interventions. To investigate the mechanisms contributing to lung tolerance and to overcome these restrictions, we developed a transgenic mouse model with induction of a neoantigen (OVA exclusively in alveolar type II epithelial cells. This model is characterized by the absence of functional endogenous T cell responses upon OVA neoantigen induction. Standard DNA and protein vaccination protocols resulted in the accumulation of high numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells in the lung. However, clearance of antigen-expressing cells was not achieved. To overcome this tolerance, we induced inflammatory conditions by coapplication of the TLR ligands LPS and CpG-ODN during intrapulmonary vaccinations. Both ligands induced high numbers of neoantigen-specific T cells in the lung. However, only coapplication of CpG-ODN was sufficient to establish functional cytotoxic responses resulting in the elimination of neoantigen presenting target cells. Remarkably, CpG-ODN was also crucial for functional memory responses upon re-induction of the neoantigen. The results highlight the need of TLR9 co-stimulation for overcoming tolerization, which might be a key factor for therapeutic interventions.

  17. Subjective Organization Calculator for Free Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Senkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The free recall measure has an advantage over other memory measures because the free recall measure can provide organization measures, which can reveal the strategies participants used to maximize recall. For instance, even when a study list does not show a clear organizational scheme, recall outputs are often far from random, evidenced by participants recalling the same two or more items together repeatedly across multiple test trials. Unfortunately, computing organizational measures is laborious. The present article introduces a calculator to compute subjective organization (SO measures. The calculator is based on a popular platform accessible to most researchers and is designed to compute commonly used SO measures for each participant.

  18. Exploring expectation effects in EMDR: does prior treatment knowledge affect the degrading effects of eye movements on memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littel, Marianne; van Schie, Kevin; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective psychological treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Recalling a memory while simultaneously making eye movements (EM) decreases a memory’s vividness and/or emotionality. It has been argued that non-specific factors, such as treatment expectancy and experimental demand, may contribute to the EMDR’s effectiveness. Objective: The present study was designed to test whether expectations about the working mechanism of EMDR would alter the memory attenuating effects of EM. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of pre-existing (non-manipulated) knowledge of EMDR in participants with and without prior knowledge. In Experiment 2, we experimentally manipulated prior knowledge by providing participants without prior knowledge with correct or incorrect information about EMDR’s working mechanism. Method: Participants in both experiments recalled two aversive, autobiographical memories during brief sets of EM (Recall+EM) or keeping eyes stationary (Recall Only). Before and after the intervention, participants scored their memories on vividness and emotionality. A Bayesian approach was used to compare two competing hypotheses on the effects of (existing/given) prior knowledge: (1) Prior (correct) knowledge increases the effects of Recall+EM vs. Recall Only, vs. (2) prior knowledge does not affect the effects of Recall+EM. Results: Recall+EM caused greater reductions in memory vividness and emotionality than Recall Only in all groups, including the incorrect information group. In Experiment 1, both hypotheses were supported by the data: prior knowledge boosted the effects of EM, but only modestly. In Experiment 2, the second hypothesis was clearly supported over the first: providing knowledge of the underlying mechanism of EMDR did not alter the effects of EM. Conclusions: Recall+EM appears to be quite robust against the effects of prior

  19. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...... aversion with respect to travel time and money, and find significant loss aversion in both dimensions. The degree of loss aversion in the time dimension is larger than in the money dimension, and depends on age and education. Subjects tend to be more loss averse when the reference is well established....

  20. [Neuronal mechanisms of associative food aversion conditioning reconsolidation in snail Helix lucorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

    2009-06-01

    We have previously showed that reactivation of long-term memory during protin synthesis inhibitor application initiated disruption of memory recalling in snails Helix lucorum with food aversion conditioning reflex. In present work cellular mechanisms of memory reactivation were studied in snail LP11 and RP11 command neurons of defense behavior. In first trial experiments mechanisms of amnesia induction were investigated in semiintact preparations 24 hours after aversion conditioning with single type of food. It was found that application of conditioned food stimulus on snail lip during CNS perfusion with cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor) initiated depression of synaptic response evoked by conditioned stimulus 2.5 hours after reminding. In second tria experiments neuronal mechanisms of amnesia development were studied. Snails were conditioned with two types of food. Cycloheximide was injected into mantle cavity and conditioned stimulus of one type of food was presented 24 hours after snail learning. Semiintact preparations were prepared 1,3, 7 and 15 days after cycloheximide injection + reminding procedure. It was found that neural responses evoked by conditioned food stimulus which was used as reminding stimulus gradually decreased during 1, 3 and 7 days. Neural responses evoked by the conditioned stimulus at 7 and 15 days were not significantly differed from control differentiated food stimulus and were significantly weaker then neural responses evoked by second conditioned food stimulus which was not used as a reminding stimulus. It was suggested that specific and protein synthesis-dependent changes in synaptic connections effectiveness in LP11 and RP11 neurons is one of the cellular mechanisms of amnesia obtained after disruption of long-term memory reconsolidation in snail.

  1. Learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight learning, learning-set learning and instinct. The term memory must include at least two separate processes. It must involve, on the one hand, that of learning something and on the other, at some later date, recalling that thing. What lies between the learning and (he remembering must be some permanent record — a memory trace — within the brain. Memory exists in at least two forms: memory for very recent events (short-term which is relatively labile and easily disruptable; and long-term memory, which is much more stable. Not everything that gets into short-term memory becomes fixed in the long-term store; a filtering mechanism selects things that might be important and discards the rest.

  2. Juvenile Hormone Enhances Aversive Learning Performance in 2-Day Old Worker Honey Bees while Reducing Their Attraction to Queen Mandibular Pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees’ attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP’s effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

  3. Juvenile hormone enhances aversive learning performance in 2-day old worker honey bees while reducing their attraction to queen mandibular pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H James McQuillan

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees' attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost. Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer. Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP's effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees.

  4. Loss Aversion in the Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, William G.; Oxoby, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a laboratory experiment testing for the existence of loss aversion in a standard risk aversion protocol (Holt and Laury, 2002). In our experiment, participants earn and retain money for a week before using it in an incentivized risk preference elicitation task. We find loss aversion, distinct from risk aversion, has a significant effect on behavior resulting in participants requiring higher compensation to bear risk.

  5. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the serial nature of recall and the effect of test expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR), using a within-subjects (Experiment 1) and a between-subjects (Experiment 2) design. In both experiments, participants read aloud lists of eight words and were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR. The serial position curves were U-shaped for free recall and showed extended primacy effects with little or no recency for ISR, and there was little or no difference between recall for the precued and the postcued conditions. Critically, analyses of the output order showed that although the participants started their recall from different list positions in the two tasks, the degree to which subsequent recall was serial in a forward order was strikingly similar. We argue that recalling in a serial forward order is a general characteristic of memory and that performance on ISR and free recall is underpinned by common memory mechanisms.

  6. B Cells and Programmed Death-Ligand 2 Signaling Are Required for Maximal Interferon-γ Recall Response by Splenic CD4⁺ Memory T Cells of Mice Vaccinated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomi, Antonella; Palma, Carla

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells producing interferon-γ are crucial for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and are the cornerstone of tuberculosis vaccination and immunological diagnostic assays. Since emerging evidence indicates that B cells can modulate T cell responses to M. tuberculosis infection, we investigated the contribution of B cells in regulating interferon-γ recall response by memory Thelper1 cells specific for Ag85B, a leading candidate for tuberculosis sub-unit vaccines. We found that B cells were able to maximize the reactivation of CD4+ memory T cells and the interferon-γ response against ex vivo antigen recall in spleens of mice vaccinated with Ag85B. B cell-mediated increase of interferon-γ response was particular evident for high interferon-γ producer CD4+ memory T cells, likely because those T cells were required for triggering and amplification of B cell activation. A positive-feedback loop of mutual activation between B cells, not necessarily antigen-experienced but with integral phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway and a peculiar interferon-γ-producing CD4highT cell subset was established. Programed death-ligand 2 (PD-L2), expressed both on B and the highly activated CD4high T cells, contributed to the increase of interferon-γ recall response through a PD1-independent pathway. In B cell-deficient mice, interferon-γ production and activation of Ag85B-specific CD4+ T cells were blunted against ex vivo antigen recall but these responses could be restored by adding B cells. On the other hand, B cells appeared to down-regulate interleukin-22 recall response. Our data point out that nature of antigen presenting cells determines quality and size of T cell cytokine recall responses. Thus, antigen presenting cells, including B cells, deserve to be considered for a better prediction of cytokine responses by peripheral memory T cells specific for M. tuberculosis antigens. We also invite to consider B cells, PD-L2 and PI3K as potential

  7. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Köbberling (Veronika); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic

  8. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köbberling, V.; Wakker, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    To a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic utility,

  9. Auditory and Visual Memories in PTSD Patients Targeted with Eye Movements and Counting: The Effect of Modality-Specific Loading of Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy J. M. A. Matthijssen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy is an evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. A key element of this therapy is simultaneously recalling an emotionally disturbing memory and performing a dual task that loads working memory. Memories targeted with this therapy are mainly visual, though there is some evidence that auditory memories can also be targeted.Objective: The present study tested whether auditory memories can be targeted with EMDR in PTSD patients. A second objective was to test whether taxing the patient (performing a dual task while recalling a memory in a modality specific way (auditory demanding for auditory memories and visually demanding for visual memories was more effective in reducing the emotionality experienced than taxing in cross-modality.Methods: Thirty-six patients diagnosed with PTSD were asked to recall two disturbing memories, one mainly visual, the other one mainly auditory. They rated the emotionality of the memories before being exposed to any condition. Both memories were then recalled under three alternating conditions [visual taxation, auditory taxation, and a control condition (CC, which comprised staring a non-moving dot] – counterbalanced in order – and patients rerated emotionality after each condition.Results: All three conditions were equally effective in reducing the emotionality of the auditory memory. Auditory loading was more effective in reducing the emotionality in the visual intrusion than the CC, but did not differ from the visual load.Conclusion: Auditory and visual aversive memories were less emotional after working memory taxation (WMT. This has some clinical implications for EMDR therapy, where mainly visual intrusions are targeted. In this study, there was no benefit of modality specificity. Further fundamental research should be conducted to specify the best protocol for WMT.

  10. Auditory and Visual Memories in PTSD Patients Targeted with Eye Movements and Counting: The Effect of Modality-Specific Loading of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthijssen, Suzy J M A; Verhoeven, Liselotte C M; van den Hout, Marcel A; Heitland, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A key element of this therapy is simultaneously recalling an emotionally disturbing memory and performing a dual task that loads working memory. Memories targeted with this therapy are mainly visual, though there is some evidence that auditory memories can also be targeted. Objective: The present study tested whether auditory memories can be targeted with EMDR in PTSD patients. A second objective was to test whether taxing the patient (performing a dual task while recalling a memory) in a modality specific way (auditory demanding for auditory memories and visually demanding for visual memories) was more effective in reducing the emotionality experienced than taxing in cross-modality. Methods: Thirty-six patients diagnosed with PTSD were asked to recall two disturbing memories, one mainly visual, the other one mainly auditory. They rated the emotionality of the memories before being exposed to any condition. Both memories were then recalled under three alternating conditions [visual taxation, auditory taxation, and a control condition (CC), which comprised staring a non-moving dot] - counterbalanced in order - and patients rerated emotionality after each condition. Results: All three conditions were equally effective in reducing the emotionality of the auditory memory. Auditory loading was more effective in reducing the emotionality in the visual intrusion than the CC, but did not differ from the visual load. Conclusion: Auditory and visual aversive memories were less emotional after working memory taxation (WMT). This has some clinical implications for EMDR therapy, where mainly visual intrusions are targeted. In this study, there was no benefit of modality specificity. Further fundamental research should be conducted to specify the best protocol for WMT.

  11. Inducible deletion of CD28 prior to secondary nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection impairs worm expulsion and recall of protective memory CD4⁺ T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlumani Ndlovu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IL-13 driven Th2 immunity is indispensable for host protection against infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostronglus brasiliensis. Disruption of CD28 mediated costimulation impairs development of adequate Th2 immunity, showing an importance for CD28 during the initiation of an immune response against this pathogen. In this study, we used global CD28⁻/⁻ mice and a recently established mouse model that allows for inducible deletion of the cd28 gene by oral administration of tamoxifen (CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻+TM to resolve the controversy surrounding the requirement of CD28 costimulation for recall of protective memory responses against pathogenic infections. Following primary infection with N. brasiliensis, CD28⁻/⁻ mice had delayed expulsion of adult worms in the small intestine compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice that cleared the infection by day 9 post-infection. Delayed expulsion was associated with reduced production of IL-13 and reduced serum levels of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE. Interestingly, abrogation of CD28 costimulation in CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice by oral administration of tamoxifen prior to secondary infection with N. brasiliensis resulted in impaired worm expulsion, similarly to infected CD28⁻/⁻ mice. This was associated with reduced production of the Th2 cytokines IL-13 and IL-4, diminished serum titres of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE and a reduced CXCR5⁺ T(FH cell population. Furthermore, total number of CD4⁺ T cells and B220⁺ B cells secreting Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly reduced in CD28⁻/⁻ mice and tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. Importantly, interfering with CD28 costimulatory signalling before re-infection impaired the recruitment and/or expansion of central and effector memory CD4⁺ T cells and follicular B cells to the draining lymph node of tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that CD28

  12. Risk Aversion and Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Y.; Noussair, C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We consider the relationship between emotions and decision-making under risk. Specifically, we examine the emotional correlates of risk-averse decisions. In our experiment, individuals' facial expressions are monitored with facereading software, as they are presented with risky lotteries.

