WorldWideScience

Sample records for average treatment effect

  1. Relaxing monotonicity in the identification of local average treatment effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    In heterogeneous treatment effect models with endogeneity, the identification of the local average treatment effect (LATE) typically relies on an instrument that satisfies two conditions: (i) joint independence of the potential post-instrument variables and the instrument and (ii) monotonicity...... of the treatment in the instrument, see Imbens and Angrist (1994). We show that identification is still feasible when replacing monotonicity by a strictly weaker local monotonicity condition. We demonstrate that the latter allows identifying the LATEs on the (i) compliers (whose treatment reacts to the instrument...

  2. Model averaging in the presence of structural uncertainty about treatment effects: influence on treatment decision and expected value of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Malcolm J; Welton, Nicky J; Briggs, Andrew H; Ades, A E

    2011-01-01

    Standard approaches to estimation of Markov models with data from randomized controlled trials tend either to make a judgment about which transition(s) treatments act on, or they assume that treatment has a separate effect on every transition. An alternative is to fit a series of models that assume that treatment acts on specific transitions. Investigators can then choose among alternative models using goodness-of-fit statistics. However, structural uncertainty about any chosen parameterization will remain and this may have implications for the resulting decision and the need for further research. We describe a Bayesian approach to model estimation, and model selection. Structural uncertainty about which parameterization to use is accounted for using model averaging and we developed a formula for calculating the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) in averaged models. Marginal posterior distributions are generated for each of the cost-effectiveness parameters using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation in WinBUGS, or Monte-Carlo simulation in Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA). We illustrate the approach with an example of treatments for asthma using aggregate-level data from a connected network of four treatments compared in three pair-wise randomized controlled trials. The standard errors of incremental net benefit using structured models is reduced by up to eight- or ninefold compared to the unstructured models, and the expected loss attaching to decision uncertainty by factors of several hundreds. Model averaging had considerable influence on the EVPI. Alternative structural assumptions can alter the treatment decision and have an overwhelming effect on model uncertainty and expected value of information. Structural uncertainty can be accounted for by model averaging, and the EVPI can be calculated for averaged models. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Sharp IV bounds on average treatment effects on the treated and other populations under endogeneity and noncompliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Laffers, Lukas; Mellace, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    subpopulations has been widely ignored in econometrics. We invoke treatment monotonicity and/or dominance assumptions to derive sharp bounds on the average treatment effects on the treated, as well as on other groups. Furthermore, we use our methods to assess the educational impact of a school voucher program...

  4. Effect of average flow and capacity utilization on effluent water quality from US municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, Scott R; Silverstein, Joann; Rajagopalan, Balaji

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing interest in decentralization of wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, there have been no systematic studies of the performance of small treatment facilities compared with larger plants. A statistical analysis of 4 years of discharge monthly report (DMR) data from 210 operating wastewater treatment facilities was conducted to determine the effect of average flow rate and capacity utilization on effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia, and fecal coliforms relative to permitted values. Relationships were quantified using generalized linear models (GLMs). Small facilities (40 m³/d) had violation rates greater than 10 times that of the largest facilities (400,000 m³/d) for BOD, TSS, and ammonia. For facilities with average flows less than 40,000 m³/d, increasing capacity utilization was correlated with increased effluent levels of BOD and TSS. Larger facilities tended to operate at flows closer to their design capacity while maintaining treatment suggesting greater efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  6. Finite-sample corrected generalized estimating equation of population average treatment effects in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, JoAnna M; deCamp, Allan; Juraska, Michal; Fay, Michael P; Gilbert, Peter B

    2017-04-01

    Stepped wedge designs are increasingly commonplace and advantageous for cluster randomized trials when it is both unethical to assign placebo, and it is logistically difficult to allocate an intervention simultaneously to many clusters. We study marginal mean models fit with generalized estimating equations for assessing treatment effectiveness in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials. This approach has advantages over the more commonly used mixed models that (1) the population-average parameters have an important interpretation for public health applications and (2) they avoid untestable assumptions on latent variable distributions and avoid parametric assumptions about error distributions, therefore, providing more robust evidence on treatment effects. However, cluster randomized trials typically have a small number of clusters, rendering the standard generalized estimating equation sandwich variance estimator biased and highly variable and hence yielding incorrect inferences. We study the usual asymptotic generalized estimating equation inferences (i.e., using sandwich variance estimators and asymptotic normality) and four small-sample corrections to generalized estimating equation for stepped wedge cluster randomized trials and for parallel cluster randomized trials as a comparison. We show by simulation that the small-sample corrections provide improvement, with one correction appearing to provide at least nominal coverage even with only 10 clusters per group. These results demonstrate the viability of the marginal mean approach for both stepped wedge and parallel cluster randomized trials. We also study the comparative performance of the corrected methods for stepped wedge and parallel designs, and describe how the methods can accommodate interval censoring of individual failure times and incorporate semiparametric efficient estimators.

  7. Identification and Sensitivity Analysis for Average Causal Mediation Effects with Time-Varying Treatments and Mediators: Investigating the Underlying Mechanisms of Kindergarten Retention Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Steiner, Peter M; Kaplan, David

    2018-03-01

    Considering that causal mechanisms unfold over time, it is important to investigate the mechanisms over time, taking into account the time-varying features of treatments and mediators. However, identification of the average causal mediation effect in the presence of time-varying treatments and mediators is often complicated by time-varying confounding. This article aims to provide a novel approach to uncovering causal mechanisms in time-varying treatments and mediators in the presence of time-varying confounding. We provide different strategies for identification and sensitivity analysis under homogeneous and heterogeneous effects. Homogeneous effects are those in which each individual experiences the same effect, and heterogeneous effects are those in which the effects vary over individuals. Most importantly, we provide an alternative definition of average causal mediation effects that evaluates a partial mediation effect; the effect that is mediated by paths other than through an intermediate confounding variable. We argue that this alternative definition allows us to better assess at least a part of the mediated effect and provides meaningful and unique interpretations. A case study using ECLS-K data that evaluates kindergarten retention policy is offered to illustrate our proposed approach.

  8. TH-E-BRE-03: A Novel Method to Account for Ion Chamber Volume Averaging Effect in a Commercial Treatment Planning System Through Convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, B; Li, J; Liu, C; Yan, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fourier-based deconvolution approaches used to eliminate ion chamber volume averaging effect (VAE) suffer from measurement noise. This work aims to investigate a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE through convolution in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Beam profiles of various field sizes and depths of an Elekta Synergy were collected with a finite size ion chamber (CC13) to derive a clinically acceptable beam model for a commercial TPS (Pinnacle 3 ), following the vendor-recommended modeling process. The TPS-calculated profiles were then externally convolved with a Gaussian function representing the chamber (σ = chamber radius). The agreement between the convolved profiles and measured profiles was evaluated with a one dimensional Gamma analysis (1%/1mm) as an objective function for optimization. TPS beam model parameters for focal and extra-focal sources were optimized and loaded back into the TPS for new calculation. This process was repeated until the objective function converged using a Simplex optimization method. Planar dose of 30 IMRT beams were calculated with both the clinical and the re-optimized beam models and compared with MapCHEC™ measurements to evaluate the new beam model. Results: After re-optimization, the two orthogonal source sizes for the focal source reduced from 0.20/0.16 cm to 0.01/0.01 cm, which were the minimal allowed values in Pinnacle. No significant change in the parameters for the extra-focal source was observed. With the re-optimized beam model, average Gamma passing rate for the 30 IMRT beams increased from 92.1% to 99.5% with a 3%/3mm criterion and from 82.6% to 97.2% with a 2%/2mm criterion. Conclusion: We proposed a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE in a commercial TPS through convolution. The reoptimized beam model, with VAE accounted for through a reliable and easy-to-implement convolution and optimization approach, outperforms the original beam model in standard IMRT QA

