WorldWideScience

Sample records for averaged cross sections

  1. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  2. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  3. Resonance Averaged Photoionization Cross Sections for Astrophysical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bautista, M A; Pradhan, A K

    1997-01-01

    We present ground state photoionization cross sections of atoms and ions averaged over resonance structures for photoionization modeling of astrophysical sources. The detailed cross sections calculated in the close-coupling approximation using the R-matrix method, with resonances delineated at thousands of energies, are taken from the Opacity Project database TOPbase and the Iron Project, including new data for the low ionization stages of iron Fe I--V. The resonance-averaged cross sections are obtained by convolving the detailed cross sections with a Gaussian distribution over the autoionizing resonances. This procedure is expected to minimize errors in the derived ionization rates that could result from small uncertainties in computed positions of resonances, while preserving the overall resonant contribution to the cross sections in the important near threshold regions. The detailed photoionization cross sections at low photon energies are complemented by new relativistic distorted-wave calculations for Z1...

  4. Resonance averaged channel radiative neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to apply Lane amd Lynn's channel capture model in calculations with a realistic optical model potential, we have derived an approximate wave function for the entrance channel in the neutron-nucleus reaction, based on the intermediate interaction model. It is valid in the exterior region as well as the region near the nuclear surface, ans is expressed in terms of the wave function and reactance matrix of the optical model and of the near-resonance parameters. With this formalism the averaged channel radiative neutron capture cross section in the resonance region is written as the sum of three terms. The first two terms correspond to contribution of the optical model real and imaginary parts respectively, and together can be regarded as the radiative capture of the shape elastic wave. The third term is a fluctuation term, corresponding to the radiative capture of the compound elastic wave in the exterior region. On applying this theory in the resonance region, we obtain an expression for the average valence radiative width similar to that of Lane and Mughabghab. We have investigated the magnitude and energy dependence of the three terms as a function of the neutron incident energy. Calculated results for 98Mo and 55Mn show that the averaged channel radiative capture cross section in the giant resonance region of the neutron strength function may account for a considerable fraction of the total (n, γ) cross section; at lower neutron energies a large part of this channel capture arises from the fluctuation term. We have also calculated the partial capture cross section in 98Mo and 55Mn at 2.4 keV and 24 keV, respectively, and compared the 98Mo results with the experimental data. (orig.)

  5. LENOS and BELINA Facilities for Measuring Maxwellian Averaged Cross Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro is one of the 5 laboratories of Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Italy; the one devoted to nuclear physics. The Lab has 4 accelerators: a 14 MV tandem, a 7 MV Van de Graaff, a 2 MV electrostatic and a superconductive linac. The electrostatic accelerators are able to accelerate ions up to Li, while the tandem and linac can accelerate heavy ions up to Ni. The smaller energy machines, namely the 7 MV (CN accelerator) and the 2 MV (AN2000 accelerator), are mostly devoted to nuclear physics applications. Within the CN accelerator, the neutron beam line for astrophysics (BELINA) is under development. The BELINA beam line will be devoted to the measurement of Maxwellian averaged cross section at several stellar temperatures, using a new method to generate the Maxwell-Boltzmann neutron spectra developed within the framework of the LENOS project. BELINA well characterized neutron spectra can also be used for validation of evaluated data as requested by the IRDFF CRP. The proposed new method deals with the shaping of the proton beam energy distribution by inserting a thin layer of material between the beam line and the lithium target. The thickness of the foil, the foil material and the proton energy are chosen in order to produce quasi-Gaussian spectra of protons that, impinging directly on the lithium target, produce the desired MBNS (Maxwell Boltzmann Neutron Spectra). The lithium target is a low mass target cooled by thin layer of forced water all around the beam spot, necessary to sustain the high specific power delivered to the target in CW (activation measurements). The LENOS method is able to produce MBNS with tuneable neutron energy ranging from 25 to 60 keV with high accuracy. Higher neutron energies up to 100 keV can be achieved if some deviation from MBNS is accepted. Recently, we have developed an upgrade of the pulsing system of the CN accelerator. The system has been tested already and works well

  6. Measurement of 233U fission spectrum-averaged cross sections for some threshold reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 233U fission spectrum-averaged cross sections for twelve threshold reactions were measured relative to the average cross section of 0.688 ± 0.040 mb for the 27Al(n,α)24Na reaction. The reference value was obtained by calculation using the energy dependent cross section in the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL) Dosimetry File and the Watt-type fission spectrum in ENDF/B-VI. General agreement was seen between the measured and the calculated fission-spectrum averaged cross sections. However, there exist discrepancies of more than 10% between the measured and the calculated average cross sections for the 24Mg(n,p)24Na, 47Ti(n,p)47Sc, and 64Zn(n,p)64Cu reactions. The tendencies in the calculated-to-measured ratios are similar to those for 235U fission spectrum-averaged cross sections the authors previously measured. The measured average cross sections were also applied for the spectrum adjustment of the 233U fission neutrons using the Neutron Unfolding Package Code (NEUPAC). The adjusted spectrum is close to the Watt-type fission spectrum of 233U within the uncertainties of the obtained spectrum, although there exist some fluctuations in the ratio spectrum of the adjusted to the Watt-type

  7. Maxwellian-averaged Cross Section Calculated From CENDL-3.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For the propose of using in astrophysics the Maxwellian-averaged cross sections of neutron capture,fission, (n, p) and (n, α) reactions are calculated from the CENDL-3.0, and the temperature (kT)from 1

  8. Determination of the continuous casting cross-section with prescribed average temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Grzymkowski, R.; D. Słota

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the method of determination of the continuous casting cross-section, in which average temperature was equal to a prescribed value. The method proposed here does not require evaluation of temperature distribution. On the basis of input data, a linear or non-linear equation is created (depending on the heat flux form on the region boundaries), which solution enabled determination of the cross-section.

  9. Determination of the continuous casting cross-section with prescribed average temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grzymkowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the method of determination of the continuous casting cross-section, in which average temperature was equal to a prescribed value. The method proposed here does not require evaluation of temperature distribution. On the basis of input data, a linear or non-linear equation is created (depending on the heat flux form on the region boundaries, which solution enabled determination of the cross-section.

  10. Average Cross-Sectional Area of DebriSat Fragments Using Volumetrically Constructed 3D Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, T.; Moraguez, M.; Patankar, K.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, M.; Huynh, T.

    2016-01-01

    Debris fragments from the hypervelocity impact testing of DebriSat are being collected and characterized for use in updating existing satellite breakup models. One of the key parameters utilized in these models is the ballistic coefficient of the fragment which is directly related to its area-to-mass ratio. However, since the attitude of fragments varies during their orbital lifetime, it is customary to use the average cross-sectional area in the calculation of the area-to-mass ratio. The average cross-sectional area is defined as the average of the projected surface areas perpendicular to the direction of motion and has been shown to be equal to one-fourth of the total surface area of a convex object. Unfortunately, numerous fragments obtained from the DebriSat experiment show significant concavity (i.e., shadowing) and thus we have explored alternate methods for computing the average cross-sectional area of the fragments. An imaging system based on the volumetric reconstruction of a 3D object from multiple 2D photographs of the object was developed for use in determining the size characteristic (i.e., characteristics length) of the DebriSat fragments. For each fragment, the imaging system generates N number of images from varied azimuth and elevation angles and processes them using a space-carving algorithm to construct a 3D point cloud of the fragment. This paper describes two approaches for calculating the average cross-sectional area of debris fragments based on the 3D imager. Approach A utilizes the constructed 3D object to generate equally distributed cross-sectional area projections and then averages them to determine the average cross-sectional area. Approach B utilizes a weighted average of the area of the 2D photographs to directly compute the average cross-sectional area. A comparison of the accuracy and computational needs of each approach is described as well as preliminary results of an analysis to determine the "optimal" number of images needed for

  11. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  12. Energy-averaged neutron cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of energy-averaged cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials is outlined with emphasis on U.S. data programs in the neutron-energy range 1-10 MeV. Areas of outstanding accomplishment and significant uncertainty are noted with recommendations for future efforts. Attention is primarily given to the main constituents of stainless steel (e.g., Fe, Ni, and Cr) and, secondarily, to alternate structural materials (e.g., V, Ti, Nb, Mo, Zr). Generally, the mass regions of interest are A approximately 50 to 60 and A approximately 90 to 100. Neutron total and elastic-scattering cross sections are discussed with the implication on the non-elastic-cross sections. Cross sections governing discrete-inelastic-neutron-energy transfers are examined in detail. Cross sections for the reactions (n;p), (n;n',p), (n;α), (n;n',α) and (n;2n') are reviewed in the context of fast-reactor performance and/or diagnostics. The primary orientation of the discussion is experimental with some additional attention to the applications of theory, the problems of evaluation and the data sensitivity of representative fast-reactor systems

  13. Analytical calculation of the average scattering cross sections using fourier series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precise determination of the Doppler broadening functions is very important in different applications of reactors physics, mainly in the processing of nuclear data. Analytical approximations are obtained in this paper for average scattering cross section using expansions in Fourier series, generating an approximation that is simple and precise. The results have shown to be satisfactory from the point-of-view of accuracy and do not depend on the type of resonance considered. (author)

  14. Sensitivity and uncertainty studies of average cross section parameters with Monte-Carlo sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser Feshbach formalism with width fluctuation corrections and some Optical Model recipes are widely used for the calculation of average cross sections. Each model involved in the calculation is parametrized. The parameters can be adjusted to reproduce experimental datasets. As a result, a covariance matrix can be deduced from the fit and used in uncertainty calculation of the group averaged cross sections. Nevertheless, some parameters, such as the mean level spacing, the binding and pairing energy, are not supposed to be adjusted. They have a-priori uncertainties that should be properly taken into account and propagated into the previous adjustment as well as to group averaged cross sections. In this paper, we propose to use a Monte-Carlo propagation method based on an exact mathematical description to treat these non-adjusted parameters and their effects on the adjusted ones. A full covariance matrix for all the parameters will then be evaluated. Two isotopes will be treated 240Pu and 177Hf to illustrate the involved methods. (authors)

  15. Neutron Thermal Cross Sections, Westcott Factors, Resonance Integrals, Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Calculated from Major Evaluated Data Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-...

  16. Average neutron cross section measurements in U-235 fission spectrum for some threshold reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections have been measured for the threshold reactions 58Ni(n, 2n)57Ni, 127I(n, 2n)126I, 55Mn(n, 2n)54Mn, 63Cu(n, α)60Co and 31P(n, p)31Si, by the activation technique using high-resolution γ-ray spectrscopy. The fast neutron spectrum at the irradiation position has been characterized by using an additional set of activation foils. The results are presented with a complete uncertainty covariance matrix and are compared with evaluated values and previous measurements. (orig.)

  17. Fusion cross sections for 12C+128Te and the deduction of absolute average angular momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion cross sections have been measured for 12C+128Te from Ec.m.=40.4 to 56.6 MeV by direct detection and identification of evaporation residues using a time-of-flight technique. Average angular momenta for fusion are deduced from a sharp cutoff approximation at energies above the Coulomb barrier. These values of left-angle l right-angle and those already obtained from isomer ratio measurements are in very good agreement in the energy region where both methods should be valid

  18. Averaged U238 fission cross section measurement in Cf-252 neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With regard to the standardization of Cf-252 neutron spectrum, the averaged U-238 fission cross section was measured over the Cf-252 neutron spectrum using foil activation technique. The gamma spectra of the fission products were obtained on a pure germanium detector at different decay times in order to identify the gamma rays of short, medium and long half-life radioisotopes. Analyzing the gamma spectra of the irradiated uranium foils several distinct photopeaks of several fission products were identified. The pure activity of Te-132 was determined from the net area under 228.2 kev photopeak after correcting it for neighbouring photopeaks of Np-239 and Pa-234. The averaged U238 fission cross section was calculated from the corrected counts of Te-132 photopeak to be 329±10 mb. The main sources of errors in the measurements are mainly due to inaccuracy of location of foils, neutron flux, counting statistics, weight of foils, impurity of foils and interference from neighbouring photopeaks. The contribution of fission neutrons from spontaneous fission of Cm-248, daughter of Cf-252, to the total flux density was estimated at 0.13%. (orig.)

  19. Neutron capture on (94)Zr: Resonance parameters and Maxwellian-averaged cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliente, G; Fujii, K; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calvino, F; Calviani, M; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Goncalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Jericha, E; Kappeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martinez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M.T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stephan, C; Tain, J.L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M.C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2011-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of the Zr isotopes play an important role in nucleosynthesis studies. The s-process reaction flow between the Fe seed and the heavier isotopes passes through the neutron magic nucleus (90)Zr and through (91,92,93,94)Zr, but only part of the flow extends to (96)Zr because of the branching point at (95)Zr. Apart from their effect on the s-process flow, the comparably small isotopic (n, gamma) cross sections make Zr also an interesting structural material for nuclear reactors. The (94)Zr (n, gamma) cross section has been measured with high resolution at the spallation neutron source n_TOF at CERN and resonance parameters are reported up to 60 keV neutron energy.

  20. Calculation of prompt fission product average cross sections for neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield-weighted average cross sections of neutron radiative capture, (n,2n), and (n,3n) reactions over prompt fission products (FPs) from 235U and 239Pu are calculated. The prompt fission production yields are taken from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The FPs for each fissile material exist over a range of approximately 1000 neutron-rich nuclides. Several nuclear reaction codes are utilized for calculating the cross sections on each individual fission product - EMPIRE-2.19, TALYS-1.0, GNASH, and CoH. The influence of the FP isomers on the average cross sections is examined with TALYS. We investigate the dependence of the average cross sections on the number of FPs taken for averaging. It is shown that the average capture cross section is much more sensitive to the number of FPs included, compared with the (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions. An intercomparison of the calculated cross sections with the different reaction codes is carried out. In the capture reaction, EMPIRE predicted lower cross section than TALYS and CoH owing to different default assumptions used in the γ-ray strength function modeling. Moreover, the pre-equilibrium models implemented in each code give different predictions for the neutron-emission reactions, although the differences are relatively small. We also discuss a difference between the macroscopic and microscopic calculation options in TALYS for the pre-equilibrium model, optical potential model, and γ-ray strength function. The predictive capability of the reaction codes for the capture reaction is examined by comparing their calculations with the ENDF data, which are based on measurements. Compared with the historic Foster and Arthur's evaluation, our new (n,2n) predictions are similar, although our capture predictions are almost an order of magnitude higher. Recommended cross sections for use in applications have been tabulated in ENDF-formatted files. (author)

  1. Fission spectrum averaged cross section measurements of some neutron threshold reactions of relevance to medical radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A resume is given of radiochemical measurements of nuclear reaction cross sections relevant to the production of some medically important radionuclides carried out at PINSTECH during the last decade. Systematic studies on fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of several threshold reactions, like (n, 2n), (n, p) and (n, α) on titanium, ruthenium, europium and dysprosium for the production of 45Ti, 96Tc, 153Sm and 153Gd are described. (orig.)

  2. Doppler broadening effect on collision cross section functions - Deconvolution of the thermal averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The surprising feature of the Doppler problem in threshold determination is the 'amplification effect' of the target's thermal energy spread. The small thermal energy spread of the target molecules results in a large dispersion in relative kinetic energy. The Doppler broadening effect in connection with thermal energy beam experiments is discussed, and a procedure is recommended for the deconvolution of molecular scattering cross-section functions whose dominant dependence upon relative velocity is approximately that of the standard low-energy form.

  3. Standard Deviation of Spatially-Averaged Surface Cross Section Data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the spatial variability of the normalized radar cross section of the surface (NRCS or Sigma(sup 0)) derived from measurements of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) for the period from 1998 to 2009. The purpose of the study is to understand the way in which the sample standard deviation of the Sigma(sup 0) data changes as a function of spatial resolution, incidence angle, and surface type (land/ocean). The results have implications regarding the accuracy by which the path integrated attenuation from precipitation can be inferred by the use of surface scattering properties.

  4. AVERAGE REACTION CROSS-SECTIONS FOR 74-MEV TO 112-MEV ALPHA-PARTICLES ON I-127 AND CS-133

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARNER, RE; WILSCHUT, HW; RULLA, WF; FELDER, GN

    1991-01-01

    The average reaction cross section for 74- to 112-MeV alpha particles on I-127 and Cs-133 was measured by a new method using a magnetic spectrograph and a CsI scintillation detector. The result, sigma-R = 2220+/-50 mb, is in good agreement with optical model calculations and finite-range microscopic

  5. 252Cf spectrum-averaged cross section for the 63Cu(n, p)63Ni reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, M.; Shibata, T.; Shibata, S.; Ohkubo, T.; Satoh, S.; Nogawa, N.

    1999-01-01

    The 63Ni produced by the 63Cu(n, p)63Ni reaction provides a unique measure to estimate the fast-neutron fluence of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki atomic bomb. In the similarity of the fission neutron spectrum of 252Cf to that of 235U, we have measured activation cross sections of the 63Cu(n, p)63Ni reaction averaged for the 252Cf fission spectrum.

  6. Fast neutron spectrum unfolding of a TRIGA Mark II reactor and measurement of spectrum-averaged cross sections. Integral tests of differential cross sections of neutron threshold reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S.; Hossain, S.M.; Khan, R. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology (INST); Sudar, S. [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Inst. of Experimental Physics; Zulquarnain, M.A. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Qaim, S.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM-5)

    2013-07-01

    The spectrum of fast neutrons having energies from 0.5 to 20 MeV in the core of the 3MW TRIGA Mark II reactor at Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, was unfolded by activating several metal foils to induce threshold nuclear reactions covering the whole spectrum, and then doing necessary iterative calculations utilizing the activation results and the code SULSA. The analysed shape of the spectrum in the TRIGA core was found to be similar to that of the pure {sup 235}U-fission spectrum, except for the energies between 0.5 and 1.5 MeV, where it was slightly higher than the fission spectrum. Spectrum-averaged cross sections were determined by integral measurements. The integral values measured in this work were compared with the recommended values for a pure fission spectrum as well as with the integrated data deduced from measured and evaluated excitation functions of a few reactions given in some data files. The good agreement between integral measurements and integrated data in case of well-investigated reactions shows that the fast neutron field at the TRIGA Mark II reactor can be used for validation of evaluated data of neutron threshold reactions. (orig.)

  7. Fast neutron spectrum unfolding of a TRIGA Mark II reactor and measurement of spectrum-averaged cross sections. Integral tests of differential cross sections of neutron threshold reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of fast neutrons having energies from 0.5 to 20 MeV in the core of the 3MW TRIGA Mark II reactor at Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, was unfolded by activating several metal foils to induce threshold nuclear reactions covering the whole spectrum, and then doing necessary iterative calculations utilizing the activation results and the code SULSA. The analysed shape of the spectrum in the TRIGA core was found to be similar to that of the pure 235U-fission spectrum, except for the energies between 0.5 and 1.5 MeV, where it was slightly higher than the fission spectrum. Spectrum-averaged cross sections were determined by integral measurements. The integral values measured in this work were compared with the recommended values for a pure fission spectrum as well as with the integrated data deduced from measured and evaluated excitation functions of a few reactions given in some data files. The good agreement between integral measurements and integrated data in case of well-investigated reactions shows that the fast neutron field at the TRIGA Mark II reactor can be used for validation of evaluated data of neutron threshold reactions. (orig.)

  8. Study of U235 neutron fission spectrum by the knowledge of cross sections average over that spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature search of cross sections averaged over the fission neutron spectrum confirms inconsistencies between calculated and experimental values for high threshold reactions. Since, in this case, calculated averaged cross sections are systematically lower than measured values, it is concluded that the representations used to carry out these calculations underestimate the number of neutrons in the high energy region of the spectrum. A careful measurement of the averaged cross section for the 45Sc(n,2n) 44gSc and 45Sc(n,2n) 44mSc high threshold reactions had been performed in the RA-6 Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory after carefully checking that the neutron flux at the core position where the samples were being irradiated was indeed an undisturbed fission spectrum. The experimental values are greater than those calculated with either, Watt type representations or the one based on the Madland and Nix model for the prompt fission spectrum. In many areas of nuclear engineering, like validation of nuclear data, reactor calculations, applied nuclear physics, shielding design, etc., it is of great practical importance to have a representation for the neutron flux that can be expressed in a closed analytical form and that agrees with experimental results, specially for the most widely fissile nuclide, 235U. The results of the calculations mentioned above lead us to propose an analytical form for the 235U fission neutron spectrum that better agrees with experimental results in the whole energy spectrum. We propose two different forms; both are a modification of the Watt-type form that has been adopted within the ENDF/B-V files. One of the new analytical representations is defined in two regions: below 9.5 MeV it is exactly the same formula as that used within the ENDF/B-V files, above this energy the parameters of this formula are changed. The other proposed analytical representation is expressed by a single formula in the whole energy range. These two new

  9. On uncertainties and fluctuations of averaged neutron cross sections in unresolved resonance energy region for 235U, 238U, 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the reasons for the differences which exist between group-averaged evaluated cross-section data from different evaluated data files for U235, U238 and Pu239 in the unresolved resonance energy region. (author)

  10. Measurement of average cross section for Pa-233 (n, 2n) Pa-232 reaction to neutrons with fission-type reactor spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among some nuclides concerning thorium fuel cycle, the reaction cross sections of Pa-233 should be thoroughly investigated because of its relatively long life of 27 days half life. In the present works, the average cross section for Pa-233(n,2n)Pa-232 reaction, which has been considered to contribute to the production of troublesome concomitant U-232, was initially measured using the Pa-233 specimen as pure as possible followed by the re-irradiation in a fission-type neutron spectrum. The purest Pa-233 was produced from the first thermal neutron irradiation of Th-oxide, which was selected from the viewpoint of low Th-230 content to avoid the production of bothering Pa-231 having a large cross section for thermal neutron capture reaction. The chemically isolated Pa-233 was immediately re-irradiated with reactor neutrons having fission-type reactor spectrum in KUR, along with some flux monitors for fast neutrons. After completely decaying out Pa-233 to U-233, the chemical purification of uranium was performed and the resultant uranium isotopes were analysed with an alpha-spectrometry. By using the activity ratios of U-232/U-233, the objective cross section was evaluated to be 52.1 mbarn with an estimated overall experimental error of 10 % after correcting the inevitable bypath reaction by small amount of Pa-231 content. (author)

  11. Measurement of the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th with 232ThO2 irradiated by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Thorium-Uranium cycle plays an important role in the future's power production technology. Nuclear data involved are urgently needed for engineering design and other purposes since there are obvious differences between the existing evaluated data. Macroscopic neutron integral experiment can be used as a good tool to survey the confusion. Purpose: Macroscopic neutron integral experiment based on radioactive method was carried out to measure the generation ratio of 233U nuclide and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th while a ThO2 sample was irradiated by fast neutrons leakage from a fast critical facility. We expect that these data can be used as a reference for the research of Th-U cycle. Methods: Radiation capture reactions of 232Th nuclides occur when the nuclides are irradiated by neutrons. 233U nuclides will be generated after two cascade decays by emitting beta rays from the activation products, which are 233Th nuclides. The ThO2 sample was prepared as a slice of 20 mm×10 mm from 0.743 36-g ThO2 powders of 99.9% enriched. The neutron flux was measured by activation method which was 4.07x109 cm-2·s-1 at the sample's irradiation position while the facility worked at the power level of 180 watts. The leakage neutrons' energy distribution was calculated by MC method and it is very close to the fission spectrum with the averaged energy of 1.42 MeV. After irradiation and then a period of cooling time the gamma rays emitted from the sample were measured by an HPGe spectrometer which had been pre-calibrated. From these data the activity of 233Pa was calculated and then the generation ratio of 233U and the average radiation capture cross section of 232Th were calculated. The measured average radiation capture cross section was compared with the cross sections calculated based on the ENDFB-VH.1, CENDL-3.1, JENDL-4.0, BROND2.2 databases. Results: The measured generation ratio of 233U was 4.01×10-12 with an uncertainty of 6

  12. Measurement of fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of some threshold reactions on europium: small scale production of no-carrier-added 153Sm in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing the activation technique in combination with radiochemical separations and high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections were measured for several (n, 2n), (n, p) and (n, α) reactions on isotopes of europium. Our measurements constitute the first systematic studies. Of special interest was the investigation of 153Eu(n, p)153Sm reaction for the production of no-carrier-added 153Sm in a nuclear reactor. Using 100% enriched 153Eu target, 97.21 MBq 153Sm per batch can be produced which is, however, not sufficient for medical application. (orig.)

  13. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  14. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1–12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1–12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m2; for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1–6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6–12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human

  15. Evaluation of temperature dependence of the emission cross-section of Yb-doped ceramic materials from 298K to 393K for high average power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature dependence of the emission cross-sections of ceramic materials doped with Yb have been investigated in the temperature range from 298K to 393K. The materials such as YAG, Y2O3 and Lu2O3 have been adopted as host ceramic materials. The emission spectra have been found to decrease with a rise in temperature. The cross sections at the wavelength giving the peaks in the emission spectra have shown a gradual decrease against temperature. (author)

  16. Neutron Thermal Cross Sections, Westcott Factors, Resonance Integrals, Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Calculated from the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0, ROSFOND-2010, CENDL-3.1 and EAF-2010 Evaluated Data Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-process Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, systematically calculate uncertainties, and provide additional insights on currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations are discussed and new results are presented. Due to space limitations, the present paper contains only calculated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and their uncertainties. The complete data sets for all results are published in the Brookhaven National Laboratory report.

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Averaged cross Sections for the Formation of Ground and Metastable State when Using Reactor Neutrons as Bombarding Particles the straight line method

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro Guevara, S

    2001-01-01

    determine, by this method, the production cross section for the ground state even in those cases where the assumption that one of the states has decayed completely, cannot be warranted.In cases where the ground state half life is much longer than that of the isomeric state, when employing direct methods, it is only possible to determine the sum cross section for the production of both states; therefore, if the metastable production cross section is known, then it is possible to determine, by subtraction, the ground state production cross section.When using the straight-line method, both cross sections can be determined separately.The main limitation of the method is the need to measure the g emission associated to the ground state decay at different time intervals.A parametric analysis of the equations associated to the method shows that under certain conditions it is not possible to apply the method, while under other conditions the method delivers optimum results.The method was applied to the study of four ...

  18. Calculations of Nuclear Astrophysics and Californium Fission Neutron Spectrum Averaged Cross Section Uncertainties Using ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-fidelity Covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear astrophysics and californium fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections and their uncertainties for ENDF materials have been calculated. Absolute values were deduced with Maxwellian and Mannhart spectra, while uncertainties are based on ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and Low-Fidelity covariances. These quantities are compared with available data, independent benchmarks, EXFOR library, and analyzed for a wide range of cases. Recommendations for neutron cross section covariances are given and implications are discussed

  19. Calculations of photo-induced X-ray production cross-sections in the energy range 1-150 keV and average fluorescence yields for Zn, Cd and Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, J. M.; Guerra, M.; Parente, F.; Madeira, T. I.; Indelicato, P.; Santos, J. P.; Marques, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we calculate the K-, L- and M-shells X-ray production, and X-ray fluorescence cross-sections after photo-induced ionization, for Zn, Cd, and Hg, and for incident photon energy range from 1 to 150 keV. For this purpose, the corresponding average fluorescence yields for Zn, Cd, and Hg as well as the photoionization cross-sections were calculated using the Dirac-Fock method. Subshell fluorescence, intrashell and intershell yields are obtained consistently from radiative and radiationless transitions calculated in the exact same method. A comprehensive account of the relations between the X-ray production, X-ray fluorescence cross-sections and the photoionization cross-sections and these yields is presented. Comparisons are made with results from other authors. The obtained values for the photoionization cross-sections are in good agreement with the widely used data of Scofield in the studied energy range. However our results for the X-ray fluorescence cross sections seem to favor some data relatively to others. The energy dependence of the average fluorescence yields is discussed, in particular, the reliability of extrapolated data for lighter elements from measurements and calculations in heavier elements above the inner shell absorption edges is questioned. Tabulated data on photoionization and X-ray production cross-sections are presented for the incident photon energy range 1-150 keV in steps of 1 keV.

  20. Total Cross Sections

    OpenAIRE

    G. GiacomelliBologna University and INFN

    2014-01-01

    The measurements of the hadron-hadron total cross sections are the first measurements performed when a new hadron accelerator opens up a new energy region; the measurements were made as function of the incoming beam momentum or c.m. energy and have often been repeated with improved accuracy and finer energy spacing.

  1. The consistency of the data for neutron fission averaged cross-sections of threshold reactions: A study on the cross-section of 46Ti(n,p)46Sc, 47Ti(n,p)47Sc, 48Ti(n,p)48Sc and 64Zn(n,p)64Cu reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consistency of the published values for fission averaged cross-sections of threshold reactions induced in a nuclear reactor is analyzed. The influence of the literature data involved in the determination of these cross-sections is discussed. Renormalizations based on cross-sections value for the standard reactions, isotopic abundances of the precursors and radiation emission probabilities of the radionuclide under study and the monitor, are applied to the evaluation of the cross-sections for the reactions: 46Ti(n,p)46Sc; 47Ti(n,p)47Sc; 48Ti(n,p)48Sc; and 64Zn(n,p)64Cu. - Highlights: • Some published data on cross-sections averaged over a fission spectrum are analyzed. • The reactions were 46Ti(n,p)46Sc; 47Ti(n,p)47Sc; 48Ti(n,p)48Sc and 64Zn(n,p)64Cu. • Renormalization as a function of five critical parameters was performed. • Averages of the renormalized values were calculated and the results discussed

  2. Neutrino Cross section Future

    CERN Document Server

    Gollapinni, Sowjanya

    2016-01-01

    The study of neutrino-nucleus interactions has recently received renewed attention due to their importance in interpreting the neutrino oscillation data. Over the past few years, there has been continuous disagreement between neutrino cross section data and predictions due to lack of accurate nuclear models suitable for modern experiments which use heavier nuclear targets. Also, the current short and long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments focus in the few GeV region where several distinct neutrino processes come into play resulting in complex nuclear effects. Despite recent efforts, more experimental input is needed to improve nuclear models and reduce neutrino interaction systematics which are currently dominating oscillation searches together with neutrino flux uncertainties. A number of new detector concepts with diverse neutrino beams and nuclear targets are currently being developed to provide necessary inputs required for next generation oscillation experiments. This paper summarizes these effor...

  3. Group cross sections calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just a few methods have been developped to compute multigroup cross-sections from ENDF data. We have developped an original method in order to get accuracy and to reduce the number of discretization points in the same time; this is why we have tried to use polynomial integration. In this paper, we describe this method: in the first part, we recall some physical hypothesis generally used to solve the linear Boltzmann equation: that is the frame in which the numerical method has been developped. Polynomial methods are really powerfull only if discretization points are suitably chosen. This choice is explained in the next part of this paper. In conclusion, some numerical results are given to illustrate our method

  4. Diffractive and rising cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependence of the diffractive component of the proton-proton cross section is discussed and its contribution to the rise of the total cross section at high energies is examined. 17 refs., 9 figs

  5. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the following topics: 14 MeV pulsed neutron facility; detection and measurement system; 238U capture cross sections at 23 and 964 keV using photon neutron sources; capture cross sections of Au-197 at 23 and 964 keV; and yttrium nuclear cross section measurement

  6. Calculations of Maxwellian-averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Using the ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VI.8 Evaluated Nuclear Reaction Data Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Pritychenko, B.; Mughaghab, S. F.; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We calculated the Maxwellian-averaged cross sections (MACS) and astrophysical reaction rates of the stellar nucleosynthesis reactions (n,$\\gamma$), (n,fission), (n,p), (n,$\\alpha$) and (n,2n) using the ENDF/B-VII.0-, JEFF-3.1-, JENDL-3.3-, and ENDF/B-VI.8-evaluated nuclear-data libraries. Four major nuclear reaction libraries were processed under the same conditions for Maxwellian temperatures ({\\it kT}) ranging from 1 keV to 1 MeV. We compare our current calculations of the {\\it s}-process n...

  7. (n,2n) cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the fission products and a few of the actinides in ENDF/B-V do not have (n,2n) cross sections. A complete set of these cross sections is presented in the multigroup structure defined. These were constructed for future use in the DANDE Code System

  8. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  9. Cross Sections and Lorentz Violation

    OpenAIRE

    Colladay, Don; Kostelecky, Alan

    2001-01-01

    The derivation of cross sections and decay rates in the Lorentz-violating standard-model extension is discussed. General features of the physics are described, and some conceptual and calculational issues are addressed. As an illustrative example, the cross section for the specific process of electron-positron pair annihilation into two photons is obtained.