  13. Risk aversion and emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.Y.; Noussair, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the relationship between emotions and decision-making under risk. Specifically, we examine the emotional correlates of risk-averse decisions. In our experiment, individuals’ facial expressions are monitored with face reading software, as they are presented with risky lotteries. We then

  14. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  15. Reward and Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailan

    2016-07-08

    To benefit from opportunities and cope with challenges in the environment, animals must adapt their behavior to acquire rewards and to avoid punishments. Maladaptive changes in the neuromodulatory systems and neural circuits for reward and aversion can lead to manifestation of several prominent psychiatric disorders including addiction and depression. Recent progress is pushing the boundaries of knowledge on two major fronts in research on reward and aversion: First, new layers of complexity have been reported on the functions of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neuromodulatory systems in reward and aversion. Second, specific circuit components in the neural pathways that encode reward and aversion have begun to be identified. This review aims to outline historic perspectives and new insights into the functions of DA and 5-HT systems in coding the distinct components of rewards. It also highlights recent advances in neural circuit studies enabled by new technologies, such as cell-type-specific electrophysiology and tracing, and optogenetics-based behavioral manipulation. This knowledge may provide guidance for developing novel treatment strategies for neuropsychiatric diseases related to the malfunction of the reward system.

  16. Individual Differences in Eyewitness Recall Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, James D.; Herringer, Lawrence G.

    1991-01-01

    Presents study results comparing college students' self-evaluation of recall accuracy to actual recall of detail after viewing a crime scenario. Reports that self-reported ability to remember detail correlates with accuracy in memory of specifics. Concludes that people may have a good indication early in the eyewitness situation of whether they…

  17. An fMRI investigation of the cognitive reappraisal of negative memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval can be influenced by individuals’ current goals, including those that are emotional in nature. Participants underwent an fMRI scan while reappraising, or changing the way they thought about aversive images they had previously encoded, to down-regulate (i.e., decrease), up-regulate (i.e., increase), or maintain the emotional intensity associated with their recall. A conjunction analysis between down- and up-regulation during the entire 12-sec recall period revealed that both commonly activated reappraisal-related regions, particularly in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, when we analyzed a reappraisal instruction phase prior to recall and then divided the recall phase into the time when individuals were first searching for their memories and later elaborating on their details, we found that down- and up-regulation engaged greater neural activity at different time points. Up-regulation engaged greater PFC activity than down-regulation or maintenance during the reappraisal instruction phase. In contrast, down-regulation engaged greater lateral PFC activity as images were being searched for and retrieved. Maintaining the emotional intensity associated with the aversive images engaged similar regions to a greater extent than either reappraisal condition as participants elaborated on the details of the images they were holding in mind. Our findings suggest that down- and up-regulation engage similar neural regions during memory retrieval, but differ in the timing of this engagement. PMID:23500898

  18. Recalling Memories Through Reminiscence Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Gürgens Gjærum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study how a reminiscence theatre production develops dramaturgically, and to discuss what impact it has on the participants who take part in the project “The aged as a resource”. The theatre performance Number Our Days is visually and verbally presented and interpreted in this article. The reader also gets an opportunity to look at film extracts from the performance in electronic form. The theoretical framing is based on a performative mindset, Ryum’s dramaturgic model, Ranciere’s view on the emancipated spectator, Turner and Behrndt’s devising theatre universe, Saldana’s ethnodrama method and Ricoeur’s perspective of the capable and relational human being who builds their own narrative identity through communication.

  19. Understanding Loan Aversion in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boatman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has suggested that some students may be averse to taking out loans to finance their college education, there is little empirical evidence showing the extent to which loan aversion exists or how it affects different populations of students. This study provides the first large-scale quantitative evidence of levels of loan aversion in the United States. Using survey data collected on more than 6,000 individuals, we examine the frequency of loan aversion in three distinct populations. Depending on the measure, between 20 and 40% of high school seniors exhibit loan aversion with lower rates among community college students and adults not in college. Women are less likely to express loan-averse attitudes than men, and Hispanic respondents are more likely to be loan averse than White respondents.

  20. Food odor, visual danger stimulus, and retrieval of an aversive memory trigger heat shock protein HSP70 expression in the olfactory lobe of the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, L; Dimant, B; Suárez, L D; Portiansky, E L; Delorenzi, A

    2012-01-10

    Although some of the neuronal substrates that support memory process have been shown in optic ganglia, the brain areas activated by memory process are still unknown in crustaceans. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are synthesized in the CNS not only in response to traumas but also after changes in metabolic activity triggered by the processing of different types of sensory information. Indeed, the expression of citosolic/nuclear forms of HSP70 (HSC/HSP70) has been repeatedly used as a marker for increases in neural metabolic activity in several processes, including psychophysiological stress, fear conditioning, and spatial learning in vertebrates. Previously, we have shown that, in the crab Chasmagnathus, two different environmental challenges, water deprivation and heat shock, trigger a rise in the number of glomeruli of the olfactory lobes (OLs) expressing HSC/HSP70. In this study, we initially performed a morphometric analysis and identified a total of 154 glomeruli in each OL of Chasmagnathus. Here, we found that crabs exposed to food odor stimuli also showed a significant rise in the number of olfactory glomeruli expressing HSC/HSP70. In the crab Chasmagnathus, a powerful memory paradigm based on a change in its defensive strategy against a visual danger stimulus (VDS) has been extensively studied. Remarkably, the iterative presentation of a VDS caused an increase as well. This increase was triggered in animals visually stimulated using protocols that either build up a long-term memory or generate only short-term habituation. Besides, memory reactivation was sufficient to trigger the increase in HSC/HSP70 expression in the OL. Present and previous results strongly suggest that, directly or indirectly, an increase in arousal is a sufficient condition to bring about an increase in HSC/HSP70 expression in the OL of Chasmagnathus. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Neurochemical mechanisms of food aversion conditioning consolidation in snail Helix lucorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, v P

    2008-11-01

    Effects of cycloheximide, protein synthesis inhibitors, as well as serotonin receptor antagonist and NMDA receptor antagonist on food aversion conditioning consolidation were studied in snail Helix lucorum. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after application of cycloheximide. Repeated produced no food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails without cycloheximide application. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after applications of metiotepin, nonselective serotonin receptors antagonist, or after MK-801, NMDA glutamate receptors antagonist. At the same time, repeated training produced facilitated food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails. Our experiments were the first which showed that effect on different molecular mechanisms evoked reversible or irreversible disruption of long-term memory consolidation during the same learning. It was suggested that suppression of retrieval produced reversible effect, whereas disruption of memory storage initiated irreversible effect on long-term memory consolidation.

  2. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  3. Appetitive and aversive visual learning in freely moving Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schnaitmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.

  4. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Buchman, Aron S; Laibson, David I; Bennett, David A

    2011-09-11

    Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE) = 0.39, p aversion. Thus, a lower level of global cognitive function and female sex were associated with greater risk aversion. Moreover, performance on four out of the five cognitive domains was negatively related to risk aversion (i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed); performance on visuospatial abilities was not. A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater risk

  5. Autobiographical memories of vomiting in people with a specific phobia of vomiting (emetophobia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Murphy, Philip; Ellison, Nell; Kanakam, Natalie; Costa, Ana

    2013-03-01

    Vomiting is an almost universal phenomenon, but little is known about the aetiology of a specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV). The associations with vomiting during childhood and autobiographical memories may have relevance for our understanding of the development of SPOV and its treatment. Two groups: (a) a group with SPOV (n = 94) and (b) a control group (n = 90) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing their lifetime memories of both their own vomiting and others vomiting. People with SPOV recalled the memories of their own and others vomiting experiences from an earlier age and rated them as significantly more distressing than the control group. There was no difference between the groups in the number of memories of their own vomiting recalled before the age at which vomiting became a problem. However, the SPOV group recalled more memories of others vomiting before the onset of the problem. After the age at which the phobia became a problem they recalled less memories of their own vomiting and more memories of others vomiting than the control group. They recalled significantly more memories of vomiting associated with inter-personal events, health or emotional or unrelated life events. Avoidance and hyper-vigilance for others vomiting after the onset of the phobia may have slightly reduced the risk of vomiting. There is some evidence for associative learning in SPOV with aversive consequences of vomiting and an unrelated life event. It suggests a model of autobiographical memories of vomiting that have lost a time perspective and context, which are being reactivated with cues for vomiting. The limitations of the study are those of memory biases in both groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Sta?czak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers...

  7. Normative Data of the Story and Six-Object Memory Recall Tests in Older Spanish Adults: NEDICES Population-Based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contador, Israel; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Boycheva, Elina; Rueda, Laura; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2017-12-01

    We provide normative data for the story and six-object recall tasks, stratified by age and education in a large population-based cohort of older Spanish adults. The sample consisted of 2,581 participants without dementia (age range: 67-98 years) from different socioeconomic areas of central Spain. Normative data are presented in percentile ranks and divided into four overlapping age tables with different midpoints. Spearman correlations and shared variances were calculated to evaluate the effects of sociodemographic variables on both tasks. Our findings showed that age and education influence the scores in the story and six-object recall tasks, whereas sex had null effect on story recall and an almost negligible on object recall, respectively. The norms presented herein are important for the correct interpretation of scores in the story and six-object recall tasks when assessing older adults in Spain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Contrasting role of octopamine in appetitive and aversive learning in the crab Chasmagnathus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kaczer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines are implicated in reinforcing associative learning. Octopamine (OA is considered the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline and several studies in insects converge on the idea that OA mediates the reward in appetitive conditioning. However, it is possible to assume that OA could have a different role in an aversive conditioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we pharmacologically studied the participation of OA in two learning processes in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, one appetitive and one aversive. It is shown that the aversive memory is impaired by an OA injection applied immediately or 30 minutes after the last training trial. By contrast, the appetitive memory is blocked by OA antagonists epinastine and mianserine, but enhanced by OA when injected together with the supply of a minimum amount of reinforcement. Finally, double-learning experiments in which crabs are given the aversive and the appetitive learning either successively or simultaneously allow us to study the interaction between both types of learning and analyze the presumed action of OA. We found that the appetitive training offered immediately, but not one hour, after an aversive training has an amnesic effect on the aversive memory, mimicking the effect and the kinetic of an OA injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the role of OA is divergent in two memory processes of opposite signs: on the one hand it would mediate the reinforcement in appetitive learning, and on the other hand it has a deleterious effect over aversive memory consolidation.

  9. Beginning at the beginning: Recall order and the number of words to be recalled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff; Paulauskaite, Laura; Markou, Maria

    2016-08-01

    When participants are asked to recall a short list of words in any order that they like, they tend to initiate recall with the first list item and proceed in forward order, even when this is not a task requirement. The current research examined whether this tendency might be influenced by varying the number of items that are to be recalled. In 3 experiments, participants were presented with short lists of between 4 and 6 words and instructed to recall 1, 2, 3, or all of the items from the lists. Data were collected using immediate free recall (IFR, Experiment 1), immediate serial recall (ISR, Experiment 2), and a variant of ISR that we call ISR-free (Experiment 3), in which participants had to recall words in their correct serial positions but were free to output the words in any order. For all 3 tasks, the tendency to begin recall with the first list item occurred only when participants were required to recall as many items from the list as they could. When participants were asked to recall only 1 or 2 items, they tended to initiate recall with end-of-list items. It is argued that these findings show for the first time a manipulation that eliminates the initial tendency to recall in forward order, provide some support for recency-based accounts of IFR and help explain differences between single-response and multiple-response immediate memory tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePaulsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 6- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data acquisition. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g. insula, hippocampus and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk averse showed increased activation during decision making in vmPFC and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  11. Risk aversion and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovářík, J.; van der Leij, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper first investigates empirically the relationship between risk aversion and social network structure in a large group of undergraduate students. We find that risk aversion is strongly correlated to local network clustering, that is, the probability that one has a social tie to friends of

  12. Risk Aversion and College Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey H. Chen

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the relation between risk attitude and college attendance. A measure of the degree of risk aversion is constructed based upon the National Longitudinal Survey for Youth. Statistics and estimation results suggest that risk aversion may have a negative impact on the decision to attend college. Several potential endogeneity problems are discussed.