  9. The Effects of Cooperative Learning and Learner Control on High- and Average-Ability Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Simon; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the effects of cooperative versus individual computer-based instruction on the performance of high- and average-ability fourth-grade students. Effects of learner and program control are investigated; student attitudes toward instructional content, learning in groups, and partners are discussed; and further research…

  10. The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health.

  11. Environmental stresses can alleviate the average deleterious effect of mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibler Stanislas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental questions in evolutionary genetics, including the possible advantage of sexual reproduction, depend critically on the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Limited existing experimental evidence suggests that, on average, such effects tend to be aggravated under environmental stresses, consistent with the perception that stress diminishes the organism's ability to tolerate deleterious mutations. Here, we ask whether there are also stresses with the opposite influence, under which the organism becomes more tolerant to mutations. Results We developed a technique, based on bioluminescence, which allows accurate automated measurements of bacterial growth rates at very low cell densities. Using this system, we measured growth rates of Escherichia coli mutants under a diverse set of environmental stresses. In contrast to the perception that stress always reduces the organism's ability to tolerate mutations, our measurements identified stresses that do the opposite – that is, despite decreasing wild-type growth, they alleviate, on average, the effect of deleterious mutations. Conclusions Our results show a qualitative difference between various environmental stresses ranging from alleviation to aggravation of the average effect of mutations. We further show how the existence of stresses that are biased towards alleviation of the effects of mutations may imply the existence of average epistatic interactions between mutations. The results thus offer a connection between the two main factors controlling the effects of deleterious mutations: environmental conditions and epistatic interactions.

  12. The background effective average action approach to quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D’Odorico, G.; Codello, A.; Pagani, C.

    2016-01-01

    of an UV attractive non-Gaussian fixed-point, which we find characterized by real critical exponents. Our closure method is general and can be applied systematically to more general truncations of the gravitational effective average action. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016....

  13. Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.

  14. Effect of random edge failure on the average path length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Dongchao; Liang Mangui; Li Dandan; Jiang Zhongyuan, E-mail: mgliang58@gmail.com, E-mail: 08112070@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Information Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, 100044, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-14

    We study the effect of random removal of edges on the average path length (APL) in a large class of uncorrelated random networks in which vertices are characterized by hidden variables controlling the attachment of edges between pairs of vertices. A formula for approximating the APL of networks suffering random edge removal is derived first. Then, the formula is confirmed by simulations for classical ER (Erdoes and Renyi) random graphs, BA (Barabasi and Albert) networks, networks with exponential degree distributions as well as random networks with asymptotic power-law degree distributions with exponent {alpha} > 2. (paper)

  15. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v...... easily be applied....

  16. Optimal Dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. for Average Adults has A Significant Anti-Cancer Effect, While Widely Used 2000 I.U. or Higher Promotes Cancer: Marked Reduction of Taurine & 1α, 25(OH)2D3 Was Found In Various Cancer Tissues and Oral Intake of Optimal Dose of Taurine 175mg for Average Adults, Rather Than 500mg, Was Found to Be A New Potentially Safe and More Effective Method of Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Yapor, Dario; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2016-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the author had found that the optimal dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. has safe & effective anticancer effects, while commonly used 2000-5000 I.U. of Vit. D3 often creates a 2-3 time increase in cancer markers. We examined the concentration of Taurine in normal internal organs and in cancer using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. We found that Taurine levels in normal tissue are 4-6ng. But, the amount of Taurine of average normal value of 5.0-5.25ng was strikingly reduced to 0.0025-0.0028ng in this study of several examples in adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, prostate, and lung, as well as breast cancer. The lowest Taurine levels of 0.0002-0.0005ng were found in so called Zika virus infected babies from Brazil with microcephaly. While Vitamin D3 receptor stimulant 1α, 25 (OH)2D3 in normal tissues was 0.45-0.53ng, they were reduced to 0.025-0.006ng in cancers (1/100th-1/200th of normal value), particularly in various adenocarcinomas. All of these adenocarcinomas had about 1500ng HPV-16 viral infection. In 500 breast cancers, about 97% had HPV-16. The optimal dose of Taurine for average adult has been found to be about 175mg, rather than the widely used 500mg. In addition, since Taurine is markedly reduced to close to 1/1000th-1/2000th of its normal value in these cancer tissues, we examined the effect of the optimal dose of Taurine on cancer patients. Optimal dose of Taurine produced a very significant decrease in cancer-associated parameters, such as Oncogene C-fosAb2 & Integrin α5β1 being reduced to less than 1/1,000th, and 8-OH-dG (which increases in the presence of DNA mutation) reduced to less than 1/10th. The optimal dose of Taurine 175mg for average adult various cancer patient 3 times a day alone provide beneficial effects with very significant anti-cancer effects with strikingly increased urinary excretion of bacteria, viruses, & funguses, asbestos, toxic metals & other toxic substances. However, optimal doses of

  17. The Effect of Honors Courses on Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Art L.; Squires, Suzanne Carter

    2016-01-01

    High-ability entering college students give three main reasons for not choosing to become part of honors programs and colleges; they and/or their parents believe that honors classes at the university level require more work than non-honors courses, are more stressful, and will adversely affect their self-image and grade point average (GPA) (Hill;…

  18. LARF: Instrumental Variable Estimation of Causal Effects through Local Average Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available LARF is an R package that provides instrumental variable estimation of treatment effects when both the endogenous treatment and its instrument (i.e., the treatment inducement are binary. The method (Abadie 2003 involves two steps. First, pseudo-weights are constructed from the probability of receiving the treatment inducement. By default LARF estimates the probability by a probit regression. It also provides semiparametric power series estimation of the probability and allows users to employ other external methods to estimate the probability. Second, the pseudo-weights are used to estimate the local average response function conditional on treatment and covariates. LARF provides both least squares and maximum likelihood estimates of the conditional treatment effects.

  19. Effect of land area on average annual suburban water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... values in the range between 4.4 kℓ∙d−1·ha−1 and 8.7 kℓ∙d−1·ha−1. The average demand was 10.4 kℓ∙d−1·ha−1 for calculation based on the residential area. The results are useful when crude estimates of AADD are required for planning new land developments. Keywords: urban water demand, suburb area, residential ...