  10. Measurement of fission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented on the recent progress in the experiment of fission cross section measurement, including recent activity in Japan being carried out under the project of nuclear data measurement. (author)

  11. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Chaitali V.; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina. P.

    2016-05-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σa,en) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μen/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  12. The total charm cross section

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that due to the small charm quark mass, which amplifies the effect of the other parameters in the calculation, the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  13. Photoneutron cross sections for the silicon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoneutron cross sections for 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si have been measured up to 33 MeV with monoenergetic photons from the annihilation in flight of fast positrons, using neutron multiplicity counting. Average neutron energies were obtained simultaneously with the cross-section data by the ring-ratio technique. The giant dipole resonance for 28Si and 30Si exhibit appreciable fragmentation; that for 29Si does not. The (γ,2n) cross section for 30Si is large; that for 29Si is consistent with zero. The (γ,1n) cross section for 30Si decreases sharply with energy to values near zero as the (γ,2n) cross section grows, then increases to appreciable values as the (γ,2n) cross section diminishes; this extreme behavior, although never seen before, is attributable to the competition between the (γ,n), (γ,2n), and (γ,pn) decay channels. Some properties of the isospin components of the giant resonance are inferred. Other features of the data, including the integrated cross sections, are found to be similar in many respects to corresponding results for the oxygen and magnesium isotopes. The 28Si nucleus is found to be a better core for 29Si and 30Si than might have been expected from previous descriptions of its open-shell character

  14. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  15. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  16. Cross sections for nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General properties of low-energy cross sections and of reaction rates are presented. We describe different models used in nuclear astrophysics: microscopic models, the potential model, and the R-matrix method. Two important reactions, 7Be(p,γ)8B and 12C(α,γ)16O, are then briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Graphs of the cross sections in the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section (AMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. The values of ν-bar, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also plotted for appropriate isotopes

  18. Metonymy and Cross Section Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Evstigneev, Igor V.; Hildenbrand, Werner; Jerison, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Cross section consumer expenditure data are frequently used to make conclusions about consumer demand behavior. Such conclusions, however, can only be justified under certain assumptions, which are often left unstated in the empirical demand literature. An assumption of this type, the metonymy hypothesis, was stated rigorously and then exploited by Hardle, Hildenbrand and Jerison when analyzing the monotonicity property of aggregate demand functions. The purpose of the present paper is to exa...

  19. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    OpenAIRE

    David Jenn; Cuong Ton

    2012-01-01

    The radar cross section (RCS) of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axi...

  20. New activation cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New nuclear cross section libraries (known as USACT92) have been created for activation calculations. A point-wise file was created from merging the previous version of the activation library, the U.S. Nuclear Data Library (ENDF/B-VI), and the European Activation File (EAF-2). 175 and 99 multi-group versions were also created. All the data are available at the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center

  1. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  2. Study of yield and average cross sections of the secondary reactions of charged particles produced by 14 MeV neutrons on light nuclei. Application to the determination of hydrogen, deuterium and oxygen-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yield and average cross section for the reactions 11B(p,n)11C, 12C(p,γ)13N, 13C(p,n)13N, 12C(d,n)13N, 14N(p,α)11C , 16O(p,α)13N, 16O(d,n)17F, 16O(t,n)18F, and 18O(p,n)18F have been measured in different compounds. The charged particles were created in the samples themselves either through recoil by scattering of 14 MeV neutrons of hydrogen and deuterium, or by the (n,t) reaction on 6Li using thermal neutrons. The yields of reactions 12C(d,n); 16O(p,α); 16O(t,n) and 18O(p,n) have been measured using proton deuteron and triton spectra generated by 14 MeV neutrons in the reactions D(n,p)2n; 6Li(n,d); 7Li(n,d) and 10B(n,d); 7Li(n,t) and 10B(n,t), respectively. On the other hand the hydrogen mass fraction in an arbitrary matrix is determined using the scattered protons emitted from a sample, to activate a boron pellet using the 11B(p,n)11C reaction. With a natural boron detector, detection limits of 0.2% have been achieved using a 14 MeV neutron generator with a yield of ∼1011S-1. 72 figs.; 17 tabs.; 105 refs. (author)

  3. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we outline the progress achieved in two distinct under the DOE-sponsored cross section project: the initial results obtained from the pulsed 14 MeV neutron facility, and a cooperative effort with Argonne National Laboratory in the measurement of fast neutron cross sections in yttrium. In the 14 MeV neutron laboratory, this year has seen the maturation of the project into one in which initial scattering measurements are now underway. We have improved the accelerator and ion source in several significant ways, so that neutron intensities have now been proven to be adequate for our series of elastic scattering angular distribution measurements outlined in our initial proposal of two years ago. We have successfully tested all components of the time-of-flight spectrometer and recorded initial neutron spectra from the ring targets that we have obtained for our first angular distribution measurements. Examples of the time-of-flight spectra that have been obtained are given later in this report. At the present time, the accelerator is operating with the highest degree of reliability that we have experienced since installing the pulsing system. Improvements made over the past year have not only increased the available neutron intensity, but also increased our capability to deal with inevitable component failures that require repair or replacement. The measurements carried out in conjunction with Argonne have contributed significantly to the available database on fast neutron interactions in yttrium. Results indicate that the cross section for the 89 Y(n,p)89Sr reaction is substantially higher than represented in ENDF/B-VI

  4. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  5. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months

  6. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  7. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections in JENDL-3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron cross sections of 337 nuclides in JENDL-3.3 are presented in figures and tables. In the tables, shown are cross sections at 0.0253 eV and 14 MeV, Maxwellian average cross sections (kT = 0.0253 eV), resonance integrals and fission spectrum average cross sections. The average cross sections calculated with typical reactor spectra are also tabulated. The numbers of delayed and total neutrons per fission are given in figures. (author)

  8. Evaluation of cross section for 103Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A completely new evaluation for the neutron cross sections is presented. The experimental data mainly referred to EXFOR, and the recommended cross sections are compared with ENDF/B-6, BROND-2, JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2

  9. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  10. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, F; Grau, A; Pancheri, G; Sciutto, S J

    2015-01-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultra-high energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air-showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  11. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a 6Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  13. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ''clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ''data production'' phase

  14. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  15. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 235U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to 235U. However, the more difficult 235U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the 235U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Calculation of cross sections for heavy isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work an integrated system of codes for basic neutron data evaluation were assembled and built. Complete evaluations for the isotopes 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 238Pu were performed. The following cross sections: total, elastic, radiative capture, fission, total inelastic, partial inelastic, (n,2n), (n,3n) and differential elastic were evaluated as well as the average number of neutrons per neutron-induced fission and the average elastic scattering cosine in the lab system.The data for the plutonium isotopes were incorporated into the German KEDAK file. A method was developed for calculating the energy distributions of the second and third secondary neutrons from the A(n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions in the framework of the compound nucleus theory, and utilizing the nuclear data of the nuclei A, A-1, A-2. This method was used to generate the 238U secondary neutron energy distributions in the incident neutron energy range of 6 to 15 MeV. A nuclear data evaluation for 237U in the resolved inelastic scattering range (10-700 keV) was performed. The compound elastic and partial inelastic scattering cross sections were used in the 238U secondary neutron energy distribution calculations. (B.G.)

  18. Multifractal detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2011-07-01

    There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross correlations. The multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MFDCCA) approaches can be used to quantify such cross correlations, such as the MFDCCA based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (MFXDFA) method. We develop in this work a class of MFDCCA algorithms based on the detrending moving-average analysis, called MFXDMA. The performances of the proposed MFXDMA algorithms are compared with the MFXDFA method by extensive numerical experiments on pairs of time series generated from bivariate fractional Brownian motions, two-component autoregressive fractionally integrated moving-average processes, and binomial measures, which have theoretical expressions of the multifractal nature. In all cases, the scaling exponents hxy extracted from the MFXDMA and MFXDFA algorithms are very close to the theoretical values. For bivariate fractional Brownian motions, the scaling exponent of the cross correlation is independent of the cross-correlation coefficient between two time series, and the MFXDFA and centered MFXDMA algorithms have comparative performances, which outperform the forward and backward MFXDMA algorithms. For two-component autoregressive fractionally integrated moving-average processes, we also find that the MFXDFA and centered MFXDMA algorithms have comparative performances, while the forward and backward MFXDMA algorithms perform slightly worse. For binomial measures, the forward MFXDMA algorithm exhibits the best performance, the centered MFXDMA algorithms performs worst, and the backward MFXDMA algorithm outperforms the MFXDFA algorithm when the moment order q0. We apply these algorithms to the return time series of two stock market indexes and to their volatilities. For the returns, the centered MFXDMA algorithm gives the best estimates of hxy(q) since its hxy(2) is closest to 0.5, as expected, and the

  19. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  20. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  1. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  2. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of integrated cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. This volume II contains cross-sections for K+ and K- induced reactions. (orig.)

  3. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  4. Ion and electron impact ionization cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several current projects are described in which cross sections of interest to radiation physics are being measured. These include total and multiple ionization cross sections for protons on several gases covering a wide energy range, the measurement of cross sections differential in the angle and energy of ejected electrons for several gases including water vapor, and a review of proton ionization data. The work on water vapor has also been extended to electron and neutral hydrogen impact. A brief discussion is also given of some systematics of ionization cross sections. 13 references

  5. Improved Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, can be shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the pico-barn range.

  6. Damage cross section library (DAMSIG77)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage cross sections of various materials are converted to a data format, which can be used as library for the program SAND-II. The materials available in this library are graphite, stainless steel, aluminium, silicium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium and niobium. A number of these materials have more than one cross section set, originating from different evaluations. Cross sections for some activation reactions, commonly used to determine thermal and fast neutron fluences have been included too. Moreover, also some artificial cross sections are introduced in this library which can be used to derive values for some physical quantities which may characterize neutron spectra

  7. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements

  8. The Elusive p-air Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Martin M

    2006-01-01

    For the $\\pbar p$ and $pp$ systems, we have used all of the extensive data of the Particle Data Group[K. Hagiwara {\\em et al.} (Particle Data Group), Phys. Rev. D 66, 010001 (2002).]. We then subject these data to a screening process, the ``Sieve'' algorithm[M. M. Block, physics/0506010.], in order to eliminate ``outliers'' that can skew a $\\chi^2$ fit. With the ``Sieve'' algorithm, a robust fit using a Lorentzian distribution is first made to all of the data to sieve out abnormally high $\\delchi$, the individual i$^{\\rm th}$ point's contribution to the total $\\chi^2$. The $\\chi^2$ fits are then made to the sieved data. We demonstrate that we cleanly discriminate between asymptotic $\\ln s$ and $\\ln^2s$ behavior of total hadronic cross sections when we require that these amplitudes {\\em also} describe, on average, low energy data dominated by resonances. We simultaneously fit real analytic amplitudes to the ``sieved'' high energy measurements of $\\bar p p$ and $pp$ total cross sections and $\\rho$-values for $\\...

  9. Unified approach to the multilevel parametrization of resonance cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined method of parametrization in the resolved resonance region and an approach to modelling the resonance structure in the unresolved region are suggested. The most typical case for the resonances of the non fissile nuclei with one neutron channel (s-wave resonances or resonances of an arbitrary l and a zero spin of the target nucleus) are considered. It is shown that for such systems the total cross section as well as the absorption cross section can be expressed as ratios of sums of pole terms with respect to energy. The modeling of the resonance structure in the unresolved region is needed for the examination of the resonance self-shielding effects in reactor physics. In this region the analysis of the experimental data (average cross sections and average transmissions) permits the determination of only the average resonance parameters - the strength functions Sn, Sγ. And it is necessary to model the resonance cross sections structure and such models should give the correct average cross section and also conserve the information for the cross sections minima to which the values of the transmissions data are very sensitive

  10. Anomalously large neutron capture cross sections: a random phenomenon?

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, B V; Kerman, A K

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the existence of huge thermal neutron capture cross sections in several nuclei. The values of the cross sections are several orders of magnitude bigger than expected at these very low energies. We lend support to the idea that this phenomenon is random in nature and is similar to what we have learned from the study of parity violation in the actinide region. The idea of statistical doorways is advanced as a unified concept in the delineation of large numbers in the nuclear world. The average number of maxima per unit mass, $$ in the capture cross section is calculated and related to the underlying cross section correlation function and found to be $ = \\frac{3}{\\pi \\sqrt{2}\\gamma_{A}}$, where $\\gamma_{A}$ is a characteristic mass correlation width which designates the degree of remnant coherence in the system. We trace this coherence to nucleosynthesis which produced the nuclei whose neutron capture cross sections are considered here.

  11. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and KL0. It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  12. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  13. Nucleon-XcJ Dissociation Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯又层; 许晓明; 周代翠

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-XcJ dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent interexchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmüller-Tye quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium.

  14. Fission cross section calculations for Pa isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the recently measured cross-section values for the neutron-induced fission of 231Pa and our experience gained with other isotopes, new self consistent neutron cross section calculations for n+231Pa have been performed up to 30 MeV. The results are quite different to the existing evaluations, especially above the first chance fission threshold. (authors)

  15. Fission cross section for 242Am.met

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron-induced fission cross section for 242Am.met (152y) was measured at the Livermore 100-MeV electron linac in the neutron energy range of 0.01 eV to 20 MeV. Fission fragments were detected using a hemispherical fission chamber. The neutron flux was measured below 10 keV using lithium glass scintillators. Above 10 keV, the 242Am.met fission cross section was measured relative to the 235U fission cross section. Below 20 eV, the data were fit with a sum of single-level Breit-Wigner resonances. Results for the distribution of fission widths, the average fission width, and the average level spacing are presented. The fission cross section in the 100 keV to 20 MeV range is compared with previous measurements

  16. Comparative analysis among several cross section sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical parameters were calculated using the one dimensional multigroup transport theory for several cross section sets. Calculations have been performed for water mixtures of uranium metal, plutonium metal and uranium-thorium oxide, and for metallics systems, to determine the critical dimensions of geometries (sphere and cylinder). For this aim, the following cross section sets were employed: 1) multigroup cross section sets obtained from the GAMTEC-II code; 2) the HANSEN-ROACH cross section sets; 3) cross section sets from the ENDF/B-IV, processed by the NJOY code. Finally, we have also calculated the corresponding critical radius using the one dimensional multigroup transport DTF-IV code. The numerical results agree within a few percent with the critical values obtained in the literature (where the greatest discrepancy occured in the critical dimensions of water mixtures calculated with the values generated by the NJOY code), a very good results in comparison with similar works. (Author)

  17. Photoproton cross section for 17O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the 17O(γ,p)16N reaction from threshold to an excitation energy of 44 MeV is presented. These results have been summed with the previously measured total photoneutron cross section to provide an approximation to the total photoabsorption cross section of 17O. The magnitude of the 17O photoabsorption cross section at the peak of the Giant Dipole Resonance is considerably less than the equivalent value for the photoabsorption cross sections of 16O and 18O. In addition, the integrated total photoabsorption cross section for 17O (up to 40 MeV) exhausts only about 58% of the sum rule; the values for the cases of 16O and 18O are significantly larger than this. The present data along with results from other reaction channels of this nucleus, were used to make spin, parity, and isospin assignments for several states in 17O. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  18. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  19. Singly differential cross sections with exchange for Ps-fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Hasi

    2008-01-01

    Ps ionization in Ps-atom scattering is of fundamental importance. The singly differential cross sections (SDCS) provides more accurate information to test a theory than integrated or total ionization cross section since the averaging over one parameter is not required. We evaluate the SDCS for Ps-ionization with respect to the longitudinal energy distribution of the break-up positron and electron in Ps-H and Ps-He scattering and compare them with the recently available experimental and theore...

  20. The average crossing number of equilateral random polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the average crossing number of equilateral random walks and polygons. We show that the mean average crossing number ACN of all equilateral random walks of length n is of the form (3/16)n ln n + O(n). A similar result holds for equilateral random polygons. These results are confirmed by our numerical studies. Furthermore, our numerical studies indicate that when random polygons of length n are divided into individual knot types, the for each knot type K can be described by a function of the form = a(n-n0)ln(n-n0) + b(n-n0) + c where a, b and c are constants depending on K and n0 is the minimal number of segments required to form K. The profiles diverge from each other, with more complex knots showing higher than less complex knots. Moreover, the profiles intersect with the profile of all closed walks. These points of intersection define the equilibrium length of K, i.e., the chain length ne(K) at which a statistical ensemble of configurations with given knot type K-upon cutting, equilibration and reclosure to a new knot type K'-does not show a tendency to increase or decrease . This concept of equilibrium length seems to be universal, and applies also to other length-dependent observables for random knots, such as the mean radius of gyration g>

  1. Cross Section to Multiplicity Ratios at Very High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Block, M M

    2014-01-01

    Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio sigma^{el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

  2. The 42Ca photoneutron cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the 42Ca(γ,nsub(t)) is reported here over the energy range 10.5 - 28 MeV. Bremsstrahlung radiation from the 35 MeV Betatron at this University was used to measure a yield curve of photoneutrons, from which the (γ,nsub(t)) cross section was derived. Since proton and neutron emission are the major decay modes of the giant dipole resonance, summing these cross sections approximates the photo-absorption cross section. With this information the theoretical predictions can be checked

  3. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of integrated cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data, particularly those from the CERN Collider, have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. This volume III contains cross-sections for p and anti p induced reactions. (orig.)

  4. Screening corrections to the Rutherford cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross sections for elastic p-Au scattering were measured in the energy range between 0.2 and 0.8 MeV for scattering angles from 300 to 1500 in order to determine corrections to the Rutherford cross section due to the screening of the nuclear charge by the atomic electrons. Furthermore, differential cross sections have been calculated in the weakly screening region using various screening functions. A simple analytical expression has been derived for the representation of both experimental and theoretical results. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of the 238U neutron total cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental energy-averaged neutron total cross sections of 238U were evaluated from 0.044 to 20.0 MeV using regorous numerical methods. The evaluated results are presented together with the associated uncertainties and correlation matrix. They indicate that this energy-averaged neutron total cross section is known to better than 1% over wide energy regions. There are somwewhat larger uncertainties at low energies (e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 MeV), near 8 MeV and above 15 MeV. The present evaluation is compard with values given in ENDF/B-V

  6. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Differential cross sections of positron hydrogen collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于荣梅; 濮春英; 黄晓玉; 殷复荣; 刘旭焱; 焦利光; 周雅君

    2016-01-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed.

  8. Systematics of (n,2n) Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The experimental data of (n, 2n) cross sections were collected and evaluated as complete as possible. There are 640 sets of experimental data for 130 nuclei. The data were fitted to the expressions that describe the

  9. Photoneutron cross section of 34S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an enriched 34S target, the reaction 34S(γ,sn)33S has been measured from below threshold (10.4 MeV) to 28 MeV by directly counting the photoneutrons as a function of bremsstrahlung energy. The resultant cross section shows gross splitting in the GDR region. The integrated cross section is discussed in the light of the systematics of similar nuclei having two neutrons outside a doubly closed shell/sub-shell core

  10. Photoneutron cross section of 34S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an enriched 34S target, the reaction 34S(γ, sn) has been measured from below threshold (10.4 MeV) to 28 MeV by directly counting the photoneutrons as a function of bremsstrahlung energy. The resultant cross section shows gross splitting in the GDR region. The integrated cross section is discussed in the light of the systematics of similar nuclei having two neutrons outside a doubly closed shell/sub-shell core. (orig.)

  11. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Scielzo N.D.; Dietrich F.S.; Escher J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ) cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  12. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  13. Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  14. Methods for calculating anisotropic transfer cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Legendre moments of the group transfer cross section, which are widely used in the numerical solution of the transport calculation can be efficiently and accurately constructed from low-order (K = 1--2) successive partial range moments. This is convenient for the generation of group constants. In addition, a technique to obtain group-angle correlation transfer cross section without Legendre expansion is presented. (author)

  15. Photoproton cross section for 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using bremsstrahlung, the 14C(γ,p) reaction cross section has been measured from threshold to 29 MeV. The integrated cross section up to 30 MeV is 18±3 MeV mb. Above 23.5 MeV, the reported cross section includes a contribution, estimated at 3.5 MeV mb, due to the 14C(γ,d) and 14Cγ,pn) reactions. Essentially the entire 14C(γ,p) cross section results from decay of T> dipole states. From knowledge of other decay channels estimates of the cross section, integrated to 30 MeV for the T and T> components of the giant resonance (GDR) of 81 MeV mb and 43 MeV mb are obtained. The splitting of the mean energies of the GDR isospin components is 8.5 MeV. Comparisons with several shell-model calculations are made with the data, and general agreement is found. A comparison of photonuclear absorption cross sections for 12,1314C and 16,17,18 O shows dramatic redistribution of dipole strength as neutrons are added to the core nuclei. 41 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  16. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  17. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  18. A Pebble Bed Reactor cross section methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for the evaluation of microscopic cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) neutron diffusion computational models during convergence to an equilibrium (asymptotic) fuel cycle. This method considers the isotopics within a core spectral zone and the leakages from such a zone as they arise during reactor operation. The randomness of the spatial distribution of fuel grains within the fuel pebbles and that of the fuel and moderator pebbles within the core, the double heterogeneity of the fuel, and the indeterminate burnup of the spectral zones all pose a unique challenge for the computation of the local microscopic cross sections. As prior knowledge of the equilibrium composition and leakage is not available, it is necessary to repeatedly re-compute the group constants with updated zone information. A method is presented to account for local spectral zone composition and leakage effects without resorting to frequent spectrum code calls. Fine group data are pre-computed for a range of isotopic states. Microscopic cross sections and zone nuclide number densities are used to construct fine group macroscopic cross sections, which, together with fission spectra, flux modulation factors, and zone buckling, are used in the solution of the slowing down balance to generate a new or updated spectrum. The microscopic cross-sections are then re-collapsed with the new spectrum for the local spectral zone. This technique is named the Spectral History Correction (SHC) method. It is found that this method accurately recalculates local broad group microscopic cross sections. Significant improvement in the core eigenvalue, flux, and power peaking factor is observed when the local cross sections are corrected for the effects of the spectral zone composition and leakage in two-dimensional PBR test problems.

  19. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  20. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  1. Neutron cross section of methane hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyanagi, Y.; Date, S.; Horikawa, T.; Takamine, J.; Iwasa, H.; Kamiyama, T. [Graduate School of Eng., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Uchida, T.; Ebinuma, T.; Narrita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science, Tsukisamu, Sapporo (Japan); Bennington, S.M. [ISIS Dept., Rutherford Appleton, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    To estimate the neutronic characteristics of methane hydrate and also to synthesize cross section data for simulation we need neutron scattering data ranging wide energy and momentum region. We performed inelastic neutron scattering experiments to get information about the neutron cross section on methane hydrate. It was found that at high momentum transfer region rotational mode as well as vibration mode showed recoil like behavior. On the other hand, at low momentum region, as well known, free rotation like energy levels were observed. The energy level of ice in methane hydrate was very similar to normal ice. The results suggest that the rough expression of the cross section of the methane hydrate is presented by linear combination of the methane and ice. (orig.)

  2. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  3. Radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to estimate the radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates by computing the asymmetry parameter and the cross sections for extinction and scattering. The ballistic particle-cluster aggregate and the ballistic cluster-cluster aggregate consisting of either dielectric or absorbing material are considered to represent naturally existing aggregates. We show that the asymmetry parameter perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation is maximized where the wavelength is comparable to the aggregate size, which may be characterized by the area-equivalent radius or the radius of gyration rather than the volume-equivalent radius. The asymmetry parameter for the aggregate depends on the morphology of the particle, but not on the constituent material. Therefore, the dependence of the radiation pressure cross section on the material composition arises mainly from that of the extinction and scattering cross sections, in other words, the single-scattering albedo. We find that aggregates consisting of high-albedo material show a large deviation of radiation pressure from the direction of incident radiation. When the aggregates are illuminated by blackbody radiation, the deviation of the radiation pressure increases with increasing temperature of the blackbody. Since the parallel component of the radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates is smaller than that for the volume-equivalent spheres at the size parameter close to unity, the Planck-mean radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates having radius comparable to the effective wavelength of radiation shows a lower value, compared with the volume-equivalent sphere. Consequently, the slope of the radiation pressure force per mass of the particle as a function of particle mass shows a lower maximum for the aggregates than for compact spherical particles. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Charged particle reaction cross sections and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of proton and α-particle induced reactions in carbon, neon, oxygen and silicon burning in massive stars is surveyed. The problems associated with determining thermonuclear reaction rates for reactions with widely spaced resonances and with closely spaced or overlapping resonances are discussed and the associated experimental approaches are reviewed. Experimental techniques which have been used in the measurement of reaction cross sections are discussed and their strengths and weaknesses are identified. Recent developments in attempts to establish reliable statistical-model codes for calculation of reaction cross sections are presented and discussed. The results of experimental tests of statistical model codes are summarised and evaluated

  5. Neutron capture cross sections from surrogate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. The method is applied to the 155Gd(n,γ) reaction. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ) cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications. (authors)

  6. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-01

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  7. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  8. Saturation Effects in Hadronic Cross Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Shoshi, Arif I.; Steffen, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    We compute total and differential elastic cross sections of high-energy hadronic collisions in the loop-loop correlation model that provides a unified description of hadron-hadron, photon-hadron, and photon-photon reactions. The impact parameter profiles of pp and gamma*p collisions are calculated. For ultra-high energies the hadron opacity saturates at the black disc limit which tames the growth of the hadronic cross sections in agreement with the Froissart bound. We compute the impact param...

  9. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  10. Atlas of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes neutron capture cross sections in the range 10-5 eV - 20 MeV as evaluated and compiled in recent activation libraries. The selected subset comprise the (n,γ) cross sections for a total of 739 targets for the elements H (Z = 1, Z = 1) to Cm (Z = 96, A = 238) totaling 972 reactions. Plots of the point-wise data are shown and comparisons are made with the available experimental values at thermal energy, 30 keV and 14.5 MeV. 10 refs, 7 tabs

  11. Verification of important cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Continuing efforts in nuclear data development have made the design of a fusion power system less uncertain. The fusion evaluated nuclear data library (FENDL) development effort since 1987 under the leadership of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section has provided a credible international library for the investigation and design of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). Integral neutronics experiments are being carried out for ITER and fusion power plant blanket and shield assemblies to validate the available nuclear database and to identify deficiencies for further improvement. Important cross section data need experimental verifications if these data are evaluated based on physics model calculations and there are no measured data points available. A particular reaction cross section is Si28(n,x)Al27, which is the important cross section to determine whether the low activation SiC composite structure can be qualified as low level nuclear waste after life time exposure in the first wall neutron environment in a fusion power plant. Measurements of helium production data for candidate fusion materials are also needed, particularly at energies above 14 MeV for the assessment of materials damage in the IFMIF neutron spectrum. To a less extent, it appears that V51(n,x)Ti50 reaction cross section also needs to be measured to further confirm a recent new evaluation of vanadium for ENDF/B-VII. (author)

  12. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics

  13. LSP-Nucleus Elastic Scattering Cross Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Vergados, J. D.; Kosmas, T. S.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate LSP-nucleus elastic scattering cross sections using some representative input in the restricted SUSY parameter space. The coherent matrix elements are computed throughout the periodic table while the spin matrix elements for the proposed $^{207}Pb$ target which has a rather simple nuclear structure. The results are compared to those given from other cold dark matter detection targets.

  14. Electron impact excitation cross sections for carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganas, P. S.

    1981-04-01

    A realistic analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of carbon. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, we calculate generalized oscillator strengths and integrated cross sections for various excitations from the 2p 2( 3P O) valence state.

  15. Electron impact excitation cross sections for carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A realistic analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of carbon. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, we calculate generalized oscillator strengths and integrated cross sections for various excitations from the 2p2(3P0) valence state. (orig.)

  16. Top quark cross sections and differential distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    I present results for the top quark pair total cross section and the top quark transverse momentum distribution at Tevatron and LHC energies. I also present results for single top quark production. All calculations include NNLO corrections from NNLL threshold resummation.

  17. Neutron cross sections of importance to astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron reactions of importance to the various stellar burning cycles are discussed. The role of isomeric states in the branched s-process is considered for particular cases. Neutron cross section needs for the 187Re-187Os, 87Rb-87Sr clocks for nuclear cosmochronology are discussed. Other reactions of interest to astrophysical processes are presented. 35 references

  18. Modelisation of the fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron cross sections of four nuclear systems (n+235U, n+233U, n+241Am and n+237Np) are studied in the present document. The target nuclei of the first case, like 235U and 239Pu, have a large fission cross section after the absorption of thermal neutrons. These nuclei are called 'fissile' nuclei. The other type of nuclei, like 237Np and 241Am, fission mostly with fast neutrons, which exceed the fission threshold energy. These types of nuclei are called 'fertile'. The compound nuclei of the fertile nuclei have a binding energy higher than the fission barrier, while for the fissile nuclei the binding energy is lower than the fission barrier. In this work, the neutron induced cross sections for both types of nuclei are evaluated in the fast energy range. The total, reaction and shape-elastic cross sections are calculated by the coupled channel method of the optical model code ECIS, while the compound nucleus mechanism are treated by the statistical models implemented in the codes STATIS, GNASH and TALYS. The STATIS code includes a refined model of the fission process. Results from the theoretical calculations are compared with data retrieved from the experimental data base EXFOR. (author)

  19. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for Radioactive Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, Anton; Bedrossian, Peter; Escher, Jutta; Scielzo, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near or far away from the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering, transfer reactions, and beta-delayed neutron emission. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes far from stability will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  20. Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+(4I9/2) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10-15 cm2) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+ ion. Charge transfer cross section between U+ in the first excited state (289 cm-1) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)

  1. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β- - 47Sc, 67Cu - β+ - 44Sc, 64Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, 68Ge/68Ga - and α emitters - 211At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - natCu or natNi - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the natTi(p,X)47Sc and 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  2. A New Neutrino Cross Section Data Ressource

    CERN Document Server

    Whalley, M R

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new web based data resource being developed to provide access to accurate and validated cross sections of low energy neutrino and antineutrino interactions. The proposed content of this database are outlined which cover total and differential cross from inclusive, quasi-elastic and exclusive pion production processes from charged and neutral current interactions. Efforts to obtain these data, which come mainly from old bubble chamber experiments, are described as well as the implementation of an embryonic web site to make the resource generally accessible.

  3. Displacement cross section and DPA calculations using NMTC/JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new function calculating displacement cross sections using the Lindhard-Robinson model is implemented in the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAERI. The nucleon-nucleus cross sections in the energy region above 950 MeV and the angular distribution data of elastic scattering are also modified to evaluate the displacement cross sections as accurate as possible. The displacement cross sections of Cr, Fe Ni, and type 316 stainless steel are calculated with the updated version of NMTC/JAERI. It is confirmed that the calculated displacement cross sections caused by the elastic scattering connect smoothly with the value of the JENDL PKA File at 20 MeV. With these calculation values, the displacement per atoms (DPA) in the beam window and target vessel of a mercury target are estimated in a framework of the neutronics design study of the spallation target bombarded with 1.5 GeV protons with a power of 5 MW. The following three beam conditions are selected in this calculation; (a) uniform distribution with average current density of 48 μA/cm2, (b) parabolic distribution with average current density of 48 μA/cm2, and (c) that with average current density of 24 μA/cm2. The DPAs are estimated as (a) 68, (b) 114, and (c) 70 DPA/yr at the beam windows, and (a) 41, (b) 52, and (c) 37 DPA/yr at the target vessel for the three cases, respectively. It is found that the DPAs obtained in this study are almost the same as the results of other design studies for spallation neutron source facilities. (author)

  4. (n,α) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a method of (n,α) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the 12C(n,α0)9Be measurement. We applied this method to the 16O(n,α)13C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  5. (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  6. Measurement of MA fission cross sections at YAYOI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Ohki, Shigeo; Wakabayashi, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Fission cross section ratios of minor actinide nuclides (Am-241, Am-243) relative to U-235 in the fast neutron energy region have been measured using a back-to-back (BTB) fission chamber at YAYOI fast neutron source reactor. A small BTB fission chamber was developed to measure the fission cross section ratios in the center of the core at YAYOI reactor. Dependence of the fission cross section ratios on neutron spectra was investigated by changing the position of the detector in the reactor core. The measurement results were compared with the fission cross sections in the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 libraries. It was found that calculated values of Am-241 using the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by about 15% than the measured value in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6(eV)). And, good agreement can be seen the measured value and calculated value of Am-243 using the JENDL-3.2 data in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6)(eV), but calculated values of Am-243 using the ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by 11% and 13% than the measured value. (author)

  7. Structured ion impact: Doubly differential cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron emission in coincidence with a projectile that has been ionized has been measured, thus making it possible to separate and identify electrons resulting from these various mechanisms. In 1985, coincidence doubly differential cross sections were measured for 400 to 750 keV/atomic mass unit (amu) He+ impact on He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and H2O. Cross sections were measured for selected angles and for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. Because of the coincidence mode of measurement, the total electron emission was subdivided into its target emission and its projectile emission components. The most interesting findings were that target ionization does not account for the electron emission spectrum at lower electron energies. A sizable percentage of these low-energy electrons were shown to originate as a result of simultaneous projectile/target ionizations. Similar features were observed for all targets and impact energies that were studied

  8. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. Jet cross sections and PDF constraints

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of inclusive jet and dijet production cross sections is presented. Data from LHC proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7\\TeV$, corresponding to $4.67\\fbinv$ of integrated luminosity, have been collected with the CMS detector. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-$k_T$ clustering algorithm of size parameter $R=0.7$, extending to rapidity $|y|=2.5$, transverse momentum $\\pt=2\\TeV$, and dijet invariant mass $M_{JJ}=5\\TeV$. The measured cross sections are corrected for detector effects and compared to perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order, using various sets of parton distribution functions.