  13. Memories of Future Masculine Identities: A Comparison of Philip K. Dick’s “We Can Remember it for you Wholesale”, the 1990 Film Total Recall and its 2012 Remake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Fernández-Menicucci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent remakes of iconic science fiction films such as Total Recall, far from merely reproducing cultural landscapes from the past, are actively producing new constructions of categories of identity such as gender and sexuality. In particular, in the two filmic adaptations of Philip K. Dick’s short story “We Can Remember it for you Wholesale” by Paul Verhoeven in 1990 and Len Wiseman in 2012, memory is a metaphor for the historical accountability of hegemonic masculinity—or the lack thereof. Dick’s original text and both Total Recall adaptations can be read as revisionist approaches to the past through a dystopian vision of the future, which, in turn, is but a projection of present anxieties of masculinities in crisis. A comparative analysis of the amnesiac heroes presented in these three sci-fi texts will thus offer an insight into the way in which futuristic action men ‘recall’ present and past discourses on power. Indeed, memory constitutes the narrative mechanism that allows collective and individual realities to be questioned and re-imagined through the intra-textual and inter-textual references present in the three texts in question.

  14. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  15. How Does the Linguistic Distance between Spoken and Standard Language in Arabic Affect Recall and Recognition Performances during Verbal Memory Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and…

  16. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorley, C.; Dewhurst, S.A.; Abel, J.W.; Knott, L.

    2015-01-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood...

  17. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Bekrater-Bodmann

    Full Text Available The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP and residual limb pain (RLP, is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate

  18. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model.

  19. Post-Amputation Pain Is Associated with the Recall of an Impaired Body Representation in Dreams—Results from a Nation-Wide Survey on Limb Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person’s well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model. PMID

  20. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  1. Food aversions in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, F J; Alcaina, T; Guisado, J A

    1998-05-01

    The food aversions of a group of anorexia nervosa patients, bulimia nervosa patients, and no eating disordered individuals (controls) were compared. An open questionnaire was used to obtain data on the eating aversions of each of the three populations. The foodstuffs were placed in categories according to their nutritional value. They were also converted into nutrients, and the average value for each population was calculated. With the exception of the 'legumes' and 'dry fruits' categories, the degree of aversion towards the other food groups detected in the individuals with eating disorders was significantly greater than that detected in controls. Aversion towards food with a high protein content (meat, fish, milk and eggs) was characteristic of patients with eating disorders and is a source of clinical problems, which are discussed in this article.

  2. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  3. Remote memories are enhanced by COMT activity through dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheggia, D; Zamberletti, E; Realini, N; Mereu, M; Contarini, G; Ferretti, V; Managò, F; Margiani, G; Brunoro, R; Rubino, T; De Luca, M A; Piomelli, D; Parolaro, D; Papaleo, F

    2018-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC. However, despite the established role played by COMT genetic variation in executive functions, its impact on remote memory formation and recall is still poorly explored. Here we report that transgenic mice overexpressing the human COMT-Val gene (COMT-Val-tg) present exaggerated remote memories (>50 days) while having unaltered recent memories (remote memories as silencing COMT Val overexpression starting from 30 days after the initial aversive conditioning normalized remote memories. COMT genetic overactivity produced a selective overdrive of the endocannabinoid system within the PFC, but not in the striatum and hippocampus, which was associated with enhanced remote memories. Indeed, acute pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors was sufficient to rescue the altered remote memory recall in COMT-Val-tg mice and increased PFC dopamine levels. These results demonstrate that COMT genetic variations modulate the retrieval of remote memories through the dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the PFC.

  4. Digit-colour synaesthesia only enhances memory for colours in a specific context : A new method of duration thresholds to measure serial recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, A. Lina; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Rich, Anina N.

    For digit-color synaesthetes, digits elicit vivid experiences of color that are highly consistent for each individual. The conscious experience of synaesthesia is typically unidirectional: Digits evoke colors but not vice versa. There is an ongoing debate about whether synaesthetes have a memory

  5. Mitochondria-Endoplasmic Reticulum Contact Sites Function as Immunometabolic Hubs that Orchestrate the Rapid Recall Response of Memory CD8+T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantug, Glenn R; Fischer, Marco; Grählert, Jasmin; Balmer, Maria L; Unterstab, Gunhild; Develioglu, Leyla; Steiner, Rebekah; Zhang, Lianjun; Costa, Ana S H; Gubser, Patrick M; Burgener, Anne-Valérie; Sauder, Ursula; Löliger, Jordan; Belle, Réka; Dimeloe, Sarah; Lötscher, Jonas; Jauch, Annaïse; Recher, Mike; Hönger, Gideon; Hall, Michael N; Romero, Pedro; Frezza, Christian; Hess, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    Glycolysis is linked to the rapid response of memory CD8 + T cells, but the molecular and subcellular structural elements enabling enhanced glucose metabolism in nascent activated memory CD8 + T cells are unknown. We found that rapid activation of protein kinase B (PKB or AKT) by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) led to inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) at mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) junctions. This enabled recruitment of hexokinase I (HK-I) to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) on mitochondria. Binding of HK-I to VDAC promoted respiration by facilitating metabolite flux into mitochondria. Glucose tracing pinpointed pyruvate oxidation in mitochondria, which was the metabolic requirement for rapid generation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in memory T cells. Subcellular organization of mTORC2-AKT-GSK3β at mitochondria-ER contact sites, promoting HK-I recruitment to VDAC, thus underpins the metabolic reprogramming needed for memory CD8 + T cells to rapidly acquire effector function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serial position effects in recall of television commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, W Scott

    2005-04-01

    Does the position of a television commercial in a block of commercials determine how well it will be recalled? The findings of naturalistic studies can be affected by uncontrolled presentation, viewing, and retention variables. In the present article, college students viewed lists of 15 commercials in a laboratory simulation and recalled the product brand names. In an immediate test, the first commercials in a list were well recalled (a primacy effect), as were the last items (a recency effect), in comparison with the recall of middle items. In an end-of-session test, the primacy effect persisted, but the recency effect disappeared. Embedding lists within a television program again produced better recall of the first items during end-of-session tests of recall and recognition. These results offered convergent validity for the naturalistic studies of commercial memory, and they supported the usefulness of combining laboratory and field methods to answer questions about everyday memory.

  7. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchman Aron S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Methods Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15 versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. Results In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE = 0.39, p i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed; performance on visuospatial abilities was not. Conclusion A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater risk aversion in advanced age.

  8. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  9. Recall Time in Densely Encoded Hopfield Network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Snášel, V.; Combe, P.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2000), s. 917-928 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1031 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : autoassociative memory * parallel dynamics * recall time Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    in a large part of the human population. We have recently developed an improved adenoviral vaccine vector system in which the vector expresses the transgene tethered to the MHC class II associated invariant chain (Ii). To further evaluate the potential of this system, the concept of pre-existing inhibitory...... directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated......8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity....

  11. [Conditioned reflex taste aversion during dog ontogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, N M; Kassil', V G

    1984-01-01

    The conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in dogs of different age including suckling puppies, is elaborated in one combination of conditioned stimulus (taste of 30% sucrose solution) with discomfort, elicited by parenteral injection of 0.28 M of LiCl solution. CTA persists up to a week and a half in mother-fed puppies, whose long-term memory for exteroceptive signals is not yet formed. In elaboration of CTA participation of not only intero- but also exteroceptive signals has been revealed even at early stages of ontogenesis. The longest preservation of CTA is common to animals of exaltative period of development. However, here two subperiods may be singled out characterised by different ability to CTA extinction depending on presence or absence of previous acquaintance with conditioned stimulus (2-2.5 and 3-4 months). The time of CTA extinction in suckling puppies does not depend on the degree of previous acquaintance with conditioned stimulus.

  12. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  13. Singers' Recall for the Words and Melody of a New, Unaccompanied Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsborg, Jane; Sloboda, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between words and music in memory has been studied in a variety of ways, from investigations of listeners' recall for the words of songs stored in long-term memory to recall for novel information set to unfamiliar melodies. We asked singers to perform an unaccompanied song from memory following deliberate learning…

  14. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  15. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  16. Bizarreness effect in dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, C; Bolzani, R; Cornoldi, C; De Beni, R; Fagioli, I

    1993-02-01

    This study aimed to ascertain a) whether morning reports of dream experience more frequently reproduce bizarre contents of night reports than nonbizarre ones and b) whether this effect depends on the rarity of bizarre contents in the dream or on their richer encoding in memory. Ten subjects were awakened in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep three times per night for 4 nonconsecutive nights and asked to report their previous dream experiences. In the morning they were asked to re-report those dreams. Two separate pairs of judges scored the reports: the former identified the parts in each report with bizarre events, characters or feelings and the latter parsed each report into content units using transformational grammar criteria. By combining the data of the two analyses, content units were classified as bizarre or nonbizarre and, according to whether present in both the night and corresponding morning reports, as semantically equivalent or nonequivalent. The proportion of bizarre contents common to night and morning reports was about twice that of nonbizarre contents and was positively correlated to the quantity of bizarre contents present in the night report. These findings support the view that bizarreness enhances recall of dream contents and that this memory advantage is determined by a richer encoding at the moment of dream generation. Such a view would seem to explain why dreams in everyday life, which are typically remembered after a rather long interval, appear more markedly bizarre than those recalled in the sleep laboratory.

  17. Assessing sexual aversion in college students: the Sexual Aversion Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R C; Gipson, M T; Kearl, A; Kriskovich, M

    1989-01-01

    This study describes a 30-item questionnaire, the Sexual Aversion Scale, that was used to assess sexual fears and avoidance in college students. The construct of sexual aversion was based on the newly listed DSM-III-R criteria for sexual aversion disorder. Results were obtained from 382 college students. The questionnaire was shown to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Female students reported significantly more sexual anxiety. They expressed more fear of intercourse and the negative social consequences of their sexual behavior. They were also more inclined to avoid situations where they might become sexually involved. Conversely, males appeared to be more sexually frustrated and said they would become more sexually active were it not for fear of catching a sexually transmitted disease. It is concluded that sexual fears are fairly widespread among college students and are being fueled by the current AIDS crisis. One implication of these findings is that sexual aversion disorder may become a prevalent problem, especially if the AIDS epidemic continues to spread to the heterosexual population.

  18. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  19. Optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProspect theory and loss aversion play a dominant role in behavioral finance. In this paper we derive closed-form solutions for optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion. When confronted with gains a loss averse investor behaves similar to a portfolio insurer. When confronted with

  20. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  1. Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  2. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability ...

  3. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  4. [Analysis of intrusion errors in free recall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2017-06-01

    Extra-list intrusion errors during five trials of the eight-word list-learning task of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADST) were investigated in 823 consecutive psychogeriatric patients (87.1% suffering from major neurocognitive disorder). Almost half of the participants (45.9%) produced one or more intrusion errors on the verbal recall test. Correct responses were lower when subjects made intrusion errors, but learning slopes did not differ between subjects who committed intrusion errors and those who did not so. Bivariate regression analyses revealed that participants who committed intrusion errors were more deficient on measures of eight-word recognition memory, delayed visual recognition and tests of executive control (the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale and the ADST-Graphical Sequences as measures of response inhibition). Using hierarchical multiple regression, only free recall and delayed visual recognition retained an independent effect in the association with intrusion errors, such that deficient scores on tests of episodic memory were sufficient to explain the occurrence of intrusion errors. Measures of inhibitory control did not add significantly to the explanation of intrusion errors in free recall, which makes insufficient strength of memory traces rather than a primary deficit in inhibition the preferred account for intrusion errors in free recall.

  5. Some structural determinants of melody recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, M

    1991-05-01

    Sophisticated musicians were asked to recall, using musical notation, a set of unfamiliar folk tunes that varied in rhythmic structure and referents of tonality. The results showed that memory was facilitated by tonic triad members marking phrase endings, but only when their presence was highlighted by a corresponding pattern of temporal accents. Conversely, recall significantly declined when tonal information was either absent or obscured by rhythmic structure. Error analyses further revealed that the retention of overall pitch contour and information at phrase ending points varied as a function of these manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of a framework that links the acts of perceiving and remembering to a common attentional scheme.

  6. The effect of accountability on loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieider, Ferdinand M

    2009-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of accountability-the expectation on the side of the decision maker of having to justify his/her decisions to somebody else-on loss aversion. Loss aversion is commonly thought to be the strongest component of risk aversion. Accountability is found to reduce the bias of loss aversion. This effect is explained by the higher cognitive effort induced by accountability, which triggers a rational check on emotional reactions at the base of loss aversion, leading to a reduction of the latter. Connections to dual-processing models are discussed.