  20. The effect of statins on average survival in randomised trials, an analysis of end point postponement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Malene Lopez; Christensen, Palle Mark; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-09-24

    To estimate the average postponement of death in statin trials. A systematic literature review of all statin trials that presented all-cause survival curves for treated and untreated. Statin treatment compared to placebo. The average postponement of death as represented by the area between the survival curves. 6 studies for primary prevention and 5 for secondary prevention with a follow-up between 2.0 and 6.1 years were identified. Death was postponed between -5 and 19 days in primary prevention trials and between -10 and 27 days in secondary prevention trials. The median postponement of death for primary and secondary prevention trials were 3.2 and 4.1 days, respectively. Statin treatment results in a surprisingly small average gain in overall survival within the trials' running time. For patients whose life expectancy is limited or who have adverse effects of treatment, withholding statin therapy should be considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Estimation of average causal effect using the restricted mean residual lifetime as effect measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Although mean residual lifetime is often of interest in biomedical studies, restricted mean residual lifetime must be considered in order to accommodate censoring. Differences in the restricted mean residual lifetime can be used as an appropriate quantity for comparing different treatment groups...... with respect to their survival times. In observational studies where the factor of interest is not randomized, covariate adjustment is needed to take into account imbalances in confounding factors. In this article, we develop an estimator for the average causal treatment difference using the restricted mean...

  2. The effect of statins on average survival in randomised trials, an analysis of end point postponement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Malene Lopez; Christensen, Palle Mark; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the average postponement of death in statin trials. SETTING: A systematic literature review of all statin trials that presented all-cause survival curves for treated and untreated. INTERVENTION: Statin treatment compared to placebo. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The average...... in secondary prevention trials. The median postponement of death for primary and secondary prevention trials were 3.2 and 4.1 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Statin treatment results in a surprisingly small average gain in overall survival within the trials' running time. For patients whose life expectancy...

  3. Average Precision: Good Guide or False Friend to Multimedia Search Effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aly, Robin; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; McGuinness, Kevin; O' Connor, Noel E.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    Approaches to multimedia search often evolve from existing approaches with strong average precision. However, work on search evaluation shows that average precision does not always capture effectiveness in terms of satisfying user needs because it ignores the diversity of search results. This paper

  4. Coherence effects and average multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at small χ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The average hadron multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at small χ is calculated in this paper. Its relationship with the average multiplicity in e + e - annihilation is established. As shown the results do not depend on a choice of the gauge vector. The important role of coherence effects in both space-like and time-like jet evolution is clarified. (orig.)

  5. The effects of average revenue regulation on electricity transmission investment and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two-part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist's expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occurs, average revenue regulation is allocatively more efficient than a Coasian two-part tariff if the level of capacity under average revenue regulation is higher than that under a Coasian two-part tariff. (author)

  6. Analysis of average density difference effect in a new two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Liu, Wei-Ning; Cheng, Sen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking the average density difference effect into account for two-lane traffic system according to Transportation Cyber-physical Systems. The influence of average density difference effect on the stability of traffic flow is investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear analysis results reveal that the unstable region would be reduced by considering the average density difference effect. The nonlinear kink-antikink soliton solution derived from the mKdV equation is analyzed to describe the properties of traffic jamming transition near the critical point. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical results showing that traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the average density difference effect for two-lane traffic system.

  7. Treatment of a Psychotic Trainable Retarded Child in a Day Hospital for Children with Average Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Louis C.; Cohen, Jonathan L.

    The case study describes the progress of a psychotic trainable mentally retarded child who at age seven entered a day psychiatric hospital for disturbed children with average intelligence. The boy's therapist describes changes in the child's peer interaction, academic performance, group psychotherapy participation, and psychological test…

  8. Thermal motion in proteins: Large effects on the time-averaged interaction energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethe, Martin, E-mail: martingoethe@ub.edu; Rubi, J. Miguel [Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fita, Ignacio [Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    As a consequence of thermal motion, inter-atomic distances in proteins fluctuate strongly around their average values, and hence, also interaction energies (i.e. the pair-potentials evaluated at the fluctuating distances) are not constant in time but exhibit pronounced fluctuations. These fluctuations cause that time-averaged interaction energies do generally not coincide with the energy values obtained by evaluating the pair-potentials at the average distances. More precisely, time-averaged interaction energies behave typically smoother in terms of the average distance than the corresponding pair-potentials. This averaging effect is referred to as the thermal smoothing effect. Here, we estimate the strength of the thermal smoothing effect on the Lennard-Jones pair-potential for globular proteins at ambient conditions using x-ray diffraction and simulation data of a representative set of proteins. For specific atom species, we find a significant smoothing effect where the time-averaged interaction energy of a single atom pair can differ by various tens of cal/mol from the Lennard-Jones potential at the average distance. Importantly, we observe a dependency of the effect on the local environment of the involved atoms. The effect is typically weaker for bulky backbone atoms in beta sheets than for side-chain atoms belonging to other secondary structure on the surface of the protein. The results of this work have important practical implications for protein software relying on free energy expressions. We show that the accuracy of free energy expressions can largely be increased by introducing environment specific Lennard-Jones parameters accounting for the fact that the typical thermal motion of protein atoms depends strongly on their local environment.

  9. GI Joe or Average Joe? The impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and advertisement effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Increasing body size and shape diversity in media imagery may promote positive body image. While research has largely focused on female models and women's body image, men may also be affected by unrealistic images. We examined the impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and perceived advertisement effectiveness. A sample of 330 men and 289 women viewed one of four advertisement conditions: no models, muscular, average-slim or average-large models. Men and women rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as muscular models. For men, exposure to average-size models was associated with more positive body image in comparison to viewing no models, but no difference was found in comparison to muscular models. Similar results were found for women. Internalisation of beauty ideals did not moderate these effects. These findings suggest that average-size male models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating average inpatient and outpatient costs and childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea treatment costs in an urban health centre in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chola Lumbwe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millions of children die every year in developing countries, from preventable diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhoea, owing to low levels of investment in child health. Investment efforts are hampered by a general lack of adequate information that is necessary for priority setting in this sector. This paper measures the health system costs of providing inpatient and outpatient services, and also the costs associated with treating pneumonia and diarrhoea in under-five children at a health centre in Zambia. Methods Annual economic and financial cost data were collected in 2005-2006. Data were summarized in a Microsoft excel spreadsheet to obtain total department costs and average disease treatment costs. Results The total annual cost of operating the health centre was US$1,731,661 of which US$1 284 306 and US$447,355 were patient care and overhead departments costs, respectively. The average cost of providing out-patient services was US$3 per visit, while the cost of in-patient treatment was US$18 per bed day. The cost of providing dental services was highest at US$20 per visit, and the cost of VCT services was lowest, with US$1 per visit. The cost per out-patient visit for under-five pneumonia was US$48, while the cost per bed day was US$215. The cost per outpatient visit attributed to under-five diarrhoea was US$26, and the cost per bed day was US$78. Conclusion In the face of insufficient data, a cost analysis exercise is a difficult but feasible undertaking. The study findings are useful and applicable in similar settings, and can be used in cost effectiveness analyses of health interventions.

  11. The Effects of Average Revenue Regulation on Electricity Transmission Investment and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Isamu Matsukawa

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two- part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist fs expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occur...