  10. The photoneutron cross section of 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoneutron cross section of 20Ne has been measured over a photon energy range 16 to 29 MeV in steps of 100 keV. The giant dipole resonance is resolved into three strong peaks below 21 MeV and at least two broader resonances at higher excitations. This structure is consistent with earlier measurements of poorer resolution and shows a correlation with the recent calculations of Schmid and Do Dang. Comparisons with high resolution neutron time-of-flight and electron scattering data indicate that there appear to exist in the giant resonance of 20Ne, regions of structure roughly 2-3 MeV wide which exhibit localised characteristics related to the excitation mechanisms. The role of deformation and configuration splitting effects in the cross section are discussed and possible directions of further study are noted which might clarify the situation more fully

  11. Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Giannaka, P G

    2015-01-01

    In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  12. Cross-section analysis for TRADE fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA core includes bounded hydrogen in Zirconium hydride in its fuel meat allowing for fast reactivity transients. The inherent safety mechanism is based on the immediate increase of neutron up-scattering by the hydrogen as a result of a fuel temperature increase. The temperature dependent resonance absorption is the second safety feature. The special fuel type together with the introduction of an external source within it for the TRADE project necessitates an accurate evaluation of the bounded hydrogen cross section generation technique as well as of the resonance treatment. By comparing deterministic tools and Monte Carlo solution methods the generated bounded isotopes cross sections are analysed. Further, the importance of the Doppler and the thermal up-scattering effects are quantified and the sensitivities to the solution method are discussed. (authors)

  13. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  14. Reinforced concrete columns of variable cross section

    OpenAIRE

    Brant, N.F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a series of 19 full scale tests carried out on pin-ended reinforced concrete columns are reported. The columns tested had either tapered rectangular sections along the length or octagonal cross sections. All columns, except the last 6, were subjected to uniaxial eccentricities at one of the ends (the stronger end), and a nominally concentric load at the other end. For the case of the last six columns the loading applied at the stronger end was biaxially eccentric. For each of t...

  15. Neutron capture cross section measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of currently-used techniques to measure neutron capture cross sections is presented. Measurements involving use of total absorption and Moxon-Rae detectors are based on low-resolution detection of the prompt γ-ray cascades following neutron captures. In certain energy ranges activation methods are convenient and useful. High resolution γ-ray measurements with germanium detectors can give information on the parameters of resonance capture states. The use of these techniques is described. (U.S.)

  16. Fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies

    OpenAIRE

    Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.; Dasgupta, M

    2003-01-01

    A recent publication reports that heavy-ion fusion cross sections at extreme subbarrier energies show a continuous change of their logarithmic slope with decreasing energy, resulting in a much steeper excitation function compared with theoretical predictions. We show that the energy dependence of this slope is partly due to the asymmetric shape of the Coulomb barrier, that is its deviation from a harmonic shape. We also point out that the large low-energy slope is consistent with the surprisi...

  17. How to calculate colourful cross sections efficiently

    CERN Document Server

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Krauss, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  18. Jet cross sections in leptoproduction from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated the longitudinal and other polarization dependent cross sections for jet production in deep inelastic ep, νp and anti νp scattering up to order αsub(s) of the quark-gluon coupling constant. Fragmentation of final state partons into hadrons is taken into account. Distributions in thrust, p2sub(Tin) and p2sub(Tout) are predicted for all three reactions and various values of W and Q. (orig.)

  19. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  20. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the (sup 10)B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for (sup 10)B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards (sup 237)Np(n,f) and (sup 239)Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program.

  1. Electron collision cross sections and radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the cross section data needs in radiation chemistry, and of the recent progress in electron impact studies on dissociative excitation of molecules. In the former some of the important target species, processes, and collision energies are presented, while in the latter it is demonstrated that radiation chemistry is a source of new ideas and information in atomic collision research. 37 references, 4 figures

  2. Atomic-process cross section data, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compiled by the Data Study Group, the data are intended for fusion plasma physics research. Cross sections of the latest experimental and theoretic studies cover the processes involving H,D,T as principal plasma materials as well as photons and electrons: emission and absorption of electromagnetic wave, electron collision, ion collision, recombination, neutral atom mutual collision, etc. Edition is so made to enable the future renewal by users. (J.P.N.)

  3. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  4. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the 10B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for 10B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards 237Np(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program

  5. The Pa-233 fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependent neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa has for the first time been measured directly with mono-energetic neutrons. This isotope is produced in the thorium fuel cycle and serves as an intermediate step between the 232Th source material and the 233U fuel material. Four neutron energies between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV have been measured in a first campaign. Some preliminary results are presented and compared to literature. (author)

  6. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  7. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, M. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  8. Total neutron cross section for 181Ta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling K.-D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The neutron time of flight facility nELBE, produces fast neutrons in the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 10 MeV by impinging a pulsed relativistic electron beam on a liquid lead circuit [1]. The short beam pulses (∼10 ps and a small radiator volume give an energy resolution better than 1% at 1 MeV using a short flight path of about 6 m, for neutron TOF measurements. The present neutron source provides 2 ⋅ 104  n/cm2s at the target position using an electron charge of 77 pC and 100 kHz pulse repetition rate. This neutron intensity enables to measure neutron total cross section with a 2%–5% statistical uncertainty within a few days. In February 2008, neutron radiator, plastic detector [2] and data acquisition system were tested by measurements of the neutron total cross section for 181Ta and 27Al. Measurement of 181Ta was chosen because lack of high quality data in an anergy region below 700 keV. The total neutron crosssection for 27Al was measured as a control target, since there exists data for 27Al with high resolution and low statistical error [3].

  9. Cross-section reconstruction during uniaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inelastic response of materials to applied uniaxial loading is typically measured using tensile or compressive specimens of an initially circular cross-section. Under deformation, this cross-section may become elliptical due to anisotropic material behaviour. An optical technique for measuring the elliptical deformation of anisotropic, homogeneous cylindrical specimens undergoing uniaxial deformation is presented. It enables the quantification of anisotropic deformation in situ and provides data for material characterization. Three or more silhouette views of a specimen are obtained using multiple cameras or mirrored views. The positions of the edges are computed using a sub-pixel edge detection method, and 3D tangent rays from the camera through these positions are calculated. These bounding tangents are used as the basis for an elliptical fit by least squares at cross-sections along the length of the specimen. Stochastic error estimates are performed by simulation of the experiment. Error estimates, for the experimental set-up used, are also calculated by reconstructing elliptical prisms of precisely measured dimensions. Example reconstructions from specimens of rolled titanium deformed plastically in tension at quasi-static (7 × 10−4 s−1) and high strain rates (3 × 103 s−1) are presented

  10. Titanium-I: fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy averaged total neutron cross sections are measured from approximately 1.0 to 4.5 MeV with few percent statistical accuracies. Differential elastic neutron scattering angular distributions are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at incident neutron energy intervals of less than or equal to 0.2 MeV. Differential cross sections for the inelastic neutron excitation of ''states'' at 158 +- 26, 891 +- 8, 984 +- 15, 1428 +- 39, 1541 +- 30, 1670 +- 80, 2007 +- 8, 2304 +- 22, 2424 +- 16, and 2615 +- 10 keV are measured for incident neutron energies from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV. Additional ''states'' are observed at approximately 2845 and 3009 keV. An energy-averaged optical-statistical model is deduced from the measured values and the implications of its use in the context of the strong fluctuating structure is discussed

  11. Inclusive parton cross sections in photoproduction and photon structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, T; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Aïd, S; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bergstein, H; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G W; Bán, J; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Charlet, M; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M G; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; De Wolf, E A; Del Buono, L; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Duhm, H; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Erlichmann, H; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gamerdinger, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Goritchev, P A; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hanlon, E M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, Patrick; Hufnagel, H; Höppner, M; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Krüger, U P; Krüner-Marquis, U; Kubenka, J P; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhöfer, J; Kuznik, B; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindner, A; Lindström, G; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; López, G C; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pieuchot, A; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sahlmann, N; Salesch, S G; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schwind, A; Schöning, A; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shooshtari, H; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Sánchez, E; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walker, I W; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wright, A E; Wulff, N; Wünsch, E; Yiou, T P; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W

    1995-01-01

    Photoproduction of 2-jet events is studied with the H1 detector at HERA. Parton cross sections are extracted from the data by an unfolding method using leading order parton-jet correlations of a QCD generator. The gluon distribution in the photon is derived in the fractional momentum range 0.04\\le x_\\gamma \\le 1 at the average factorization scale 75 GeV^2.

  12. Cross-Section of Option Returns and Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Amit; Saretto, Alessio

    2008-01-01

    We study the cross-section of stock option return by constructing decile portfolios of straddles and delta-hedged calls and puts based on sorting stocks on the difference between historical realized volatility and at-the-money implied volatility. We find that a zero-cost trading strategy that is long (short) in the portfolio with a large positive (negative) difference between these two volatility measures produces an economically and statistically significant average monthly return. The resul...

  13. The 233Pa fission cross-section measurement and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    233Pa is a conspicuous example of strongly discrepant data in the accepted nuclear data evaluations. The precise knowledge of the neutron-induced reaction cross-section of this highly β-active nuclide (T1/2 = 27.0 d) is essential for the successful implementation of the thorium-based fuel cycle in advanced nuclear applications. The reactions involving 233Pa are responsible for the balance of nuclei as well as the average number of prompt fission neutrons in a contemplated reactor scenario. In an IAEA report, it is stated that there is a need to know the 233Pa(n, f) cross-section with an accuracy of 20%. The different evaluated neutron data libraries show, however, a difference of a factor of two for this cross-section. It has previously been deemed not feasible to measure this reaction directly due to its short half-life, high radioactivity and the in-growth of the daughter product 233U. Hence, the entries in the neutron libraries are based on theoretical predictions, which explains the large discrepancies. As reported recently the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 233Pa has been measured for the first time directly with mono-energetic neutrons from 1.0 to 3.0 MeV at the Van-de-Graaff facility of the IRMM. In the meantime, during two further measurement campaigns, the energy range has been extended up to 8.5 MeV. The experimental results will be presented together with recent model calculations of the fission cross-section applying the statistical model code STATIS, which improve the cross-section evaluation up to the second chance fission threshold. (authors)

  14. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, M B; Arendse, G J; Cowley, A A; Richter, W A; Lawrie, J J; Newman, R T; Pilcher, J V; Smit, F D; Steyn, G F; Koen, J W; Stander, J A

    1999-01-01

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  15. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  16. Charge changing cross sections of relativistic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report equilibrium charge state distributions of uranium at energies of 962 MeV/nucleon, 437 MeV/nucleon and 200 MeV/nucleon in low Z and high Z targets and the cross sections for U92+ reversible U91+ and U91+ reversible U90+ at 962 MeV/nucleon and 437 MeV/nucleon. Equilibrium thickness Cu targets produce approx. = 5% bare U92+ at 200 MeV/nucleon and 85% U92+ at 962 MeV/nucleon. 7 references, 5 figures

  17. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  19. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  20. 30 CFR 779.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 779.25 Section... RESOURCES § 779.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps..., maps and plans included in a permit application as required by this section shall be prepared by,...

  1. Displacement cross sections and PKA spectra: tables and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV are given for aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, lead, and 18Cr10Ni stainless steel. They are based on ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and the Lindhard energy partition model. Primary knockon atom (PKA) spectra are given for aluminum, iron, niobium, tantalum, and lead for neutron energies up to 15 MeV at approximately one-quarter lethargy intervals. The contributions of various reactions to both the displacement cross sections (taken to be proportional to the damage energy cross sections) and the PKA spectra are presented graphically. Spectral-averaged values of the displacement cross sections are given for several spectra, including approximate maps for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and several positions in the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Flux values are included to permit estimation of displacement rates. Graphs show integral PKA spectra for the five metals listed above for neutron spectra corresponding to locations in the EBR-II, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and a conceptual fusion reactor (UWMAK-I). Detailed calculations are given only for cases not previously documented. Uncertainty estimates are included

  2. State-selective radiative recombination cross sections of argon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The n-, (n,l)- and fine-structure level state-selective radiative recombinations (RR) cross sections of argon ions Ar18+,Ar13+,Ar7+ and Ar+ are obtained with the semi-classical Kramer formula, the relativistic self-consistent field (RSCF) method and the relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) method. It is found that for the highly charged ions with few electrons, the cross sections calculated with these three methods are in good agreement with each other. But as the number of electrons increases, the Kramer formula deviates from the RSCF and RCI results. For instance, when the energy of the incident electron is larger than 100 eV, the n-state selective cross sections of Ar7+ calculated from the Kramer formula are underestimated for more than 50%. The RSCF results are in general agreement with the RCI results. However, for the low charged ions, a clear distinction appears due to the strong configuration interaction, especially near the Cooper minimum. The n-resolved (n≤10) and total Maxwellian averaged rate coefficients are calculated, and the analytic fitting parameters are also provided. -- Highlights: ► The RR cross sections of Ar18+, Ar13+, Ar7+ and Ar+ are obtained. ► The Kramer formula, the relativistic self-consistent field and RCI methods are used. ► Results from three methods are compared with each other.

  3. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  4. Cross-section measurements for radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of (n,p), (n,α) and (n,γ) cross sections for radioactive nuclei is of interest to both nuclear physics and astrophysics. For example, using these reactions, properties of levels in nuclei at high excitation energies, which are difficult or impossible to study using other reactions, can be investigated. Also, reaction rates for both big-bang and stellar nucleosynthesis can be obtained from these measurements. In the past, the large background associated with the sample activity limited these types of measurements to radioisotopes with very long half-lives. The advent of the low-energy, high-intensity neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering CEnter (LANSCE) has greatly increased the number of nuclei which can be studied. Examples of (n,p) measurements on samples with half lives as short as fifty-three days will be given. The nuclear physics and astrophysics to be learned from these data will be discussed. Additional difficulties are encountered when making (n,γ) rather than (n,p) or (n,α) measurements. However, with a properly-designed detector, and the high peak neutron intensities now available, (n,γ) measurements can be made for nuclei with half lives as short as several months. Progress on the Los Alamos (n,γ) cross-section measurement program for radioactive samples will be discussed. 39 refs., 7 figs

  5. 30 CFR 783.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 783.25 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES § 783.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps, and plans showing— (1) Elevations and locations of test borings and core samplings;...

  6. Recent progress in fast neutron activation cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of some significant investigations performed during the past few years in the area of fast neutron activation cross sections that may be relevant for the use of nuclear techniques in the exploration of mineral resources, in process and quality control in industry as well as for general analytical purposes. Differential capture cross sections are considered for the natural elements or isotopes of Fe, Cu, Se, Y, Nb, Cd, In, Gd, W, Os and Au. Some of the data are compared with statistical model calculations. Experimental and evaluated average cross sections for capture and threshold reactions in the spontaneous fission neutron field of 252Cf are reviewed taking into account the elements or isotopes of Mg, Al, Si, S, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cd, In, Ba, Ta and Au. A summary of recent studies of differential cross sections for threshold reactions comprises data on Al, Si, S, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Ta, W and Au. Besides experimental investigations, evaluations and theoretical model calculations are considered. Cross sections at 14 MeV and in the region around this energy are reviewed for Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Zr, Nb, In, Er, Yb, Ta, W, Os, Ir, Au and Pb. Particular emphasis is laid on (n,p), (n,2n) and (n,α) reactions. (n,n') reactions are allowed for if the half-life of the metastable state excited permits elemental analyses by common experimental techniques. (orig.)

  7. Recent progress in fast neutron activation cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of some significant investigations performed during the past few years in the area of fast neutron activation cross sections that may be relevant for the use of nuclear techniques in the exploration of mineral resources, in process and quality control in industry as well as for general analytical purposes. Differential capture cross sections are considered for the natural elements or isotopes of Fe, Cu, Se, Y, Nb, Cd, In, Gd, W, Os and Au. Some of the data are compared with statistical model calculations. Experimental and evaluated average cross sections for capture and threshold reactions in the spontaneous fission neutron field of 252Cf are reviewed taking into account the elements or isotopes of Mg, Al, Si, S, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cd, In, Ba, Ta and Au. A summary of recent studies of differential cross sections for threshold reactions comprises data on Al, Si, S, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Ta, W and Au. Besides experimental investigations, evaluations and theoretical model calculations are considered. Cross sections at 14 MeV and in the region around this energy are reviewed for Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Zr, Nb, In, Er, Yb, Ta, W, Os, Ir, Au and Pb. Particular emphasis is laid on (n,p), (n,2n) and (n,α) reactions. (n,n') reactions are allowed for if the half-life of the metastable state excited permits elemental analyses by common experimental techniques. (author)

  8. Elastic cross sections in an RSIIp scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elastic differential cross section is calculated at low energies (below 100 MeV) for the elements 3He, 20Ne, 40Ar, 14N, 12C, and for the 208Pb using a finite electromagnetic potential, which is obtained by considering a Randall–Sundrum II scenario modified by the inclusion of p compact extra-dimensions. The length scale is adjusted in the potential to compare with known experimental data and to set bounds for the parameter of the model. The effective four-dimensional (4D) electromagnetic potential is produced by a point charge, as seen from the three-brane that contains it, in uniform motion in an RSIIp scenario. (paper)

  9. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  10. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  11. Calculated medium energy fission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis has been made of medium-energy nucleon induced fission of 238U and 237Np using detailed models of fission, based upon the Bohr-Wheeler formalism. Two principal motivations were associated with these calculations. The first was determination of barrier parameters for proton-rich uranium and neptunium isotopes normally not accessible in lower energy reactions. The second was examination of the consistency between (p,f) experimental data versus new (n,f) data that has recently become available. Additionally, preliminary investigations were also made concerning the effect of fission dynamics on calculated fission cross sections at higher energies where neutron emission times may be significantly less than those associated with fission

  12. Partial cross sections in H- photodetachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation reports experimental measurements of partial decay cross sections in the H- photodetachment spectrum. Observed decays of the 1P0 H-**(n) doubly-excitedresonances to the H(N=2) continuum are reported for n=2,3, and 4 from 1990 runs in which the author participated. A recent analysis of 1989 data revealing effects of static electric fields on the partial decay spectrum above 13.5 eV is also presented. The experiments were performed at the High Resolution Atomic Beam Facility. the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, with a relativistic H-beam (β=0.842)intersecting a ND:YAG laser. Variation of the intersection angle amounts to Doppler-shifting the photon energy, allowing continuous tuning of the laser energy as viewed from the moving ions' frame

  13. Radar Cross Section of Moving Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gholizade, H

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the effects of movement on radar cross section calculations. The results show that relativistic effects (the constant velocity case) can change the RCS of moving targets by changing the incident plane wave field vectors. As in the Doppler effect, the changes in the fields are proportional to $\\frac{v}{c}$. For accelerated objects, using the Newtonian equations of motion yields an effective electric field (or effective current density) on the object due to the finite mass of the conducting electrons. The results indicate that the magnetic moment of an accelerated object is different from that of an un-accelerated object, and this difference can change the RCS of the object. Results for moving sphere and non-uniformly rotating sphere are given and compared with static (\\textbf{v}=0) case.

  14. Calculation and preliminary analysis of group cross sections for gadolinium and its isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluated nuclear data files ENDL 78 and ENDF/B-IV and the cross section generation code FEDGROUP-R were used to produce averaged group cross sections for group systems BNAB and THSIG for gadolinium and its isotopes. Different sets of group cross sections for gadolinium (due to different evaluated data files or different processing codes) were compared and significant differences analyzed. The group capture cross sections for the isotopes of gadolinium were compared with published data. The group cross sections data sets prepared are analyzed as to what extent they can meet the requirements of cell calculations for gadolinium-loaded fuel. Some group cross section tables and cross section plots are presented. (author)

  15. Simultaneous evaluation of interrelated cross sections by generalized least-squares and related data file requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though several cross sections have been designated as standards, they are not basic units and are interrelated by ratio measurements. Moreover, as such interactions as 6Li + n and 10B + n involve only two and three cross sections respectively, total cross section data become useful for the evaluation process. The problem can be resolved by a simultaneous evaluation of the available absolute and shape data for cross sections, ratios, sums, and average cross sections by generalized least-squares. A data file is required for such evaluation which contains the originally measured quantities and their uncertainty components. Establishing such a file is a substantial task because data were frequently reported as absolute cross sections where ratios were measured without sufficient information on which reference cross section and which normalization were utilized. Reporting of uncertainties is often missing or incomplete. The requirements for data reporting will be discussed

  16. Sensitivity coefficients for the 238U neutron-capture shielded-group cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the unresolved resonance region cross sections are represented with statistical resonance parameters. The average values of these parameters are chosen in order to fit evaluated infinitely dilute group cross sections. The sensitivity of the shielded group cross sections to the choice of mean resonance data has recently been investigated for the case of 235U and 239Pu by Ganesan and by Antsipov et al; similar sensitivity studies for 238U are reported

  17. Calculation of neutron cross-sections in the unresolved resonance region by the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte-Carlo method is used to produce neutron cross-sections and functions of the cross-section probabilities in the unresolved energy region and a corresponding Fortran programme (ONERS) is described. Using average resonance parameters, the code generates statistical distribution of level widths and spacing between resonance for S and P waves. Some neutron cross-sections for U238 and U235 are shown as examples

  18. Capture cross section measurement analysis in the Californium-252 spectrum with the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute average capture cross sections of gold, thorium, tantalum, molybdenum, copper and strontium in 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were simulated for two types of experiment setups preformed by Z. Dezso and J. Csikai and by L. Green. The experiments were simulated with MCNP5 using cross section data from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The determination of neutron backscattering was calculated with the use of neutron flagging. Correction factors to experimentally measured values were determined to obtain average cross sections in a pure 252Cf spontaneous fission spectrum. Influence of concrete wall thickness, air moisture and room size on the average cross section was analyzed. Correction factors amounted to about 30%. Corrected values corresponding to average cross sections in a pure 252Cf spectrum were calculated for 197Au, 232Th, 181Ta, 98Mo, 65Cu and 84Sr. Average cross sections were also calculated with the RR-UNC software using IRDFF-v.1.05 and ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries. The revised average radiative capture cross sections are 75.5±0.1 mb for 197Au, 87.0±1.6 mb for 232Th , 98.0±4.5 mb for 181Ta, 21.2±0.5 mb for 98Mo, 10.3±0.3 mb for 63Cu, and 34.9±6.5 mb for 84Sr. - Highlights: • Average capture cross sections in 252Cf spontaneous fission spectrum were simulated. • Calculations were done using MCNP5 code and ENDF/B-VII.0 library. • Correction factors for self-shielding and room return effects were taken into account. • The revised average radiative capture cross sections for different materials are published

  19. Study of the total reaction cross section via QMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new empirical formula to calculate the average nucleon-nucleon (N-N) collision number for the total reaction cross sections (σR). Based on the initial average N-N collision number calculated by quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), quantum correction and Coulomb correction are taken into account within it. The average N-N collision number is calculated by this empirical formula. The total reaction cross sections are obtained within the framework of the Glauber theory. σR of 23Al+12C, 24Al+12C, 25Al+12C, 26Al+12C and 27Al+12C are calculated in the range of low energy. We also calculate the σR of 27Al+12C with different incident energies. The calculated σR are compared with the experimental data and the results of Glauber theory including the σR of both spherical nuclear and deformed nuclear. It is seen that the calculated σR are larger than σR of spherical nuclear and smaller than σR of deformed nuclear, whereas the results agree well with the experimental data in low-energy range. (authors)

  20. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  1. Residual diagnostics for cross-section time series regression models

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Christopher F

    2001-01-01

    These routines support the diagnosis of groupwise heteroskedasticity and cross-sectional correlation in the context of a regression model fit to pooled cross-section time series (xt) data. Copyright 2001 by Stata Corporation.

  2. Photoneutron cross sections measured by Saclay and Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differences between the Saclay and Livermore photoneutron cross sections are discussed. It is shown that the differences between Saclay and Livermore (γ,n) and (γ,2n) cross sections arise from the neutron multiplicity sorting. (Author)

  3. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  4. Total cross sections for neutron-nucleus scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanarayana, S. V.; H. Naik; Ganesan, S; Kailas, S; Choudhury, R. K.; Kim, Guinyum

    2010-01-01

    Systematics of neutron scattering cross sections on various materials for neutron energies up to several hundred MeV are important for ADSS applications. Ramsauer model is well known and widely applied to understand systematics of neutron nucleus total cross sections. In this work, we examined the role of nuclear effective radius parameter (r$_0$) on Ramsauer model fits of neutron total cross sections. We performed Ramsauer model global analysis of the experimental neutron total cross section...

  5. Market skewness risk and the cross section of stock returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, B.Y.; Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, K.

    2013-01-01

    The cross section of stock returns has substantial exposure to risk captured by higher moments of market returns. We estimate these moments from daily Standard & Poor's 500 index option data. The resulting time series of factors are genuinely conditional and forward-looking. Stocks with high...... exposure to innovations in implied market skewness exhibit low returns on average. The results are robust to various permutations of the empirical setup. The market skewness risk premium is statistically and economically significant and cannot be explained by other common risk factors such as the market...... excess return or the size, book-to-market, momentum, and market volatility factors, or by firm characteristics....

  6. Finite sum expressions for elastic and reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cross section calculations are often performed by using the partial wave method or the Eikonal method through Glauber theory. The expressions for the total cross section, total elastic cross section, and total reaction cross section in the partial wave method involve infinite sums and do not utilize simplifying approximations. Conversely, the Eikonal method gives these expressions in terms of integrals but utilizes the high energy and small angle approximations. In this paper, by using the fact that the lth partial wave component of the T-matrix can be very accurately approximated by its Born term, the infinite sums in each of the expressions for the differential cross section, total elastic cross section, total cross section, and total reaction cross section are re-written in terms of finite sums plus closed form expressions. The differential cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for 16O+16O,12C+12C, and p+12C elastic scattering. Total cross sections, total reaction cross sections, and total elastic cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for 12C+12C scattering

  7. Cross sections for electron impact excitation of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion in this chapter is restricted to elastic scattering, rotational, vibrational, and electronic excitation and total scattering cross sections in electron molecule collisions. Experimental data on differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections are surveyed and short remarks are made on experimental techniques and theoretical approaches used for generating cross section data. 11 references, 3 figures

  8. Neutron cross section calculations for fission-product nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To satisfy nuclear data requirements for fission-product nuclei, Hauser-Feshbach statistical calculations with preequilibrium corrections for neutron-induced reactions on isotopes of Se, Kr, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sn, Xe, and Ba between 0.001 and 20 MeV. Spherical neutron optical parameters were determined by simultaneous fits to resonance data and total cross sections. Isospin coefficients appearing in the optical potentials were determined through analysis of the behavior of s- and p-wave strengths as a function of mass for a given Z. Gamma-ray strength functions, determined through fits to stable-isotope capture data, were used in the calculation of capture cross sections and gamma-ray competition to particle emission. The resulting (n,γ), (n,n'), (n,2n), and (n,3n) cross sections, the secondary neutron emission spectra, and angular distributions calculated for 19 fission products will be averaged to provide a resulting ENDF-type fission-product neutronics file. 11 references

  9. CMB Constraints On The Thermal WIMP Annihilation Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Steigman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    A thermal relic, often referred to as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP),is a particle produced during the early evolution of the Universe whose relic abundance (e.g., at present) depends only on its mass and its thermally averaged annihilation cross section (annihilation rate factor) sigma*v_ann. Late time WIMP annihilation has the potential to affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum. Current observational constraints on the absence of such effects provide bounds on the mass and the annihilation cross section of relic particles that may, but need not be dark matter candidates. For a WIMP that is a dark matter candidate, the CMB constraint sets an upper bound to the annihilation cross section, leading to a lower bound to their mass that depends on whether or not the WIMP is its own antiparticle. For a self-conjugate WIMP, m_min = 50f GeV, where f is an electromagnetic energy efficiency factor. For a non self-conjugate WIMP, the minimum mass is a factor of two larger. For a WIMP t...

  10. Cross sections for meson-meson nonresonant reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Qi

    2007-01-01

    Meson-meson nonresonant reactions governed by the quark-interchange mechanism are studied in a potential that is derived from QCD. S-wave elastic phase shifts for I=2 \\pi\\pi and I=3/2 K \\pi scattering are obtained with wave functions determined by the central spin-independent term of the potential. The reactions include inelastic scatterings of two mesons in the ground-state pseudoscalar octet and the ground-state vector nonet. Cross sections for reactions involving pion, rho, K and K^* indicate that mesonic interactions in matter consisting of only K and K^* can be stronger than mesonic interactions in matter consisting of only pions and rhos and the reaction of I=3/2 \\pi K^* \\to \\rho K is most important among the endothermic nonresonant reactions. By the quark-interchange mechanism we can offer \\sqrt s-dependences of phi absorption cross sections in collisions with pion and rho and relevant average cross sections what are very small for the reaction of I=1 \\pi \\phi \\to K^* K^* and remarkably large for the r...