  7. Response competition associated with right-left antennal asymmetries of new and old olfactory memory traces in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2010-05-01

    Lateralized recall of olfactory memory in honeybees was tested, following conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER), at 1 or 6h after training. After training with lemon (+)/vanilla (-) or cineol (+)/eugenol (-) recall at 1h was better when the odour was presented to the right side of the bee than when it was presented to the left side. In contrast, recall at 6h was better when the odour was presented to the left than to the right side. This confirmed previous evidence of shorter-term recall via the right antenna and long-term memory recall via the left antenna. However, when trained with either a familiar appetitive odour (rose) as a negative stimulus, or with a naturally aversive odour (isoamyl acetate, IAA) as a positive stimulus, bees showed suppression of the response from both the right and the left side at 1h after training (likely due to retroactive inhibition) and at 6h responded to both odours on both sides. We argued that at 6h, when access to memory has completed the shift from the right to the left side, memory of these familiar odours in the left side of the brain would be present as both positive (rose)/negative (IAA) (as a result of long-term memory either biologically encoded or acquired well before testing) and negative (rose)/positive (IAA) (as a result of the long-term memory of training) stimuli, thus producing response competition. As a direct test of this hypothesis, bees were first trained with unfamiliar lemon (+)/vanilla (-) and then (16h later) re-trained with vanilla (+)/lemon (-); as predicted, 6h after re-training bees responded to both odours on both the left and right side.

  8. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval......, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD...... was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score > 22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88...

  9. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  10. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  11. Pistachio Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes food subject to recall in the United States since March 2009 related to pistachios distributed by Setton Pistachio of Terra Bella, Inc. The FDA...

  12. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    Full Text Available The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult.To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor.Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning.Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and

  13. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Giurfa, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult. To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor. Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning. Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and social

  14. The influence of cognitive training on older adults' recall for short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Shannon M; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W

    2013-12-01

    This article investigated how a multicomponent memory intervention affected memory for prose. We compared verbatim and paraphrased recall for short stories immediately and 1, 2, 3, and 5 years post-intervention in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) sample. We studied 1,912 ACTIVE participants aged 65 to 91. Participants were randomized into one of three training arms (Memory, Reasoning, Speed of Processing) or a no-contact Control group; about half of the trained participants received additional booster training 1 and 3 years post-intervention. Memory-trained participants showed higher verbatim recall than non-memory-trained participants. Booster-memory training led to higher verbatim recall. Memory training effects were evident immediately following training and not after 1 year following training. Results suggest that multifactorial memory training can improve verbatim recall for prose, but the effect does not last without continued intervention.

  15. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability...... to apply leverage. Risk parity portfolios exploit this opportunity by equalizing the risk allocation across asset classes, thus overweighting safer assets relative to their weight in the market portfolio....

  16. Induction of aversive learning through thermogenetic activation of Kenyon cell ensembles in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eVasmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila represents a model organism to analyze neuronal mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Kenyon cells of the Drosophila mushroom body are required for associative odor learning and memory retrieval. But is the mushroom body sufficient to acquire and retrieve an associative memory? To answer this question we have conceived an experimental approach to bypass olfactory sensory input and to thermogenetically activate sparse and random ensembles of Kenyon cells directly. We found that if the artifical activation of Kenyon cell ensembles coincides with a salient, aversive stimulus learning was induced The animals adjusted their behavior in a subsequent test situation and actively avoided reactivation of these Kenyon cells. Our results show that Kenyon cell activity in coincidence with a salient aversive stimulus can suffice to form an associative memory. Memory retrieval is characterized by a closed feedback loop between a behavioral action and the reactivation of sparse ensembles of Kenyon cells.

  17. Memory Skills of Deaf Learners: Implications and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Harley

    2011-01-01

    This paper will review research on working memory and short-term memory abilities of deaf individuals delineating strengths and weaknesses. The areas of memory reviewed include weaknesses such as sequential recall, processing speed, attention, and memory load. Strengths include free recall, visuospatial recall, imagery and dual encoding.…

  18. True and intentionally fabricated memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, L.V.; Morrison, C.M.; Conway, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the experiment reported here was to investigate the processes underlying the construction of truthful and deliberately fabricated memories. Properties of memories created to be intentionally false - fabricated memories - were compared to properties of memories believed to be true - true memories. Participants recalled and then wrote or spoke true memories and fabricated memories of everyday events. It was found that true memories were reliably more vivid than fabricated memories an...

  19. Forms of Recall – Politics of Memory. Memory as the Non-Chronological Narrative Form of Historical-Political Identity Quest in the Kádár Regime and Its Survival in the Postcommunist Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelencsér Gábor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the film art of the Kádár regime the modernist non-chronological narrative mode became the dominant form of remembrance and communicative memory. In the 35-year period between 1956 and 1990 we can find thirty-five films of this type (e.g. Dialogue [Párbeszéd, János Herskó, 1963], Twenty Hours [Húsz óra, Zoltán Fábri, 1965], Cold Days [Hideg napok, András Kovács, 1966], Love [Szerelem, Károly Makk, 1971], Lovefilm [Szerelmesfilm, István Szabó, 1970], Diary for My Children [Napló gyermekeimnek, Márta Mészáros, 1982], the majority of which thematize the communicative memory of the recent past of the period (World War II, the Hungarian Holocaust, the 1950s, 1956, the Kádár consolidation as opposed to the amnesia politics of the time. Although this cinematic corpus is connected to the film history of the Kádár era with all its elements (form: modernism; theme: communicative memory; political discourse: recollection; official politics of memory; the counterdiscourse of Kádár’s amnesia politics, it survives in the postcommunist period (e.g. Hungarian Fragment [Pannon töredék, András Sólyom, 1998], White Palms [Fehér tenyér, Szabolcs Hajdu, 2006], Mom and Other Loonies in the Family [Anyám és más futóbolondok a családból, Ibolya Fekete, 2015]. After presenting the non-chronological narrative form of historical-political identity quest, the paper seeks to find reasons for the survival of this form and tries to draw conclusions regarding the social aspect and modes of expression of the Hungarian film history of the postcommunist period.

  20. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  1. Recall of Details Never Experienced: Effects of Age, Repetition, and Semantic Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Robyn E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    To test theoretical predictions about the role of meaning connections in false memory, the effects of semantic cues and list repetition on children's false memories were evaluated across early childhood to mid-adolescence using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. True recall and false recall increased from 7 to 13 years. Study list…

  2. Cortisol-induced increases of plasma oxytocin levels predict decreased immediate free recall of unpleasant words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, M.; Buisman-Pijlman, F.T.A; Boksem, M.A.S.; Wijers, A.A.; Korf, J.

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory, which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70) or

  3. Risk aversion influence on insurance market

    OpenAIRE

    Raduna, Daniela Viviana; Roman, Mihai Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior, rational or irrational one, influences one of the most complex markets worldwide: the insurance market. In most situations, insurance markets are not competitive and risk neutral insurers negotiate under asymmetric information with actors who exhibit risk aversion. In this paper we develop a game theory model that analyzes the negotiation of an insurance contract under risk aversion conditions (in static and dynamic approach). Risk aversion influence was introduced in the mode...

  4. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  5. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiqi; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  6. Enhanced fear recall and emotional arousal in rats recovering from chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jennifer; Herman, James P; Horn, Paul S; Sallee, Floyd R; Sah, Renu

    2010-11-02

    Emergence of posttraumatic-like behaviors following chronic trauma is of interest given the rising prevalence of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress associated with combat usually involves chronic traumatization, composed of multiple, single episode events occurring in an unpredictable fashion. In this study, we investigated whether rats recovering from repeated trauma in the form of chronic variable stress (CVS) express posttraumatic stress-like behaviors and dysregulated neuroendocrine responses. Cohorts of Long-Evans rats underwent a 7 day CVS paradigm followed by behavioral and neuroendocrine testing during early (16 h post CVS) and delayed (7 day) recovery time points. A fear conditioning-extinction-reminder shock paradigm revealed that CVS induces exaggerated fear recall to reminder shock, suggestive of potentiated fear memory. Rats with CVS experience also expressed a delayed expression of fearful arousal under aversive context, however, social anxiety was not affected during post-CVS recovery. Persistent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticotropic response to a novel acute stressor was observed in CVS exposed rats. Collectively, our data are consistent with the constellation of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress syndrome, such as re-experiencing, and arousal to fearful contexts. The CVS-recovery paradigm may be useful to simulate trauma outcomes following chronic traumatization that is often associated with repeated combat stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Diffusive-Particle Theory of Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumarola, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Diffusive models of free recall have been recently introduced in the memory literature, but their potential remains largely unexplored. In this paper, a diffusive model of short-term verbal memory is considered, in which the psychological state of the subject is encoded as the instantaneous position of a particle diffusing over a semantic graph. The model is particularly suitable for studying the dependence of free-recall observables on the semantic properties of the words to be recalled. Besides predicting some well-known experimental features (forward asymmetry, semantic clustering, word-length effect), a novel prediction is obtained on the relationship between the contiguity effect and the syllabic length of words; shorter words, by way of their wider semantic range, are predicted to be characterized by stronger forward contiguity. A fresh analysis of archival free-recall data allows to confirm this prediction.

  8. The effect of auditory stimulation on autobiographical recall in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N A; Valentine, E R

    2001-01-01

    Elderly individuals with mild-moderate ("high ability") or moderate ("low ability") dementia, answered autobiographical memory questions drawn from three life eras (remote, medium-remote, and recent), in familiar music, novel music, cafeteria noise or quiet. Recall was significantly better in the high-ability than the low-ability group, in sound than in quiet, and in music than in noise. Recall was significantly related to life era, declining from remote to recent memory. The superiority of recall in music compared with noise was apparent for recall from remote and medium-remote but not recent eras. The results are interpreted as favoring an explanation of the beneficial effect of auditory stimulation, predominantly in terms of enhanced arousal or attention deployment, with a possible subsidiary role for associative facilitation.

  9. Cannabidiol disrupts the reconsolidation of contextual drug-associated memories in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Cristiane Ribeiro; Takahashi, Reinaldo Naoto

    2017-05-01

    In addicts, craving and relapse are frequently induced by the recall of memories related to a drug experience. Several studies have demonstrated that drug-related memories are reactivated after exposure to environmental cues and may undergo reconsolidation, a process that can strengthen memories. Thus, reactivation of mnemonic traces provides an opportunity for disrupting memories that contribute to the pathological cycle of addiction. Here we used drug-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) to investigate whether cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid, given just after reactivation sessions, would affect reconsolidation of drug-reward memory, reinstatement of morphine-CPP, or conditioned place aversion precipitated by naltrexone in Wistar rats. We found that CBD impaired the reconsolidation of preference for the environment previously paired with both morphine and cocaine. This disruption seems to be persistent, as the preference did not return after further reinstatement induced by priming drug and stress reinstatement. Moreover, in an established morphine-CPP, an injection of CBD after the exposure to a conditioning session led to a significant reduction of both morphine-CPP and subsequent conditioned place aversion precipitated by naltrexone in the same context. Thus, established memories induced by a drug of abuse can be blocked after reactivation of the drug experience. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the disruptive effect of CBD on reconsolidation of contextual drug-related memories and highlight its therapeutic potential to attenuate contextual memories associated with drugs of abuse and consequently to reduce the risk of relapse. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  11. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  12. Inequality Aversion and Voting on Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  13. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-04-01

    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional--in particular, fear-related--processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A Neurocognitive Model of Advertisement Content and Brand Name Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio G. Chessa; Jaap M. J. Murre

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new (point process) model of learning and forgetting, inspired by the structures of the brain, that we apply to model long-term memory for advertising and brand name recall. Recall-probability functions derived from the model are tested with classic data by Zielske [Zielske, H. A. 1959. The remembering and forgetting of advertising. 239–243], as well as advertisement content and brand name recall data of a Dutch study that tracked over 40 campaigns of TV commercials. Data fits ...

  15. False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed.

  16. ReCall

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Wing Chi

    2012-01-01

    This document focuses on the choreographic process of ReCall, a dance-theatre work that employs choreographic devices through gesture and stories related to the tragedy of September 11th, 2001. The creative process included workshops in dance technique and devising with various collaborators and disciplines. This production was designed to kinesthetically engage the audience through shifting the expectations of the tradition of concert dance.

  17. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  18. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hengeveld, Hester M E; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from this negative effect, collaboration may be beneficial in that group members remove errors from a collaborative report. Collaborative inhibition studies on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce. Therefore, the present study examined both collaborative inhibition and collaborative error reduction in the recall of the details of emotional material in a laboratory setting. Female undergraduates (n = 111) viewed a film clip of a fatal accident and subsequently engaged in either collaborative (n = 57) or individual recall (n = 54) in groups of three. The results show that, across several detail categories, collaborating groups recalled fewer details than nominal groups. However, overall, nominal recall produced more errors than collaborative recall. The present results extend earlier findings on both collaborative inhibition and error reduction to the recall of affectively laden material. These findings may have implications for the applied fields of forensic and clinical psychology.