  12. Understanding Global Climate Change Effects on Annual Average Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in California Using 7-year Average Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A. A.; Hixson, M.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change will transform meteorological patterns with unknown consequences for air quality in California. California’s extreme topography requires higher spatial resolution for climate-air quality studies compared to other regions of the United States. At the same time, the 7-year ENSO cycle requires long analysis periods in order to quantify climate impacts. The combination of these challenges results in a computationally intensive modeling problem that limits our ability to fully analyze climate impacts on California air quality. One possible approach to reduce this computational burden is to average several years of meteorological fields and then use these average inputs in a single set of air quality runs. The interactions between meteorology and air quality are non-linear, and so the averaging approach may introduce biases that need to be quantified. The objective of this research is to evaluate how upstream averaging of meteorological fields over several years influences air quality predictions in California. Hourly meteorological fields will be averaged over 7-years in the present-day (2000-2006) and the future (2047-2053). The meteorology for each period was down-scaled using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) from the business-as-usual output generated by the Parallel Climate Model (PCM). Emissions of biogenic and mobile-source volatile organic carbons (VOC) will be processed using meteorological fields from individual years, and using the averaged meteorological data. The UCD source-oriented photochemical air quality model will be employed to study the global climate change effects on the annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) throughout the entire state of California. The model predicts the size and composition distribution of airborne particulate matter in 15 size bins spanning the diameter range from 10nm - 10µm. The modeled concentrations from individual years will be averaged and compared with the concentrations

  13. Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general intelligence.…

  14. Colorectal cancer outcomes and treatment patterns in patients too young for average-risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Wong, Sandra L; Regenbogen, Scott E; Jomaa, Diana M; Hardiman, Karin M; Hendren, Samantha

    2016-03-15

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines recommend initiating screening at age 50 years, the percentage of cancer cases in younger patients is increasing. To the authors' knowledge, the national treatment patterns and outcomes of these patients are largely unknown. The current study was a population-based, retrospective cohort study of the nationally representative Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry for patients diagnosed with CRC from 1998 through 2011. Patients were categorized as being younger or older than the recommended screening age. Differences with regard to stage of disease at diagnosis, patterns of therapy, and disease-specific survival were compared between age groups using multinomial regression, multiple regression, Cox proportional hazards regression, and Weibull survival analysis. Of 258,024 patients with CRC, 37,847 (15%) were aged Cancer Society.

  15. Effect of temporal averaging of meteorological data on predictions of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batalha Marcia S.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of infiltration and groundwater recharge are critical for many hydrologic, agricultural and environmental applications. Anticipated climate change in many regions of the world, especially in tropical areas, is expected to increase the frequency of high-intensity, short-duration precipitation events, which in turn will affect the groundwater recharge rate. Estimates of recharge are often obtained using monthly or even annually averaged meteorological time series data. In this study we employed the HYDRUS-1D software package to assess the sensitivity of groundwater recharge calculations to using meteorological time series of different temporal resolutions (i.e., hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly averaged precipitation and potential evaporation rates. Calculations were applied to three sites in Brazil having different climatological conditions: a tropical savanna (the Cerrado, a humid subtropical area (the temperate southern part of Brazil, and a very wet tropical area (Amazonia. To simplify our current analysis, we did not consider any land use effects by ignoring root water uptake. Temporal averaging of meteorological data was found to lead to significant bias in predictions of groundwater recharge, with much greater estimated recharge rates in case of very uneven temporal rainfall distributions during the year involving distinct wet and dry seasons. For example, at the Cerrado site, using daily averaged data produced recharge rates of up to 9 times greater than using yearly averaged data. In all cases, an increase in the time of averaging of meteorological data led to lower estimates of groundwater recharge, especially at sites having coarse-textured soils. Our results show that temporal averaging limits the ability of simulations to predict deep penetration of moisture in response to precipitation, so that water remains in the upper part of the vadose zone subject to upward flow and evaporation.

  16. Visualization of Radial Peripapillary Capillaries Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: The Effect of Image Averaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Mo

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of image registration and averaging on the visualization and quantification of the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC network on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA.Twenty-two healthy controls were imaged with a commercial OCTA system (AngioVue, Optovue, Inc.. Ten 10x10° scans of the optic disc were obtained, and the most superficial layer (50-μm slab extending from the inner limiting membrane was extracted for analysis. Rigid registration was achieved using ImageJ, and averaging of each 2 to 10 frames was performed in five ~2x2° regions of interest (ROI located 1° from the optic disc margin. The ROI were automatically skeletonized. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, number of endpoints and mean capillary length from the skeleton, capillary density, and mean intercapillary distance (ICD were measured for the reference and each averaged ROI. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess statistical significance. Three patients with primary open angle glaucoma were also imaged to compare RPC density to controls.Qualitatively, vessels appeared smoother and closer to histologic descriptions with increasing number of averaged frames. Quantitatively, number of endpoints decreased by 51%, and SNR, mean capillary length, capillary density, and ICD increased by 44%, 91%, 11%, and 4.5% from single frame to 10-frame averaged, respectively. The 10-frame averaged images from the glaucomatous eyes revealed decreased density correlating to visual field defects and retinal nerve fiber layer thinning.OCTA image registration and averaging is a viable and accessible method to enhance the visualization of RPCs, with significant improvements in image quality and RPC quantitative parameters. With this technique, we will be able to non-invasively and reliably study RPC involvement in diseases such as glaucoma.

  17. An extended car-following model accounting for the average headway effect in intelligent transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Hua; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xing-Li; Lo, Siu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to simulate traffic flow by considering average headway of preceding vehicles group in intelligent transportation systems environment. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability analysis. The phase diagram can be divided into three regions classified as the stable, the metastable and the unstable ones. The theoretical result shows that the average headway plays an important role in improving the stabilization of traffic system. The mKdV equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, through the simulation of space-time evolution of the vehicle headway, it is shown that the traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently with taking into account the average headway effect, and the analytical result is consistent with the simulation one.

  18. Self-collimation and focusing effects in zero-average index metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollès, Rémi; Centeno, Emmanuel; Arlandis, Julien; Moreau, Antoine

    2011-03-28

    One dimensional photonic crystals combining positive and negative index layers have shown to present a photonic band gap insensitive to the period scaling when the volume average index vanishes. Defect modes lying in this zero-n gap can in addition be obtained without locally breaking the symmetry of the crystal lattice. In this work, index dispersion is shown to broaden the resonant frequencies creating then a conduction band lying inside the zero-n gap. Self-collimation and focusing effects are in addition demonstrated in zero-average index metamaterials supporting defect modes. This beam shaping is explained in the framework of a beam propagation model by introducing an harmonic average index parameter.