  11. Radar Cross-section Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Radar cross-section (RCS is an important study parameter for defence applications specially dealing with airborne weapon system. The RCS parameter guides the detection range for a target and is therefore studied to understand the effectiveness of a weapon system. It is not only important to understand the RCS characteristics of a target but also to look into the diagnostic mode of study where factors contributing to a particular RCS values are studied. This further opens up subject like RCS suppression and stealth. The paper discusses the RCS principle, control, and need of measurements. Classification of RCS in terms of popular usage is explained with detailed theory of RF imaging and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR. The various types of RCS measurement ranges are explained with brief discussion on outdoor RCS measurement range. The RCS calibration plays a critical role in referencing the measurement to absolute values and has been described.The RCS facility at Reseach Centre Imarat, Hyderabad, is explained with some details of different activities that are carried out including RAM evaluation, scale model testing, and diagnostic imaging.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.204-212, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.341

  12. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andrzejewski, J; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Assimakopoulos, P A; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Chepel, V; Cennini, P; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F K; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente6, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  13. Production cross sections from phenomenological constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadronic production cross sections ν sub(n) (s) satisfying exactly the high energy empirical laws known for the first, second and third multiplicity moments are determined. The result is obtained in the form of a second order linear differential equation for ν sub(n) (s) which allows one to calculate explicitly all successive moments. In particular, the fourth moment is in excellent agreement with the data. The asymptotic solution of the equation for ν sub(n) (s) is given analytically. KNO scaling turns out to be an asymptotic property of the solution. The full solution for ν sub(n) (s) is studied numerically and the KNO plot is compared with the data. No free parameters are left to be adjusted except for an overall normalization constant. As expected, KNO scaling sets in rather quickly with increasing n and the agreement with the data is progressively good. This agreement becomes excellent for the whole interval of n/ for which data exist (O) approximately equal to 2. It turns out that the asymptotic solution, given in analytic terms, is an excellent approximation to the data and can thus be used for practical purposes instead of the full solution for calculating ν sub(n) (s). (author)

  14. Evaluation of Cm-247 neutron cross sections in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron cross sections of Cm-247 are evaluated in the resonance (resolved and unresolved) region up to 10 keV. Average resonance parameters (i.e. spacing D, fission and radiative widths, neutron strength functions) are determined for unresolved region calculations. Moreover for a better comparison with the experimental data, fission cross section is calculated up to 10 MeV. In addition, the average number of neutrons emitted per fission as a function of energy is estimated

  15. Differential cross section and related integrals for the Moliere potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Moliere potential is widely used in radiation damage simulation studies. It is not much used in analytical transport theory calculations because of the awkward expression for the differential cross section corresponding to the potential. A two step process is followed to obtain a useful cross section: adopting the Lindhard, Nielsen and Scharff (LNS) approximations in order to generate a simpler form of the Moliere cross section and then creating a simple, easy-to-use, fit to that approximate form. Within the framework of the LNS treatment of atomic cross sections, our fit is accurate to 6%. Simple forms for the total cross section and several related quantities are presented. (author)

  16. Validation of the Dosimetry Cross Sections by Integral Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A new version of the dosimetry library IRDFF has been released from the IAEA, featuring more reactions (compared to the older IRDF-2002), an extended energy range to 60 MeV, re-evaluation of several reaction channels with greatly improved covariance information, etc. The aim of the present CRP is the validation of the IRDFF library in order to enhance its reliability for the purposes it serves. Reaction rate measurements in well-defined neutron fields are a common method of validating the cross sections. This technique has been implemented to some extent in the preparation of the IRDFF library from the published data, namely the use of the published average cross sections in the 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum, thermal cross sections and resonance integrals. There is synergy with the community performing neutron activation analysis by the k0 standardisation technique. To some extent the k0 database has been used for a preliminary validation of the capture reactions in the IRDFF library, but one has to be very careful about the definition of the constants since the interpretation and the derivation of the commonly-used constants is often misleading. The proposed contribution of the Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) is on the consistent definitions of the constants that allow unique interpretation of the measured reaction rate ratios (particularly for the capture reactions), together with advanced analysis techniques including Monte Carlo simulations of the experiments. The contribution can include the codes that are used at (JSI) for the purpose, namely the GRUPINT code for the analysis of measured reaction rate rations and spectrum unfolding and the RRUNC code for the calculation of the uncertainties in the calculated reaction rates due to the uncertainties in the cross sections and in the neutron spectrum. (author)

  17. Resonance parameters for measured keV neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All available neutron capture cross sections in the keV region (∼ to 100 keV) have been fitted with resonance parameters. Capture cross sections for nuclides with reasonably well known average s-wave parameters, but no measured cross section, have been calculated and tabulated using p-and d- wave strength functions interpolated between fitted values. Several of these nuclides are of interest in the theory of slow nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in stars, and the product of cosmic abundance (due to the s-process) and capture cross section at 30 keV has been plotted versus mass number. (author)

  18. Measurements of Neutron Induced Cross Sections at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guber, K.H.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Koehler, P.E.; Leal, L.C.; Sayer, R.O.; Spencer, R.R.

    1999-09-20

    We have used the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) to measure neutron total and the fission cross sections of 233U in the energy range from 0.36 eV to ~700 keV. We report average fission and total cross sections. Also, we measured the neutron total cross sections of 27Al and Natural chlorine as well as the capture cross section of Al over an energy range from 100 eV up to about 400 keV.

  19. Fission fragment angular distributions and fission cross section validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    surrounded by enriched uranium 235U so as to approach criticality with fast neutrons. The simulation predicts a multiplication factor keff in better agreement with the experiment (the deviation of 750 pcm is reduced to 250 pcm) when we replace the ENDF/B- VII.0 evaluation of the 237Np fission cross section by the n-TOF data. We also explore the hypothesis of deficiencies of the inelastic cross section in 235U which has been invoked by some authors to explain the deviation of 750 pcm. The large distortion that should be applied to the inelastic cross sections in order to reconcile the critical experiment with its simulation is incompatible with existing measurements. Also we show that the ν-bar of 237Np can hardly be incriminated because of the high accuracy of the existing data. Fission rate ratios or averaged fission cross sections measured in several fast neutron fields seem to give contradictory results on the validation of the 237Np cross section but at least one of the benchmark experiments, where the active deposits have been well calibrated for the number of atoms, favors the n-TOF data set. These outcomes support the hypothesis of a higher fission cross section of 237Np. (author)

  20. Proton-nucleus cross section at high energies

    OpenAIRE

    Wibig, Tadeusz; Sobczynska, Dorota

    1998-01-01

    Cross sections for proton inelastic collision with different nuclei are described within the Glauber and multiple scattering approximations. A significant difference between approximate `Glauber' formula and exact calculations with a geometrical scaling assumption for very high-energy cross section is shown. Experimental values of proton-proton cross sections obtained using extensive air shower data are based on the relationship of proton-proton and respective proton-air absorption cross sect...

  1. Double-Differential Cross Section of 5He Emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yu-Liang; DUAN Jun-Feng; ZHANG Jing-Shang; XU Guang

    2005-01-01

    The probability of 5He particle emission has been affirmed theoretically [J.S. Zhang, Science in China G47 (2004) 137]. In order to describe the 5He emission, the theoretical formula of the double-differential cross section of emitted 5He is to be established. Based on the pick-up mechanism, used for calculating the formula of d, t, 3He, α emissions, the theoretical formula of double-differential cross section of 5 He is obtained, which is expressed in the form of Legendre coefficients. In the case of low incident energies, the configuration [J.S. Zhang, Science in China G47 (2004)137; J.S. Zhang, Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 39 (2003) 83] is the dominant part in the reaction processes.The calculated result indicates that the forward peaked angular distribution of the composite particle emission is weaker than that of the emitted single nucleon due to pick-up nucleon from the Fermi sea. As an example, the reactions of n + 14N have been calculated, and the Legendre coefficients of d, t, 3He, α, 5He emissions are obtained respectively.The results show that the forward tendency is decided by the average momentum per nucleon in the emitted composite particles. The larger the average momentum is, the stronger the forward tendency is.

  2. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of perfluorotributylamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Paul J.; Cabaj, Alex; Conway, Stephanie; Hong, Angela C.; Le Bris, Karine; Mabury, Scott A.; Strong, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sections of perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) were derived from Fourier transform spectroscopy at 570-3400 cm-1 with a resolution of 0.1 cm-1 over a temperature range of 298-344 K. These results were compared to theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations and to previous measurements of PFTBA made at room temperature. DFT calculations were performed using the B3LYP method and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. We find good agreement between our experimentally derived results, DFT calculations, and previously published data. No significant temperature dependence in the PFTBA cross-sections was observed for the temperature range studied. We calculate an average integrated band strength of 7.81 × 10-16 cm/molecule for PFTBA over the spectral range studied. Radiative efficiencies (RE) and global warming potentials (GWP) for PFTBA were also derived. The calculated radiative efficiencies show no dependence on temperature and agree with prior publications. We find an average RE of 0.77 Wm-2 ppbv-1 and a range of GWP from 6874 to 7571 depending on the lifetime used. Our findings are consistent with previous studies and increase our confidence in the value of the GWP of PFTBA.

  3. Cross sections for fuel depletion and radioisotope production calculations in TRIGA reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For TRIGA Reactors, the fuel depletion and isotopic inventory calculations, depends on the computer code and in the cross sections of some important actinides used. Among these we have U-235, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Pu-241. We choose ORIGEN2, a code with a good reputation in this kind of calculations, we observed the cross sections for these actinides in the libraries that we have (PWR's and BWR), the fission cross section for U-235 was about 50 barns. We used a PWR library and our results were not satisfactory, specially for standard elements. We decided to calculate cross sections more suitable for our reactor, for that purpose we simulate the standard and FLIP TRIGA cells with the transport code WIMS. We used the fuel average flux and COLAPS (a home made program), to generate suitable cross sections for ORIGEN2, by collapsing the WIMS library cross sections of these nuclides. For the radioisotope production studies using the Central Thimble, we simulate the A and B rings and used the A average flux to collapse cross sections. For these studies, the required nuclides sometimes are not present in WIMS library, for them we are planning to process the ENDF/B data, with NJOY system, and include the cross sections to WIMS library or to collapse them using the appropriate average-flux and the program COLAPS. (author)

  4. Reference solution for cross section parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core calculations of nuclear reactors are usually performed by core physics codes (e.g. with NEM or FDM solvers) in diffusion or SP3 approximation of the transport equation. For each fuel type parameterized data libraries are prepared by means of a lattice code. The data libraries are burnup dependent, and the parameterization covers the hyperspace of admissible values of all operational parameters (fuel temperature, moderator density, boron concentration etc.) This approach has two weak spots. The first is, that it is difficult to make perfect parameterization of the data library because of relatively broad range of the parameter values and the fact that the parameters' effect on the macroscopic cross-sections are not mutually independent. The second is that even for perfect parameterizations with precise approximations of the data changes with respect to the feedback parameters the so-called history effects are neglected. It is generally difficult to assess the cumulative errors arising due to the approximative parameterization of the data libraries and due to the history effects. It is as well difficult to assess the efficiency of techniques developed in order to incorporate the history effect in the data library (such as time integration). In this paper we present a tool for reference core calculations in which the above stated approximations are eliminated. This paper presents the solution method, its implementation, as well as the results of a demonstration calculation showing the improvement of the calculation results over the traditional approach, assessing the magnitude of history and parameterization effects importance. The most important feature of the presented method is that it provides the perfect parameterization of macroscopic data, allowing the core physics code developers to understand sources of modeling uncertainties by completely removing the parameterization error (including, unlike other approaches, a complete representation of the

  5. ERRORJ: A code to process neutron-nuclide reaction cross section covariance, version 2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of the uncertainties of nuclear parameters which are induced by uncertainties in neutron-nuclide reaction cross sections with deterministic procedures, covariance data for energy-averaged cross sections are necessary. ERRORJ is a processing code to transform cross section covariance given in the ENDF format into energy-averaged cross section covariance. ERRORJ can process the covariance data of cross sections including resonance parameters, angular and energy distributions of secondary neutrons. Since the release of the previous version, ERRORJ has been modified in order to reduce calculation time and to make it easy to incorporate ERRORJ into the NJOY code system. The version 2.3 is developed with these modifications. (author)

  6. PAPIN, Cross Section, Self-Shielding Factors for Fertile Isotopes in Unresolved Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: PAPIN calculates cross section probability tables, Bondarenko self-shielding factors and average self-indication ratios for non-fissile isotopes, below the inelastic threshold, on the basis of the ENDF/B prescriptions for the unresolved resonance region. 2 - Method of solution: Monte-Carlo methods are utilized to generate ladders of resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region, from average parameters and their appropriate distribution functions. The neutron cross-sections are calculated by the single-level Breit-Wigner formalism, with s-, p-, and d-wave contributions. The cross section probability tables are constructed by sampling the Doppler-broadened cross sections. The various self-shielded factors are computed numerically as Lebesgue integrals over the cross section probability tables

  7. ACT-1000. Group activation cross-section library for WWER-1000 type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ACT-1000, a problem-oriented library of group-averaged activation cross-sections for WWER-1000 type reactors, is based on evaluated microscopic cross-section data files. The ACT-1000 data library was designed for calculating induced activity for the main dose-generated nuclides contained in WWER-1000 structural materials. In preparing the ACT-1000 library, 47 group-averaged cross-section data for the 10-9-17.33 MeV energy range were used to calculate the spatial-energy neutron flux distribution. (author)

  8. Re/Os cosmochronometer: measurement of neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental work is devoted to the improved assessment of the Re/Os cosmochronometer. The dating technique is based on the decay of 187Re (t1/2=41.2 Gyr) into 187Os and determines the age of the universe by the time of onset of nucleosynthesis. The nucleosynthesis mechanisms, which are responsible for the 187Re/187Os pair, provide the possibility to identify the radiogenic fraction of 187Os exclusively by nuclear physics considerations. Apart from its radiogenic component, 187Os can be synthesized otherwise only by the s process, which means that this missing fraction can be reliably determined and subtracted by proper s-process modeling. On the other hand, 187Re is almost completely produced by the r process. The only information needed for the interpretation as a cosmic clock is the production rate of 187Re as a function of time. The accuracy of the s-process calculations that are needed to determine the nucleosynthetic abundance of 187Os depends on the quality of the neutron capture cross sections averaged over the thermal neutron spectrum at the s-process sites. Laboratory measurements of these cross sections have to be corrected for the effect of nuclear levels, which can be significantly populated at the high stellar temperatures during the s process. The neutron capture cross sections of 186Os, 187Os and 188Os have been measured at the CERN n TOF facility in the range between 0.7 eV and 1 MeV. From these data, Maxwellian averaged cross sections have been determined for thermal energies from 5 to 100 keV with an accuracy around 4%, 3%, and 5% for 186Os, 187Os, and 188Os, respectively. Since, the first excited state in 187Os occurs at 9.75 keV, the cross section of this isotope requires a substantial correction for thermal population of low lying nuclear levels. This effect has been evaluated on the basis of resonance data derived in the (n, γ) experiments and by an improved measurements of the inelastic scattering cross section for the first excited

  9. Re/Os cosmochronometer: measurement of neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosconi, M.

    2007-12-21

    This experimental work is devoted to the improved assessment of the Re/Os cosmochronometer. The dating technique is based on the decay of {sup 187}Re (t{sub 1/2}=41.2 Gyr) into {sup 187}Os and determines the age of the universe by the time of onset of nucleosynthesis. The nucleosynthesis mechanisms, which are responsible for the {sup 187}Re/{sup 187}Os pair, provide the possibility to identify the radiogenic fraction of {sup 187}Os exclusively by nuclear physics considerations. Apart from its radiogenic component, {sup 187}Os can be synthesized otherwise only by the s process, which means that this missing fraction can be reliably determined and subtracted by proper s-process modeling. On the other hand, {sup 187}Re is almost completely produced by the r process. The only information needed for the interpretation as a cosmic clock is the production rate of {sup 187}Re as a function of time. The accuracy of the s-process calculations that are needed to determine the nucleosynthetic abundance of {sup 187}Os depends on the quality of the neutron capture cross sections averaged over the thermal neutron spectrum at the s-process sites. Laboratory measurements of these cross sections have to be corrected for the effect of nuclear levels, which can be significantly populated at the high stellar temperatures during the s process. The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os and {sup 188}Os have been measured at the CERN n TOF facility in the range between 0.7 eV and 1 MeV. From these data, Maxwellian averaged cross sections have been determined for thermal energies from 5 to 100 keV with an accuracy around 4%, 3%, and 5% for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os, respectively. Since, the first excited state in {sup 187}Os occurs at 9.75 keV, the cross section of this isotope requires a substantial correction for thermal population of low lying nuclear levels. This effect has been evaluated on the basis of resonance data derived in the (n, {gamma

  10. Systematic effects on cross-section data derived from reaction rates at a cold neutron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žerovnik, Gašper, E-mail: gasper.zerovnik@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Becker, Björn [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Belgya, Tamás, E-mail: belgya.tamas@energia.mta.hu [Institute for Energy Security and Environmental Safety, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklós Street, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Genreith, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.genreith@frm2.tum.de [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Harada, Hideo, E-mail: harada.hideo@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, 319-1195 Ibaraki (Japan); Kopecky, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kopecky@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Radulović, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.radulovic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation, Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Sano, Tadafumi, E-mail: t-sano@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, 590-0494 Osaka (Japan); Schillebeeckx, Peter, E-mail: peter.schillebeeckx@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); and others

    2015-11-01

    The methodology to derive cross-section data from measurements in a cold neutron beam was studied. Mostly, capture cross-sections at thermal energy are derived relative to a standard cross-section, e.g. the cross-section of the {sup 1}H(n,γ), {sup 14}N(n,γ), or {sup 197}Au(n,γ) reaction, and proportionality between the standard and the measured cross-section, evaluated at different energies in the sub-thermal region, is often assumed. Due to this assumption the derived capture cross-section at thermal energy can be biased by more than 10%. Evidently the bias depends on how much the energy dependence of the cross-section deviates from a direct proportionality with the inverse of the neutron speed. The effect is reduced in case the cross-section is not derived at thermal energy but at an energy close to the average energy of the cold neutron beam. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that the bias can only be avoided in case the energy dependence of the cross-section is known and proper correction factors are applied. In some cases the results are also biased when the attenuation of the neutron beam within the sample is neglected in the analysis. Some of the cross-section data reported in the literature suffer from such bias effects. Hence, the results have to be corrected using the correction factors presented in this paper.

  11. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-01-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the Donnachie-Landshoff parametrization of $F_2(x,Q^2)$, we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way works quite well in the massive case, reproducing the original Donnachie-Landshoff structure function for $0.1$ GeV$^2\\leq Q^2\\leq 10$ GeV$^2$. We discuss the large and small form of the dipole cross section and compare with other parameterizations.

  12. Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiel, Joao Claudio B., E-mail: fiel@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and {sup 235} U {sub 92} enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K{sub inf}, generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)

  13. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  14. LINX-1: a code for linking polynomial cross section files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capabilities of the LINX-1 code are described. It was developed for the purpose of linking seperate fuel assembly and reflector node polynomial cross section files, obtained by the POLX-1 code, together into a single reactor polynomial cross section library. The output of the polynomial cross section library can be in either binary or fixed (BCD) format. Input data requirements and the format of the output file generated by LINX-1 are also described. 2 refs

  15. Theoretical estimates of cross sections for neutron-nucleus collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    We construct an analytical model derived from nuclear reaction theory and having a simple functional form to demonstrate the quantitative agreement with the measured cross sections for neutron induced reactions. The neutron-nucleus total, reaction and scattering cross sections, for energies ranging from 5 to 700 MeV and for several nuclei spanning a wide mass range are estimated. Systematics of neutron scattering cross sections on various materials for neutron energies upto several hundred Me...

  16. Simulation of cross sections for practical ALCHEMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Precisely known atomic scattering factors are essential for accurate atom location by channeling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) based on inner-shell ionization. For ALCHEMI using energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), first principles calculations of ionization cross sections, realistically modelling the 'delocalization' of the ionization interaction, give excellent agreement with experiment. Such calculations are complex and computationally intensive. Hence, simple analytic forms are often assumed to describe the ionization potential. Such an approach assumes that the precise shape of the ionization potential is not important but that at least the half width at half maximum (HWHM) should be accurately estimated, for example using estimates of the HWHM from root-mean-square impact parameters for ionization. However this is generally not a good approximation and we have provided more realistic estimates. These are based on accurate atomic scattering form factors for ionization that have been calculated from first principles using relativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions for bound states and Hartree-Slater wave functions for the continuum states. The effective ionization interaction may be approximated by an equivalent local potential. The scattering factors have been calculated for K-shell ionization for elements in the range Z= 6 (carbon) to Z = 50 (tin) and for Z-shell ionization in the range Z = 20 (calcium) to Z = 60 (neodymium). Accurate values of the scattering factors can be obtained by interpolation for incident electron energies between 50 and 400 keV. The utility of these form factors is illustrated, using some data obtained by Matsumura and coworkers during their project to investigate radiation-induced disordering in magnesium aluminate spinel. High angular resolution electron channeling x-ray spectroscopy was employed to investigate ion displacements in MgOnAl2O3 (n = 1.0 and 2.4) irradiated with 1 MeV Ne+ ions or 900 keV electrons at 873

  17. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  18. Fano interference and cross-section fluctuations in molecular photodissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive an expression for the total photodissociation cross section of a molecule incorporating both direct and indirect processes that proceed through excited resonances, and show that it exhibits generalized Beutler-Fano line shapes. Assuming that the closed system can be modeled by random-matrix theory, we derive the statistical properties of the photodissociation cross section and find that they are significantly affected by the direct processes. In the limit of isolated resonances, we find that direct processes suppress the correlation hole of the cross-section autocorrelation function and lead to a maximum in the cross-section distribution

  19. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented

  20. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  1. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  2. Neutron cross sections of 187Os and their analysis with accounting of possible correlation of elastic and inelastic scattering channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averaged total cross sections in the 1.9-144 keV energy region and neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections at 24.4 keV neutron energy have been measured for 187Os. Experimental data analysis for 187Os neutron cross sections in the E 187 averaged resonance parameters have been determined. The best experimental data approximation was obtained for the correlation coeffient ρ = 0.65 for elastic and inelastic amplitudes

  3. A computer program for calculating effective capture cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FORTRAN program CPCS (Computer Program to analyze Capture TOF Spectra) was developed to deduce effective neutron capture cross sections from raw data obtained by a time-of-flight facility at the JAERI Electron Linear Accelerator. The data processing system for capture experiments consists of three stages, i.e. data acquisition, data handling (summing, listing, plotting, etc.), and data analysis (background determination, flux determination, normalization, etc.). In the three stages of processing, three respective computers are used; USC-3, FACOM U-200, and FACOM 230/75. CPCS is included in the stage of data analysis. A feature of this program is that the magnetic disk file is effectively used as INPUT/OUTPUT data storage interconnecting with other programs to determine neutron flux, to average calculated cross sections and to fit data with strength functions. This program is able to handle eight sets of TOF spectra with 8192 channels including channel block option simultaneously. Particular attention is paid to determine a precise background in the wide neutron energy range. (author)

  4. Influence of cross-section structure of unfolded neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of cross-section structure on neutron spectra unfolded by multiple foil activation technique, SAND-II case, was studied. For three reactions with evident structure in neutron cross-section above threshold, 27Al(n,α)24Na, 31P(n,p)31Si, and 32S(n,p)32P, two remarkably different sets of evaluated data were selected from the available evaluations: one set of data was smooth, the structure having been averaged over by a smooth curve; while the other set was sharp, with structure given in detail. These data were used in unfolding procedure together with other reactions, the same in both cases (as well as input spectra and measured reaction rates). It was found that during unfolding calculations fewer iteration steps were needed to unfold the neutron flux spectrum with the set of sharp data. In case of smooth data it was difficult to obtain an agreement between measured and calculated activity values even by increasing the number of iteration steps. Contrary to expectations, considerable deformation of unfolded neutron flux spectrum was observed in the case of the smooth data set. 8 figures, 1 table

  5. Group neutron fission and radiative-capture cross-sections for transactinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made between evaluations of radiative-capture and fission cross-sections for the isotopes 236U, 237Np, 238Pu, 241Am, 243Am, 242Cm and 244Cm, and group cross-sections for use in fast-reactor calculations are recommended. Group cross-sections obtained from the HEDL graphical data (evaluation for ENDF/B-V) are shown for 234U, 236Pu, 237Pu, 242Pu, 244Pu, sup(242m)Am, 241Cm, 243Cm and 248Cm. Group cross-sections for 32 isotopes from the ENDL-76 library files are also given. In choosing recommended cross-sections, account was taken of the extent of agreement with experimental data where these are available, the extent to which the cross-sections are documented and the extent to which they have been calculated from a theoretical model. The reliability of evaluations is discussed. An attempt is made to evaluate the error in single-group cross-sections averaged over a typical fast-reactor spectrum. Conclusions are drawn from a study of the literature on the current status of experimental and theoretical research on transactinide cross-sections, and from the spread of the different evaluation data. Finally, the situation with respect to the integral experiments which can be used for correcting transactinide cross-sections is discussed. (author)

  6. Determination of the total photo-absorption cross section of 197Au from (γ,chin) reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for the reaction 197Au(γ, chin)(chi<=12) have been measured for bremsstrahlung end-point energies in the range 60-340 MeV. From these dominant cross sections, the total photon absorption cross section is determined using a cascade-evaporation calculation to account for the missing reaction channels. The enhancement factor for the classical E1 sum rule is found to be 0.93+-0.10. (orig.)

  7. Ni elemental neutron induced reaction cross-section evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A completely new evaluation of the nickel neutron induced reaction cross sections was undertaken as a part of the ENDF/B-V effort. (n,xy) reactions and capture reaction time from threshold to 20 MeV were considered for 5860616264Ni isotopes to construct the corresponding reaction cross section for natural nickel. Both experimental and theoretical calculated results were used in evaluating different partial cross sections. Precompound effects were included in calculating (n,xy) reaction cross sections. Experimentally measured total section data extending from 0.7 MeV to 20 MeV were used to generate smooth cross section. Below 0.7 to MeV elastic and capture cross sections are represented by resonance parameters. Inelastic angular distributions to the discrete isotopic levels and elemental elastic angular distributions are included in the evaluated data file. Gamma production cross sections and energy distribution due to capture and the (n,xy) reactions were evaluated from experimental data. Finally, error files are constructed for all partial cross sections

  8. Modulation of cross polarization in motionally averaged solids by Variable Angle Spinning NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Catalina A.; Thureau, Pierre; Shapiro, Rebecca A.; Litvak, Ilya M.; Martin, Rachel W.

    2011-01-01

    In systems where the dipolar couplings are partially averaged by molecular motion, cross-polarization is modulated by sample spinning. The cross-polariation efficiency in Variable Angle Spinning (VAS) and Switched Angle Spinning (SAS) experiments on mobile samples is therefore strongly dependent on the spinning angle. We describe simulations and experimental measurements of these effects over a range of spinning angles from 0° to 90°.

  9. Modeling and analysis of ground target radiation cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiang; LOU GuoWei; LI XingGuo

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the passive millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer detection, the ground target radiation cross section is modeled as the new token for the target MMW radiant characteristics. Its ap-plication and actual testing are discussed and analyzed. The essence of passive MMW stealth is target radiation cross section reduction.

  10. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions

  11. Total Cross Sections at High Energies - An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Sohail Afzal Tahir; M. Alam Saeed; M. Qadeer Afzal

    2002-01-01

    Current and future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX, and TOTEMhave been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behaviorof total cross section at very high energies.

  12. Surrogate reaction methods for neutron induced cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief discussion on surrogate reaction methods and some of the recent results on neutron induced fission cross-section measurements carried out by our group and the possibility of extending the measurements for determining (n,g), (n,2n) and (n,p) reaction cross-sections by surrogate reaction method are presented

  13. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013

  14. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the...

  15. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  16. On the scattering cross section of passive linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solymar, L.

    1973-01-01

    A general formula is derived for the scattering cross section of a passiven-element linear array consisting of isotropic radiators. When all the reactances are tuned out and scattering in the mirror direction is investigated, it is found thatA_{sr}, the relative scattering cross section is equal to...

  17. Simplified polynomial representation of cross sections for reactor calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown a simplified representation of a cross section library generated by transport theory using the cell model of Wigner-Seitz for typical PWR fuel elements. The effect of burnup evolution through tables of reference cross sections and the effect of the variation of the reactor operation parameters considered by adjusted polynomials are presented. (M.C.K.)

  18. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando, E-mail: mariobotelho@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  19. Cross section probability tables in multi-group transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of cross section probability tables in multigroup transport calculations is presented. Emphasis is placed on how probability table parameters are generated in a multigroup cross section processor and how existing transport codes must be modifed to use them. In order to illustrate the accuracy obtained by using probability tables, results are presented for a variety of neutron and photon transport problems

  20. Possibility of spin mechanism of total cross section growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of existence of the spin mechanism of total cross section growth is considered. A nucleon-nucleon scattering is studied. The energy dependence of scattering amplitude and possible effects related with the spin mechanism of total cross section growth are studied. It is shown that the considered mechanism can play a great role at high energies

  1. Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the HNO3 absorption cross sections between 240 and 360 K over the wavelength range 195 to 350 nm has been measured using a diode array spectrometer. Absorption cross sections were determined using both (1) absolute pressure measurements at 298 K and (2) a dual absorption cell arrangement in which the absorption spectrum at various temperatures is measured relative to the room temperature absorption spectrum. The HNO3 absorption spectrum showed a temperature dependence which is weak at short wavelengths but stronger at longer wavelengths which are important for photolysis in the lower stratosphere. The 298 K absorption cross sections were found to be larger than the values currently recommended for atmospheric modeling (DeMore et al., 1992). Our absorption cross section data are critically compared with the previous measurements of both room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of HNO3 are recommended for use in atmospheric modeling. These temperature dependent HNO3 absorption cross sections were used in a two-dimensional dynamical-photochemical model to demonstrate the effects of the revised absorption cross sections on loss rate of HNO3 and the abundance of NO2 in the stratosphere.

  2. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  3. The effect of the decay data on activation cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the decay data on evaluation of activation cross section is investigated. Present work shows that these effects must be considered carefully when activation cross section is evaluated. Sometime they are main reason for causing the discrepancies among the experimental data

  4. Minijets, soft gluon resummation and photon cross-sections

    OpenAIRE

    Godbole, R. M.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Srivastava, Y. N.

    2008-01-01

    We compare the high energy behaviour of hadronic photon-photon cross-sections in different models. We find that the photon-photon cross-section appears to rise faster than the purely hadronic ones (proton-proton and proton-antiproton).

  5. Rapid and accurate broadband absorption cross-section measurement of human bodies in a reverberation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement methodology for polarization and angle of incidence averaged electromagnetic absorption cross-section using a reverberation chamber is presented. The method is optimized for simultaneous rapid and accurate determination of average absorption cross-section over the frequency range 1–15 GHz, making it suitable for use in human absorption and exposure studies. The typical measurement time of the subject is about 8 min with a corresponding statistical uncertainty of about 3% in the measured absorption cross-section. The method is validated by comparing measurements on a spherical phantom with Mie series calculations. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated with measurements of the posture dependence of the absorption cross-section of a human subject and an investigation of the effects of clothing on the measured absorption which are important considerations for the practical design of experiments for studies on human subjects. (paper)

  6. Cross Sections of Charged Current Neutrino Scattering off 132Xe for the Supernova Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Divari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total cross sections as well as the neutrino event rates are calculated in the charged current neutrino and antineutrino scattering off 132Xe isotope at neutrino energies Ev<100 MeV. Transitions to excited nuclear states are calculated in the framework of quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The contributions from different multipoles are shown for various neutrino energies. Flux-averaged cross sections are obtained by convolving the cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution. The flux-averaged cross sections are also calculated using terrestrial neutrino sources based on conventional sources (muon decay at rest or on low-energy beta-beams.

  7. Evaluation of the 232Th neutron capture cross section above 3 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This memo describes an evaluation of the 232Th neutron capture cross section in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 20 MeV. Most existing differential measurements are reviewed, and some data are renormalized to current values of the standards. Several experimentally determined sets of average resonance parameters are also discussed. From 3 to 50 keV the evaluated cross section is described by a set of average statistical resonance parameters. Above 50 keV the evaluated capture cross section is a smooth curve which follows the trend of the most recent measurements. The evaluated capture cross section is compared with many measurements and uncertainty estimates are given

  8. Measurement of the fission cross section of 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission cross sections of 238Pu have been measured from 0.1 eV to 80 keV energy range using the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Spectrometer. The cross sections were normalized to the 235U ENDF/B-V data broadened to the resolution of the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Spectrometer system. The fission areas and widths were determined for the resolved low-energy resonances. The ENDF/B-V fission cross sections for the 238Pu isotope are, in general, not in good agreement with the measured cross sections and a new evaluation is recommended. The observations of structure in the unresolved fission cross sections is suggestive of the existence of intermediate structure. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Capture cross-section of threading dislocations in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study the effect of film stress on capture cross-section of interacting threads. ► Capture cross-section area diverges near film channeling stress. ► Thread interactions are much more likely when local stress is near critical stress. - Abstract: The capture cross section for annihilation of two threads with opposite Burgers vectors moving on orthogonal slip planes in a thin film is examined using a numerical model. The initial configurations of threads that lead to annihilation are mapped out for a range of applied film stresses. The area of the region of initial configurations that lead to annihilation at a given stress and thickness is the capture cross-section. The size of the capture cross-section is shown to be highly sensitive to the applied stress relative to the critical stress for dislocation motion imposed by the film thickness.

  10. Double-hump resonance structure of the cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar5+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Configuration-average distorted-wave calculations are carried out for electron-impact ionization of Ar5+. Both direct ionization and the indirect excitation autoionization processes are included in our calculations. Our theoretical values are in quite reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The indirect processes contribute up to 50% to the total ionization cross sections. The possible origin of double-hump resonance structure of the cross sections is demonstrated and the contributions of metastable states are also taken into account.