  19. Serotonin receptor activity is necessary for olfactory learning and memory in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, O; Becnel, J; Nichols, C D

    2011-09-29

    Learning and memory in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a complex behavior with many parallels to mammalian learning and memory. Although many neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, dopamine, glutamate, and GABA have previously been demonstrated to be involved in aversive olfactory learning and memory, the role of serotonin has not been well defined. Here, we present the first evidence of the involvement of individual serotonin receptors in olfactory learning and memory in the fly. We initially followed a pharmacological approach, utilizing serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists to demonstrate that all serotonin receptor families present in the fly are necessary for short-term learning and memory. Isobolographic analysis utilizing combinations of drugs revealed functional interactions are occurring between 5-HT(1A)-like and 5-HT(2), and 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(7) receptor circuits in mediating short-term learning and memory. Examination of long-term memory suggests that 5-HT(1A)-like receptors are necessary for consolidation and important for recall, 5-HT(2) receptors are important for consolidation and recall, and 5-HT(7) receptors are involved in all three phases. Importantly, we have validated our pharmacological results with genetic experiments and showed that hypomorph strains for 5-HT(2)Dro and 5-HT(1B)Dro receptors, as well as knockdown of 5-HT(7)Dro mRNA, significantly impair performance in short-term memory. Our data highlight the importance of the serotonin system and individual serotonin receptors to influence olfactory learning and memory in the fly, and position the fly as a model system to study the role of serotonin in cognitive processes relevant to mammalian CNS function. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unpleasant odors increase aversion to monetary losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancak, Andrej; Xie, Yuxin; Fallon, Nicholas; Bulsing, Patricia; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Pantelous, Athanasios A

    2015-04-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of equal nominal values. Unpleasant odors not only influence affective state but have also been shown to activate brain regions similar to those mediating loss aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized a stronger loss aversion in a monetary gamble task if gambles were associated with an unpleasant as opposed to pleasant odor. In thirty human subjects, unpleasant (methylmercaptan), pleasant (jasmine), and neutral (clean air) odors were presented for 4 s. At the same time, uncertain gambles offering an equal chance of gain or loss of a variable amount of money, or a prospect of an assured win were displayed. One hundred different gambles were presented three times, each time paired with a different odor. Loss aversion, risk aversion, and logit sensitivity were evaluated using non-linear fitting of individual gamble decisions. Loss aversion was larger when prospects were displayed in the presence of methylmercaptan compared to jasmine or clean air. Moreover, individual differences in changes in loss aversion to the unpleasant as compared to pleasant odor correlated with odor pleasantness but not with odor intensity. Skin conductance responses to losses during the outcome period were larger when gambles were associated with methylmercaptan compared to jasmine. Increased loss aversion while perceiving an unpleasant odor suggests a dynamic adjustment of loss aversion toward greater sensitivity to losses. Given that odors are biological signals of hazards, such adjustment of loss aversion may have adaptive value in situations entailing threat or danger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Personality Correlates of Dream Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    The study investigated the capacity of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) to discriminate between those who frequently recall dreams and those who do not. The results are interpreted as indicating that the frequent recaller experiences less and the infrequent recaller experiences more intrapsychic conflict. (Author)

  2. Memory consolidation reconfigures neural pathways involved in the suppression of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Liu, Chao; Luo, Yuejia; Wu, Jianhui; Bayley, Peter J; Qin, Shaozheng

    2016-11-29

    The ability to suppress unwanted emotional memories is crucial for human mental health. Through consolidation over time, emotional memories often become resistant to change. However, how consolidation impacts the effectiveness of emotional memory suppression is still unknown. Using event-related fMRI while concurrently recording skin conductance, we investigated the neurobiological processes underlying the suppression of aversive memories before and after overnight consolidation. Here we report that consolidated aversive memories retain their emotional reactivity and become more resistant to suppression. Suppression of consolidated memories involves higher prefrontal engagement, and less concomitant hippocampal and amygdala disengagement. In parallel, we show a shift away from hippocampal-dependent representational patterns to distributed neocortical representational patterns in the suppression of aversive memories after consolidation. These findings demonstrate rapid changes in emotional memory organization with overnight consolidation, and suggest possible neurobiological bases underlying the resistance to suppression of emotional memories in affective disorders.

  3. Oscillations Synchronize Amygdala-to-Prefrontal Primate Circuits during Aversive Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Aryeh Hai; Perets, Rita; Kahana, Eilat; Paz, Rony

    2018-01-17

    The contribution of oscillatory synchrony in the primate amygdala-prefrontal pathway to aversive learning remains largely unknown. We found increased power and phase synchrony in the theta range during aversive conditioning. The synchrony was linked to single-unit spiking and exhibited specific directionality between input and output measures in each region. Although it was correlated with the magnitude of conditioned responses, it declined once the association stabilized. The results suggest that amygdala spikes help to synchronize ACC activity and transfer error signal information to support memory formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk aversion and religious behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    and prayer frequency on the other controlling for unobservable variables using survey data of Danish same-sex twin pairs. We verify the correlation between risk preferences and religion found previously by carrying out cross-sectional analyses. We also show that the association between risk attitudes...... would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results. However, a general concern...... regards the problems of spurious correlations due to underlying omitted or unobservable characteristics shaping both religious activities and risk attitudes. This paper examines empirically the demand for religion by analysing the association between risk attitudes on the one hand, and church attandance...

  5. Consumption of an acute dose of caffeine reduces acquisition but not memory in the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Julie A; Dews, Lauren; Brugato, Arlana; Dey, Kevin; Wright, Geraldine A

    2012-06-15

    Caffeine affects several molecules that are also involved in the processes underlying learning and memory such as cAMP and calcium. However, studies of caffeine's influence on learning and memory in mammals are often contradictory. Invertebrate model systems have provided valuable insight into the actions of many neuroactive compounds including ethanol and cocaine. We use the honey bee (Apis mellifera) to investigate how the ingestion of acute doses of caffeine before, during, and after conditioning influences performance in an appetitive olfactory learning and memory task. Consumption of caffeine doses of 0.01 M or greater during or prior to conditioning causes a significant reduction in response levels during acquisition. Although bees find the taste of caffeine to be aversive at high concentrations, the bitter taste does not explain the reduction in acquisition observed for bees fed caffeine before conditioning. While high doses of caffeine reduced performance during acquisition, the response levels of bees given caffeine were the same as those of the sucrose only control group in a recall test 24h after conditioning. In addition, caffeine administered after conditioning had no affect on recall. These results suggest that caffeine specifically affects performance during acquisition and not the processes involved in the formation of early long term memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Duration of memory loss due to electron beam exposure. Final report Jan-May 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Tilton, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    Electron beam exposure has been shown to produce retrograde amnesia (RA). The objective of this study was to determine the duration of memory loss upon electron beam exposure. It is important to know if exposure produces a memory loss of the events which occurred in the preceding 1 sec or memory loss of the preceding minute's events. The task was a single-trial avoidance paradigm. The animal was placed in a small aversive chamber. After a 90-sec adaptation period, a door opened that provided access to a large, dark, preferred chamber. The time required for the animal to enter the preferred chamber was the measure of interest (T). Once inside the preferred chamber, a 1-sec footshock was delivered. Following the footshock by some preset delay (delta T), the animal was exposed to a 10-microsec, 10-rad electron beam (or X-ray). A second trial on the task was run 2 hr postexposure. The second trial consisted of placing the animal in the aversive chamber and monitoring the time (T') required to enter the preferred chamber. If the electron beam exposure interfered with the animal's ability to recall the shock, T' would be greatly reduced as compared with the sham controls. The exposure delay times used were delta T = 1, 3, 5, and 10 sec.

  7. The radish gene reveals a memory component with variable temporal properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly LaFerriere

    Full Text Available Memory phases, dependent on different neural and molecular mechanisms, strongly influence memory performance. Our understanding, however, of how memory phases interact is far from complete. In Drosophila, aversive olfactory learning is thought to progress from short-term through long-term memory phases. Another memory phase termed anesthesia resistant memory, dependent on the radish gene, influences memory hours after aversive olfactory learning. How does the radish-dependent phase influence memory performance in different tasks? It is found that the radish memory component does not scale with the stability of several memory traces, indicating a specific recruitment of this component to influence different memories, even within minutes of learning.

  8. Heterogeneity of Loss Aversion in Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kawada, Ryosaku; Tsurumi, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Naoto; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Murao, Takuro; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is characterized by continual repeated gambling behavior despite negative consequences. PG is considered to be a disorder of altered decision-making under risk, and behavioral economics tools were utilized by studies on decision-making under risk. At the same time, PG was suggested to be a heterogeneous disorder in terms of personality traits as well as risk attitude. We aimed to examine the heterogeneity of PG in terms of loss aversion, which means that a loss is subjectively felt to be larger than the same amount of gain. Thirty-one male PG subjects and 26 male healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a behavioral economics task for estimation of loss aversion and personality traits assessment. Although loss aversion in PG subjects was not significantly different from that in HC subjects, distributions of loss aversion differed between PG and HC subjects. HC subjects were uniformly classified into three levels (low, middle, high) of loss aversion, whereas PG subjects were mostly classified into the two extremes, and few PG subjects were classified into the middle range. PG subjects with low and high loss aversion showed a significant difference in anxiety, excitement-seeking and craving intensity. Our study suggested that PG was a heterogeneous disorder in terms of loss aversion. This result might be useful for understanding cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms and the establishment of treatment strategies for PG.

  9. Social influences on inequity aversion in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McAuliffe

    Full Text Available Adults and children are willing to sacrifice personal gain to avoid both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity. These two forms of inequity aversion follow different developmental trajectories, with disadvantageous inequity aversion emerging around 4 years and advantageous inequity aversion emerging around 8 years. Although inequity aversion is assumed to be specific to situations where resources are distributed among individuals, the role of social context has not been tested in children. Here, we investigated the influence of two aspects of social context on inequity aversion in 4- to 9-year-old children: (1 the role of the experimenter distributing rewards and (2 the presence of a peer with whom rewards could be shared. Experiment 1 showed that children rejected inequity at the same rate, regardless of whether the experimenter had control over reward allocations. This indicates that children's decisions are based upon reward allocations between themselves and a peer and are not attempts to elicit more favorable distributions from the experimenter. Experiment 2 compared rejections of unequal reward allocations in children interacting with or without a peer partner. When faced with a disadvantageous distribution, children frequently rejected a smaller reward when a larger reward was visible, even if no partner would obtain the larger reward. This suggests that nonsocial factors partly explain disadvantageous inequity rejections. However, rejections of disadvantageous distributions were higher when the larger amount would go to a peer, indicating that social context enhances disadvantageous inequity aversion. By contrast, children rejected advantageous distributions almost exclusively in the social context. Therefore, advantageous inequity aversion appears to be genuinely social, highlighting its potential relevance for the development of fairness concerns. By comparing social and nonsocial factors, this study provides a detailed picture of

  10. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  11. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Ross, Don

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in standard statements of this calibration puzzle is that individuals define utility over terminal wealth...... all levels of wealth, or over a “sufficiently large” range of wealth. Although this second assumption if often viewed as self-evident from the vast experimental literature showing risk aversion over laboratory stakes, it actually requires that lab wealth be varied for a given subject as one takes...

  12. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  13. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  14. Word List Recall in Youngsters and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogol Gerami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A word-list recall is an experiment examines the effect of age on the change in memory. The ability to understand or use language is more or less dependent on the memory capacity. Any person may know what s/he wants to say but may not be able to say it if the memory does not help. We use some form of memory in all aspects of language processing. Whatever we have in our mind is stored whether for seconds, hours, or years. By short-term memory, a person can remember different things for a period of seconds or minutes only. By rehearsal, the duration and the quantity of storage will increase. Therefore, rehearsal transforms the short-term memory into the long-term memory. This experiment, which examines the number of words recalled by different age groups after presenting a word list, reveals that the younger a person the more are the words he or she recalls. The experiment also reveals that semantically related words have greater chance to be remembered when they are compared with unrelated words.

  15. Word list recall in youngsters and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogol Gerami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A word-list recall is an experiment examines the effect of age on the change in memory. The ability to understand or use language is more or less dependent on the memory capacity. Any person may know what s/he wants to say but may not be able to say it if the memory does not help. We use some form of memory in all aspects of language processing. Whatever we have in our mind is stored whether for seconds, hours, or years. By short-term memory, a person can remember different things for a period of seconds or minutes only. By rehearsal, the duration and the quantity of storage will increase. Therefore, rehearsal transforms the short-term memory into the long-term memory. This experiment, which examines the number of words recalled by different age groups after presenting a word list, reveals that the younger a person the more are the words he or she recalls. The experiment also reveals that semantically related words have greater chance to be remembered when they are compared with unrelated words.

  16. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila.