  19. Cognitive Capitalism: Economic Freedom Moderates the Effects of Intellectual and Average Classes on Economic Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas R; Rindermann, Heiner; Hancock, Dale

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity. However, the effects of cognitive ability may be stronger in free and open economies, where competition rewards merit and achievement. To test this hypothesis, ability levels of intellectual classes (top 5%) and average classes (country averages) were estimated using international student assessments (Programme for International Student Assessment; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study; and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) (N = 99 countries). The ability levels were correlated with indicators of economic freedom (Fraser Institute), scientific achievement (patent rates), innovation (Global Innovation Index), competitiveness (Global Competitiveness Index), and wealth (gross domestic product). Ability levels of intellectual and average classes strongly predicted all economic criteria. In addition, economic freedom moderated the effects of cognitive ability (for both classes), with stronger effects at higher levels of freedom. Effects were particularly robust for scientific achievements when the full range of freedom was analyzed. The results support cognitive capitalism theory: cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity, and its effects are enhanced by economic freedom. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. A Closer Look at the Halloween Effect: The Case of the Dow Jones Industrial Average

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arendas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Halloween effect is one of the most famous calendar anomalies. It is based on the observation that stock returns tend to perform much better over the winter half of the year (November–April than over the summer half of the year (May–October. The vast majority of studies that investigated the Halloween effect over the recent decades focused only on stock indices. This means that they evaluated whether a stock index follows the Halloween effect pattern, but they omitted digging a little deeper and analyze the Halloween effect on the individual stocks level. This paper investigates to what extent the blue-chips stocks included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average are affected by the Halloween effect and whether the Halloween effect is widespread or the behavior of the whole index is driven by only a handful of stocks that are strongly affected by the Halloween effect. The results show that, although the strength of the Halloween effect varies quite rapidly from stock to stock, the vast majority of analyzed stocks experienced a notably higher average winter period than summer period returns over the 1980–2017 period. Moreover, in 18 out of 35 cases, the Halloween effect was statistically significant.

  1. Effects of averaging over motion and the resulting systematic errors in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M; Coolens, Catherine; Nioutsikou, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The potential for systematic errors in radiotherapy of a breathing patient is considered using the statistical model of Bortfeld et al (2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 2203-20). It is shown that although averaging over 30 fractions does result in a narrow Gaussian distribution of errors, as predicted by the central limit theorem, the fact that one or a few samples of the breathing patient's motion distribution are used for treatment planning (in contrast to the many treatment fractions that are likely to be delivered) may result in a much larger error with a systematic component. The error distribution may be particularly large if a scan at breath-hold is used for planning. (note)

  2. Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed.

  3. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days--Implications for HIV Remission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Pinkevych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to 'purge' the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ≈6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days. This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different 'reactivation founder' viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in

  4. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days—Implications for HIV Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin; Grimm, Andrew J.; Cooper, David A.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Søgaard, Ole S.; Rasmussen, Thomas A.; Kent, Stephen J.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Davenport, Miles P.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to ‘purge’ the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ≈6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days). This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different ‘reactivation founder’ viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in approaches to

  5. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  6. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity of molecules on orientationally averaged substrates: theory of electromagnetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2006-09-28

    We present a model for electromagnetic enhancements in surface enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA) spectroscopy. The model extends previous treatments of SEROA to substrates, such as metal nanoparticles in solution, that are orientationally averaged with respect to the laboratory frame. Our theoretical treatment combines analytical expressions for unenhanced Raman optical activity with molecular polarizability tensors that are dressed by the substrate's electromagnetic enhancements. We evaluate enhancements from model substrates to determine preliminary scaling laws and selection rules for SEROA. We find that dipolar substrates enhance Raman optical activity (ROA) scattering less than Raman scattering. Evanescent gradient contributions to orientationally averaged ROA scale to first or higher orders in the gradient of the incident plane-wave field. These evanescent gradient contributions may be large for substrates with quadrupolar responses to the plane-wave field gradient. Some substrates may also show a ROA contribution that depends only on the molecular electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability. These conclusions are illustrated via numerical calculations of surface enhanced Raman and ROA spectra from (R)-(-)-bromochlorofluoromethane on various model substrates.

  7. Averaging Tesseral Effects: Closed Form Relegation versus Expansions of Elliptic Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitude-dependent terms of the geopotential cause nonnegligible short-period effects in orbit propagation of artificial satellites. Hence, accurate analytical and semianalytical theories must cope with tesseral harmonics. Modern algorithms for dealing analytically with them allow for closed form relegation. Nevertheless, current procedures for the relegation of tesseral effects from subsynchronous orbits are unavoidably related to orbit eccentricity, a key fact that is not enough emphasized and constrains application of this technique to small and moderate eccentricities. Comparisons with averaging procedures based on classical expansions of elliptic motion are carried out, and the pros and cons of each approach are discussed.

  8. Fractional averaging of repetitive waveforms induced by self-imaging effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Cortés, Luis; Maram, Reza; Azaña, José

    2015-10-01

    We report the theoretical prediction and experimental observation of averaging of stochastic events with an equivalent result of calculating the arithmetic mean (or sum) of a rational number of realizations of the process under test, not necessarily limited to an integer record of realizations, as discrete statistical theory dictates. This concept is enabled by a passive amplification process, induced by self-imaging (Talbot) effects. In the specific implementation reported here, a combined spectral-temporal Talbot operation is shown to achieve undistorted, lossless repetition-rate division of a periodic train of noisy waveforms by a rational factor, leading to local amplification, and the associated averaging process, by the fractional rate-division factor.

  9. Mental health care and average happiness: strong effect in developed nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touburg, Giorgio; Veenhoven, Ruut

    2015-07-01

    Mental disorder is a main cause of unhappiness in modern society and investment in mental health care is therefore likely to add to average happiness. This prediction was checked in a comparison of 143 nations around 2005. Absolute investment in mental health care was measured using the per capita number of psychiatrists and psychologists working in mental health care. Relative investment was measured using the share of mental health care in the total health budget. Average happiness in nations was measured with responses to survey questions about life-satisfaction. Average happiness appeared to be higher in countries that invest more in mental health care, both absolutely and relative to investment in somatic medicine. A data split by level of development shows that this difference exists only among developed nations. Among these nations the link between mental health care and happiness is quite strong, both in an absolute sense and compared to other known societal determinants of happiness. The correlation between happiness and share of mental health care in the total health budget is twice as strong as the correlation between happiness and size of the health budget. A causal effect is likely, but cannot be proved in this cross-sectional analysis.

  10. Solvent effects and dynamic averaging of 195Pt NMR shielding in cisplatin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truflandier, Lionel A; Sutter, Kiplangat; Autschbach, Jochen

    2011-03-07

    The influences of solvent effects and dynamic averaging on the (195)Pt NMR shielding and chemical shifts of cisplatin and three cisplatin derivatives in aqueous solution were computed using explicit and implicit solvation models. Within the density functional theory framework, these simulations were carried out by combining ab initio molecular dynamics (aiMD) simulations for the phase space sampling with all-electron relativistic NMR shielding tensor calculations using the zeroth-order regular approximation. Structural analyses support the presence of a solvent-assisted "inverse" or "anionic" hydration previously observed in similar square-planar transition-metal complexes. Comparisons with computationally less demanding implicit solvent models show that error cancellation is ubiquitous when dealing with liquid-state NMR simulations. After aiMD averaging, the calculated chemical shifts for the four complexes are in good agreement with experiment, with relative deviations between theory and experiment of about 5% on average (1% of the Pt(II) chemical shift range). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Effects of measurement procedure and equipment on average room acoustic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Bradley, J S; Siebein, G W

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a measurement tour of nine U.S. concert halls. Three measurements teams, from the University of Florida, the National Research Council of Canada, and the Technical University of Denmark, made parallel sets of measurements using their own equipment and procedures....... In some of the halls measurements were repeated using the procedures of the other teams to make it possible to separate the effects of different equipment and different procedures. The paper will present position-averaged results from the three teams and will discuss reasons for the differences observed...