  11. Trends in the electric field enhancement of dielectronic recombination cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of external electric fields on the dielectronic recombination cross section of selected ions has been studied in the configuration-average, distorted wave approximation. By applying the linear-Stark approximation to the doubly-excited Rydberg states formed from resonant recombination, we examine the systematics of field-mixing effects on dielectronic recombination and determine the maximum field enhancement of dielectronic recombination cross sections. 8 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  12. Extrapolation of neutron-rich isotope cross-sections from projectile fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mocko, M.; Tsang, M. B.; Z.Y. Sun; Andronenko, L.; Andronenko, M.; Delaunay, F.; Famiano, M.; Friedman, W. A.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Hui, H.; Liu, X. D.; Lukyanov, S.; Lynch, W.G.; Rogers, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using the measured fragmentation cross sections produced from the 48Ca and 64Ni beams at 140 MeV per nucleon on 9Be and 181Ta targets, we find that the cross sections of unmeasured neutron rich nuclei can be extrapolated using a systematic trend involving the average binding energy. The extrapolated cross-sections will be very useful in planning experiments with neutron rich isotopes produced from projectile fragmentation. The proposed method is general and could be applied to other fragmenta...

  13. On the unresolved resonance region representation of neutron induced cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate representation of neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance region is of interest for the calculation of the Doppler coefficient of reactivity and self-shielded group cross -section sets for fast reactors. Customarily, the cross sections in the unresolved resonance region are described on the basis of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions, by specifying average values and distribution functions for the resonance parameters. Resonance self-shielding factors can then be calculated by the appropriate statistical techniques. In this work we review the unresolved resonance region formalism in the light of the availability of new high-energy resolution measurements. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Total cross section for hadron production by e+e- annihilation at PETRA energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section for the process e+e- → multihadrons has been measured at the highest PETRA energies. We measure R (the total cross-section in units of the point-like e+e- → μ+μ- cross-section) to be 2.9 +- 0.7, 4.0 +- 0.5, 4.6 +- 0.4 and 4.2 +- 0.6 at √s of 22, 27.7, 30 and 31.6 GeV respectively. The observed average multiplicity, together with existing low energy data, indicate a rapid increase in multiplicity with increasing energy. (orig.)

  15. Narrowing the uncertainty on the total charm cross section and its effect on the J/\\psi\\ cross section

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, R; R. Vogt; Frawley, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the available parameter space that gives reasonable fits to the total charm cross section to make a better estimate of its true uncertainty. We study the effect of the parameter choices on the energy dependence of the J/\\psi\\ cross section.

  16. Meeting cross-section requirements for nuclear-energy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current requirements in cross-section data that are essential to nuclear-energy programmes are summarized and explained and some insight into how these data might be obtained is provided. The six sections of the paper describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation and analysis; determination of high-accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; identification of important cross sections and inferred needs. (U.K.)

  17. Meeting cross section requirements for nuclear energy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and explain current requirements in cross section data that are essential to nuclear energy programs and to provide some insight into how these data might be obtained. The report is divided into six sections that describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation, and analysis; determination of high accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; and identification of important cross sections and inferred needs

  18. Total Cross Sections as a Surrogate for Neutron Capture: An Opportunity to Accurately Constrain (n,γ) Cross Sections for Nuclides Beyond the Reach of Direct Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-05

    There are many (n,γ) cross sections of great interest to radiochemical diagnostics and to nuclear astrophysics which are beyond the reach of current measurement techniques, and likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. In contrast, total neutron cross sections currently are feasible for many of these nuclides and provide almost all the information needed to accurately calculate the (n,γ) cross sections via the nuclear statistical model (NSM). I demonstrate this for the case of 151Sm; NSM calculations constrained using average resonance parameters obtained from total cross section measurements made in 1975, are in excellent agreement with recent 151Sm (n,γ) measurements across a wide range of energy. Furthermore, I demonstrate through simulations that total cross section measurements can be made at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for samples as small as 10μg. Samples of this size should be attainable for many nuclides of interest. Finally, I estimate that over half of the radionuclides identified ∼20 years ago as having (n,γ) cross sections of importance to s-process nucleosynthesis studies (24/43) and radiochemical diagnostics (11/19), almost none of which have been measured, can be constrained using this technique.

  19. Comparisons of energy dependent point-wise cross-section generation codes: RESEND, RESENDD, RECENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the current situation for production of group cross-section set, we performed intercomparison of energy dependent cross-section generation codes, i.e. RESEND, RESENDD and RECENT which are currently used in the nuclear data community. And also the results were contributed to the international comparisons of energy dependent cross-section generation codes, organized by Dr. Cullen of IAEA. The ENDF/B V dosimetry file (Vol 531 tape) is adopted as the common input data file. We calculated cold (i.e. 0.0 Kelvin) energy dependent point-wise cross-sections and also calculated unshielded group averages in the 620 group SAND-II structures for the convenience of comparisons. Through this assessment, we can not recommend to use the official version of RESEND code at all due to the erroneous cross-section generation for partial reaction cross-sections (other than total reaction) in the resolved resonance region and also for the cross-sections in the unresolved region. And for RESENDD code, it has problems following three points: 1) process error in the constant background cross section treatment in file-3 given by interpolation scheme 1, 2) insufficient data points generation in resolved resonance range for very narrow resonances, this affects resonance integrals by several tens percent overestimation for the worst case, 3) violating the process criteria in unresolved resonance range, in this range cross-sections other than the tabulated energies should be defined by interpolating the generated cross-sections at the tabulated energies (not the unresolved parameters). Hence, at present stage, we recommend to use RECENT code to generate energy dependent point-wise cross-sections. (author)

  20. Determination of Pb total photonuclear absorption cross section in the Δ resonance range by measurement of photoneutrons cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photonuclear absorption cross section of Pb, σ(TOT:Esub(γ), is studied in the 145-440 MeV Δ resonance range using a quasi-monochromatic photon beam obtained by monoenergetic positon in-flight annihilation. This study is deduced of the cross section measurement for at least j neutron emission σsup(j))Esub(γ). The cross sections of reactions with 1 or 0 neutron are evaluated as the same values as the experimental errors. The variation of the photonuclear absorption cross section for a nuclear σ(TOT:Esub(γ)/A is mass independent for A<=4-6. It seems that the damping between σ(TOT:Esub(γ)/A and the cross section of the free nucleon is caused by the Fermi movement of the nucleons. In conclusion: it seems that the excitation of the nucleus in the Δ resonance region is produced on free nucleons and there are no collective states

  1. Neutron standard cross sections in reactor physics - Need and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and improvement of nuclear reactors require detailed neutronics calculations. These calculations depend on comprehensive libraries of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Most of the cross sections that form the data base for these evaluations have been measured relative to neutron cross-section standards. The use of these standards can often simplify the measurement process by eliminating the need for a direct measurement of the neutron fluence. The standards are not known perfectly, however; thus the accuracy of a cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross section relative to which it is measured. Improvements in a standard cause all cross sections measured relative to that standard to be improved. This is the reason for the emphasis on improving the neutron cross-section standards. The continual process of measurement and evaluation has led to improvements in the accuracy and range of applicability of the standards. Though these improvements have been substantial, this process must continue in order to obtain the high-quality standards needed by the user community

  2. The total collision cross section in the glory region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter 1 presents a calculation of approximate total cross sections in the glory region from noble gas potentials. The relations between the main features of the total cross section and the properties of the potential to which these are sensitive are extensively investigated in chapter II. A beam apparatus has been developed, which allows for accurate measurements on the total cross section. All effects due to the finite angular and velocity resolution of the apparatus can be eliminated from the data to yield actual total cross sections as a function of the relative velocity. This facilitates a comparison to total cross sections predicted by potentials available in the literature. A brief description of the apparatus and of the data reduction is given in chapter III. The total cross section data obtained for various noble gas combinations are presented and analysed in chapter IV, where also a large number of potentials proposed in the literature is tested. In chapter V the quenching of the glories in the case of a non-spherical interaction is analysed. Subsequently, total cross section data for some atom-molecule systems are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, William A.

    1980-07-01

    Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

  4. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  5. Contribution to the study of the unresolved resonance range of the neutrons cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the statistical description of neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance range. The modeling of the total cross section and of the 'shape - elastic' cross section is based on the 'average R-Matrix' formalism. The partial cross sections describing the radiative capture, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and fission process are calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism with width fluctuation corrections. In the unresolved resonance range, these models depend on the average resonance parameters (neutron strength function Sc, mean level spacing Dc, average partial reaction widths Γc, channel radius ac, effective radius R' and distant level parameter R-barc∞). The codes (NJOY, CALENDF...) dedicated to the processing of nuclear data libraries (JEFF, ENDF/B, JENDL, CENDL, BROND... ) use the average parameters to take into account the self-shielding phenomenon for the simulation of the neutron transport in Monte-Carlo (MCNP, TRIPOLI... ) and deterministic (APOLLO, ERANOS...) codes. The evaluation work consists in establishing a consistent set of average parameters as a function of the total angular momentum J of the system and of the orbital moment of the incident neutron l. The work presented in this paper aims to describe the links between the S-Matrix and the 'average R-Matrix' formalism for the calculation of Sc, R-barc∞, ac and R'. (author)

  6. Neutron inelastic cross section measurements for 24Mg

    OpenAIRE

    OLACEL A.; Borcea, C.; DESSAGNE Philippe; Kerveno, M.; NEGRET A.; PLOMPEN Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The gamma production cross sections from the neutron inelastic scattering on 24Mg were measured for neutron energies up to 18 MeV at GELINA (Geel Linear Accelerator), the neutron source operated by EC-JRC-IRMM, Belgium. The level cross section and the total inelastic cross section were determined. We used the GAINS (Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering) spectrometer with 7 large volume HPGe detectors placed at 110◦ and 150◦ with respect to the beam direction. The neutron flux was dete...

  7. Thermal neutron capture cross-sections and neutron separation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal radiative neutron capture cross-sections have been re-evaluated as part of an ongoing project at the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory at Upton, New York, to update the Neutron Cross-sections compendia, Vol. 1, Parts A and B, Neutron Resonance Parameters and Thermal Capture Cross-sections, published by Academic Press in 1981 and 1984, respectively. Neutron separation energies are evaluated as part of an ongoing project at the Atomic Mass Data Center in Orsay, France. The adopted data are compared with new results derived from this evaluation

  8. Neutron activation cross section measurements and evaluations in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross sections of 28 reactions have been measured by the activation method since 1995 in CIAE. At the same time the cross sections of 40 reactions which we have measured since 1989 have been compiled and evaluated. A brief description of experimental measurement of activation cross sections is given. The data measured after 1995 by ourselves are listed in Table 4 and our evaluations for 40 reactions are listed in Table 5, respectively. A graphical intercomparison with available experimental data isi given in appendix. (author)

  9. Testing of cross section libraries for TRIGA criticality benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of various up-to-date cross section libraries on the multiplication factor of TRIGA benchmark as well as the influence of fuel composition on the multiplication factor of the system composed of various types of TRIGA fuel elements was investigated. It was observed that keff calculated by using the ENDF/B VII cross section library is systematically higher than using the ENDF/B-VI cross section library. The main contributions (∼220 pcm) are from 235U and Zr. (author)

  10. Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V

  11. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross-sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross-sections for five different sizes of the solid angle in steps from 99.1% to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross-section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  12. Evaluation of neutron induced reaction cross sections on Rh isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluations of neutron nuclear data on 101,102,103,105Rh in the incident energies up to 20 MeV were performed, using theoretical nuclear reaction model code CCONE. The calculated cross sections of stable 103Rh are in good agreement with measured inelastic scattering, capture, (n, 2n), (n, p), (n, α) and (n, nα) reaction cross sections. The production cross section for the meta-state of 99Tc with half-life of 6.0 h was evaluated for the estimation of nuclear medicine use and resulted in 2.4 mb at a maximum. (author)

  13. Resonance interaction effects in photonucleon reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine structure of a giant dipole resonance in the photonuclear reaction cross section is investigated. Developed is a diagram of parametrization of cross sections, angular distribution and polarization for two resonances, one of which is directly excited by gamma-quantum, the second - due to internal and external mixing with the first state. It is shown, that for several reaction channels the interaction effects significantly the energy dependence of the cross sections and results in qualitative effects in the photonuclear angular distributions and polarization of photonucleons

  14. Comparison of fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, T

    2003-01-01

    The fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides given in JENDL-3.3 are compared with other evaluated data and experimental data. The comparison was made for 32 nuclides of Th-227, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, Pa-231, 232, 233, U-232, 234, 236, 237, Np-236, 237, 238, Pu-236, 237, 238, 242, 244, Am-241, 242, 242m, 243, Cm-242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. Given in the present report are figures of these cross sections and tables of cross sections at 0.0253 eV and resonance integrals.

  15. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of 231Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first series of fission cross-section measurements for incident neutron energies between 0.6 and 3.4 MeV has confirmed a first chance threshold value around 1b. In contrast to our findings for the fission cross-section in 233Pa, both the direct and the surrogate cross-section data lead to the same result. This seems to support the assumption, that only in cases, where ingoing and outgoing particle are similar, particle-transfer reactions give results that are in agreement with those obtained from direct compound nuclear reactions

  16. Total cross sections of beauty and charmed mesons on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a simple scaling law we predict the values of the total cross sections σ(B±p), σBd,s0, σ(bar Bd,s0P), σ(Dd,s±P), σ(D0p), σ(bar D0p) from known total Kp cross sections. We assume that mesons with the same light valence quark, q, and differing only by their heavy valence quark content, Q, have total cross sections on protons which scale as the inverse of the nth power of the reduced mass of the meson. We predict that σ(Q bar q)p > σ(bar Qq)p

  17. Comparison of fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides given in JENDL-3.3 are compared with other evaluated data and experimental data. The comparison was made for 32 nuclides of Th-227, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, Pa-231, 232, 233, U-232, 234, 236, 237, Np-236, 237, 238, Pu-236, 237, 238, 242, 244, Am-241, 242, 242m, 243, Cm-242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. Given in the present report are figures of these cross sections and tables of cross sections at 0.0253 eV and resonance integrals. (author)

  18. Measurements of fission cross-sections. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steps involved in the measurement of fission cross sections are summarized and the range of techniques available are considered. Methods of fission detection are described with particular emphasis on the neutron energy dependent properties of the fission process and the details of fragment energy loss which can lead to energy-dependent changes in detector efficiency. Selected examples of fission cross-section measurements are presented and methods of data reduction, storage, analysis and evaluation, are examined. Finally requested accuracies for fission cross section data are compared to estimated available accuracies. (U.K.)

  19. Photodetachment cross-section of the negatively charged hydrogen ion

    OpenAIRE

    Frolov, Alexei M.

    2015-01-01

    Photodetachment cross-section $\\sigma_{ph}(p_e)$ of the negatively charged hydrogen ion H$^{-}$ is determined with the use of highly accurate variational wave functions constructed for this ion. Photodetachment cross-sections of the H$^{-}$ ion are also studied for very small and very large values of the photo-electron momentum $p_e$. Maximum of this cross-section and its location have been evaluated to high accuracy. In particular, we have found that $[\\sigma_{ph}(p_e)]_{\\max} \\approx$ 3.862...

  20. Detrending moving-average cross-correlation coefficient: Measuring cross-correlations between non-stationary series

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kristoufek

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we introduce a new measure of correlation between possibly non-stationary series. As the measure is based on the detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA), we label it as the DMCA coefficient $\\rho_{DMCA}(\\lambda)$ with a moving average window length $\\lambda$. We analytically show that the coefficient ranges between -1 and 1 as a standard correlation does. In the simulation study, we show that the values of $\\rho_{DMCA}(\\lambda)$ very well correspond to the tr...

  1. Level Crossing Rate and Average Fade Duration of EGC Systems with Cochannel Interference in Rayleigh Fading

    CERN Document Server

    Hadzi-Velkov, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Both the first-order signal statistics (e.g. the outage probability) and the second-order signal statistics (e.g. the average level crossing rate, LCR, and the average fade duration, AFD) are important design criteria and performance measures for the wireless communication systems, including the equal gain combining (EGC) systems in presence of the cochannel interference (CCI). Although the analytical expressions for the outage probability of the coherent EGC systems exposed to CCI and various fading channels are already known, the respective ones for the average LCR and the AFD are not available in the literature. This paper presents such analytical expressions for the Rayleigh fading channel, which are obtained by utilizing a novel analytical approach that does not require the explicit expression for the joint PDF of the instantaneous output signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) and its time derivative. Applying the characteristic function method and the Beaulieu series, we determined the average LCR and the A...

  2. The 139La(n,gamma) cross section: key for the onset of the s process

    CERN Document Server

    Terlizzi, R; Aerts, G; lvarez, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, Panayiotis; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becv, F; Berthoumieux, E; Calviani, M; Calvio, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrillode Albornoz, A; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kppeler, F; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marques, L; Marrone, S; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pignatari, M; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear resonance parameters and the capture cross section of the neutron magic isotope 139La has been measured n_TOF. The description of the experimental apparata is followed by the data analysis procedures. We extracted the resonance parameters, the main nuclear quantities such as the resonance integral, the average gamma widths for s- and p-waves, the nuclear level densities and the neutron strength functions. These results represent a signifcant improvement over previous data. The deduced Maxwellian-averaged capture cross sections are important for the interpretation of the most recent spectroscopic observations in low metallicity stars.

  3. Cross polarization caused by perturbed circular cross sections of waveguides and horn antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lier, Erik

    1987-03-01

    The cross polarization caused by a perturbed cross section of the conical hybrid-mode horn is analyzed. The perturbed cross section is assumed to be slightly elliptical. The theory of Lier and Bergh (1986) for cross polarization in a smooth-walled waveguide supporting the TE11-mode is referred and applied to the HE11 mode as well. Simple analytical formulas which are sufficiently accurate for small ellipticites of the cross-section ellipse are presented. These show that the tolerances on the waveguide diameter are extremely strong, typically on the order of 0.02-0.04 mm in the horn throat for typical horn geometries at 12 GHz.

  4. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  5. Electronic stopping cross sections for use in ion range calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and empirical methods of determining the electronic stopping cross sections are discussed. The values used by various authors in ion range calculations are outlined. Recommendations are made for future range calculations. (author)

  6. Nonelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron total cross sections of elemental nickel were measured from 1.3 to 4.5 MeV, at intervals of approx. 50 keV, with resolutions of 30 to 50 keV and to accuracies of 1 to 2.5%. Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from 1.45 to 3.8 MeV, at intervals and with resolutions comparable to those of the total cross sections, and to accuracies of 3 to 5%. The nonelastic-scattering cross section is derived from the measured values to accuracies of greater than or equal to 6%. The experimental results are compared with previously reported values as represented by ENDF/B-V, and areas of consistency and discrepancy, noted. The measured results are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of a model previously reported by the authors. 4 figures, 1 table

  7. Longitudinal Vibrations of Rheological Rod With Variable Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica(Stevanovic)HEDRIH; AleksandarFILIPOVSKI

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal vibrations of rheological rod with variable cross section are examined.Particular solutions and eigenfunction are accomplished for natural vibrations of the rod with hereditary material of standard hereditary body.Some examples are given.

  8. Differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong-Mei, Yu; Chun-Ying, Pu; Xiao-Yu, Huang; Fu-Rong, Yin; Xu-Yan, Liu; Li-Guang, Jiao; Ya-Jun, Zhou

    2016-07-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed. Project supported by the Nanyang Normal University Science Foundation of China (Grant No. ZX2013017) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174066, 61306007, and U1304114).

  9. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltov Anguel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model’s plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB.

  10. Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCCCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCCCN (cyanoacetylene or propiolonitrile) in the range of 0–10 eV electron energy are presented here, which have been determined from a new analysis of previously reported data (Graupner et al 2006 New J. Phys. 8 117). The highest cross sections are observed for the formation of CN− at 5.3 eV and CCCN− at 5.1 eV; approximately 0.06 Å2 and 0.05 Å2 respectively. As part of the re-analysis, it was necessary to determine absolute cross sections for electron-impact ionization of HCCCN with the binary-encounter Bethe method. These electron-impact ionization absolute cross sections for HCCCN are also presented here; the maximum value was found to be ∼6.6 Å2 at ∼80 eV. (paper)

  11. Scaling of Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions

  12. The neutron cross-sections of Xe135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the total and absorption cross-sections of Xe135 reviewed briefly. The low-energy cross-section is very large and dominated by a single resonance at 0.084 eV; the spin state for this level is not known, this being one of the major uncertainties in the data. The resonance parameters given in the literature were found to give a good fit to the total cross-section but failed to reproduce the preferred 2200 m/sec. value of σγ. A new set of parameters was therefore deduced, by a least-squares analysis, which gave this preferred value of σγ and fitted the shape of the total cross section curve. To obtain this fit it was necessary to re-normalise the curve of σT by 4%. The new parameters are listed, and a discussion of the probable accuracy of the data is included. (author)

  13. Macroscopic cross section measurements in materials by neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macroscopic cross-section of materials play an important role in the study of material properties. Number of materials are used for shielding against penetrating radiation like X-rays, gamma rays and neutrons and exhibit different attenuation cross-sections. Neutron radiography technique is a multi discipline non-destructive technique with a large number of applications. The technique was applied to study and analyze the behavior of different shielding materials against thermal neutrons. Samples as step wedges of graphite, copper, brass and acrylic etc. were fabricated. The test samples were exposed to a beam of thermal neutrons at neutron radiography facility and the transmittance of neutrons through different materials was measured. Gamma-ray contribution and scattered radiation were subtracted from the observed neutron intensities to calculate the neutron macroscopic cross-section. Calculated values of the macroscopic cross-section were compared with the values given in the literature. (author)

  14. Scaling of Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Kaganovich, I D; Startsev, E

    2003-01-01

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  15. Models for Photon-photon Total Cross-sections

    OpenAIRE

    Godbole, RM; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.

    1999-01-01

    We present here a brief overview of recent models describing the photon-photon cross-section into hadrons. We shall show in detail results from the eikonal minijet model, with and without soft gluon summation.

  16. Electron Swarm Parameters and Electron Collision Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron collision cross section data for atoms and molecules and electron swarm data in respective gases are important for quantitative modeling of related plasmas. This fact and wide application of plasmas in various fields boos data collection and evaluation activities worldwide. We have been measuring electron swarm parameters (drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, ionization/attachment coefficients, and so on) over a wide E/N range (where E is the electric field and N the gas number density) in a number of gases. We also derived a set of electron collision cross sections for each gas so that the set was consistent with our experimental swarm data. Our speciality in studying molecular target is to measure swarm parameters not only in the pure molecular gas but also in dilute molecular gas-argon gas mixtures, the mix rations of the molecule are 0.5-5.0%. The swarm parameters in pure molecular gas depend primarily on the elastic momentum transfer cross section of the molecule and its vibrational excitation cross sections. Those in the mixtures, on the other hand, depend mainly on the elastic momentum transfer cross section of major argon atom and the vibrational cross sections of minor admixed molecule. Alternative use of swarm parameters in pure molecular gas and those in the mixtures enable us to derive the momentum transfer cross section and vibrational cross sections for the molecule separately. Combination of the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum of argon atom and sharp structures in vibrational cross sections of the molecule frequently gives rise prominent E/N dependences in swarm parameters, which can be used to determine the position and magnitude of resonances in the vibrational excitation cross sections. Detailed accounts of the procedure, including estimated uncertainty in our electron swarm data and also in the resultant set of electron collision cross sections, will be given in the presentation by referring to our recent results. Stress will be

  17. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  18. Absolute Total np and pp Cross Section Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, R A; Laptev, A B; Strakovsky, I I; Workman, R L

    2008-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses of NN scattering data. These cross sections are compared with most recent ENDF/B and JENDL data files, and the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B and JENDL evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region.

  19. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornet Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  20. Measurement of fusion cross section with neutron halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion cross sections of 11Be, 10Be and 9Be have been measured on 209Bi target at 30-70MeV. Due to the neutron halo effect of 11Be, a large enhancement or suppression of the fusion cross section around the Coulomb barrier was theoretically predicted. Comparing the excitation function of 11Be with 10Be at near the Coulomb barrier region, no significant difference has been observed. ((orig.))

  1. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne [Manchester U.

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  2. Elastic cross sections for electron-carbon scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun-Bo; Wang Yang; Zhou Ya-Jun

    2007-01-01

    We used the close-coupling optical (CCO) approach to investigate the open-shell carbon atom. The elastic cross sections have been presented at the energies below 90eV, and the present CCO results have been compared with other theoretical results. We found that polarization and the continuum states have significant contributions to the elastic cross sections. The present calculations show that the CCO method is capable of calculating electron scattering from open-shell atoms.

  3. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given

  4. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te,124Te,125Te,126Te,128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial γ-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and γ intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given

  5. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2004-03-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  6. Evaluation of neutron reaction cross sections for astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a code system to evaluate nuclear reaction cross sections for the nucleosynthesis. The system includes an interface to Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL), as well as some systematics to extrapolate the parameters into unstable regions. We are focusing on neutron capture processes important for s- and r-processes. The structure of the system is reviewed, and calculated capture cross sections in the fission product mass region are compared with experimental data available. (author)

  7. Majorana Dark Matter Cross Sections with Nucleons at High Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Reno, Mary Hall

    2012-01-01

    Non-relativistic dark matter scattering with nucleons is constrained by direct detection experiments. We use the XENON constraints on the spin-independent and spin-dependent cross section for dark matter scattering with nucleons to constrain a hypothetical Majorana fermionic dark matter particle's couplings to the Higgs boson and Z boson. In the procedure we illustrate the change in the dark matter nucleon cross section as one goes from non-relativistic, coherent scattering to relativistic, i...

  8. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    OpenAIRE

    Oberstedt S.; Tudora A.; Hambsch F.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra) as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f) and 237Np(n, f)) both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  9. Measurement of distribution density of total neutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of energy resolutions together with difficulties of multilevel analysis make desirable the application of the statistical approach to the description of total cross-section irregularities for intermediate and fast neutrons. Total neutron cross-section probability distributions were found from the analysis of the transmission nonexponentiality. The results for intervals adopted in reactor calculations are compared with recommended values and with those found from high resolution measurements

  10. Determination of molecular ionization cross sections in an ICR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization cross sections have been determined for simple gases at 75eV in an ICR spectrometer. Results obtained using a calibrated ion gauge as a pressure indicator yield values which are consistently higher than accepted values by as much as 15%. These results suggest that a more convenient way to measure pressure in ICR experiments might be to record the total ion current and to use the tabulated ionization cross sections where available

  11. Burnup-dependent cross section data for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies currently in progress consider research and test reactors which commonly have burnups of 50 atom percent in 235-U and may reach as high a 70 atom percent. At these levels of burnup changes in cross-section data with burnup become significant. Some preliminary studies of these effects lead to the development of a modified version of REBUS-2 which supports changes in cross-section data with burnup. This version of REBUS-2 allows for changes in the cross-section data only at each time sub-interval in the problem, and these cross-section changes for capture and fission are based on a least squares polynomial fit as a function of burnup. In this paper an attempt is made to evaluate the importance of burnup dependent data for the various isotopes and/or groups, and to assess the accuracy of this method by comparing the REBUS-2 results with results obtained from PDQ-7. The 10 MW IAEA benchmark problem has been selected for this study. A description of the reactor and the XY model can be found in the IAEA Guidebook. The EPRI-CELL4 code was used to generate burnup dependent cross section data for use with both REBUS-2 and PDQ-7. Cross-section data were generated at 10 time steps to a burnup of approximately 50 atom percent in 235-U. The agreement between the PDQ-7 results and the REBUS-2 results with fitted burnup dependent cross-section data are quite good. Burnup dependent cross sections are essential for accurate estimates of cycle lengths and reactivities, and low order polynomial fits of capture and fission data for selected isotopes and energy groups can provide this capability

  12. Porosity effects in the neutron total cross section of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite has been used in nuclear reactors since the birth of the nuclear industry due to its good performance as a neutron moderator material. Graphite is still an option as moderator for generation IV reactors due to its good mechanical and thermal properties at high operation temperatures. So, there has been renewed interest in a revision of the computer libraries used to describe the neutron cross section of graphite. For sub-thermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a larger total cross section (between 4 and 8 barns) than predicted by existing theoretical models (0.2 barns). In order to investigate the origin of this discrepancy we measured the total cross section of graphite samples of three different origins, in the energy range from 0.001 eV to 10 eV. Different experimental arrangements and sample treatments were explored, to identify the effect of various experimental parameters on the total cross section measurement. The experiments showed that the increase in total cross section is due to neutrons scattered around the forward direction. We associate these small-angle scattered neutrons (SANS) to the porous structure of graphite, and formulate a very simple model to compute its contribution to the total cross section of the material. This results in an analytic expression that explicitly depends on the density and mean size of the pores, which can be easily incorporated in nuclear library codes.

  13. Development of automatic cross section compilation system for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A development of a code system to automatically convert cross-sections for MCNP is in progress. The NJOY code is, in general, used to convert the data compiled in the ENDF format (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files by BNL) into the cross-section libraries required by various reactor physics codes. While the cross-section library: FSXLIB-J3R2 was already converted from the JENDL-3.2 version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for a continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, the library keeps only the cross-sections at room temperature (300 K). According to the users requirements which want to have cross-sections at higher temperature, say 600 K or 900 K, a code system named 'autonj' is under development to provide a set of cross-section library of arbitrary temperature for the MCNP code. This system can accept any of data formats adopted JENDL that may not be treated by NJOY code. The input preparation that is repeatedly required at every nuclide on NJOY execution is greatly reduced by permitting the conversion process of as many nuclides as the user wants in one execution. A few MCNP runs were achieved for verification purpose by using two libraries FSXLIB-J3R2 and the output of autonj'. The almost identical MCNP results within the statistical errors show the 'autonj' output library is correct. In FY 1998, the system will be completed, and in FY 1999, the user's manual will be published. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  14. Asymptotic behaviour of pion-pion total cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a sum rule which shows that the Froissart-Martin bound for the asymptotic behaviour of the ππ total cross sections at high energies, if modulated by the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient of the leading log2 s behaviour, cannot be an optimal bound in QCD. We next compute the total cross sections for π+π−, π±π0 and π0π0 scattering within the framework of the constituent chiral quark model (CχQM) in the limit of a large number of colours Nc and discuss their asymptotic behaviours. The same ππ cross sections are also discussed within the general framework of Large-Nc QCD and we show that it is possible to make an Ansatz for the isospin I=1 and I=0 spectrum which satisfy the Froissart-Martin bound with coefficients which, contrary to the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient, are not singular in the chiral limit and have the correct Large-Nc counting. We finally propose a simple phenomenological model which matches the low energy behaviours of the σπ±π0total(s) cross section predicted by the CχQM with the high energy behaviour predicted by the Large-Nc Ansatz. The magnitude of these cross sections at very high energies is of the order of those observed for the pp and pp-bar scattering total cross sections

  15. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  16. Updating the IST-LISBON electron cross sections for nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L. L.; Sombreireiro, L.; Viegas, P.; Guerra, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this work we update the complete and consistent set of nitrogen (N2) electron-impact cross-section with the IST-LISBON database, available on the LXCat website. The update has extended, in energy scale up to 1 keV, the cross sections for effective momentum-transfer, excitation to electronic states and ionization. The set further accounts for excitation to rotational and vibrational excited states. Calculations using BOLSIG + with the new cross sections give swarm parameters in very good agreement with available experimental data for the reduced mobility, the characteristic energy and the reduced ionization coefficient, for a very extended E / N range up to 1000 Td. The influence of rotational excitations/de-excitations at low E / N and different rotational temperatures is discussed. A critical evaluation of similarities and differences with sets of N2 cross sections from other databases is carried out. Moreover, the procedure to de-convolute global cross sections into state-to-state vibrational level dependent cross sections is outlined and discussed. Work partially supported by FCT (Pest-OE/SADG/LA0010/2011).