  17. Sketching to Remember: Episodic Free Recall Task Support for Child Witnesses and Victims with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Dando, Coral J.; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in episodic free-recall memory performance have been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet best practice dictates that child witness/victim interviews commence with a free-recall account. No "tools" exist to support children with ASD to freely recall episodic information. Here, the efficacy of a novel…

  18. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  19. The inability of older adults to recall their drugs and medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, GaToya; Tabassum, Vajeeha; Zarow, Gregory J; Ala, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has shown that many older adults without known cognitive impairment are unable to recall basic knowledge about their medical history. We sought to determine whether older adult patients in our own clinic population were able to recall their drug regimens and medical conditions from memory. Patients aged 65 years or older with no known cognitive impairment, dementia, or memory loss who were presenting for routine outpatient follow-up in our medical school neurology and general medicine clinics were recruited. Each patient was asked to recall the number and names of their presently prescribed drugs and their associated medical conditions. Each patient was also administered a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) cognitive screening test (range 0-30). Most patients were unable to recall their drug regimens or their medical conditions. Of 99 patients taking drugs, only 22% correctly named their drugs from memory, and only 34% correctly named their medical conditions associated with the drugs. Fewer than half (49%) correctly recalled the number of drugs they were taking. Poor recall performance was evident even in high-cognitive (MMSE>27) patients. The accuracy of recall memory in older adults regarding their drugs and medical conditions may be poor, which has important implications towards medication reconciliation within meaningful-use doctrine. Clinicians treating older adults should be very cautious before relying on their patients' memories for accurate recall of their medical conditions, their drug regimens, and even the number of drugs they are taking.

  20. Food preferences and aversions in human health and nutrition: how can pigs help the biomedical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, C; Meunier-Salaün, M C; Val-Laillet, D

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of food preferences and aversions determines the modulation of eating behaviour and the optimization of food intake. These phenomena rely on the learning and memory abilities of the organism and depend on different psychobiological mechanisms such as associative conditionings and sociocultural influences. After summarizing the various behavioural and environmental determinants of the establishment of food preferences and aversions, this paper describes several issues encountered in human nutrition when preferences and aversions become detrimental to health: development of eating disorders and obesity, aversions and anorexia in chemotherapy-treated or elderly patients and poor palatability of medical substances and drugs. Most of the relevant biomedical research has been performed in rodent models, although this approach has severe limitations, especially in the nutritional field. Consequently, the final aim of this paper is to discuss the use of the pig model to investigate the behavioural and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the establishment of food preferences and aversions by reviewing the literature supporting analogies at multiple levels (general physiology and anatomy, sensory sensitivity, digestive function, cognitive abilities, brain features) between pigs and humans.

  1. Immediate recall of short stories depends on educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrini, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Memory complaints are frequent in the elderly but the confirmation of memory decline is challenging. Tests employing the recall of paragraphs or short stories have been proposed for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. To evaluate the influence of educational level on immediate recall of short stories. A sample of 363 individuals (214 women; median age of 50; median years of schooling of 6; 23 illiterates) without evident physical or mental illnesses were evaluated with simple neuropsychological tests, including the recall of short stories immediately after listening to them read aloud by the examiner. Age showed an inverse correlation whereas years of schooling showed a direct correlation with the scores on the immediate recall of short stories. As age and years of schooling were inversely correlated, logistic regression was employed, which showed that only years of schooling had an influence on the performance in the test. In populations with heterogeneous educational background, the recall of short stories cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of memory impairment. It is possible that tests with larger encoding phases are more appropriate for these populations. From a broader perspective, information released by radio or TV, as well as information disseminated orally in public settings such as hospitals, stations or airports may be less well retained by low educated individuals, especially when the information is presented only once.

  2. Aversive smell associations shape social judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Philipp; Ely, Benjamin A.; Yuan, May; Brosch, Tobias; Ng, John; Trope, Yaacov; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted w...

  3. Diminished aversive classical conditioning in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Myrseth, Helga; Molde, Helge; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Bu, Eli Torild Hellandsjø; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-09-01

    Impaired ability to form associations between negative events in gambling and aversive somatic reactions may be a predisposing factor for pathological gambling. The current study investigated whether a group of pathological gamblers and a control group differed in aversive classical conditioning. A differential aversive classical conditioning paradigm, which consisted of three phases. In the habituation phase, one 850-Hz tone stimulus and one 1500-Hz tone stimulus were presented three times each in random order. In the acquisition phase, the two tones were presented 10 times each in random order, and one was always followed by a 100-dB burst of white noise. In the extinction phase the two tones were presented three times each without the white noise. University laboratory testing facilities and out-patient treatment facilities. Twenty pathological gamblers and 20 control participants. Duration of seven cardiac interbeat-intervals (IBIs) following tone offset, gambling severity, tobacco and alcohol use, anxiety and depression. No group differences were found in the habituation and acquisition phases. However, a significant group × stimuli × trials × IBIs interaction effect was found in the extinction phase (P classical conditioning, but that the control group did. Pathological gamblers have a diminished capacity to form associations between aversive events and stimuli that predict aversive events. Aversion learning is likely to be an ineffective treatment for pathological gamblers. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. The Effect of Pressure and Time on Information Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    stressors (such as narcosis , cold, low visibility, anxiety), duration between information processing and recall, and the cognitive load of the diver can...information. Environmental Stressors Literature researching the effects of environmental conditions on memory shows that both narcosis and cold can cause...and narcosis research has not differentiated between short term and long term memory. In general, most of this research has focused on short term

  5. Free recall of word lists under total sleep deprivation and after recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Valverde Zanini, Gislaine; Tufik, Sérgio; Andersen, Monica Levy; da Silva, Raquel Cristina Martins; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Rodrigues, Camila Cruz; Pompéia, Sabine

    2012-02-01

    One task that has been used to assess memory effects of prior total sleep deprivation (TSD) is the immediate free recall of word lists; however, results have been mixed. A possible explanation for this is task impurity, since recall of words from different serial positions reflects use of distinct types of memory (last words: short-term memory; first and intermediate words: episodic memory). Here we studied the effects of 2 nights of TSD on immediate free recall of semantically unrelated word lists considering the serial position curve. Random allocation to a 2-night TSD protocol followed by one night of recovery sleep or to a control group. Study conducted under continuous behavioral monitoring. 24 young, healthy male volunteers. 2 nights of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and one night of recovery sleep. Participants were shown five 15 unrelated word-lists at baseline, after one and 2 nights of TSD, and after one night of recovery sleep. We also investigated the development of recall strategies (learning) and susceptibility to interference from previous lists. No free recall impairment occurred during TSD, irrespective of serial position. Interference was unchanged. Both groups developed recall strategies, but task learning occurred earlier in controls and was evident in the TSD group only after sleep recovery. Prior TSD spared episodic memory, short-term phonological memory, and interference, allowed the development of recall strategies, but may have decreased the advantage of using these strategies, which returned to normal after recovery sleep.

  6. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  7. The effect of French television sexual program content on the recall of sexual and nonsexual advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Mainaud, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of television program sexual content and explicit sexual advertisement content on memory for advertisements. Eighty-two French participants, aged 18 to 48 years, watched either a sexual program (Sex and the City) or a nonsexual program (Friends), with three sexual and three nonsexual adverts embedded within it. They then completed free- and cued-recall questionnaires testing their memory of the advertisements, as well as a gender identity scale. Overall, sexual advertisements were recalled (in free recall) better than nonsexual advertisements. Participants were found to recall adverts significantly better within the nonsexual program than within the sexual program. No interaction was found between program type and advertisement type: Sexual adverts were recalled better than nonsexual adverts within both programs. Males and females recalled sexual adverts equally, with no mediating effect of gender identity. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  8. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hengeveld, Hester M. E.; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from

  9. Recovery sleep after sleep deprivation almost completely abolishes dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Luigi; Marzano, Cristina; Moroni, Fabio; Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; Cipolli, Carlo

    2010-01-20

    The study investigated the effect of one night of sleep deprivation on dream recall at morning awakening after recovery sleep. Forty healthy subjects were studied after adaptation (A) and baseline nights (B), and a recovery (R) night following 40 h of prolonged wakefulness. Parallel to the well-known recovery sleep changes (slow-wave sleep--SWS--rebound, decreased number of awakenings and of REM sleep amount), an almost complete abolition of dream recall was found, with an around 75% decrease with respect to the adaptation and baseline nights. The number of dreams recalled by those subjects with successful recall (REC) did not significantly differ between nights. Moreover, gender and sleep stage at awakening did not affect either the proportion of REC subjects or the number of dreams recalled by REC subjects during each night. Finally, the drastic impairment of dream recall after R night was associated to a larger increase of SWS and a shorter REM sleep duration. We suggest that dream recall could have been impaired during R night because: (i) the lower number of spontaneous awakenings over the night reduced the contents available in memory as possible cues for the retrieval of dream experiences at morning; (ii) mental experiences, having been elaborated during SWS more than in the other nights, were less dreamlike (i.e., perceptually vivid and bizarre) and, thus less accessible at morning recall than those elaborated during the nights with a higher proportion of REM sleep; (iii) dream contents, as a peculiar type of episodic information, were less consolidated because of the lower effectiveness of declarative memory during recovery sleep.

  10. Detection of central circuits implicated in the formation of novel pain memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaymin Upadhyay,1 Julia Granitzka,1 Thomas Bauermann,2 Ulf Baumgärtner,3 Markus Breimhorst,1 Rolf-Detlef Treede,3 Frank Birklein1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, 3Department of Neurophysiology, Center for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: Being able to remember physically and emotionally painful events in one’s own past may shape behavior, and can create an aversion to a variety of situations. Pain imagination is a related process that may include recall of past experiences, in addition to production of sensory and emotional percepts without external stimuli. This study aimed to understand 1 the central nervous system processes that underlie pain imagination, 2 the retrieval of pain memories, and 3 to compare the latter with visual object memory. These goals were achieved by longitudinally investigating brain function with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a unique group of healthy volunteers who had never experienced tooth pain. In these subjects, we compared brain responses elicited during three experimental conditions in the following order: imagination of tooth pain (pain imagination, remembering one’s own house (object memory, and remembrance of tooth pain following an episode of induced acute tooth pain (pain memory. Key observations stemming from group-level conjunction analyses revealed common activation in the posterior parietal cortex for both pain imagination and pain memory, while object and pain memory each had strong activation predominantly within the middle frontal gyrus. When contrasting pain imagination and memory, significant activation differences were observed in subcortical structures (ie, parahippocampus – pain imagination > pain memory; midbrain – pain memory > pain imagination. Importantly, these findings were observed in the presence of

  11. The effects of autobiographical memory and visual perspective on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zenghu; She, Yugui

    2018-03-24

    The present research aims to explore whether recalling and writing about autobiographical memory from different perspectives (first-person perspective vs. third-person perspective) could affect cognitive function. The participants first performed a working memory task to evaluate their working memory capacity as a baseline and then were instructed to recall (Study 1) or write about (Study 2) personal events (failures vs. successes) from the first-person perspective or the third-person perspective. Finally, they performed the working memory task again. The results suggested that autobiographical memory and perspective influence working memory interactively. When recalling a success, the participants who recalled from the third-person perspective performed better than those who recalled from the first-person perspective on the working memory capacity task; when recalling a failure, the opposite was true.

  12. Recall of Briefly Presented Chess Positions and Its Relation to Chess Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yanfei; Ericsson, K. Anders; Moxley, Jerad H.

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions) and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique,...

  13. Developmental Differences in Bender-Gestalt Recall of Children With Learning and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, A. J., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Children referred for psychological evaluations of completed the Bender-Gestalt and then reproduced designs from memory. Numbers of designs recalled increased with age and Performance Intelligence Quotient. The importance of developmental level in evaluation and establishment of cut-off recall scores for designs were discussed. (Author/RD)

  14. Appearance and Reality: Does a Recognition Test Really Improve Subsequent Recall and Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandler, George; Rabinowitz, Jan C.

    1981-01-01

    That additional exposure to memorial material improves subsequent retrieval probabilities was explored. The effect of a recognition test on subsequent recall and recognition of categorized lists was studied. Prior recognition tests increased recall of original items, but also increased intrusions. Similarly, prior exposure increased hit rates and…

  15. The Role of Visuo-Spatial Abilities in Recall of Spatial Descriptions: A Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gyselinck, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how visuo-spatial abilities (such as mental rotation--MR--and visuo-spatial working memory--VSWM--) work together to influence the recall of environmental descriptions. We tested a mediation model in which VSWM was assumed to mediate the relationship between MR and spatial text recall. First, 120 participants were…

  16. Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity…

  17. Ecological origins of object salience: reward, uncertainty, aversiveness and novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghazizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among many objects around us, some of them are more salient than others (i.e., attract our attention automatically. Some objects may be inherently salient (e.g., brighter, but others may become salient by virtue of their ecological relevance through experience. However, the importance of ecological experience in guiding attention has not been studied systematically. To address this question, we let subjects (macaque monkeys view a large number of complex objects (>300, each experienced repeatedly (>5 days with rewarding, aversive or no outcome association (mere-perceptual exposure. Test of salience was done on separate days using free viewing with no outcome. We found that gaze was biased among the objects from the outset, affecting saccades to objects or fixations within objects. When the outcome was rewarding, gaze preference was stronger (i.e. positive for objects with larger or equal but uncertain rewards. The effects of aversive outcomes were variable. Gaze preference was positive for some outcome associations (e.g. airpuff, but negative for others (e.g. time-out, possibly due to differences in threat levels. Finally, novel objects attracted gaze, but mere perceptual exposure of objects reduced their salience (learned negative salience. Our results show that, in primates, object salience is strongly influenced by previous ecological experience and is supported by a large memory capacity. Owing to such learned salience, the capacity to rapidly choose important objects can grow during the entire life to promote biological fitness.