  12. Effective Block-Scale Dispersion and Its Self-Averaging Behavior in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Felipe; Dentz, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Upscaled (effective) dispersion coefficients in spatially heterogeneous flow fields must (1) account for the sub-scale variability that is filtered out by homogenization and (2) be modeled as a random function to incorporate the uncertainty associated with non-ergodic solute bodies. In this study, we use the framework developed in de Barros and Rubin (2011) [de Barros F.P.J. and Rubin Y., Modelling of block-scale macrodispersion as a random function. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 676 (2011): 514-545] to develop novel semi-analytical expressions for the first two statistical moments of the block-effective dispersion coefficients in three-dimensional spatially random flow fields as a function of the key characteristic length scales defining the transport problem. The derived expressions are based on perturbation theory and limited to weak-to-mild heterogeneity and uniform-in-the-mean steady state flow fields. The semi-analytical solutions provide physical insights of the main controlling factors influencing the temporal scaling of the dispersion coefficient of the solute body and its self-averaging dispersion behavior. Our results illustrate the relevance of the joint influence of the block-scale and local-scale dispersion in diminishing the macrodispersion variance under non-ergodic conditions. The impact of the statistical anisotropy ratio in the block-effective macrodispersion self-averaging behavior is also investigated. The analysis performed in this work has implications in numerical modeling and grid design.

  13. Ra and the average effective strain of surface asperities deformed in metal-working processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Petersen, A. S

    1975-01-01

    Based upon a slip-line analysis of the plastic deformation of surface asperities, a theory is developed determining the Ra-value (c.l.a.) and the average effective strain in the surface layer when deforming asperities in metal-working processes. The ratio between Ra and Ra0, the Ra-value after...... and before deformation, is a function of the nominal normal pressure and the initial slope γ0 of the surface asperities. The last parameter does not influence Ra significantly. The average effective strain View the MathML sourcege in the deformed surface layer is a function of the nominal normal pressure...... and γ0. View the MathML sourcege is highly dependent on γ0, View the MathML sourcege increasing with increasing γ0. It is shown that the Ra-value and the strain are hardly affected by the normal pressure until interacting deformation of the asperities begins, that is until the limit of Amonton's law...

  14. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method’s theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m.

  15. Effect of alloy deformation on the average spacing parameters of non-deforming particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.; Gurland, J.

    1980-02-01

    It is shown on the basis of stereological definitions and a few simple experiments that the commonly used average dispersion parameters, area fraction (A/sub A/)/sub β/, areal particle density N/sub Aβ/ and mean free path lambda/sub α/, remain invariant during plastic deformation in the case of non-deforming equiaxed particles. Directional effects on the spacing parameters N/sub Aβ/ and lambda/sub α/ arise during uniaxial deformation by rotation and preferred orientation of nonequiaxed particles. Particle arrangement in stringered or layered structures and the effect of deformation on nearest neighbor distances of particles and voids are briefly discussed in relation to strength and fracture theories

  16. The effects of sex and grade-point average on emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Martha; Marsh, George E

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of sex and grade-point average (GPA) on emotional intelligence on secondary students as measured by the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EII). The EII is a 41-item Likert scale based on the original theoretical model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer. An exploratory factor analysis identified four factors, which were named Empathy, Utilization of Feelings, Handling Relationships, and Self-control. The sample consisted of 319 students, 162 males and 157 females, who attended school at a bilingual (English and Spanish) college preparatory school. General linear analysis revealed significant differences in empathy scores when grouped by gender. There were significant differences in self-control when grouped by GPA levels.

  17. The role of size polydispersity in magnetic fluid hyperthermia: average vs. local infra/over-heating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Menendez, Cristina; Conde-Leboran, Ivan; Baldomir, Daniel; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Serantes, David

    2015-11-07

    An efficient and safe hyperthermia cancer treatment requires the accurate control of the heating performance of magnetic nanoparticles, which is directly related to their size. However, in any particle system the existence of some size polydispersity is experimentally unavoidable, which results in a different local heating output and consequently a different hyperthermia performance depending on the size of each particle. With the aim to shed some light on this significant issue, we have used a Monte Carlo technique to study the role of size polydispersity in heat dissipation at both the local (single particle) and global (macroscopic average) levels. We have systematically varied size polydispersity, temperature and interparticle dipolar interaction conditions, and evaluated local heating as a function of these parameters. Our results provide a simple guide on how to choose, for a given polydispersity degree, the more adequate average particle size so that the local variation in the released heat is kept within some limits that correspond to safety boundaries for the average-system hyperthermia performance. All together we believe that our results may help in the design of more effective magnetic hyperthermia applications.

  18. Person perception from changing emotional expressions: primacy, recency, or averaging effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xia; van Kleef, Gerben A; Sauter, Disa A

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic changes in emotional expressions are a valuable source of information in social interactions. As the expressive behaviour of a person changes, the inferences drawn from the behaviour may also change. Here, we test the possibility that dynamic changes in emotional expressions affect person perception in terms of stable trait attributions. Across three experiments, we examined perceivers' inferences about others' personality traits from changing emotional expressions. Expressions changed from one emotion ("start emotion") to another emotion ("end emotion"), allowing us to disentangle potential primacy, recency, and averaging effects. Drawing on three influential models of person perception, we examined perceptions of dominance and affiliation (Experiment 1a), competence and warmth (Experiment 1b), and dominance and trustworthiness (Experiment 2). A strong recency effect was consistently found across all trait judgments, that is, the end emotion of dynamic expressions had a strong impact on trait ratings. Evidence for a primacy effect was also observed (i.e. the information of start emotions was integrated), but less pronounced, and only for trait ratings relating to affiliation, warmth, and trustworthiness. Taken together, these findings suggest that, when making trait judgements about others, observers weigh the most recently displayed emotion in dynamic expressions more heavily than the preceding emotion.

  19. Extracurricular Activities and Their Effect on the Student's Grade Point Average: Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoban, R. A.; Aljarallah, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular activities (ECA) are part of students' everyday life; they play important roles in students' lives. Few studies have addressed the question of how student engagements to ECA affect student's grade point average (GPA). This research was conducted to know whether the students' grade point average in King Abdulaziz University,…

  20. Effect of average diurnal barn airspace temperatures on prediction of their development during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A year-round (i.e. 365 days experiment was performed at the Mendel University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic (GPS 49°0’51.967”N and 16°36’14.614”E, the altitude 179 m with the aim to quantify the effect of the variation of average diurnal barn airspace temperatures on prediction of their changes during the day. Barn airspace temperatures were monitored daily in one-hour intervals and the recorded values were used for calculations of average diurnal temperatures. These were classified into 7 categories (i.e. below 0 °C; 0.1 to 5 °C; 5.1 to 10 °C; 10.1 to 15 °C; 15.1 to 20 °C; 20.1 to 25 °C and above 25 °C. Regarding this classification system, all differences between temperatures measured at identical hours but within various limits were statistically highly significant. The statistical analysis involved also the calculation of the third degree polynomial regression equations, which enabled to characterise the relationship between the temperature and the hour of measurement within the aforementioned categories of diurnal temperatures. Individual equations were markedly different and ranged from y = − 0.0019x3 + 0.0596x2 − 0.3797x − 1.2169 (for temperatures below 0 °C to y = − 0.0108x3 + 0.3297x2 − 1.9367x + 24.3931 (for temperatures above 25 °C. Correlation coefficients (r and coefficients of determination (R2 of these regression equations were generally very high and ranged from 0.872 to 0.976 and from 0.760 to 0.953, respectively. Regarding high values of both coefficients it can be concluded that the calculated equations enable a good and reliable prediction of the diurnal development of barn airspace temperatures.