  17. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  18. Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)

  19. The total cross section and the fission cross section of 241Am in the resonance region. Resonance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 241Am total and fission cross sections have been measured in the resonance region, using the 60MeV Saclay linac as a pulsed neutron source. The resonance parameters obtained by a single level shape analysis of the transmission data are given for 189 levels up to 150eV neutron energy. The mean level spacing, corrected for 18% of missed resonances in the 0 to 50eV energy range, is (0.55+-0.05)eV. The s-wave neutron strength function value, in the 0 to 150eV energy range, is equal to (0.94+-0.09)10-4. The average radiation width obtained from 43 resonances is (43.77+-0.72)MeV. Only preliminary results of the fission experiment are available now; 38 fission widths are given up to 32eV neutron energy, with the average value GAMMA(f) approximately equal to 0.23MeV; the statistical distribution of these fission widths corresponds to a X2 law with 4 degrees of freedom. An area analysis of the Los Alamos fission data has also been done, from which we obtain 36 GAMMA(f) values in the 20eV to 50eV energy range; the corresponding average value is: GAMMA(f) approximately equal to 0.52MeV; the statistical distribution obeys to a X2 law with 15 degrees of freedom, in desagreement with the Saclay results

  20. Effects of cross sections libraries parameters on the OECD/NEA Oskarshamn-2 benchmark solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD/NEA proposes a new international benchmark based on the data collected from an instability transient occurred at the Oskarshamn-2 NPP with the aim to test the coupled 3D Neutron Kinetic/Thermal Hydraulic codes on challenging situations. The ENEA 'Casaccia' Research Center is participating to this benchmark, developing a computational model using RELAP5-3D code. The 3DNK model was developed starting from the cross sections datasets calculated by OKG, the Oskarshamn-2 licensee, using the CASMO lattice code. Integration of neutron cross sections database in RELAP5-3D required data fitting by a n-dimensional polynomials, calculations of the various polynomial coefficients and of the base cross sections values. An ad-hoc tool named PROMETHEUS has been developed for automatically generate the RELAP5-3D-compatible cross sections libraries. Thanks to this software it has been easily possible to visualize the complex structure of the neutronic data sets and to derive different cross sections libraries for evaluating the effects of some neutronic parameters on the prediction of the reactor instability. Thus, the effects of the fuel temperature and control rod history, of the discontinuity factors (averaged/not averaged), and of the neutron poisons has been assessed. A ranking table has been produced, demonstrating the relevance of the not-averaged discontinuity factors and of the on-transient neutron poisons calculations for the correct prediction of the Oskarshamn-2 event. (author)

  1. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for the Pd isotopes (RCN-3 data library)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation procedure to obtain neutron cross sections of 102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 107Pd, 108Pd and 110Pd for inclusion in the RCN-3 data library of fission-product cross sections is described. The new evaluation takes into account the results of recent differential and integral data. Most of the adopted resolved resonance parameters have been taken from the new CBNM measurements; for 107Pd the recent RPI data have been used. These resolved resonance parameters have been extensively analysed to obtain average values for the level spacing, capture width and neutron s- and p-wave strength functions. The systematics of the single-particle level-density parameter α and the capture width show significant odd-even effects. Optical-model and statistical-model calculations have been performed to obtain cross sections of reactions at energies from 1 meV to 15 MeV. The results for the capture cross sections based upon the analysed average resonance parameters turned out to be systematically lower than the ORELA average capture data and also lower than indicated by the most integral STEK data (except for 105Pd). As a compromise we have performed adjustments to increase the calculated fast capture cross sections for 104Pd, 106Pd and 108Pd

  2. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-06-15

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range {sup 6}Li-{sup 238}U, and 158 projectile nuclei from {sup 2}H up to {sup 84}Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  3. Correction of multigroup cross sections for resolved resonance interference in mixed absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect that interference between resolved resonances has on averaging multigroup cross sections is examined for thermal reactor-type problems. A simple and efficient numerical scheme is presented to correct a preprocessed multigroup library for interference effects. The procedure is implemented in a design oriented lattice physics computer code and compared with rigorous numerical calculations. The approximate method for computing resonance interference correction factors is applied to obtaining fine-group cross sections for a homogeneous uranium-plutonium mixture and a uranium oxide lattice. It was found that some fine group cross sections are changed by more than 40% due to resonance interference. The change in resonance interference correction factors due to burnup of a PWR fuel pin is examined and found to be small. The effect of resolved resonance interference on collapsed broad-group cross sections for thermal reactor calculations is discussed

  4. Total cross sections values of (p,n)-reaction for intermediate mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of information about values of cross sections of elastic scattering of protons through a compound nucleus, about experimental cross sections of inelastic scattering of protons as well as reactions (p,α),(p,γ) and calculational total cross sections of absorption, the estimation of values of total cross sections of reaction (p,n) δ (p,x) on 36 nuclei of average atomic weight (A=23-110) at proton energy ∼ 6 MeV is carried out. Isotopic dependence, δ(p,n) on neutron excess is confirmed. The presence of some specific features caused by the influence of input and output channels of (p,n) reaction is established in dependence of values δ(p,n) falling at an excess neutron from Z and A

  5. Continuous Extraction of Subway Tunnel Cross Sections Based on Terrestrial Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the continuous extraction of subway tunnel cross sections using terrestrial point clouds is proposed. First, the continuous central axis of the tunnel is extracted using a 2D projection of the point cloud and curve fitting using the RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm, and the axis is optimized using a global extraction strategy based on segment-wise fitting. The cross-sectional planes, which are orthogonal to the central axis, are then determined for every interval. The cross-sectional points are extracted by intersecting straight lines that rotate orthogonally around the central axis within the cross-sectional plane with the tunnel point cloud. An interpolation algorithm based on quadric parametric surface fitting, using the BaySAC (Bayesian SAmpling Consensus algorithm, is proposed to compute the cross-sectional point when it cannot be acquired directly from the tunnel points along the extraction direction of interest. Because the standard shape of the tunnel cross section is a circle, circle fitting is implemented using RANSAC to reduce the noise. The proposed approach is tested on terrestrial point clouds that cover a 150-m-long segment of a Shanghai subway tunnel, which were acquired using a LMS VZ-400 laser scanner. The results indicate that the proposed quadric parametric surface fitting using the optimized BaySAC achieves a higher overall fitting accuracy (0.9 mm than the accuracy (1.6 mm obtained by the plain RANSAC. The results also show that the proposed cross section extraction algorithm can achieve high accuracy (millimeter level, which was assessed by comparing the fitted radii with the designed radius of the cross section and comparing corresponding chord lengths in different cross sections and high efficiency (less than 3 s/section on average.

  6. Collision Cross Sections for 20 Protonated Amino Acids: Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance and Ion Mobility Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupriya; Jones, Chad A; Dearden, David V

    2016-08-01

    We report relative dephasing cross sections for the 20 biogenic protonated amino acids measured using the cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (CRAFTI) technique at 1.9 keV in the laboratory reference frame, as well as momentum transfer cross sections for the same ions computed from Boltzmann-weighted structures determined using molecular mechanics. Cross sections generally increase with increasing molecular weight. Cross sections for aliphatic and aromatic protonated amino acids are larger than the average trend, suggesting these side chains do not fold efficiently. Sulfur-containing protonated amino acids have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting the mass of the S atom. Protonated amino acids that can internally hydrogen-bond have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting more extensive folding. The CRAFTI measurements correlate well with results from drift ion mobility (IMS) and traveling wave ion mobility (TWIMS) spectrometric measurements; CRAFTI results correlate with IMS values approximately as well as IMS and TWIMS values from independent measurements correlate with each other. Both CRAFTI and IMS results correlate well with the computed momentum transfer cross sections, suggesting both techniques provide accurate molecular structural information. Absolute values obtained using the various methods differ significantly; in the case of CRAFTI, this may be due to errors in measurements of collision gas pressure, measurement of excitation voltage, and/or dependence of cross sections on kinetic energy. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27220844

  7. Collision Cross Sections for 20 Protonated Amino Acids: Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance and Ion Mobility Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupriya; Jones, Chad A.; Dearden, David V.

    2016-08-01

    We report relative dephasing cross sections for the 20 biogenic protonated amino acids measured using the cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (CRAFTI) technique at 1.9 keV in the laboratory reference frame, as well as momentum transfer cross sections for the same ions computed from Boltzmann-weighted structures determined using molecular mechanics. Cross sections generally increase with increasing molecular weight. Cross sections for aliphatic and aromatic protonated amino acids are larger than the average trend, suggesting these side chains do not fold efficiently. Sulfur-containing protonated amino acids have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting the mass of the S atom. Protonated amino acids that can internally hydrogen-bond have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting more extensive folding. The CRAFTI measurements correlate well with results from drift ion mobility (IMS) and traveling wave ion mobility (TWIMS) spectrometric measurements; CRAFTI results correlate with IMS values approximately as well as IMS and TWIMS values from independent measurements correlate with each other. Both CRAFTI and IMS results correlate well with the computed momentum transfer cross sections, suggesting both techniques provide accurate molecular structural information. Absolute values obtained using the various methods differ significantly; in the case of CRAFTI, this may be due to errors in measurements of collision gas pressure, measurement of excitation voltage, and/or dependence of cross sections on kinetic energy.

  8. Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadava Bapurao Jeve

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES at a teaching hospital. Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both. The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001. However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  9. Photoionization cross-sections using the polarization propagator approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the imaginary part of the polarization propagator (PP), when computed at complex frequencies, w+i η, can be, in the limit η -> 0, directly related to the photoionization cross-section. Total photoionization cross-sections can be evaluated directly from the PP, and partial croos-sections can be computed from individual excitation frequencies and transition moments, using the spectral representation of the PP. For complex frequencies not only the real part of the PP but also its imaginary part is propotional to the complex dynamic polarizability. (Author)

  10. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  11. 242Am/sup m/ fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Am/sup m/ has been measured over the energy region from 10-3 eV to approx.20 MeV in a series of experiments utilizing a linac-produced ''white'' neutron source and a monoenergetic source of 14.1 MeV neutrons. The cross section was measured relative to that of 235U in the thermal (0.001 to approx.3 eV) and high energy (1 keV to approx.20 MeV) regions and normalized to the ENDF/B-V 235U(n,f) evaluated cross section. In the resonance energy region (0.5 eV to 10 keV) the neutron flux was measured using thin lithium glass scintillators and the relative cross section thus obtained was normalized to the thermal energy measurement. This procedure allowed a consistency check between the thermal and high energy data. The cross section data have a statistical accuracy of approx.0.5% at thermal energies and in the 1-MeV energy region, and a systematic uncertainty of approx.5%. We confirmed that 242Am/sup m/ has the largest thermal fission cross section known with a 2200 m/sec value of 6328 b. Results of a Breit-Wigner sum-of-single-levels analysis of 48 fission resonances up to 20 eV are presented and the connection of these resonance properties to the large thermal cross section is discussed. Our measurements are compared with previously reported results

  12. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  13. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties: Report of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross...

  14. Improved Actinide Neutron Capture Cross Sections Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, W.; Pardo, R. C.; Kondev, F. G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O.; Palchan, T.; Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R.; Collon, P.; Paul, M.; Youinou, G.; Salvatores, M.; Palmotti, G.; Berg, J.; Maddock, T.; Imel, G.

    2014-09-01

    The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are developing a technique to inject solid material into the ECR with laser ablation. With laser ablation, we can better control material injection and potentially increase efficiency in the ECR, thus creating less contamination in the source and reducing cross talk. I will present work on the laser ablation system and preliminary results from our AMS measurements. The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are

  15. Does Realized Skewness Predict the Cross-Section of Equity Returns?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya, Diego; Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vasquez, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    We use intraday data to compute weekly realized moments for equity returns and study their time-series and cross-sectional properties. Buying stocks in the lowest realized skewness decile and selling stocks in the highest realized skewness decile generates an average return of 19 basis points the...

  16. Theoretical research of electron-ion direct impact excitation cross sections for hot dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An average-atom (AA) model, Younger formula and partial wave method are employed to study the electron- ion direct impact excitation cross sections for hot dense plasma. The phenomenon of electron resonance near the excitation threshold and its mechanism are discussed. (author)

  17. EDDIX--a database of ionisation double differential cross sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGibbon, J H; Emerson, S; Liamsuwan, T; Nikjoo, H

    2011-02-01

    The use of Monte Carlo track structure is a choice method in biophysical modelling and calculations. To precisely model 3D and 4D tracks, the cross section for the ionisation by an incoming ion, double differential in the outgoing electron energy and angle, is required. However, the double differential cross section cannot be theoretically modelled over the full range of parameters. To address this issue, a database of all available experimental data has been constructed. Currently, the database of Experimental Double Differential Ionisation Cross sections (EDDIX) contains over 1200 digitalised experimentally measured datasets from the 1960s to present date, covering all available ion species (hydrogen to uranium) and all available target species. Double differential cross sections are also presented with the aid of an eight parameter functions fitted to the cross sections. The parameters include projectile species and charge, target nuclear charge and atomic mass, projectile atomic mass and energy, electron energy and deflection angle. It is planned to freely distribute EDDIX and make it available to the radiation research community for use in the analytical and numerical modelling of track structure. PMID:21113060

  18. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  19. Experience With the SCALE Criticality Safety Cross Section Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    2000-08-21

    This report provides detailed information on the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries. Areas covered include the origins of the libraries, the data on which they are based, how they were generated, past experience and validations, and performance comparisons with measured critical experiments and numerical benchmarks. The performance of the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries on various types of fissile systems are examined in detail. Most of the performance areas are demonstrated by examining the performance of the libraries vs critical experiments to show general trends and weaknesses. In areas where directly applicable critical experiments do not exist, performance is examined based on the general knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the cross sections. In this case, the experience in the use of the cross sections and comparisons with the results of other libraries on the same systems are relied on for establishing acceptability of application of a particular SCALE library to a particular fissile system. This report should aid in establishing when a SCALE cross-section library would be expected to perform acceptably and where there are known or suspected deficiencies that would cause the calculations to be less reliable. To determine the acceptability of a library for a particular application, the calculational bias of the library should be established by directly applicable critical experiments.

  20. Technical study on cross section measurement with Al activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of Al activation relative measurement of cross section has been studied. The cross sections of 27Al(n,α)24Na have been measured in 13.4 MeV to 14.7 MeV. The PD-300 accelerator offered D-T neutron source. The distance from sample to Tritium target is 20 cm. It spent 5 h to radiate sample with neutron. The intensity of neutron source is monitored by the α-particles from the T(d, n) 4He reaction. The induced neutron energy is determined using ratio of Nb(n,2n) and Zr(n,2n) cross section. The activated gamma ray is measured using GEM60P HPGe detector. The results of 27Al(n, α)24Na cross sections are compared with the nuclear data standard, and the deviation is less than 1%. It showed that the method of Al activation relative measurement of cross section is credible. (authors)

  1. Penning ionization cross sections of excited rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic energy transfer processes involving excited rare gas atoms play one of the most important roles in ionized gas phenomena. Penning ionization is one of the well known electronic energy transfer processes and has been studied extensively both experimentally and theoretically. The present paper reports the deexcitation (Penning ionization) cross sections of metastable state helium He(23S) and radiative He(21P) atoms in collision with atoms and molecules, which have recently been obtained by the authors' group by using a pulse radiolysis method. Investigation is made of the selected deexcitation cross sections of He(23S) by atoms and molecules in the thermal collisional energy region. Results indicate that the cross sections are strongly dependent on the target molecule. The deexcitation probability of He(23S) per collision increases with the excess electronic energy of He(23S) above the ionization potential of the target atom or molecule. Another investigation, made on the deexcitation of He(21P), suggests that the deexcitation cross section for He(21P) by Ar is determined mainly by the Penning ionization cross section due to a dipole-dipole interaction. Penning ionization due to the dipole-dipole interaction is also important for deexcitation of He(21P) by the target molecules examined. (N.K.)

  2. How do we assign ourselves social status? A cross-cultural test of the cognitive averaging principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Matthew A

    2015-07-01

    Subjective social status (SSS), or one's perceived social standing, is linked robustly to mental and physical health and is thought to be determined in part by a cognitive average of one's past, present and expected socioeconomic status. However, this averaging principle awaits a formal test. Further, cultures differ with regard to how they perceive and discount time. In this study, I draw upon cross-sectional data from the United States and Japan (2005 MIDUS non-Hispanic whites and 2008 MIDJA), which measured subjective status in terms of one's perceived standing within a personally defined community. I compare equal and unequal cognitive averaging models for their goodness of fit relative to a traditional present-based model. Socioeconomic status is assessed broadly, in terms of past, present and expected overall work and financial situations. In the United States, averaging models do not fit the data consistently better than a present-based model of SSS. However, in Japan, averaging models do fit SSS consistently better. These fit conclusions are robust to controlling for negative affect. PMID:26004465

  3. (n,α) reactions cross sections research at IPPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During last few years systematic studies of (n,α) reactions cross sections on a set of nuclei for wide neutron energy region was carried out in IPPE. This research was done with new spectrometer based on an ionisation chamber with Frisch grid and a wave form digitizer. Both methods for gaseous and solid targets were developed. Information extracted from digital signals allows us to significantly decrease background from parasitic reactions and reach higher reliability for obtained cross section values. The description of experiment specialities and cross section measurement results for 16O(n,α), 14N(n,α), 14N(n,t), 20Ne(n,α), 36,40Ar(n,α), 10B(n,α) and 50Cr(n,α) reactions are given in the report

  4. Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 ± 0.18) x 10-16 cm2 for ∼ 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 x 10-16 cm2 which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections

  5. Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

  6. Integral test of fission-product cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test of more than 50 nuclides of the fission-product file of the JEF-1 data library has been performed, using integral data measured in Dutch, French and US facilities. Some results are given for the capture cross sections of the 40 most important fission products in a fast reactor. The inelastic scattering cross sections of many even-mass nuclides are systematically too low due to neglect of direct-collective effects. In lumped fission-product cross sections the uncertainties due to the release of gaseous products have been reduced by means of a new burn-up model with parameters tuned to leakage data of irradiated PHENIX fuel pins

  7. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elaine Schulte

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  8. Measurement of the ZZ production cross section with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinghaus, Frank; Schmitz, Simon; Tapprogge, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The study of the ZZ production has an excellent potential to test the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, where Z boson pairs can be produced via non-resonant processes or via Higgs decays. A deviation from the Standard Model expectation for the ZZ production cross section would be an indication for new physics. This could manifest itself in so called triple gauge couplings via ZZZ or ZZγ, which the Standard Model forbids at tree level. The measurement of the ZZ production cross section is based on an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collision data at √(s) = 8 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector in 2012. Measurements of differential cross sections as well as searches for triple gauge couplings have been performed. This talk presents the measurement and analysis details of the ZZ production in the ZZ → 4l channel.

  9. Cross section versus time delay and trapping probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Acosta, G. A.; Fernández-Marín, A. A.; Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; Poli, Charles

    2016-07-01

    We study the behavior of the s-wave partial cross section σ (k), the Wigner-Smith time delay τ (k), and the trapping probability P (k) as function of the wave number k. The s-wave central square well is used for concreteness, simplicity, and to elucidate the controversy whether it shows true resonances. It is shown that, except for very sharp structures, the resonance part of the cross section, the trapping probability, and the time delay, reach their local maxima at different values of k. We show numerically that τ (k) > 0 at its local maxima, occurring just before the resonant part of the cross section reaches its local maxima. These results are discussed in the light of the standard definition of resonance.

  10. Measurement of charm and beauty dijet cross sections in photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of charm and beauty dijet photoproduction cross sections at the ep collider HERA is presented. The positron data of the years 1999 and 2000 are analysed, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 56.8 pb-1. Events are selected with two or more jets of transverse momentum ptjet1(2)>11(8) GeV in the central range of pseudo-rapidity -0.9jet1(2)γobs. Taking into account the theoretical uncertainties, the charm cross sections are consistent with a QCD calculation in next-to-leading order, while the predicted cross sections for beauty production are somewhat lower than the measurement. (orig.)

  11. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  12. Majorana Dark Matter Cross Sections with Nucleons at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Reno, Mary Hall

    2012-01-01

    Non-relativistic dark matter scattering with nucleons is constrained by direct detection experiments. We use the XENON constraints on the spin-independent and spin-dependent cross section for dark matter scattering with nucleons to constrain a hypothetical Majorana fermionic dark matter particle's couplings to the Higgs boson and Z boson. In the procedure we illustrate the change in the dark matter nucleon cross section as one goes from non-relativistic, coherent scattering to relativistic, incoherent scattering. While the Z invisible decay width excludes directly couplings of dark matter to ordinary matter, by introducing a light Z' portal to the dark sector, a relatively large dark matter nucleon cross section can be preserved even with accelerator experiment constraints for dark matter with a mass of ~10 GeV

  13. Ionization cross sections for low energy electron transport

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Hee; Saracco, Paolo; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2011-01-01

    Two models for the calculation of ionization cross sections by electron impact on atoms, the Binary-Encouter-Bethe and the Deutsch-Maerk models, have been implemented; they are intended to extend and improve Geant4 simulation capabilities in the energy range below 1 keV. The physics features of the implementation of the models are described, and their differences with respect to the original formulations are discussed. Results of the verification with respect to the original theoretical sources and of extensive validation with respect to experimental data are reported. The validation process also concerns the ionization cross sections included in the Evaluated Electron Data Library used by Geant4 for low energy electron transport. Among the three cross section options, the Deutsch-Maerk model is identified as the most accurate at reproducing experimental data over the energy range subject to test.

  14. The photon scattering cross-sections of atomic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grunefeld, Swaantje J; Cheng, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    We present a unified view of the frequency dependence of the various scattering processes involved when a neutral hydrogen atom interacts with a monochromatic, linearly-polarized photon. A computational approach is employed of the atom trapped by a finite-sized-box due to a finite basis-set expansion, which generates a set of transition matrix elements between $E0$ pseudostates. We introduce a general computational methodology that enables the computation of the frequency-dependent dipole transition polarizability with one real and two different imaginary contributions. These dipole transition polarizabilities are related to the cross-sections of one-photon photoionization, Rayleigh, Raman, and Compton scattering. Our numerical calculations reveal individual Raman scattering cross-sections above threshold that can rapidly vanish and revive. Furthermore, our numerical Compton cross-sections do not overtly suffer from the infra-red divergence problem, and are three orders-of-magnitude higher than previous analy...

  15. 63Ni (n ,γ ) cross sections measured with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Kivel, N.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ostermöller, J.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wallner, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the s -process branch nucleus 63Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63Cu and 64Zn. In order to determine the energy-dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4 π BaF2 array DANCE. The (n ,γ ) cross section of 63Ni has been determined relative to the well-known 197Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q value. Furthermore, the s -process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.

  16. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of bodies with rectangular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, H. G.; Schamel, W.; Esch, H.; Schneider, W.

    Systematic wind tunnel tests for a series of missile bodies were conducted by varying cross section shape and body length in the subsonic Mach number range and up to high angles of attack. Tests with a body-wing and a body-tail configuration were performed in order to investigate the body-wing and body-tail interference for bodies of revolution and bodies with rectangular cross section. At a constant angle of attack, the boxlike body supplies far more normal force than the body of revolution with the same cross section area. The boxlike body shows strong coupling effects between the pitch, yaw and roll. The interference effect of the wing and body can be described well, in the case of boxlike bodies with wings in high or low wing positions, by the known slender body interference factors, assuming the width of the box to be the diameter of an equivalent, axially symetrical body.

  18. Electron impact double ionization cross sections of light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple user-friendly semiempirical model is proposed to calculate electron impact double ionization cross sections of He, Li, Li+, B+, C+, C3+, O, O2+, O3+, Ne, Ne+, Ne2+, Na, Mg, Al3+, S, and Arq+ (q equals 0 - 7) targets for the incident electron energies from threshold to 106 eV. The contributions in the total double ionization cross sections from the direct double ionization and inner-shell ionization processes are taken into account on the basis of experimental data considered. The results of the present analysis are compared with the available experimental data and theoretical calculations. The model is found successful for the description of experimental cross sections. Since, this model may be a prudent selection to meet the demand level in plasma modeling due to its simple inherent structure. (authors)

  19. Photodetachment cross-section of the negatively charged hydrogen ion

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Alexei M

    2015-01-01

    Photodetachment cross-section $\\sigma_{ph}(p_e)$ of the negatively charged hydrogen ion H$^{-}$ is determined with the use of highly accurate variational wave functions constructed for this ion. Photodetachment cross-sections of the H$^{-}$ ion are also studied for very small and very large values of the photo-electron momentum $p_e$. Maximum of this cross-section has been evaluated to very high accuracy and we have found that $[\\sigma_{ph}(p_e)]_{\\max} \\approx$ 3.8627035742 $\\cdot 10^{-17}$ $cm^2$ at $p_e \\approx$ 0.113206(1) $a.u.$ Photodetachment of the H$^{-}$ ion at very small and very large $p_e$ values is also considered. Our method is based upon the Rayleigh's formula for spherical Bessel functions.

  20. Near threshold photodetachment cross section of negative atomic oxygen ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jian-Hua(吴建华); Yuan Jian-Min(袁建民); Vo Ky Lan

    2003-01-01

    A 40-target state close-coupling calculation for the photodetachment cross section of negative atomic oxygen near threshold is carried out with core-valence electron correlation by using the R-matrix method. It was shown that after considering the excitations of two electrons from the 2s shell, the electron affinity of O- (2s22p5 2po) agrees with the experimental result much better than that just considering the excitations of electrons only from the 2p shell as well as only one electron from the 2s shell. Total cross section as well as the main contribution of the ionization channels to the partial cross section are illustrated to show the structure near threshold clearly.

  1. Differences between stellar and laboratory reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Rauscher, T

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactions proceed differently in stellar plasmas than in the laboratory due to the thermal effects in the plasma. On one hand, a target nucleus is bombarded by projectiles distributed in energy with a distribution defined by the plasma temperature. The most relevant energies are low by nuclear physics standards and thus require an improved description of low-energy properties, such as optical potentials, required for the calculation of reaction cross sections. Recent studies of low-energy cross sections suggest the necessity of a modification of the proton optical potential. On the other hand, target nuclei are in thermal equilibrium with the plasma and this modifies their reaction cross sections. It is generally expected that this modification is larger for endothermic reactions. We show that there are many exceptions to this rule.

  2. Total Cross Section in $\\gamma\\gamma$ Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Baldew, S V; Todorova-Nová, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    The reaction e+e- -> e+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons for quasi-real photons is studied using data from root(s) = 183 GeV up to 202 GeV. Results on the total cross sections sigma(e+e- -> e+e- hadrons) and sigma(+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons) are given for the two-photon centre-of-mass energies 5 GeV < Wgammagamma < 185 GeV. The total cross section of two real photons is described by a Regge parametrisation. We observe a steeper rise with the two-photon centre-of-mass energy as compared to the hadron-hadron and the photon-proton cross sections. The data are also compared to the expectations of different theoretical models.

  3. Level Crossing Rate and Average Fade Duration of the Multihop Rayleigh Fading Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Hadzi-Velkov, Zoran; Karagiannidis, George K; 10.1109/ICC.2008.835

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel analytical framework for the evaluation of important second order statistical parameters, as the level crossing rate (LCR) and the average fade duration (AFD) of the amplify-and-forward multihop Rayleigh fading channel. More specifically, motivated by the fact that this channel is a cascaded one, which can be modelled as the product of N fading amplitudes, we derive novel analytical expressions for the average LCR and AFD of the product of N Rayleigh fading envelopes, or of the recently so-called N*Rayleigh channel. Furthermore, we derive simple and efficient closed-form approximations to the aforementioned parameters, using the multivariate Laplace approximation theorem. It is shown that our general results reduce to the specific dual-hop case, previously published. Numerical and computer simulation examples verify the accuracy of the presented mathematical analysis and show the tightness of the proposed approximations.

  4. Fission, total and neutron capture cross section measurements at ORELA for {sup 233}U, {sup 27}Al and natural chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guber, K.H.; Spencer, R.R.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, D.C.; Santos, G. Dos; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1998-08-01

    The authors have made use of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) to measure the fission cross section of {sup 233}U in the neutron energy range of 0.36 eV to {approximately} 700 keV. This paper reports integral data and average cross sections. In addition they measured the total neutron cross section of {sup 27}Al and natural chlorine, as well as the capture cross section of Al over an energy range from 100 eV up to about 400 keV.

  5. Measurements of minor actinides cross sections for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing reactors produce two kinds of nuclear waste: the fission products and heavy nuclei beyond uranium called minor actinides (Americium and Curium isotopes). Two options are considered: storage in deep geological site and/or transmutation by fast neutron induced fission. These studies involve many neutron data. Unfortunately, these data bases have still many shortcomings to achieve reliable results. The aim of these measurements is to update nuclear data and complement them. We have measured the fission cross section of 243Am (7370 y) in reference to the (n,p) elastic scattering to provide new data in a range of fast neutrons (1-8 MeV). A statistical model has been developed to describe the reaction 243Am (n,f). Moreover, the cross sections from the following reactions have been be extracted from these calculations: inelastic scattering 243Am (n,n') and radiative capture 243Am (n,γ) cross sections. The direct measurements of neutron cross sections are often a challenge considering the short half-lives of minor actinides. To overcome this problem, a surrogate method using transfer reactions has been used to study few isotopes of curium. The reactions 243Am (3He, d)244Cm, 243Am (3He, t)243Cm and 243Am (3He, α)242Am allowed to measure the fission probabilities of 243,244Cm and 242Am. The fission cross sections of 242,243Cm (162,9 d, 28,5 y) and 241Am (431 y) have been obtained by multiplying these fission probabilities by the calculated compound nuclear neutron cross section relative to each channel. For each measurement, an accurate assessment of the errors was realized through variance-covariance studies. For measurements of the reaction 243Am(n,f), the analysis of error correlations allowed to interpret the scope of these measures within the existing measurements. (author)

  6. Cross section library based discrepancies in MCNP criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear engineering several reactor physics problems can be approached using Monte Carlo neutron transport techniques, which usually give reliable results when properly used. The quality of the results is largely determined by the accuracy of the geometry model and the statistical uncertainty of the Monte Carlo calculation. There is, however, another potential source of error, namely the cross section data used with the Monte Carlo codes. It has been shown in several studies that there may be significant discrepancies between results calculated using cross section libraries based on different evaluated nuclear data files. These discrepancies are well known to the evaluators of nuclear data but less acknowledged by reactor physicists, who often rely on a single cross section library in their calculations. In this study, discrepancies originating from base nuclear data were investigated in a systematic manner using the MCNP4C code. Calculations on simplified UOX and MOX fuelled LWR lattices were carried out using cross section libraries based on ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.0, JENDL-3.3, JEF-2.2 and JENDL-3.2 evaluated data files. The neutron spectrum of the system was varied over a wide range by changing the ratio of hydrogen to heavy metal atoms. The essential isotopes underlying the discrepancies were identified and the roles of fission and absorption cross sections of the most important nuclides assessed. The results confirm that there are large systematic differences up to a few per cent in the multiplication factors of LWR lattices. The discrepancies are strongly dependent on material compositions and neutron spectra, and largely originate from U-238 and the primary fissile isotopes. It is concluded that these discrepancies should be taken into account in all reactor physics calculations, and that reactor physicists should not rely on results based on a single cross section library. (author)

  7. Electron-loss and excitation cross sections for a He+ ion colliding with various atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unitarized impact-parameter method is applied to calculate the electron-loss and excitation cross sections for He+ ions colliding with atoms. The projectile ionization and excitation are dominantly caused by the average potential field of the target atom (atomic number Z2). The inelastic process of exciting the target atom contributes negligibly except for light target elements. We adopt the Moliere potential to describe this average potential field. The energy dependences of the electron-loss cross sections in He, N2, and Ar targets are in good agreement with the reported data. In the case of the Kr target, the present theory yields larger cross sections than the data, especially below 1 MeV impact energy of a He+ projectile. The calculated loss cross sections at impact velocity ranging from 2v0 to 6v0 (v0 = 2.18 x 108 cm/s) show a weaker Z2 dependence in the large Z2 region than that given by the Bohr formula. As for the cross section for exciting the ground state of a projectile to the first excited state, a similar weak Z2 dependence can be found. The recent experimental results using 40-MeV F8+ ions colliding with He, Ne, Ar, and Kr targets have supported this tendency

  8. Revised transport cross-sections for the WIMS library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIMS transport cross-sections above 4 eV are formed by a column-sum correction in which an assumed current spectrum is used to weight the P1 scattering data for a given isotope. Revised weighting spectra lead to improved transport cross-sections for the principal moderators: the effect on calculations of k-infinity is small but leakage calculations, for the homogenised cell, are now in close agreement with corresponding B1 calculations using explicit P1 data. Energy condensation of the B0 (transport corrected) equations appears to be more valid than the procedure used to condense the B1 equations. (author)

  9. Kriging approach for the experimental cross-section covariances estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the classical use of a generalized χ2 to determine the evaluated cross section uncertainty, we need the covariance matrix of the experimental cross sections. The usual propagation error method to estimate the covariances is hardly usable and the lack of data prevents from using the direct empirical estimator. We propose in this paper to apply the kriging method which allows to estimate the covariances via the distances between the points and with some assumptions on the covariance matrix structure. All the results are illustrated with the 2555Mn nucleus measurements. (authors)

  10. Testing weak cross-sectional dependence in large panels

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, Hashem

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers testing the hypothesis that errors in a panel data model are weakly cross sectionally dependent, using the exponent of cross-sectional dependence , introduced recently in Bailey, Kapetanios and Pesaran (2012). It is shown that the implicit null of the CD test depends on the relative expansion rates of N and T. When T = O , for some , then the implicit null of the CD test is given by , which gives , when N and T tend to infinity at the same rate such that T/N , with being...