  18. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eLehmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children’s recall govern children’s rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists.

  19. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children's recall govern children's rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3) 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists.

  20. Reference-dependent preferences and loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Neuman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE in the health-care sector to test the loss aversion theory that is derived from reference-dependent preferences: The absolute subjective value of a deviation from a reference point is generally greater when the deviation represents a loss than when the same-sized change is perceived as a gain. As far as is known, this paper is the first to use a DCE to test the loss aversion theory. A DCE is a highly suitable tool for such testing because it estimates the marginal valuations of attributes, based onextit{ deviations from a reference point} (a constant scenario. Moreover, loss aversion can be examined for extit{each attribute separately}. Another advantage of a DCE is that is can be applied toextit{ non-traded goods with non-tangible attributes}. A health-care event is used for empirical illustration: The loss aversion theory is tested within the context of preference structures for maternity-ward attributes, estimated using data gathered from 3850 observations made by a sample of 542 women who had recently given birth. Seven hypotheses are presented and tested. Overall, significant support for behavioral loss aversion theories was found. %JEL codes: D01, D12, I19

  1. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs....42 Recall strategy. (a) General. (1) A recall strategy that takes into account the following factors... Administration will review the adequacy of a proposed recall strategy developed by a recalling firm and recommend...

  2. Memory for speech and speech for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L; Kutz, K J

    1975-03-01

    Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.

  3. How to make loss aversion disappear and reverse: tests of the decision by sampling origin of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasek, Lukasz; Stewart, Neil

    2015-02-01

    One of the most robust empirical findings in the behavioral sciences is loss aversion--the finding that losses loom larger than gains. We offer a new psychological explanation of the origins of loss aversion in which loss aversion emerges from differences in the distribution of gains and losses people experience. In 4 experiments, we tested this proposition by manipulating the range of gains and losses that individuals saw during the process of eliciting their loss aversion. We were able to find loss aversion, loss neutrality, and even the reverse of loss aversion.

  4. Interoceptive ability predicts aversion to losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hartley, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jeffrey R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have been proposed to inform risky decision-making through the influence of affective physiological responses on subjective value. The ability to perceive internal body states, or "interoception" may influence this relationship. Here, we examined whether interoception predicts participants' degree of loss aversion, which has been previously linked to choice-related arousal responses. Participants performed both a heartbeat-detection task indexing interoception and a risky monetary decision-making task, from which loss aversion, risk attitudes and choice consistency were parametrically measured. Interoceptive ability correlated selectively with loss aversion and was unrelated to the other value parameters. This finding suggests that specific and separable component processes underlying valuation are shaped not only by our physiological responses, as shown in previous findings, but also by our interoceptive access to such signals.

  5. Developmental changes in fact and source recall: Contributions from executive function and brain electrical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Rajan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Source memory involves recollecting the contextual details surrounding a memory episode. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic in nature. Unfortunately, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its formation in early development. This study examined the development of source memory in middle childhood. Measures of executive function were examined as potential sources of variation in fact and source recall. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG measures were collected during baseline and fact and source retrieval in order to examine memory-related changes in EEG power. Six and 8-year-old children were taught 10 novel facts from two different sources and recall for fact and source information was later tested. Older children were better on fact recall, but both ages were comparable on source recall. However, source recall performance was poor at both ages, suggesting that this ability continues to develop beyond middle childhood. Regression analyses revealed that executive function uniquely predicted variance in source recall performance. Task-related increases in theta power were observed at frontal, temporal and parietal electrode sites during fact and source retrieval. This investigation contributes to our understanding of age-related differences in source memory processing in middle childhood.

  6. Resting Brain Activity Varies with Dream Recall Frequency Between Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-01-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain ‘dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [15O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5±0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2±1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain ‘dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory. PMID:24549103

  7. Are Asians forgetful? Perception, retention, and recall in episodic remembering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2009-04-01

    Cross-cultural studies have shown that Asians exhibit less accessibility to episodic memories than Euro-Americans. This difference is often attributed to differential cognitive and social influences on memory retention, although there have been no empirical data concerning the underlying mechanism. Three studies were conducted to examine encoding and retention processes that may underlie the cultural difference in episodic recall. While Asians recalled fewer personal event episodes than Euro-Americans across different retention intervals, the two groups showed similar forgetting functions over time (Study 1). Asians also recalled fewer episodes of fictional events than Euro-Americans when the retention interval was kept to a minimum (Study 2). Finally, Asians perceived fewer discrete episodes than Euro-Americans when reading events in a narrative text (Study 3). Collectively, these findings suggest that the cultural difference in episodic recall may not be a mere consequence of memory retention but culture-specific perceptual processing and encoding. They have great theoretical, developmental, and clinical relevance.

  8. Endogenous cannabinoid release within prefrontal-limbic pathways affects memory consolidation of emotional training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morena, M.; Roozendaal, B.; Trezza, V.; Ratano, P.; Peloso, A.; Hauer, D.; Atsak, P.; Trabace, L.; Cuomo, V.; McGaugh, J.L.; Schelling, G.; Campolongo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have provided extensive evidence that administration of cannabinoid drugs after training modulates the consolidation of memory for an aversive experience. The present experiments investigated whether the memory consolidation is regulated by endogenously released cannabinoids. The

  9. Recency and suffix effects with immediate recall of olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C; Jenkins, R

    2000-05-01

    In contrast to our understanding of the immediate recall of auditory and visual material, little is known about the corresponding characteristics of short-term olfactory memory. The current study investigated the pattern of immediate serial recall and the associated suffix effect using olfactory stimuli. Subjects were trained initially to identify and name correctly nine different odours. Experiment 1 established an immediate correct recall span of approximately six items. In Experiment 2 participants recalled serially span equivalent lists which were followed by a visual, auditory, or olfactory suffix. Primacy was evident in the recall curves for all three suffix conditions. Recency, in contrast, was evident in the auditory and visual suffix conditions only; there was a strong suffix effect in the olfactory suffix condition. Experiment 3 replicated this pattern of effects using seven-item lists, and demonstrated that the magnitude of the recency and suffix effects obtained in the olfactory modality can equate to that obtained in the auditory modality. It is concluded that the pattern of recency and suffix effects in the olfactory modality is reliable, and poses difficulties for those theories that rely on the presence of a primary linguistic code, sound, or changing state as determinants of these effects in serial recall.

  10. Mathematical Modeling for Risk Averse Firm Facing Loss Averse Customer’s Stochastic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbeom Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the firm’s profit during a finite planning horizon, a dynamic programming model is used to make joint pricing and inventory replenishment decision assuming that customers are loss averse and the firm is risk averse. We model the loss averse customer’s demand using the multinomial choice model. In this choice model, we consider the acquisition and transition utilities widely used by a mental accounting theory which also incorporate the reference price and actual price. Then, we show that there is an optimal inventory policy which is base-stock policy depending on the accumulated wealth in each period.

  11. Loss aversion and rent-seeking: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.

  12. Recall of vegetable eating affects future predicted enjoyment and choice of vegetables in British University undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    Predictions about enjoyment of future experiences are influenced by recalling similar past experiences. However, little is known about the relationship between hedonic memories of past eating episodes and future eating behavior. We investigated recall of previous experiences of eating vegetables and the effect of recall on future predicted liking for and consumption of vegetables. British University undergraduate students were asked to retrieve memories of previous occasions when they ate vegetables and were asked to rate how enjoyable those experiences were (Study 1, n=54). The effect of different types of memory recall (including vegetable eating recall) and visualization of someone else eating vegetables (to control for priming effects) on predicted likelihood of choosing vegetables and predicted enjoyment of eating vegetables was examined (Study 2, n=95). Finally, the effect of recalling vegetable eating memories on actual food choice from a buffet was assessed (Study 3, n=63). It is reported that people recall positive memories of past vegetable consumption (Pchoice of a larger portion size of vegetables (Pfood memory, or visualization of someone else enjoying eating vegetables (increase of approximately 70% in vegetable portion size compared to controls). The results suggest that recall of previous eating experiences could be a potential strategy for altering food choices. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring history and memory through autobiographical memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor Goodson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the role of autobiographical memory as a site of narrative construction. Far from being a place of liberal retrospective recall it is a site of active recapitulation and reconstruction. The article provides examples of how history and memory are intermingled. It also draws in the author’s autobiographical vignettes to explore the underpinning desires for historical reconstruction in autobiographical memory work

  14. MANAGEMENT OF UNSAFE FOOD RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the essence of eff ective management to recall unsafe food. The implementation of the development is refl ected in its individual parts. Legal requirements oblige companies to take immediate action when an available product poses a threat to the consumer’s health or life. These actions imply blocking of a suspicious batch or a possible product recall, as well as eff ective communication with supervisory authorities and consumers, if a product has already been available to them. The scope of these regulations is scrupulously listed in private safety standards and food quality, such as BRC, IFS, or in an international norm ISO 22000. The article emphasized the importance of the traceability system to ensure eff ective recall, also analysed the results of the research into the causes and evaluated the eff ectiveness of the food recall.

  15. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  16. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  17. Topoi: Functional in Human Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William F.

    1970-01-01

    Reports an experiment in which a topical system facilitated subjects' recall of information pertinent both to highly meaningful and less meaningful issues; based upon author's doctoral study, Pennsylvania State University. (RD)

  18. Self-generated mnemonics for enhancing free recall performance in older learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R D; Allen, C; Gregory, K

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of self-generated mnemonic strategies for free-recall list learning was examined in 94 older community-dwelling adults. Participants were presented with a list of 19 nouns and were given seven minutes to commit the list to memory with three minutes for recall. Performance was measured immediately following recall and after a 2-day delay. Forty-five percent of the participants reported using a specific organizational mnemonic encoding strategy to facilitate recall. At both immediate and delayed recall, those individuals who reported using a well-articulated mnemonic outperformed those reporting the use of repetition or making simple associations. The results suggest that many older adults can spontaneously generate specific elaborative encoding strategies and that pre-existing encoding skills should be assessed prior to remedial memory training for older adults.

  19. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  20. Cultural scripts guide recall of intensely positive life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Katherine A; Pillemer, David B; Ivcevic, Zorana; Gooze, Rachel A

    2007-06-01

    In four studies, we examined the temporal distribution of positive and negative memories of momentous life events. College students and middle-aged adults reported events occurring from the ages of 8 to 18 years in which they had felt especially good or especially bad about themselves. Distributions of positive memories showed a marked peak at ages 17 and 18. In contrast, distributions of negative memories were relatively flat. These patterns were consistent for males and females and for younger and older adults. Content analyses indicated that a substantial proportion of positive memories from late adolescence described culturally prescribed landmark events surrounding the major life transition from high school to college. When the participants were asked for recollections from life periods that lack obvious age-linked milestone events, age distributions of positive and negative memories were similar. The results support and extend Berntsen and Rubin's (2004) conclusion that cultural expectations, or life scripts, organize recall of positive, but not negative, events.

  1. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test: an in-depth analysis of recall patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Hogervorst, Eef; W Rahardjo, Tri Budi

    2018-04-01

    One of the earliest signs of dementia is memory issues and verbal word lists, such as the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), are successfully used for screening. To gain insight in how memory is affected in dementia, and to further improve the efficacy of the HVLT, in-depth analysis of the recall patterns of dementia cases and controls was conducted. Dementia cases and controls were matched for factors that can affect performance, such as age, gender and education level. Word frequency, syllable length, and orthographic neighbourhood size did not differ in the Indonesian version of the HVLT, nor did these characteristics affect recall. However dementia cases showed consistent and poor recall across the three trials; with the worst recall for the "human shelter" category and best recall for the "animals" category. Dementia cases also showed impaired accessibility of all categories with reduced subsequent recall from accessed categories and reduced primacy and recency levels. Finally, dementia cases exhibited lower levels of re-remembering and recalling new words, and higher levels of immediate forgetting and never recalling words. It was concluded that utilising the extra information provided by the in-depth analyses of the recall patterns could be beneficial to improve dementia screening.