  1. Effects of error covariance structure on estimation of model averaging weights and predictive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steve B.

    2013-01-01

    When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cekresolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek

  2. Cross- and Auto-Correlation Effects arising from Averaging: The Case of US Interest Rates and Equity Duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.G.P.M. Hallerbach (Winfried)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMost of the available monthly interest data series consist of monthly averages of daily observations. It is well- known that this averaging introduces spurious autocorrelation effects in the first differences of the series. It is exactly this differenced series we are interested in when

  3. Effect of monensin and tylosin on average daily gain, feed efficiency and liver abscess incidence in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, E L; Wray, M I; Muller, R D; Grueter, H P; McAskill, J; Young, D C

    1985-11-01

    Fourteen trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding monensin at 33 ppm alone, tylosin at 11 ppm alone and the two feed additives in combination on the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed:gain ratio and the incidence of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle. Monensin reduced feed intake and improved feed efficiency (P less than .05), and had no effect on average daily gain. Tylosin improved average daily gain (P less than .05) and had no effect on daily feed intake. The effect of tylosin on feed efficiency approached significance. The interaction of monensin and tylosin was nonsignificant for daily gain, daily feed intake and feed:gain ratio. Monensin had no effect on liver abscess incidence, while tylosin reduced abscess incidence from 27 to 9%.

  4. Automobile fuel economy : potential effects of increasing the corporate average fuel economy standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Between 1981 and 1999, the average price of gasoline, adjusted for inflation, declined more than 60 percent. During the same period, the U.S. transportation sector's consumption of oil rose from less than 10 million to nearly 13 million barrels per d...

  5. Average velocity and effective diffusion of a Brownian particle driven by a constant force over a static periodic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongyun

    2006-01-01

    In this manuscript, we consider the case where a Brownian particle is subject to a static periodic potential and is driven by a constant force. We derive analytic formulas for the average velocity and the effective diffusion.

  6. Investigation Effects of Magnetetic Impurity Doping on Average Magnetization of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ghafourian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT extensively are attractive from both theoretical and experimental point of view, due to its technological applications such as nano electronics devises. SWCNT are created by rolling a graphen sheet into a cyclindrical form. We have investigated the possibility of making a ferromagnetic semiconductor zigzag SWCNT by doping magnetic impurities. We found by increasing magnetic impurities doping on a zigzag SWCNT, average magnetization is increased and one can make a ferromagnetic semiconductor

  7. Underestimating calorie content when healthy foods are present: an averaging effect or a reference-dependent anchoring effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwood, Suzanna E; Ahern, Amy; Hollands, Gareth J; Fletcher, Paul C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that estimations of the calorie content of an unhealthy main meal food tend to be lower when the food is shown alongside a healthy item (e.g. fruit or vegetables) than when shown alone. This effect has been called the negative calorie illusion and has been attributed to averaging the unhealthy (vice) and healthy (virtue) foods leading to increased perceived healthiness and reduced calorie estimates. The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings to test the hypothesized mediating effect of ratings of healthiness of foods on calorie estimates. In three online studies, participants were invited to make calorie estimates of combinations of foods. Healthiness ratings of the food were also assessed. The first two studies failed to replicate the negative calorie illusion. In a final study, the use of a reference food, closely following a procedure from a previously published study, did elicit a negative calorie illusion. No evidence was found for a mediating role of healthiness estimates. The negative calorie illusion appears to be a function of the contrast between a food being judged and a reference, supporting the hypothesis that the negative calorie illusion arises from the use of a reference-dependent anchoring and adjustment heuristic and not from an 'averaging' effect, as initially proposed. This finding is consistent with existing data on sequential calorie estimates, and highlights a significant impact of the order in which foods are viewed on how foods are evaluated.

  8. A METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE RADIALLY-AVERAGED EFFECTIVE IMPACT AREA FOR AN AIRCRAFT CRASH INTO A STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, William C. [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    This report presents a methodology for deriving the equations which can be used for calculating the radially-averaged effective impact area for a theoretical aircraft crash into a structure. Conventionally, a maximum effective impact area has been used in calculating the probability of an aircraft crash into a structure. Whereas the maximum effective impact area is specific to a single direction of flight, the radially-averaged effective impact area takes into consideration the real life random nature of the direction of flight with respect to a structure. Since the radially-averaged effective impact area is less than the maximum effective impact area, the resulting calculated probability of an aircraft crash into a structure is reduced.

  9. Effect on long-term average spectrum of pop singers' vocal warm-up with vocal function exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Angulo, Mabel; Muñoz, Daniel; Mayerhoff, Ross

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This case-control study aimed to investigate if there is any change on the spectral slope declination immediately after vocal function exercises (VFE) vs traditional vocal warm-up exercises in normal singers. Thirty-eight pop singers with perceptually normal voices were divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 18). One single session with VFE for the experimental group and traditional singing warm-up exercises for the control group was applied. Voice was recorded before and after the exercises. The recorded tasks were to read a phonetically balanced text and to sing a song. Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis included alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio, and singing power ratio (SPR). Acoustic parameters of voice samples pre- and post-training were compared. Comparison between VFE and control group was also performed. Significant changes after treatment included the alpha ratio and singing power ratio in speaking voice, and SPR in the singing voice for VFE group. The traditional vocal warm-up of the control group also showed pre-post changes. Significant differences between VFE group and control group for alpha ratio and SPR were found in speaking voice samples. This study demonstrates that VFE have an immediate effect on the spectrum of the voice, specifically a decrease on the spectral slope declination. The results of this study provide support for the advantageous effect of VFE as vocal warm-up on voice quality.

  10. On the Averaging of Cardiac Diffusion Tensor MRI Data: The Effect of Distance Function Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakidis, Archontis; Melkus, Gerd; Yang, Guang; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) allows a unique insight into the microstructure of highly-directional tissues. The selection of the most proper distance function for the space of diffusion tensors is crucial in enhancing the clinical application of this imaging modality. Both linear and nonlinear metrics have been proposed in the literature over the years. The debate on the most appropriate DT-MRI distance function is still ongoing. In this paper, we presented a framework to compare the Euclidean, affine-invariant Riemannian and log-Euclidean metrics using actual high-resolution DT-MRI rat heart data. We employed temporal averaging at the diffusion tensor level of three consecutive and identically-acquired DT-MRI datasets from each of five rat hearts as a means to rectify the background noise-induced loss of myocyte directional regularity. This procedure is applied here for the first time in the context of tensor distance function selection. When compared with previous studies that used a different concrete application to juxtapose the various DT-MRI distance functions, this work is unique in that it combined the following: (i) Metrics were judged by quantitative –rather than qualitative– criteria, (ii) the comparison tools were non-biased, (iii) a longitudinal comparison operation was used on a same-voxel basis. The statistical analyses of the comparison showed that the three DT-MRI distance functions tend to provide equivalent results. Hence, we came to the conclusion that the tensor manifold for cardiac DT-MRI studies is a curved space of almost zero curvature. The signal to noise ratio dependence of the operations was investigated through simulations. Finally, the “swelling effect” occurrence following Euclidean averaging was found to be too unimportant to be worth consideration. PMID:27754986