  11. High-mass dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Ahn, S H; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bodmann, B; Bokel, C; Boogert, S; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Breitweg, J; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Catterall, C D; Chapin, D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Coldewey, C; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Crittenden, J; Cross, R; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desler, K; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Engelen, J; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galea, R; Gallo, E; García, G; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Graciani, R; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G F; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jeoung, H Y; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kreisel, A; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lammers, S; Lane, J B; Lee, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Markun, P; Martens, J; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Massam, Thomas; Mastroberardino, A; Matsushita, T; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, A; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Mindur, B; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Park, S K; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Raach, H; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Renner, R; Repond, J; Rigby, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sar, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shche, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Solomin, A N; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Saint-Laurent, M G; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Surrow, B; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Umemori, K; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Wölfle, S; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Za, L; Zakrzewski, J A; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2002-01-01

    Dijet differential cross sections for the reaction e+p -> e+ + jet + jet + X in the photoproduction regime have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 42.7 pb**{-1}. The cross sections are given for photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range 134 e+ Z0 X} < 5.9 pb. Upper limits on the photoproduction of new heavy resonances decaying into two jets are also presented for masses in the range between 60 GeV and 155 GeV.

  12. Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2012-11-15

    We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.

  13. Inactivation cross section of yeast cells irradiated by heavy ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Inactivation cross sections for haploid yeast cell strain211a have been calculated as 1-hit detector based on the tracktheory in an extended target mode and a numerical calculation ofradial dose distribution. In the calculations, characteristic dose D0 is a fitted parameter which is obtained to be 42 Gy, and "radius"of hypothetical target a0 is chosen to be 0.5μm which is about the sizeof nucleus of yeast cells for obtaining an overall agreement withexperimental cross sections. The results of the calculations are inagreement with the experimental data in high LET (linear energy transfer) including the thindown region.

  14. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberstedt S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f and 237Np(n, f both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  15. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  16. Reaction cross sections of hypernuclei and the shrinkage effect

    CERN Document Server

    Akaishi, T

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the reaction cross sections for $^6{\\rm Li}$ and $^7_{\\Lambda}{\\rm Li}$ on a $^{12}{\\rm C}$ target at $100\\,{\\rm MeV/nucleon}$ using the Glauber theory. To this end, we assume a two-body cluster structure for $^6$Li and $^7_{\\Lambda}{\\rm Li}$, and employ the few-body treatment of the Glauber theory, that is beyond the well known optical limit approximation. We show that the reaction cross section for $^7_{\\Lambda}{\\rm Li}$ is smaller than that for $^6$Li by about 4\\%, reflecting the shrinkage effect of the $\\Lambda$ particle.

  17. Cross section inference based on PDE-constrained optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of inferring the material properties (cross section) in noninvasive inverse problems is formulated as a PDE-constrained optimization problem, where the governing laws of the chosen physics act as a constraint. A standard Lagrangian functional, containing the objective function to be minimized and the constraints to satisfy, is formed. The resolution of the optimality conditions lead to a nonlinear problem that is tackled with a Gauss-Newton procedure. Results of cross section inference are presented in the case of 1-group 2D neutron diffusion theory. (authors)

  18. Charged particle cross-section data and their systematization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction cross-sections and the thick target yields of (α,αxn) and (α,xn), induced by the alpha particles from the Buenos Aires 60 inch synchrocyclotron for Cu, Y, Zr, Rh, Te, Ta, Au and Pb were obtained. The ''stocked foil'' method was applied. The ''nuclear spin density'' parameter was determined using a phenomenological approximation from the cross section data for 181Ta(α,n) reaction producing isomeric pairs of sup(184m)Re and sup(184g)Re. The systematic behaviour of the present result and the results of other authors were demonstrated

  19. Electron transport in silicon nanowires having different cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscato Orazio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport phenomena in silicon nanowires with different cross-section are investigated using an Extended Hydrodynamic model, coupled to the Schrödinger-Poisson system. The model has been formulated by closing the moment system derived from the Boltzmann equation on the basis of the maximum entropy principle of Extended Thermodynamics, obtaining explicit closure relations for the high-order fluxes and the production terms. Scattering of electrons with acoustic and non polar optical phonons have been taken into account. The bulk mobility is evaluated for square and equilateral triangle cross-sections of the wire.

  20. Update to the R33 cross section file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1991, in response to the workshop on cross sections for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) held in Namur (July 1991, Nuclear Instruments and Methods B66(1992)), a simple ascii format was proposed to facilitate transfer and collation of nuclear reaction cross section data for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) and especially for Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). Although intended only as a discussion document, the ascii format - referred to as the R33 (Report 33) format - has become a de facto standard. In the decade since this first proposal there have been spectacular advances in computing power and in software usability, however the cross-platform compatibility of the ascii character set has ensured that the need for an ascii format remains. Nuclear reaction cross section data for Nuclear Reaction analysis has been collected and archived on internet web sites over the last decade. This data has largely been entered in the R33 format, although there is a series of elastic cross sections that are expressed as the ratio to the corresponding Rutherford cross sections that have been entered in a format referred to as RTR (ratio to Rutherford). During this time the R33 format has been modified and added to - firstly to take into account angular distributions, which were not catered for in the first proposal, and more recently to cater for elastic cross sections expressed as the ratio-to- Rutherford, which it is useful to have for some elastic scattering programs. It is thus timely to formally update the R33 format. There also exists the large nuclear cross section data collections of the Nuclear Data Network - of which the core centres are the OECD NEA Nuclear Data Bank, the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, the Brookhaven National Laboratory National Nuclear Data Centre and CJD IPPE Obninsk, Russia. The R33 format is now proposed to become a legal computational format for the NDN. It is thus also necessary to provide an updated formal definition of the R33 format in order to provide

  1. Photon gluon fusion cross sections at HERA energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, J. J.; Dejong, S. J.; Poletiek, M.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Cross sections for heavy flavor production through photon gluon fusion in electron proton collisions are presented. The electron photon vertex is taken into account explicitly, and the Q sq of the exchanged photon ranges from nearly zero (almost real photon) to the kinematically allowed maximum. The QCD scale is set by the mass of the produced quarks. The formalism is also applicable to the production of light quarks as long as the invariant mass of the pair is sufficiently high, so cross sections for u anti-u, d anti-d, and s anti-s production are also given.

  2. Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Daido Institute of Technology, 10-3 Takiharu-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8530 (Japan); Ushiroda, S [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Toyota College of Technology, 2-1 Eisei-cho, Toyota-Shi 471-8525 (Japan); Kondo, Y [Kaela Research and Development Corporation, Incubation Office No 2 in Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2008-12-14

    A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF{sub 2}), perfluoropropane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}), perfluoro-n-pentane (C{sub 5}F{sub 12}), perfluoro-n-hexane (C{sub 6}F{sub 14}) and perfluoro-n-octane (C{sub 8}F{sub 18}) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

  3. Evaluation of neutron resonance cross section data at GELINA

    OpenAIRE

    BECKER BJÖRN; Capote, R; EMILIANI FEDERICA; Guber, K. H.; HEYSE JAN; KAUWENBERGHS KIM JOSEPHA; Kopecky, Stefan; LAMPOUDIS CHRISTOS; Massimi, C.; MONDELAERS Willy; Moxon, M.; Noguere, G.; Plompen, Arjan; PRONAYEV V.; SIEGLER Peter

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the EC–JRC–IRMM, in collaboration with other institutes such as INRNE Sofia (BG), INFN Bologna (IT), ORNL (USA), CEA Cadarache (FR) and CEA Saclay (FR), has made an intense effort to improve the quality of neutron-induced cross section data in the resonance region. These improvements relate to both the infrastructure of the facility and the measurement setup, and the data reduction and analysis procedures. As a result total and reaction cross section data in the resonanc...

  4. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential neturon-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV. Inelastic-neutron-scattering cross sections corresponding to the excitation of levels at observed energies of: 914 +- 25, 1476 +- 37, 1787 +- 23, 2101 +- 26, 2221 +- 17, 2363 +- 14, 2791 +- 15 and 3101 +- 25 keV are determined. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  5. Top quark pair cross section measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results in the measurement of the top-quark pair production cross section obtained with data collected by the CMS detector at LHC accelerator. The analyses are performed in the dilepton, single lepton and full hadronic decay modes. Additionally to the inclusive measurements of $\\mathrm{\\sigma_{\\mathrm{t\\bar{t}}}}$ at 7, 8 and 13$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$, the CMS collaboration provides for the first time the cross section at 5.02$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$. Results are confronted with the latest and most precise theoretical calculations.

  6. Cross Section and Experimental Data Analysis Using EViews

    CERN Document Server

    Agung, I Gusti Ngurah

    2011-01-01

    A practical guide to selecting and applying the most appropriate model for analysis of cross section data using EViews. " This book is a reflection of the vast experience and knowledge of the author. It is a useful reference for students and practitioners dealing with cross sectional data analysis ... The strength of the book lies in its wealth of material and well structured guidelines ..." Prof. Yohanes Eko Riyanto , Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. " This is superb and brilliant. Prof. Agung has skilfully transformed his best experiences into new knowledge ... creating a new way

  7. Total photoproduction cross section at very high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we apply to the photoproduction total cross section a model we have proposed for purely hadronic processes and which is based on QCD mini-jets and soft gluon re-summation. We compare the predictions of our model with the HERA data as well as with other models. For cosmic rays, our model predicts substantially higher cross sections at TeV energies than models based on factorization, but lower than models based on mini-jets alone, without soft gluons. We discuss the origin of this difference. (orig.)

  8. Precision measurement of cross sections by isomer ratio method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of determining the cross sections of isomer states measuring the ratio of yields of ground and isomer states (or σm/σg cross section ratio) by γ spectroscopy methods is investigated. Isomer ratio (IR) for 185Re(γ, n)184mgRe, 181Ta(α, n)184mgRe, 82Se(γ, n)81mSe and 39K(γ, n)38mgK reactions are studied. The IR determination error makes up several per cents. 6 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  9. The absolute threshold photodetachment cross-section of Al-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total absolute photodetachment cross-section of the aluminum anion, Al-, is calculated in the threshold spectral region for photons of wave numbers 3400 - 3650cm-1 using the zero-core contribution (ZCC) model. A computer least-squares curve fit is used to test the validity of the Wigner threshold law and the deviation from recent experimental measurements of the relative photodetachment cross-section. It is found that the best agreements is achieved with a smaller core radius rο=1.60 Angstrom rather than the value of 1.82 Angstrom used earlier. (authors). 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Photon-photon cross sections in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible contributions to the photon-photon cross section in the region where the vector dominated thresholds are closed are evaluated. All two body processes diagonal and off diagonal are summed explicitly and the multibody processes are calculated by a method introduced previously. It is found that, excluding s-channel resonances, the cross section is very small for all channels, and purely real except for resonances. It is concluded that the possibility of studying s-channel resonances in electron colliding machines is probably far better than it was believed. These possibilities are discussed in a separate paper. (author)

  11. Neutrino absorption cross sections in 16O and 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the study of total cross sections in the neutrino (antineutrino) - nucleus reactions has been done for the lepton detection particularly for the nuclear targets used in various ongoing atmospheric neutrino experiments at IMB, Superkamiokande, and ICARUS. The inclusive cross sections have been studied for these reactions using local density approximations (LDA) for the neutrinos moving in the nuclear medium and taking into account the renormalization of weak coupling constants due to the presence of strongly interacting nucleons in the nuclear medium and compared with the calculations done in Fermi gas model (FGM)

  12. Medium effects in the nucleon- nucleus reaction cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleon-nucleus reaction cross-section, σR , has been calculated using Gabblers multiple scattering theory in its optical limit, A medium modified nuclear phase shift function has been obtained for nucleon-nucleus scattering using a medium two body scattering amplitude. In the present calculations, the Coulomb modified Glauber model is used. Also different forms of Gaussian density distribution, for the target nucleus, are used. A comparison of medium modified calculations with the corresponding experimental data has shown that application of the medium effect in the total reaction cross- section plays an important role for low values of energy

  13. Inactivation cross section of yeast cells irradiation by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inactivation cross sections for haploid yeast cell strain 211a have been calculated as 1-hit detector based on the track theory in an extended target mode and a numerical calculation of radial dose distribution. In the calculations, characteristic dose D0 is a fitted parameter which is obtained to be 42 Gy, and 'radius' of hypothetical target a0 is chosen to be 0.5 μm which is about the size of nucleus of yeast cells for obtaining an overall agreement with experimental cross sections. The results of the calculations are in agreement with the experimental data in high LET (linear energy transfer) including the thin down region

  14. Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

  15. Activities of the JILA Atomic Collisions Cross Sections Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JILA Atomic Collisions Cross Sections Data Center compiles, critically evaluates, and reviews cross sections and rates for low energy (<100 keV) collisions of electrons, photons, and heavy particles with atoms, ions, and simple molecules. Reports are prepared which provide easily accessible recommended data with error limits, list the fundamental literature related to specific topics, identify regions where data are missing, and point out inconsistencies in existing data. The general methodology used in producing evaluated compilations is described. Recently completed projects and work in progress are reported

  16. Approximate formulas for total cross section for moderately small eikonal

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The eikonal representation for the total cross section is considered. The approximate formulas for a moderately small eikonal are derived. In contrast to the standard eikonal integrals, they contain no Bessel functions, and, hence, no rapidly oscillating integrands. The formulas obtained are applied to numerical evaluations of the total cross section for a number of particular expressions for the eikonal. It is shown that for pure imaginary eikonals the relative error of O(10^(-5)) can be achieved. Also two improper triple integrals are analytically calculated.

  17. International evaluation cooperation Subgroup 7: Multigroup cross section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussin, R.W.; White, J.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sartori, E. (NEA Data Bank, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Panini, G. (ENEA, Bologna (Italy)); MacFarlane, R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Muir, D. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Data Section); Mattes, M. (Stuttgart Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme); Hasegawa, I

    1991-01-01

    The chairmen of the ENDF/B, JEF, EFF, and JENDL evaluated data files adopted a proposal to develop a fine-group processed cross section library based on the VITAMIN'' concept. The authors listed above, with support from others, are participating in this project. The end result will be a pseudo-problem-independent fine-group cross section library generated from the latest evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2, EFF-2, and JENDL-3. Initial applications of the library will be for shielding, fast reactor physics, and fusion neutronics. Progress made to date will be discussed. 8 refs.

  18. Radiochemical measurement of neutron-spectrum averaged cross sections for the formation of {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Cu via the (n,p) reaction at a TRIGA Mark-II reactor. Feasibility of simultaneous production of the theragnostic pair {sup 64}Cu/{sup 67}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M. Shuza; Hossain, Syed Mohammod [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology; Rumman-uz-Zaman, M. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology; Dhaka Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM-5) - Nuklearchemie

    2014-09-01

    Integral cross sections of the {sup 64}Zn(n,p){sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Zn(n,p){sup 67}Cu reactions were measured for the fast neutron spectrum of TRIGA Mark-II reactor at Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A clean radiochemical separation was performed to isolate the copper radionuclides from the target element zinc. The radioactivities produced in the irradiation were measured by HPGe γ-ray spectroscopy. The neutron flux over the energy range 0.5-20 MeV was determined using the {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co monitor reaction. The measured results amount to 28.9 ± 2.0 mb and 0.84 ± 0.07 mb for the formation of {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Cu, respectively. These values are slightly lower than the respective values for a pure fission spectrum. The present results were compared with data calculated using the neutron spectral distribution and the recently critically analysed excitation function of each reaction given in the literature. The good agreement validates the reliability of those excitation functions. The feasibility of simultaneous production of {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Cu with fast neutrons is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on Space Radiation Exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Wei; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major hazard to space crews, especially in long duration human space explorations. For this reason, they will be protected by radiation shielding that fragments the GCR heavy ions. Here we investigate how sensitive the crew's radiation exposure is to nuclear fragmentation cross sections at different energies. We find that in deep space cross sections between about 0.2 and 1.2 GeV/u have the strongest effect on dose equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV/u are the most important at solar maximum'. On the other hand, at the location of the International Space Station, cross sections at_higher -energies, between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV /u at solar minimum and between about 1.7 and 3.4 GeV/u'at,solar maximum, are the most important This is. due-to the average geomagnetic cutoff for the ISS orbit. We also show the effect of uncertainties in the fragmentation cross sections on the elemental energy spectra behind shielding. These results help to focus the studies of fragmentation cross sections on the proper energy range in order to improve our predictions of crew exposures.

  20. Effects of cross sections library parameters on the OECD/NEA Oskarshamn-2 benchmark solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A 3D NK–TH model was developed using RELAP5-3D© for studying BWR instability events. • A cross section library was generated using the available CASMO format data. • To evaluate reactor stability parameters a tool was developed and validated. • The effect of some neutronic parameters on the reactor stability was investigated. • The Oskarshamn-2 1999 event stability parameters were properly reproduced. - Abstract: The OECD/NEA proposes a new international benchmark based on data collected during an instability transient occurred at the Oskarshamn-2 NPP. This benchmark is aimed at testing the coupled 3D Neutron Kinetic–Thermal Hydraulic (3D NK–TH) codes on challenging situations. The ENEA “Casaccia” Research Center, is participating to this benchmark, developing a computational model using the RELAP5-3D© code. The 3DNK model has been already developed from the cross sections dataset calculated by OKG, the Oskarshamn-2 licensee, through the CASMO lattice code. In order to use this neutron cross sections database in RELAP5-3D© a n-dimensional polynomials data fitting and base cross sections values calculations are required. An ad-hoc tool, named PROMETHEUS, has been developed for automatically generating RELAP5-3D©-compatible cross sections libraries. This tool allows at easily visualizing the complex structure of the neutronic datasets; moreover it is exploited for deriving different cross sections libraries needed to evaluate neutronic parameters effects on the reactor instability prediction. Thus, the effects of the fuel temperature and control rod histories, of the discontinuity factors (averaged/not averaged) and of the neutron poisons has been assessed. A ranking table has been produced, demonstrating the relevance of the not-averaged discontinuity factors and of the on-transient neutron poisons calculations for the correct prediction of the Oskarshamn-2 event

  1. CODAC, Multigroup Cross-Sections Generation from ENDF/B for Monte-Carlo Program TIMOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: CODAC-2 is a nuclear data processing program. It converts ENDF/B version 2 data into group averaged cross sections in the form needed by Monte Carlo codes. CODAC generates the mean values of sigma-c,sigma-el,sigma-inel, sigma-f and nu for any group structure by using specified weighting spectra. In the case of anisotropic elastic scattering either the average cosine or the angular derivation of cross section is calculated for each energy group. The inelastic scattering is described by a transfer matrix which can also include (n,2n) reactions. 2 - Method of solution: Averaging is done by using a weighting spectrum given by an input. Group averaged cross sections are calculated by summing up the smooth contributions and the contributions of the resolved and unresolved resonances, using the method of the ETOG-ETOM program and of MC2 at zero temperature. Anisotropic elastic secondary angular distribution is calculated optionally as mu-average in laboratory system, Legendre expansion, or point by point along the mu-axis. The inelastic secondary energy distribution is computed as transfer matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The programme handles any number of ENDF/B materials during one run. The number of energy groups is limited to 50. The output formats of CODAC-2 correspond to the input formats of TIMOC. The UNIVAC 1106 version was received from Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid, Spain

  2. Recent measurements of neutron capture cross sections in the fission product mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative capture cross sections for the separated isotopes of Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Pd, Cd, Ba, La, Ce, Pr and Nd in the energy range 3 to 200 keV were measured with high energy resolution at the 40 m station of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. Maxwellian averaged 30 keV cross sections and average resonance parameters derived from the analysis are tabulated. A strong dependence of the average radiative widths on neutron binding energy is noted. This leads to a pronounced even-odd disparity. Neutron strength functions reduce with decreasing binding energy along an isotopic chain owing to the decreasing density of doorway states at the binding energy. 16 references

  3. Neutron cross sections for uranium-235 (ENDF/B-IV Release 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonance parameters in ENDF6 (Release 2) U235 were adjusted to make the average capture and fission cross sections below 900 eV agree with selected differential capture and fission measurements. The measurements chosen were the higher of the credible capture measurements and the lower of the fission results, yielding a higher epithermal alpha. In addition, the 2200 m/s cross sections were adjusted to obtain agreement with the integral value of K1. As a result, criticality calculations for thermal benchmarks, and agreement with a variety of integral parameters, are improved

  4. Mid-infrared absorption cross sections for acetone (propanone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared absorption cross sections for acetone (propanone) have been determined in the 830-1950 cm-1 spectral region from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a multipass cell with a maximum optical path length of 19.3 m. The spectra of mixtures of acetone with dry synthetic air were recorded at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD using the Bruker definition of resolution) at a number of temperatures between 194 and 251 K and pressures appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using three acetone spectra (recorded at 278, 293 and 323 K) taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. The new absorption cross sections have been combined with previous high spectral resolution results to create a more complete set of acetone absorption cross sections appropriate for atmospheric remote sensing. These cross sections will provide an accurate basis for upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric retrievals of acetone in the mid-infrared spectral region from ACE and MIPAS satellite data.

  5. Neutron cross sections at 14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation cross sections on Nd isotopes at 14 MeV were measured using the Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nonlinear least square method was used for resolving the gamma spectra. The results obtained are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical results on other isotopes

  6. Cross-sectional investigation of HEMS activities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Gava, Paolo; Truhlář, Anatolij;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs) activities across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013) activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, devel...

  7. Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given

  8. Longitudinal cross section and asymmetries for jets in leptoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated the longitudinal and other polarization dependent cross sections for jet production in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering up to order αs of the quark-gluon coupling constant and compared them with estimates of the non-perturbative contributions. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of antiproton-proton cross sections at low momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis describes an experiment which serves for the study of the antiproton-proton interaction at laboratory momenta between 150 MeV/c and 600 MeV/c. The arrangement permits the measurement of differential cross sections of the elastic scattering and the charge-exchange reaction as well as the cross section of the annihilation into charged and neutral pions. By the availability of an intense beam with low momentum uncertainty from the LEAR storage ring for low energy antiprotons at CERN a clear improvement of the measurement accuracy compared to earlier experiments at separated antiproton beams can be reached. A prototype of the antineutron calorimeter used for the measurement of the angular distribution of the charge-exchange reaction was subjected to a careful test in a separated beam. The results were compared with the results of a Monte-Carlo simulation of the antineutron detection. The cross sections measured in two beam periods in November and December 1983 are consistent with the published data in the hitherto available momentum range above about 350 MeV/c. Especially in the cross section of the annihilation into charged pions a statistically significant signal at a mass of 1937 MeV/c2 appears. However further measurements are necessary to study all systematic causes of errors. (orig.)

  10. Annual Cross-Sectional Study of Nurse-Sensitive Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Jane; Tewes, Marianne; Overgaard, Dorthe;

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional evaluation of nurse-sensitive problems in hospitalized patients is conducted once per year to monitor patient problems identified by nurses, whether nurses implement interventions to overcome the problems, and if the problems are solved. This article describes a systematic metho...

  11. Accurate momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrapak, S. A., E-mail: Sergey.Khrapak@dlr.de [Forschungsgruppe Komplexe Plasmen, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Accurate expression for the momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential is proposed. This simple analytic expression agrees with the numerical results better than to within ±2% in the regime relevant for ion-particle collisions in complex (dusty) plasmas.

  12. Inelastic neutron scattering cross section in ferromagnetic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the first theoretical study of the inelastic neutron cross section in arrays of cylindrical ferromagnetic nanowires. The recently developed dipolar-exchange theory of spin-wave excitations in such wires is used. Results are represented for the few lowest bulk quantized spin-wave modes of different forms

  13. Ratio of the hydrogen and manganese cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the results of measurements of hydrogen to manganese cross section ratios are tabulated using weighted fits to the experimental data. Comparison of results using volumetric, gravimetric, and densimetric concentration measurements with and without contaminant corrections indicates that the methods are capable of equal accuracy

  14. Systematic analysis of reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, W; Kohama, A; Suzuki, Y

    2006-01-01

    We systematically analyze total reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes with N=6--16 on a $^{12}$C target for wide range of incident energy. The intrinsic structure of the carbon isotope is described by a Slater determinant generated from a phenomenological mean-field potential, which reasonably well reproduces the ground state properties for most of the even $N$ isotopes. We need separate studies not only for odd nuclei but also for $^{16}$C and $^{22}$C. The density of the carbon isotope is constructed by eliminating the effect of the center of mass motion. For the calculations of the cross sections, we take two schemes: one is the Glauber approximation, and the other is the eikonal model using a global optical potential. We find that both of the schemes successfully reproduce low and high incident energy data on the cross sections of $^{12}$C, $^{13}$C and $^{16}$C on $^{12}$C. The calculated reaction cross sections of $^{15}$C are found to be considerably smaller than the empirical values observed at l...

  15. Plots of the experimental and evaluated photoneutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical plots of experimental data of photon induced nuclear reaction cross-sections are given for many elements and isotopes. The numerical data were taken from the international EXFOR data library which is available from the nuclear data centers. For selected nuclides evaluated data have been included in the plots. (author). Refs, 3 tabs

  16. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Combustion Research Facility, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Soorkia, Satchin [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Orsay (France); Selby, Talitha M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Washington County Campus, West Bend, Wisconsin 53095 (United States)

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  17. Deep spallation cross sections in high energy protons - uranium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections of deep spallation products - from phosphorus to hafnium - formed in uranium by high energy protons (Ep > or approx. 10 GeV) have been calculated with a simple semi-empirical formula. The results are in excellent agreement with experimental data. (orig.)

  18. Absolute cross-section of turbojet aviation engine calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabokon, Evgen

    2012-01-01

    The calculation method of three-dimensional model of turbojet aviation engine is offered, thus the form of turbine vanes with spiralling is described like parametric surface. The method allows make the calculation of absolute cross-section (ACS) of turbojet aviation engines with different geometrical parameters. The calculation results of ACS of aviation engine are presented.

  19. Top quark production cross-section at the Tevatron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Kirti; /Delhi U. /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present the preliminary results of the t{bar t} pair production cross-section measurements and the single top quark exclusion limits carried out by the D0 and the CDF collaborations in Run II of the Tevatron. The dataset for the various measurements ranges from 140 pb{sup -1} to 350 pb{sup -1}.

  20. Measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting proceedings were divided into three sessions devoted to the following topics: Experimental measurement and techniques (3 papers), calculation of photon cross-sections (9 papers), and evaluation (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Total cross section of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible increase of nuclear cross section at ultra-relativistic energies is suggested. Such an increase is expected to start much earlier than in the case of proton-proton reactions due to more diffused nuclear surface compared to that of proton. Experimental data seem to be consistent with this picture. (author)

  2. Cross-sectional imaging patterns of desmoplastic fibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.; Wildberger, J.E.; Guenther, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Wirtz, D.C. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to work out the cross-sectional imaging characteristics of desmoplastic fibroma (DF). In 3 patients with histologically proven DF, the imaging characteristics obtained with cross-sectional techniques were reviewed retrospectively. Radiographs and CT scans were available in all patients, and plain and contrast-enhanced MR examinations in 2 patients. Compared with conventional radiographs, CT allowed more accurate assessment of the extent of bone destruction including cortical breakthrough and articular invasion. Intramedullary tumor growth and soft tissue extension was best detected with MRI. Apart from heterogeneity on MR images, DF displayed nonspecific low signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images and an intermediate to high signal intensity including areas of low intensity on T2-weighted images. Desmoplastic fibroma showed a distinct, inhomogeneous gadolinium enhancement. Although cross-sectional imaging features of DF are nonspecific, some MR characteristics, such as inhomogeneous contrast enhancement and the presence of low-intensity regions on T2-weighted images, are helpful in determining the differential diagnosis. Cross-sectional imaging of DF is useful for local staging of the tumor because it provides valuable information about the extent of bone destruction as well as medullary and extraosseous spread. (orig.)

  3. Double differential cross sections for methane molecules at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double differential cross sections (DDCS) can be obtained by the measurements of energy and angular distributions of one of the two outgoing electrons by a detector. In this pespective, we used methane molecule as a target that is reasonable to expect to understand ionization mechanisms of polyatomic molecular systems.

  4. Single top cross section and properties measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Single top quarks can be produced via the t, tW, and s channel. Studying these processes provides a test of the theory of electroweak interactions involving heavy quarks. Recent results on cross section and property measurements in pp collisions by the CMS collaboration at center-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV are reviewed.

  5. Recent integral cross section validation measurements at the ASP facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, L.W., E-mail: lee.packer@ccfe.ac.uk [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hughes, S. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Gilbert, M.; Lilley, S.; Pampin, R. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent results of integral cross section measurements at ASP obtained using high purity elemental are detailed. • Details of the data processing tools and method are included which allows to preserve reaction product decay information. • C/E plots for measurements taken for number of reactions and the European Activation File 2010 cross section evaluation. • New integral data included for Ti-46(n,p)Sc-46m. -- Abstract: This work presents new integral data measured at the ASP 14 MeV neutron irradiation facility at Aldermaston in the UK, which has recently become available for fusion-related work through the CCFE materials programme. Measurements of reaction products from activation experiments using elemental foils were carried out using gamma spectrometry in a high efficiency, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and associated digital signal processing hardware. Following irradiation and rapid extraction to the measurement cell, gamma emissions were acquired with both energy and time bins. Integral cross section and half-life data have been derived from these measurements. Selected integral cross section values are presented from the measurement campaigns. Details of the data processing approach and outputs generated are highlighted for measurement of the {sup 186}W(n,2n){sup 185m}W reaction—a selected short-lived reaction resulting from W foil irradiations; C/E results are reported along with the associated uncertainties and compared using the SAFEPAQ-II tool against existing available data.

  6. Event history analysis and the cross-section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Examples are given of problems in event history analysis, where several time origins (generating calendar time, age, disease duration, time on study, etc.) are considered simultaneously. The focus is on complex sampling patterns generated around a cross-section. A basic tool is the Lexis diagram....

  7. Commentary: Mediation Analysis, Causal Process, and Cross-Sectional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrout, Patrick E.

    2011-01-01

    Maxwell, Cole, and Mitchell (2011) extended the work of Maxwell and Cole (2007), which raised important questions about whether mediation analyses based on cross-sectional data can shed light on longitudinal mediation process. The latest article considers longitudinal processes that can only be partially explained by an intervening variable, and…

  8. Evaluation of the neutron cross sections for Pu-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present evaluation is proposed to supersede the ENDF/B-V, Revision 2 file for 240Pu. In this work, resonance parameters, cross sections, energy distributions, and angular distributions have been modified. These changes are outlined in detail and appropriate references included. 37 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Capital yields assessment trough cross section production function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodera, Jan; Pánková, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 14 (2001), s. 79-87. ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/00/0439 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : yield of capital * cross-section production function * maximisation of profit Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  10. (, 3) Differential cross section of He (21) and He (23)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kshamata Muktavat; M K Srivastava

    2002-01-01

    The angular distribution of the five-fold differential cross section for the electron impact double ionization of He (21 ) and He (23 ) has been studied. The kinematical conditions for maxima/minima in the angular distribution for the two cases have been compared. The two-step process for the double ionization is found to contribute very little in the triplet case.