  2. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  3. Sensory Food Aversions in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Sensory Food Aversion is one of the most common feeding disorders during the first 3 years of life, when young children are transitioned to self-feeding, and when issues of autonomy and dependency have to be negotiated between parents and child. In this article, the author discusses "picky eaters" and the importance of distinguishing between…

  4. Comparing uncertainty aversion towards different sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baillon, Aurélien; Liu, Ning; van Dolder, Dennie

    2017-01-01

    We propose simple behavioral definitions of comparative uncertainty aversion for a single agent towards different sources of uncertainty. Our definitions allow for the comparison of utility curvature for different sources if the agent’s choices satisfy subjective expected utility towards each

  5. Random queues and risk averse users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Palma, André; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Nash equilibrium in time of use of a congested facility. Users are risk averse with general concave utility. Queues are subject to varying degrees of random sorting, ranging from strict queue priority to a completely random queue. We define the key “no residual queue” property, which...

  6. Risk Aversion and Skewness Preference: a comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEmpirically, co-skewness of asset returns seems to explain a substantial part of the cross-sectional variation of mean return not explained by beta. Thisfinding is typically interpreted in terms of a risk averse representativeinvestor with a cubic utility function. This comment questions

  7. Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Benedetto; Camerer, Colin F; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-02-23

    Losses are a possibility in many risky decisions, and organisms have evolved mechanisms to evaluate and avoid them. Laboratory and field evidence suggests that people often avoid risks with losses even when they might earn a substantially larger gain, a behavioral preference termed "loss aversion." The cautionary brake on behavior known to rely on the amygdala is a plausible candidate mechanism for loss aversion, yet evidence for this idea has so far not been found. We studied two rare individuals with focal bilateral amygdala lesions using a series of experimental economics tasks. To measure individual sensitivity to financial losses we asked participants to play a variety of monetary gambles with possible gains and losses. Although both participants retained a normal ability to respond to changes in the gambles' expected value and risk, they showed a dramatic reduction in loss aversion compared to matched controls. The findings suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in generating loss aversion by inhibiting actions with potentially deleterious outcomes.

  8. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  9. Enhanced Risk Aversion, But Not Loss Aversion, in Unmedicated Pathological Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Aylward, Jessica; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2017-06-15

    Anxiety disorders are associated with disruptions in both emotional processing and decision making. As a result, anxious individuals often make decisions that favor harm avoidance. However, this bias could be driven by enhanced aversion to uncertainty about the decision outcome (e.g., risk) or aversion to negative outcomes (e.g., loss). Distinguishing between these possibilities may provide a better cognitive understanding of anxiety disorders and hence inform treatment strategies. To address this question, unmedicated individuals with pathological anxiety (n = 25) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 23) completed a gambling task featuring a decision between a gamble and a safe (certain) option on every trial. Choices on one type of gamble-involving weighing a potential win against a potential loss (mixed)-could be driven by both loss and risk aversion, whereas choices on the other type-featuring only wins (gain only)-were exclusively driven by risk aversion. By fitting a computational prospect theory model to participants' choices, we were able to reliably estimate risk and loss aversion and their respective contribution to gambling decisions. Relative to healthy control subjects, pathologically anxious participants exhibited enhanced risk aversion but equivalent levels of loss aversion. Individuals with pathological anxiety demonstrate clear avoidance biases in their decision making. These findings suggest that this may be driven by a reduced propensity to take risks rather than a stronger aversion to losses. This important clarification suggests that psychological interventions for anxiety should focus on reducing risk sensitivity rather than reducing sensitivity to negative outcomes per se. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Collaborative remembering in older adults: age-invariant outcomes in the context of episodic recall deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-09-01

    Rapidly growing research reveals complex yet systematic consequences of collaboration on memory in young adults, but much less is known about this phenomenon in older adults. Young and older adults studied a list of categorized words and took three successive recall tests. Test 1 and 3 were always taken individually, and Test 2 was done either in triads or alone. Despite older adults recalling less overall than young adults, both age groups exhibited similar costs and benefits of collaboration: Collaboration reduced both correct and false recall during collaborative remembering, was associated with more positive beliefs about its value, and produced reminiscence, collective memory, and some forgetting in its cascading effects on postcollaborative recall. We examine the role of retrieval organization in these effects. As environmental support may play a substantial role in healthy aging, the relatively preserved effects of collaboration on memory in older adults hold promise for testing judicious uses of group remembering in aging.

  11. Recall of ICU Stay in Patients Managed With a Sedation Protocol or a Sedation Protocol With Daily Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burry, Lisa; Cook, Deborah; Herridge, Margaret; Devlin, John W; Fergusson, Dean; Meade, Maureen; Steinberg, Marilyn; Skrobik, Yoanna; Olafson, Kendiss; Burns, Karen; Dodek, Peter; Granton, John; Ferguson, Niall; Jacka, Michael; Tanios, Maged; Fowler, Robert; Reynolds, Steven; Keenan, Sean; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2015-10-01

    To 1) describe factual, emotional, and delusional memories of ICU stay for patients enrolled in the SLEAP (Daily sedation interruption in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients cared for with a sedation protocol) trial; 2) compare characteristics of patients with and without ICU recall, and patients with and without delusional memories; and 3) determine factors associated with delusional memories 28 days after ICU discharge. Prospective cohort. Sixteen North American medical and surgical ICUs. Critically ill, mechanically ventilated adults randomized in the SLEAP trial. Post-ICU interviews on days 3, 28, and 90 using the validated ICU Memory Tool. Overall, 289 of 297 ICU survivors (97%) (146 protocolized sedation and 143 protocolized sedation plus daily interruption patients) were interviewed at least once. Because there were no differences in recall status or types of memories between the two sedation groups, we present the findings for all patients rather than by study group. On days 3, 28, and 90, 28%, 26%, and 36% of patients, respectively, reported no recall of being in the ICU (overall perception, self-reported) (p = 0.75). Mean daily doses of benzodiazepines and opioids were lower in patients with no ICU recall than those with recall (p memory from ICU, respectively. Emotional memories declined with time after ICU discharge, particularly panic and confusion. Delusional memories 28 days after discharge were common (70%) yet unrelated to delirium (p = 0.84), recall status (p = 0.15), total dose of benzodiazepine (p = 0.78), or opioid (p = 0.21). Delusional memories were less likely with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 0.955; 95% CI, 0.91-1.00; p = 0.04). Recall of ICU stay and types of memories reported were not influenced by the trial sedation strategy. Lack of ICU recall and delusional memories were common after ICU discharge despite the use of sedation strategies that promoted wakefulness.

  12. Appetitive vs. Aversive Conditioning in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eAndreatta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US, which might be pain (aversive conditioning or food (appetitive conditioning. After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 am and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+ predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock, another shape (appCS+ predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants’ preference, and a third shape (CS- predicted neither US. In an extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning

  13. Memories of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  14. Memory and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Niglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "memory" has different meanings when analyzed within specific cultural contexts. In general, the memory expresses the ability of man to keep track of events, information, sensations, ideas, experiences, and recall this consciousness as soon as certain motivations make necessary the contribution of past experience.

  15. That's not what you said the first time: A theoretical account of the relationship between consistency and accuracy of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Sarah E; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2016-01-01

    Over multiple response opportunities, recall may be inconsistent. For example, an eyewitness may report information at trial that was not reported during initial questioning-a phenomenon called reminiscence . Such inconsistencies are often assumed by lawyers to be inaccurate and are sometimes interpreted as evidence of the general unreliability of the rememberer. In two experiments, we examined the output-bound accuracy of inconsistent memories and found that reminisced memories were indeed less accurate than memories that were reported consistently over multiple opportunities. However, reminisced memories were just as accurate as memories that were reported initially but not later, indicating that it is the inconsistency of recall, and not the later addition to the recall output, that predicts lower accuracy. Finally, rememberers who exhibited more inconsistent recall were less accurate overall, which, if confirmed by more ecologically valid studies, may indicate that the common legal assumption may be correct: Witnesses who provide inconsistent testimony provide generally less trustworthy information overall.

  16. The impact of taxing working memory on negative and positive memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris M. Engelhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier studies have shown that horizontal eye movement (EM during retrieval of a negative memory reduces its vividness and emotionality. This may be due to both tasks competing for working memory (WM resources. This study examined whether playing the computer game “Tetris” also blurs memory. Method: Participants recalled negative and positive memories in three conditions: recall only, recall with concurrent EM, and recall with playing Tetris. Before and after these conditions, vividness, emotionality, and physiological startle responses during recall were measured. Results: A reaction time task showed that EM and Tetris both draw on WM, compared to no dual-task. Compared to recall only, EM and Tetris decreased reported emotionality and startle responses. Conclusions: The effects of EM and Tetris did not differ, even though the tasks differed in the degree of taxing WM. This suggests that taxing WM and its effects on emotional memories may not be linearly related. Potential clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Role of PKA signaling in D2 receptor-expressing neurons in the core of the nucleus accumbens in aversive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Goto, Akihiro; Nakahara, Ichiro; Yawata, Satoshi; Hikida, Takatoshi; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Funabiki, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2015-09-08

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) serves as a key neural substrate for aversive learning and consists of two distinct subpopulations of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). The MSNs of the direct pathway (dMSNs) and the indirect pathway (iMSNs) predominantly express dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors, respectively, and are positively and negatively modulated by DA transmitters via Gs- and Gi-coupled cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling cascades, respectively. In this investigation, we addressed how intracellular PKA signaling is involved in aversive learning in a cell type-specific manner. When the transmission of either dMSNs or iMSNs was unilaterally blocked by pathway-specific expression of transmission-blocking tetanus toxin, infusion of PKA inhibitors into the intact side of the NAc core abolished passive avoidance learning toward an electric shock in the indirect pathway-blocked mice, but not in the direct pathway-blocked mice. We then examined temporal changes in PKA activity in dMSNs and iMSNs in behaving mice by monitoring Förster resonance energy transfer responses of the PKA biosensor with the aid of microendoscopy. PKA activity was increased in iMSNs and decreased in dMSNs in both aversive memory formation and retrieval. Importantly, the increased PKA activity in iMSNs disappeared when aversive memory was prevented by keeping mice in the conditioning apparatus. Furthermore, the increase in PKA activity in iMSNs by aversive stimuli reflected facilitation of aversive memory retention. These results indicate that PKA signaling in iMSNs plays a critical role in both aversive memory formation and retention.

  18. [Extinction and Reconsolidation of Memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzina, A B; Balaban, P M

    2015-01-01

    Retrieval of memory followed by reconsolidation can strengthen a memory, while retrieval followed by extinction results in a decrease of memory performance due to weakening of existing memory or formation of a competing memory. In our study we analyzed the behavior and responses of identified neurons involved in the network underlying aversive learning in terrestrial snail Helix, and made an attempt to describe the conditions in which the retrieval of memory leads either to extinction or reconsolidation. In the network underlying the withdrawal behavior, sensory neurons, premotor interneurons, motor neurons, and modulatory for this network serotonergic neurons are identified and recordings from representatives of these groups were made before and after aversive learning. In the network underlying feeding behavior, the premotor modulatory serotonergic interneurons and motor neurons involved in motor program of feeding are identified. Analysis of changes in neural activity after aversive learning showed that modulatory neurons of feeding behavior do not demonstrate any changes (sometimes a decrease of responses to food was observed), while responses to food in withdrawal behavior premotor interneurons changed qualitatively, from under threshold EPSPs to spike discharges. Using a specific for serotonergic neurons neurotoxin 5,7-DiHT it was shown previously that the serotonergic system is necessary for the aversive learning, but is not necessary for maintenance and retrieval of this memory. These results suggest that the serotonergic neurons that are necessary as part of a reinforcement for developing the associative changes in the network may be not necessary for the retrieval of memory. The hypothesis presented in this review concerns the activity of the "reinforcement" serotonergic neurons that is suggested to be the gate condition for the choice between extinction/reconsolidation triggered by memory retrieval: if these serotonergic neurons do not respond during the

  19. Dopamine Regulates Aversive Contextual Learning and Associated In Vivo Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Broussard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine release during reward-driven behaviors influences synaptic plasticity. However, dopamine innervation and release in the hippocampus and its role during aversive behaviors are controversial. Here, we show that in vivo hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA3-CA1 circuit underlies contextual learning during inhibitory avoidance (IA training. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques verified sparse dopaminergic innervation of the hippocampus from the midbrain. The long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP underlying the learning of IA was assessed with a D1-like dopamine receptor agonist or antagonist in ex vivo hippocampal slices and in vivo in freely moving mice. Inhibition of D1-like dopamine receptors impaired memory of the IA task and prevented the training-induced enhancement of both ex vivo and in vivo LTP induction. The results indicate that dopamine-receptor signaling during an aversive contextual task regulates aversive memory retention and regulates associated synaptic mechanisms in the hippocampus that likely underlie learning.

  20. Cross-Linguistic Differences in the Immediate Serial Recall of Consonants versus Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated native English and native Arabic speakers' phonological short-term memory for sequences of consonants and vowels. Phonological short-term memory was assessed in immediate serial recall tasks conducted in Arabic and English for both groups. Participants (n = 39) heard series of six consonant-vowel syllables and wrote…