  11. Alternating series fit to the total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is show by a simple Regge-type fit suggested recently by Donnachie and Landshoff that the universal pomeron contribution to various total cross sections may be represented by an alternating series a - b log s + c (log s)2 corresponding to a series of Regge multipoles. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Neutron capture cross sections of 151,153Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron capture cross section of 151,153Eu nuclei was measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Neutrons were produced at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center and their energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique. The relative yield versus neutron incident energy from 0.1 eV to 2.0 keV for both 151Eu(n,) and 153Eu(n,) reactions was derived from events gated on the total energy and multiplicity measured by the DANCE array. The absolute cross section was determined by scaling the relative yield to the measured cross sections of well-known resonances. The shape of the yield curve agrees well with previous measurements in the resonance region for both 151Eu and 153Eu capture cross sections. New data are reported for neutron incident energies between 100 eV and 2.0 keV. The trend of data in the 0.3 keV to 2.0 keV region of neutron incident energy is consistent with the ENDF/BVI and the measurements of Macklin and Young. Crucial skills, acquired from these measurements in the early implementation of DANCE, are important to plan future experiments, which will yield results up to a few hundred keV neutron incident energy

  13. Measurement of the cross sections of the minor transactinium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of neutron cross sections of the minor transactinium isotopes performed since the 1975 IAEA meeting on transactinium isotope nuclear data are reviewed. Some of the recent developments in experimental techniques are briefly described. As two specific examples measurements on 241Am and 230Th(n,f) are discussed in some detail

  14. Electron scattering cross sections pertinent to electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some elements of the physics that determine cross sections are discussed, and various sources of data are indicated that should be useful for analytical microscopy. Atoms, molecules, and to some extent, solids are considered. Inelastic and elastic scattering of electrons and some solid-state effects are treated. 30 references

  15. Generation of neutron scattering cross sections for silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of neutron scattering cross sections for silicon and oxygen bound in silicon dioxide were generated and validated. The cross sections were generated in the ACE format for MCNP using the nuclear data processing system NJOY, and the validation was done with published experimental data. This cross section library was applied to the calculation of five critical configurations published in the benchmark Critical Experiments with Heterogeneous Compositions of Highly Enriched Uranium, Silicon Dioxide and Polyethylene. The original calculations did not use the thermal scattering libraries generated in this work and presented significant differences with the experimental results. For this reason, the newly generated library was added to the input and the multiplication factor for each configuration was recomputed. The utilization of the thermal scattering libraries did not result in an improvement of the computational results. Based on this we conclude that integral experiments to validate this type of thermal cross sections need to be designed with a higher influence of thermal scattering in the measured result, and the experiments have to be performed under more controlled conditions.

  16. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-06-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  17. Neutron cross section covariances in the resolved resonance region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.T.; Rochman, D.

    2008-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the impact of resonance parameter uncertainties on covariances for neutron capture and fission cross sections in the resolved resonance region. Our analysis uses the uncertainties available in the recently published Atlas of Neutron Resonances employing the Multi-Level Breit-Wigner formalism. We consider uncertainties on resonance energies along with those on neutron-, radiative-, and fission-widths and examine their impact on cross section uncertainties and correlations. We also study the effect of the resonance parameter correlations deduced from capture and fission kernels and illustrate our approach on several practical examples. We show that uncertainties of neutron-, radiative- and fission-widths are important, while the uncertainties of resonance energies can be effectively neglected. We conclude that the correlations between neutron and radiative (fission) widths should be taken into account. The multi-group cross section uncertainties can be properly generated from both the resonance parameter covariance format MF32 and the cross section covariance format MF33, though the use of MF32 is more straightforward and hence preferable.

  18. Electron-metastable-helium differential and integral cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential and integral cross sections for the excitation of the 23P and the 33L (L≡ S, P and D) states of He from the metastable 23S state are calculated using the semiclassical multichannel eikonal theory with a nine-channel basis set. Comparison is made with recent experimental results. (Author)

  19. Testing of cross section libraries on zirconium benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Calculations with ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data overpredict keff of Zr benchmarks. ► TRIGA criticality benchmark sensitive to Zr data. ► Zr scattering cross section responsible for differences in keff. ► Need for new experimental data on Zr cross sections. - Abstract: In this paper we investigate the influence of various up-to-date nuclear data libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI.6, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF 3.1, on the multiplication factor of the TRIGA benchmark with fuel made of enriched uranium and zirconium hydride and SB light-water reactor benchmarks with fuel made of fissile material in zirconium matrix. The calculations are performed with the Monte Carlo computer code MCNP. Differences of ∼600 pcm in keff are observed for the benchmark model of the TRIGA reactor, while there are practically no differences in the kinf of the fuel. Therefore, an investigation is performed also for hypothetical homogeneous and heterogeneous systems with different leakage. The uncertainty analysis shows that the most important contributors to the difference in keff are the Zr isotopes (especially 90Zr and 91Zr) and thermal scattering data for H and Zr in ZrH. As the differences in keff due to the use of different cross section libraries are relatively large, there is certainly a need for a review of the evaluated cross section data of the zirconium isotopes.

  20. Compound-nuclear reaction cross sections via surrogate reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surrogate reaction method is an indirect technique for determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a well-defined compound nucleus. In this method, the same compound nucleus is produced by an alternate ('surrogate') reaction and its decay products measured. The assumptions underlying the method are examined for the special case of 235U(n, f)

  1. Uptake of atmospheric molecules by ice nanoparticles: Pickup cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, J.; Kočišek, J.; Poterya, V.; Pysanenko, A.; Svrčková, P.; Fárník, M.; Zaouris, D. K.; Fedor, J.

    2012-07-01

    Uptake of several atmospheric molecules on free ice nanoparticles was investigated. Typical examples were chosen: water, methane, NOx species (NO, NO2), hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr), and volatile organic compounds (CH3OH, CH3CH2OH). The cross sections for pickup of these molecules on ice nanoparticles (H2O)N with the mean size of bar{N} ≈ 260 (diameter ˜2.3 nm) were measured in a molecular beam experiment. These cross sections were determined from the cluster beam velocity decrease due to the momentum transfer during the pickup process. For water molecules molecular dynamics simulations were performed to learn the details of the pickup process. The experimental results for water are in good agreement with the simulations. The pickup cross sections of ice particles of several nanometers in diameter can be more than 3 times larger than the geometrical cross sections of these particles. This can have significant consequences in modelling of atmospheric ice nanoparticles, e.g., their growth.

  2. Microscopic approach for the description of neutron cross section fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the shell model approach to nuclear reactions, the elastic, inelastic and total cross section fluctuations are analyzed taking into account the structure of the nucleus under investigation (compound nucleus, doorway states, collective states). For the case of overlapping compound nucleus resonances a modified Hauser-Feshbach formula, which is assymetric relative to the inelastic and elastic channels, is obtained. (author)

  3. Applications of cross sections for electron-molecule collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of electron-molecule collision cross sections is discussed for the study of the ionospheric and auroral processes in planetary atmospheres and of discharge-pumped lasers. These two areas emphasize the importance of further theoretical and experimental studies concerning electron-impact processes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Elastic differential cross sections for electron collisions with polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data for electron-polyatomic molecule collisions are reviewed in connection with fusion and processing plasmas, as well as with the associated environmental issues. The electron scattering experiments for differential cross section (DCS) measurements for various processes, such as elastic scattering, have been performed across a broad range of energies (1-100 eV), mainly, at Sophia University since 1978, and some done under the collaborations with the Australian National University, Flinders University, and the Chungnam National University. As a benchmark cross section, elastic DCS are essential for the absolute scale conversion of inelastic DCS, as well as for testing computational methods. The need for cross-section data for a wide variety of molecular species is also discussed, because there is an urgent need to develop an international program to provide the scientific and technological communities with authoritative cross sections for electron-molecule interactions. Note that the detailed comparison with other data available is not given here. Ruther, other available data can be found in the references we cite. This course of action was adopted to keep this report to a sensible length, so that only our numerical data is provided here. (author)

  5. Measurement of inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Andrieu, B; Anthonis, T; Astvatsatourov, A; Babaev, A; Bähr, J; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Beglarian, A; Behnke, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berndt, T; Bizot, J C; Böhme, J; Boudry, V; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Broker, H B; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Burrage, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Chekelian, V; Clarke, D; Collard, Caroline; Contreras, J G; Coppens, Y R; Coughlan, J A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; Davidsson, M; Delcourt, B; Delerue, N; Demirchyan, R A; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C A; Dingfelder, J; Dixon, P; Dodonov, V; Dowell, John D; Dubak, A; Duprel, C; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Ferron, S; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Formánek, J; Franke, G; Frising, G; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Garvey, J; Gassner, J; Gayler, J; Gerhards, R; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Görlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Grab, C; Grabskii, V; Grässler, Herbert; Greenshaw, T; Grindhammer, G; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Haller, J; Heinemann, B; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Hengstmann, S; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Heremans, R; Herrera-Corral, G; Herynek, I; Hildebrandt, M; Hilgers, M; Hiller, K H; Hladky, J; Hoting, P; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A V; Ibbotson, M; Issever, C; Jacquet, M; Jaffré, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, C; Johnson, D P; Jones, M A S; Jung, H; Kant, D; Kapichine, M; Karlsson, M; Karschnick, O; Katzy, J; Keil, F; Keller, N; Kennedy, J; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kiesling, C; Kjellberg, P; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Koblitz, B; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Koutouev, R; Koutov, A; Kroseberg, J; Krüger, K; Kuhr, T; Lamb, D; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Laycock, P; Lebailly, E; Lebedev, A; Leiner, B; Lemrani, R; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Lobodzinski, B; Loginov, A; Loktionova, N A; Lubimov, V; Lüders, S; Lüke, D; Lytkin, L; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michine, S; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Mohrdieck, S; Mondragón, M N; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nagovizin, V; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, J; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Nix, O; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Panassik, V; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Petrukhin, A; Phillips, J P; Pitzl, D; Pöschl, R; Potachnikova, I; Povh, B; Rauschenberger, J; Reimer, P; Reisert, B; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A A; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Scheins, J; Schilling, F P; Schleper, P; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schneider, M; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, V; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schwanenberger, C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sirois, Y; Sloan, Terence; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V N; Specka, A E; Spitzer, H; Stamen, R; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Chechelnitskii, S; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Turney, J E; Tzamariudaki, E; Uraev, A; Urban, M; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vasilev, S; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vichnevski, A; Volchinski, V; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Wallny, R; Waugh, B; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wiesand, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wissing, C; Wobisch, M; Woerling, E E; Wünsch, E; Wyatt, A C; Zácek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zomer, F; Zur Nedden, M

    2003-01-01

    Inclusive jet cross sections are measured in photoproduction at HERA using the H1 detector. The data sample of e+ p -> e+ + jet + X events in the kinematic range of photon virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 and photon-proton centre-of-mass energies 95 < W_gammap < 285 GeV represents an integrated luminosity of 24.1 pb^-1. Jets are defined using the inclusive k_T algorithm. Single- and multi-differential cross sections are measured as functions of jet transverse energy E_T^jet and pseudorapidity \\eta^jet in the domain 5 < E_T^jet < 75 GeV and -1 < \\eta^jet < 2.5. The cross sections are found to be in good agreement with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations corrected for fragmentation and underlying event effects. The cross section differential in E_T^jet, which varies by six orders of magnitude over the measured range, is compared with similar distributions from p pbar colliders at equal and higher energies.

  6. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work...

  7. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  8. Analytical formulas for elastic neutrino-fermion scattering cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Linder, J

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we give a detailed and pedagogical derivation of cross sections for elastic eutrino-fermion scattering reactions. These are evaluated in the limit where the neutrino mass is neglible compared to the incoming momentum. Basic knowledge of QFT is assumed.

  9. Accurate momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential

    OpenAIRE

    Khrapak, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Accurate expression for the momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential is proposed. This simple analytic expression agrees with the numerical results better than to within 2% in the regime relevant for ion-particle collisions in complex (dusty) plasmas.

  10. Accurate momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential

    OpenAIRE

    Khrapak, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate expression for the momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential is proposed. This simple analytic expression agrees with the numerical results better than to within $\\pm 2\\%$ in the regime relevant for ion-particle collisions in complex (dusty) plasmas.

  11. Photon-Photon total inelastic cross-section

    OpenAIRE

    Corsetti, A; Godbole, RM; Pancheri, G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss predictions for the total inelastic gamma-gamma cross-section and their model dependence on the input parameters. We compare results from a simple extension of the Regge Pomeron exchange model as well as predictions from the eikonalized mini-jet model with recent LEP data.

  12. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work

  13. Quantifying and predicting interpretational uncertainty in cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Charles; Bond, Clare; Monaghan, Alison; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    Cross-sections are often constructed from data to create a visual impression of the geologist's interpretation of the sub-surface geology. However as with all interpretations, this vision of the sub-surface geology is uncertain. We have designed and carried out an experiment with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty in geological cross-sections created by experts interpreting borehole data. By analysing different attributes of the data and interpretations we reflect on the main controls on uncertainty. A group of ten expert modellers at the British Geological Survey were asked to interpret an 11.4 km long cross-section from south-east Glasgow, UK. The data provided consisted of map and borehole data of the superficial deposits and shallow bedrock. Each modeller had a unique set of 11 boreholes removed from their dataset, to which their interpretations of the top of the bedrock were compared. This methodology allowed quantification of how far from the 'correct answer' each interpretation is at 11 points along each interpreted cross-section line; through comparison of the interpreted and actual bedrock elevations in the boreholes. This resulted in the collection of 110 measurements of the error to use in further analysis. To determine the potential control on uncertainty various attributes relating to the modeller, the interpretation and the data were recorded. Modellers were asked to fill out a questionnaire asking for information; such as how much 3D modelling experience they had, and how long it took them to complete the interpretation. They were also asked to record their confidence in their interpretations graphically, in the form of a confidence level drawn onto the cross-section. Initial analysis showed the majority of the experts' interpreted bedrock elevations within 5 metres of those recorded in the withheld boreholes. Their distribution is peaked and symmetrical about a mean of zero, indicating that there was no tendency for the experts to either under

  14. Neutron capture cross-sections of krypton isotopes and their astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the measurement of neutron capture cross sections of noble gases a new experimental technique was developed using high pressure gas targets. By this technique, measurements on five krypton samples with different isotopic composition were performed by which the capture and the total cross sections between 5 and 200 keV were determined in the same experiment with good statistical accuracy. Values of Maxwellian averaged capture cross sections at 30 keV could be derived for the stable isotopes of krypton, as they are required for a quantitative understanding of the s-process of nucleosynthesis. From the systematics of this s-process it was possible to determine the original abundance of krypton in the solar system. The branching of the s-process at Se-79 allowed to determine the temperature of the s-process. A value of kT = 35 keV is adopted by this calculation. (orig.) 891 KBE/orig. 892 HIS

  15. Status report about some activation, hydrogen and helium producing cross sections of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental cross sections for the activation of Cr, Fe and Ni by neutron capture were compiled in the energy range from 1 keV to 1 MeV. Partly they were obtained by averaging experimental high resolution data from prompt γ-detection measurements. Differential cross sections for (n,p) and (n,α) reactions in the energy region from threshold to 20 MeV (for inclusion of the 14 MeV data) were compiled for all isotopes of Cr, Fe and Ni which have a natural abundance higher than 4%. The capture data are still insufficient with respect to the number of independant measurements and to the covered energy range. The (n,p) excitation curves are rather well established for cases in which the activation technique can be applied. In all other cases the cross section data are still extremely scarce

  16. Analytical formulas for shear and bulk viscosities in relativistic gaseous mixtures with constant cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Moroz, O

    2014-01-01

    Using Mathematica package, we derive analytical closed-form expressions for the shear and the bulk viscosity coefficients in multicomponent relativistic gases with constant cross sections, being the relativistic generalization for the hard spheres model. Some of them are cumbersome and require symbolic manipulations in an algebraic package. The constant cross sections are of the elastic processes, while the inelastic (or number-changing) processes (collisions or decays) are considered only partly. As examples, we find explicit expressions of the correct single-component first-order shear viscosity coefficient and some explicit analytical results for the binary mixture. These formulas have numerous applications in approximate nonequilibrium descriptions of gases of particles or quasiparticles with averaged (temperature dependent) cross sections. In addition to this, we present formulas for collision rates and some other related formulas. This paper is a shortened version of a previous one.

  17. ZZ DLC-13B, Resonance Cross-Section Group Constant Library for Tungsten and Depleted Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature of physical problem solved: Format: GAM-II; Number of groups: 32-energy-group split (0.4 to 1234 eV). Nuclides: tungsten (W,) and depleted uranium (U,) slabs. Multigroup capture and scatter cross sections in the resolved resonance region were calculated for tungsten and depleted uranium slabs for use in shielding calculations of neutron transport and capture distributions. Slabs of thickness of 1 to 8 centimeters surrounded by hydrogen or lithium hydride were considered. GAROL was used to generate the cross sections, a method previously observed to preserve the total capture rate in a detailed multigroup neutron transport calculation for a thick resonance absorber. Average cross sections were calculated for a 32-energy-group split (0.4 to 1234 eV) compatible with that used by GAM-2. Group fluxes are also presented permitting further group collapsing either by hand calculations or with an included computer program

  18. Fully hadronic tt cross section with the ATLAS detector

    OpenAIRE

    Coccaro, Andrea; collaboration, on behalf of the ATLAS

    2013-01-01

    A measurement of the tt production cross section in the all-hadronic decay mode is presented using 4.7 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2011. Events are selected using a multi-jet trigger. Kinematic and b-tagging requirements are then applied to identify tt event candidates. A kinematic fit reconstructs the event topology of the final state extracting the top-quark mass which is then used to measure the production cross ...

  19. The RATF Formula (Kwok's Formula: Exploiting Average Term Frequency in Cross-Language Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Pirkola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier study, we presented a query key goodness scheme, which can be used to separate between good and bad query keys. The scheme is based on the relative average term frequency (RATF values of query keys. In the present paper, we tested the effectiveness of the scheme in Finnish to English cross-language retrieval in several experiments. Query keys were weighted and queries were reduced based on the RATF values of keys. The tests were carried out in TREC and CLEF document collections using the InQuery retrieval system. The TREC tests indicated that the best RATF-based queries delivered substantial and statistically significant performance improvements, and performed as well as syn-structured queries shown to be effective in many CLIR studies. The CLEF tests indicated the limitations of the use of RATF in CLIR. However, the best RATF-based queries performed better than baseline queries also in the CLEF collection.

  20. Ion dipole capture cross sections at low ion and rotational energies - Comparison of integrated capture cross sections with reaction cross sections for NH3 and H2O parent-ion collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Canright, R. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The numerical capture cross section is calculated from the capture ratio, defined as the fraction of trajectories reaching a prescribed minimum separation of 3 A. The calculated capture cross sections for a rotational temperature of 77 K suggest large reaction cross sections in 80 K experiments for the large dipole-moment target, methyl cyanide.

  1. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS OF FISSION PRODUCTS BELOW THE FAST ENERGY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OH,S.Y.; CHANG,J.; MUGHABGHAB,S.

    2000-05-11

    Neutron cross section evaluations of the fission-product isotopes, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, {sup 141}Nd, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 155}Gd, and {sup 157}Gd were carried out below the fast neutron energy region within the framework of the BNL-KAERI international collaboration. In the thermal energy region, the energy dependence of the various cross-sections was calculated by applying the multi-level Breit-Wigner formalism. In particular, the strong energy dependence of the coherent scattering lengths of {sup 155}Gd and {sup 157}Gd were determined and were compared with recent calculations of Lynn and Seeger. In the resonance region, the recommended resonance parameters, reported in the BNL compilation, were updated by considering resonance parameter information published in the literature since 1981. The s-wave and, if available, p-wave reduced neutron widths were analyzed in terms of the Porter-Thomas distribution to determine the average level spacings and the neutron strength functions. Average radiative widths were also calculated from measured values of resolved energy resonances. The average resonance parameters determined in this study were compared with those in the BNL and other compilations, as well as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.2 data libraries. The unresolved capture cross sections of these isotopes, computed with the determined average resonance parameters, were compared with measurements, as well as the ENDF/B-VI evaluations. To achieve agreement with the measurements, in a few cases minor adjustments in the average resonance parameters were made. Because of astrophysical interest, the Maxwellian capture cross sections of these nuclides at a neutron temperature of 30 keV were computed and were compared with other compilations and evaluations.

  2. Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Laser diagnostics are fast-response, non-intrusive and species-specific tools perfectly applicable for studying combustion processes. Quantitative measurements of species concentration and temperature require spectroscopic data to be well-known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, tunable Difference Frequency Generation laser and fixed wavelength helium-neon laser. The studied species are methane, methanol, acetylene, ethylene, ethane, ethanol, propylene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is used for the measurements of the absorption cross-sections and the integrated band intensities of the 13 hydrocarbons. The spectral region of the spectra is 2800 – 3400 cm-1 (2.9 – 3.6 μm) and the temperature range is 673 – 1100 K. These valuable data provide huge opportunities to select interference-free wavelengths for measuring time-histories of a specific species in a shock tube or other combustion systems. Such measurements can allow developing/improving chemical kinetics mechanisms by experimentally determining reaction rates. The Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser is a narrow line-width, tunable laser in the 3.35 – 3.53 μm wavelength region which contains strong absorption features for most hydrocarbons due to the fundamental C-H vibrating stretch. The absorption cross-sections of propylene are measured at seven different wavelengths using the DFG laser. The temperature range is 296 – 460 K which is reached using a Reflex Cell. The DFG laser is very attractive for kinetic studies in the shock tube because of its fast time response and the potential possibility of making species-specific measurements. The Fixed wavelength

  3. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the

  4. A technique to measure the neutron capture cross-sections of krypton isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the measurement of the neutron capture cross-sections of noble gases an experimental technique was developed, where the probe material is irradiated in its liquid phase. To detect the capture gamma-rays a C6D6 liquid scintillator was constructed providing a defined sensitivity for capture events by applying an appropriate weighting function to the spectra. The capture cross-sections of natural Kr and 84Kr were measured relative to Au in the energy region between 5 keV and 240 keV. Values of Maxwellian averaged capture cross-sections at 5 keV <= kT <= 50 keV were derived, as they are needed for a quantitative understanding of the s-process of nucleosynthesis. By normalizing literature values of the isotopic cross-sections with the derived cross sections it was possible to determine the isotopic abundances produced in the s-process as well as the solar abundance of natural Kr. (orig.) 891 HSI/orig. 892 KN

  5. New techniques for multi-level cross section calculation and fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of recent developments in multi-level cross section work are described. A new iteration scheme for the conversion of Reich-Moore resonance parameters to Kapur-Peierls parameters allows application of Turing's method for Gaussian broadening of meromorphic functions directly to multi-level cross section expressions, without recourse to the Voigt profiles psi and chi. This makes calculation of Doppler-broadened Reich-Moore and MLBW cross sections practically as fast as SLBW and Adler-Adler cross section calculations involving the Voigt profiles. A convenient distant-level treatment utilizing average resonance parameters is presented. Apart from effectively dealing with edge effects in resonance fitting work it also leads to a simple prescription for the determination of bound levels which reproduce the thermal cross sections correctly. A brief discussion of improved resonance shape fitting techniques is included, with empahsis on the importance of correlated errors and proper use of prior information by application of Bayes' theorem. (orig.)

  6. Secondary neutron-production cross sections from heavy-ioninteractions in composite targets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbronn, L.; Iwata, Y.; Iwase,H.; Murakami, T.; Sato, H.; Nakamura, T.; Ronningen, R.M.; Ieki, K.; Gudowska, I.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2005-12-19

    Secondary neutron-production cross-sections have been measured from interactions of 290 MeV/nucleon C and 600 MeV/nucleon Ne in a target composed of simulated Martian regolith and polyethylene, and from 400 MeV/nucleon Ne interactions in wall material from the International Space Station. The data were measured between 5 and 80 deg in the laboratory. We report the double-differential cross sections, angular distributions, and total neutron-production cross sections from all three systems. The spectra from all three systems exhibit behavior previously reported in other heavy-ion, neutron production experiments; namely, a peak at forward angles near the energy corresponding to the beam velocity, with the remaining spectra generated by pre-equilibrium and equilibrium processes. The double differential cross sections are fitted with a moving-source parameterization. Also reported are the data without corrections for neutron flux attenuation in the target and other intervening materials, and for neutron production in non-target materials near the target position. These uncorrected spectra are compared with SHIELD-HIT and PHITS transport model calculations. The transport model calculations reproduce the spectral shapes well, but, on average, underestimate the magnitudes of the cross sections.

  7. Deformation patterns in cross-sections of twisted bamboo-structured Au microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate an almost pure extrinsic size effect we propose an experimental approach to investigate the deformation structure within single crystalline cross-sections of twisted bamboo-structured Au microwires. The cross-sections of individual 〈1 0 0〉 oriented grains of 25 μm thick Au microwires have been characterized by Laue microdiffraction. The diffraction data were used to calculate the misorientation of each data point with respect to the neutral fiber in the center of the cross-section as well as the kernel average misorientation to map the global and local deformation structure as function of the imposed maximum plastic shear strain. The study is accompanied by crystal plasticity simulations which yield the equivalent plastic strain distributions in the cross-section of the wire. The global deformation structures are directly related to the activated slip systems, resulting from the real orientations of the investigated grains. When averaging the degree of deformation along ring segments, an almost continuous but non-linear increase of misorientation from the center toward the surface is observed, reflecting the overall strain gradient imposed by torsion. For the local deformation structure, pronounced and graded deformation traces are observed which often pass over the neutral fiber of the twisted wire and which are obviously reflecting domains of high geometrically necessary dislocations content

  8. Neutron capture cross section of $^{90}$Zr Bottleneck in the s-process reaction flow

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliente, G; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Aerts, G; Abbondanno, U; Alvarez, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, Panayiotis; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Bečvář, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Calviani, M; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapiço, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Köhler, P; Kossionides, E; Krtička, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente, M, C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2008-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of the Zr isotopes have important implications in nuclear astrophysics and for reactor design. The small cross section of the neutron magic nucleus 90Zr, which accounts for more than 50% of natural zirconium represents one of the key isotopes for the stellar s-process, because it acts as a bottleneck in the neutron capture chain between the Fe seed and the heavier isotopes. The same element, Zr, also is an important component of the structural materials used in traditional and advanced nuclear reactors. The (n,γ) cross section has been measured at CERN, using the n_TOF spallation neutron source. In total, 45 resonances could be resolved in the neutron energy range below 70 keV, 10 being observed for the first time thanks to the high resolution and low backgrounds at n_TOF. On average, the Γγ widths obtained in resonance analyses with the R-matrix code SAMMY were 15% smaller than reported previously. By these results, the accuracy of the Maxwellian averaged cross section f...

  9. Importance of neutron cross-sections for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate neutron cross-section data is fundamental to the reliable design of any transmutation device, and, in particular, of an accelerator-driven system (ADS). Calculations of the behaviour of the core depend strongly on the cross-section data: parameters such as the multiplication coefficient, power densities or reactivity may vary significantly depending on the nuclear-data (ND) library used. These potential discrepancies justify the need to improve the present data for several isotopes and reaction channels, for a wide range of neutron energies from thermal to high-energy. This paper follows on from work performed in the context of the nTOF-ND-ADS project of the EURATOM 5th framework program, where a preliminary analysis of the effects of different cross-section data was carried out using the Monte Carlo code package FLUKA-EAMC. That study was based on the Pb-Bi cooled 80 MWth energy-amplifier prototype, and included comparison of parameters such as source multiplication coefficient ksrc, neutron spectra, neutron balance and one-group cross-sections for different isotopes using different nuclear-data evaluations. The present work expands this analysis to other isotopes of interest such as 233U, 243Am, 244,245Cm and the long-lived fission fragments (LLFFs) 99Tc and 129I. A direct comparison of nuclear-data libraries to indicate the spread between values was performed. The paper also extends the sensitivity analysis of the parameters mentioned above to moderated systems, such as TRADE (triga accelerator-driven experiment): a 1 MW triga reactor coupled with a 110-140 MeV-2 mA proton cyclotron. Study of the discrepancies in the thermal and epithermal regions is essential for the design of systems for the transmutation of LLFF (transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing, TARC) and also important for minor actinides (MAs) for which sub-threshold fission should not be neglected. These studies highlight the relative importance of different isotopes and assess the

  10. Vortex breakdown in closed containers with polygonal cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumov, I. V., E-mail: naumov@itp.nsc.ru; Dvoynishnikov, S. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Tsoy, M. A. [Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysic SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The vortex breakdown bubble in the confined flow generated by a rotating lid in closed containers with polygonal cross sections was analysed both experimentally and numerically for the height/radius aspect ratio equal to 2. The stagnation point locations of the breakdown bubble emergence and the corresponding Reynolds number were determined experimentally and in addition computed numerically by STAR-CCM+ CFD software for square, pentagonal, hexagonal, and octagonal cross section configurations. The flow pattern and the velocity were observed and measured by combining the seeding particle visualization and the temporal accuracy of laser Doppler anemometry. The vortex breakdown size and position on the container axis were determined for Reynolds numbers, ranging from 1450 to 2400. The obtained results were compared with the flow structure in the closed container of cubical and cylindrical configurations. It is shown that the measured evolution of steady vortex breakdown is in close agreement with the numerical results.

  11. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed

  12. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (ria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, M. A.; Moody, K. J.; Wild, J. F.; Patin, J. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, N. J.; Harris, L. J.

    2003-10-01

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.

  13. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (RIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Wild, J F; Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, N J; Harris, L J

    2002-11-19

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.

  14. Improved estimate of the cross section for inverse beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ankowski, Artur M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of the conserved vector current, relating the vector weak and isovector electromagnetic currents, plays a fundamental role in quantitative description of neutrino interactions. Despite being experimentally confirmed with great precision, it is not fully implemented in existing calculations of the cross section for inverse beta decay, the dominant mechanism of antineutrino scattering at energies below a few tens of MeV. In this article, I estimate the corresponding cross section and its uncertainty, ensuring conservation of the vector current. While converging to previous calculations at energies of several MeV, the obtained result is appreciably lower and predicts more directional positron production near the reaction threshold. These findings suggest that in the current estimate of the flux of geologically produced antineutrinos the 232Th and 238U components may be underestimated by 6.1 and 3.7%, respectively. The proposed search for light sterile neutrinos using a 144Ce--144Pr source is predi...

  15. Higgs Boson Cross Section from CTEQ-TEA Global Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dulat, Sayipjamal; Gao, Jun; Huston, Joey; Nadolsky, Pavel; Pumplin, Jon; Schmidt, Carl; Stump, Daniel; Yuan, C -P

    2013-01-01

    We study the uncertainties of the Higgs boson production cross section through the gluon fusion subprocess at the LHC (with $\\sqrt s=7, 8$ and $14$ TeV) arising from the uncertainties of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) and of the value of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$. These uncertainties are computed by two complementary approaches, based on the Hessian and the Lagrange Multiplier methods within the CTEQ-TEA global analysis framework. We find that their predictions for the Higgs boson cross section are in good agreement. Furthermore, the result of the Lagrange Multiplier method supports the prescriptions we have previously provided for using the Hessian method to calculate the combined PDF and $\\alpha_s$ uncertainties, and to estimate the uncertainties at the $68%$ confidence level by scaling them from the 90% confidence level.

  16. On a relation between production processes and total cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Munier, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Perturbative QCD is the appropriate tool to describe many important properties of the inclusive observables measured at electron-proton (or ion) colliders, such as the energy dependence of the total cross sections in well-chosen kinematical regions. This is because the electron may effectively be replaced by its cloud of photons, whose virtualities provide a hard scale that enables perturbative expansions. At hadron colliders instead, there is no hard scale in the initial state. Therefore, the observables one may compute perturbatively involve the production of jets, and thus belong to a quite different class of observables. However, it turns out that there is a formal relation between production processes and total cross sections, enabling one to apply calculations of the latter to the former. We review this relation, and present our recent proof that it holds at next-to-leading order (in the BFKL sense).

  17. Introduction of surrogate approach for determining nuclear reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surrogate nuclear reaction approach plays an important role in the determination of nuclear reaction cross sections that are difficult to be measured directly. In this paper, we investigate its basis, factors affecting its accuracy, and its three variants: the external surrogate ratio method (ESRM), the internal surrogate ratio method (ISRM) and the hybrid surrogate ratio method (HSRM). Each method was described, and their applications or experimental tests were given, from which we could see their respective advantages and disadvantages. And it is found that the spin-parity mismatch, or the (weak) Weisskopf-Ewing limit equivalently, is an inherent limitation of the approach. It is also seen that the surrogate approach can reach a high accuracy, so it is a good indirect approach when the nuclear reaction cross sections are unavailable to be measured directly. (authors)

  18. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. It is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic final state and the state-of-the-art of the b-jet trigger performance estimation are presented in this contribution.

  19. Isotope Dependence of Superheavy Nucleus Formation Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zu-Hua; BAG Jing-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical process in the superheavy nucleus synthesis is studied on the basis of the two-dimensional Smolu-chowski equation. Special attention is paid to the isotope dependence of the cross section for the superheavy nucleus formation by means of making a comparison among the reaction systems of 54Fe + 204Pb, 56Fe + 206Pb, and 58Fe + 208Pb. It is found by this comparison that the formation cross section is very sensitive to the conditional saddle-point height and the neutron separation energy of the compound nucleus. Reaction systems with lower height of conditional saddle-point and smaller neutron separation energy are more favourable for the synthesis of the superheavy nucleus.

  20. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.