  11. On the averaging of cardiac diffusion tensor MRI data: the effect of distance function selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakidis, Archontis; Melkus, Gerd; Yang, Guang; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) allows a unique insight into the microstructure of highly-directional tissues. The selection of the most proper distance function for the space of diffusion tensors is crucial in enhancing the clinical application of this imaging modality. Both linear and nonlinear metrics have been proposed in the literature over the years. The debate on the most appropriate DT-MRI distance function is still ongoing. In this paper, we presented a framework to compare the Euclidean, affine-invariant Riemannian and log-Euclidean metrics using actual high-resolution DT-MRI rat heart data. We employed temporal averaging at the diffusion tensor level of three consecutive and identically-acquired DT-MRI datasets from each of five rat hearts as a means to rectify the background noise-induced loss of myocyte directional regularity. This procedure is applied here for the first time in the context of tensor distance function selection. When compared with previous studies that used a different concrete application to juxtapose the various DT-MRI distance functions, this work is unique in that it combined the following: (i) metrics were judged by quantitative—rather than qualitative—criteria, (ii) the comparison tools were non-biased, (iii) a longitudinal comparison operation was used on a same-voxel basis. The statistical analyses of the comparison showed that the three DT-MRI distance functions tend to provide equivalent results. Hence, we came to the conclusion that the tensor manifold for cardiac DT-MRI studies is a curved space of almost zero curvature. The signal to noise ratio dependence of the operations was investigated through simulations. Finally, the ‘swelling effect’ occurrence following Euclidean averaging was found to be too unimportant to be worth consideration.

  12. Social comparisons in the classroom : An investigation of the better than average effect among secondary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    The better than average (BTA) effect refers to the tendency for the majority of people to rate themselves as being higher on positive attributes and lower on negative attributes than other people. The present study examined the occurrence of the BTA effect on five important characteristics among

  13. The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. [in polar meteorology with attention to geometrical effects of earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Bell, T. L.; Cahalan, R. F.; Moeng, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Geometric characteristics of the spherical earth are shown to be responsible for the increase of variance with latitude of zonally averaged meteorological statistics. An analytic model is constructed to display the effect of a spherical geometry on zonal averages, employing a sphere labeled with radial unit vectors in a real, stochastic field expanded in complex spherical harmonics. The variance of a zonally averaged field is found to be expressible in terms of the spectrum of the vector field of the spherical harmonics. A maximum variance is then located at the poles, and the ratio of the variance to the zonally averaged grid-point variance, weighted by the cosine of the latitude, yields the zonal correlation typical of the latitude. An example is provided for the 500 mb level in the Northern Hemisphere compared to 15 years of data. Variance is determined to increase north of 60 deg latitude.

  14. The averaged face growth rates of lysozyme crystals: the effect of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Arunan; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1995-05-01

    Measurements of the averaged or macroscopic face growth rates of lysozyme crystals are reported here for the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme, at three sets of pH and salt concentrations, with temperatures over a 4-22°C range for several protein concentrations. The growth rate trends with supersaturation were similar to previous microscopic growth rate measurements. However, it was found that at high supersaturations the growth rates attain a maximum and then start decreasing. No "dead zone" was observed but the growth rates were found to approach zero asymptotically at very low supersaturations. The growth rate data also displayed a dependence on pH and salt concentration which could not be characterized solely by the supersaturation. A complete mechanism for lysozyme crystal growth, involving the formation of an aggregate growth unit, mass transport of the growth unit to the crystal interface and faceted crystal growth by growth unit addition, is suggested. Such a mechanism may provide a more consistent explanation for the observed growth rate trends than those suggested by other investigators. The nutrient solution interactions leading to the formation of the aggregate growth unit may, thus, be as important as those occurring at the crystal interface and may account for the differences between small molecule and protein crystal growth.

  15. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  16. Loop expansion of the average effective action in the functional renormalization group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Peter M.; Merzlikin, Boris S.

    2015-10-01

    We formulate a perturbation expansion for the effective action in a new approach to the functional renormalization group method based on the concept of composite fields for regulator functions being their most essential ingredients. We demonstrate explicitly the principal difference between the properties of effective actions in these two approaches existing already on the one-loop level in a simple gauge model.

  17. Maternal and social genetic effects on average daily gain of piglets from birth until weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Bergsma, R.; Duijvestein, N.; Bijma, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is heritable social variation in ADG from birth until weaning in piglets. Nursing and the establishment of teat order are sources of social interaction among suckling piglets nursed by the same sow. If a heritable social effect is present, but

  18. Strategy Precedes Operational Effectiveness: Aligning High Graduation Rankings with Competitive Graduation Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apprey, Maurice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Lewis, Dion W.; Wood, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Two pivotal and interconnected claims are addressed in this article. First, strategy precedes program effectiveness. Second, graduation rates and rankings are insufficient in any account of academic progress for African American students. In this article, graduation is regarded as the floor and not the ceiling, as it were. The ideal situation in…

  19. Effects of Video-Based and Applied Problems on the Procedural Math Skills of Average- and Low-Achieving Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Chan, Shih-Yi; Mehta, Zara Dee; Watson, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    This study examined effects of video-based, anchored instruction and applied problems on the ability of 11 low-achieving (LA) and 26 average-achieving (AA) eighth graders to solve computation and word problems. Performance for both groups was higher during anchored instruction than during baseline, but no differences were found between instruction…

  20. Raven’s test performance of sub-Saharan Africans: average performance, psychometric properties, and the Flynn Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Dolan, C.V.; Carlson, J.S.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's

  1. Empirical insights into multi-grain averaging effects from ‘pseudo’ single-grain OSL measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.J.; Demuro, M.; Ruiz, M. Navazo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we assess the signatures of multi-grain averaging effects for a series of sedimentary samples taken from the archaeological site of Hotel California, Atapuerca, Spain. We focus on the special case of equivalent dose (D e ) measurements made on single-grain discs that contain more than one quartz grain in each of the individual grain-hole positions with the aims of (i) providing insight into the nature and extent of averaging effects in very small multi-grain aliquots of sedimentary quartz, and (ii) assessing the suitability of ‘pseudo’ single-grain D e measurements for this particular dating application. Pseudo single-grain OSL measurements made on standard discs loaded with 90–100 μm grains (equivalent to ∼30 grains per hole) yield significantly different D e distribution characteristics and finite mixture model (FMM) burial dose estimates compared with single-grain OSL measurements. Grains with aberrant luminescence behaviours, which are routinely rejected during single-grain analysis, exert strong averaging effects on the pseudo single-grain and multi-grain aliquot D e distributions. Grain-hole averaging effects arising from pseudo single-grain measurements also give rise to ‘phantom’ dose components and are apt to provide bias assessments of quartz signal characteristics and grain type classifications. Though this is a site-specific study, it serves as a cautionary note for interpretations of other pseudo single-grain OSL and D e datasets – particularly those obtained from measurements of discs containing several tens of grains per hole and those derived from complex depositional environments. The use of custom single-grain discs drilled with smaller sized grain holes is recommended as a means of limiting grain-hole averaging effects when dealing with very fine (<180 μm) sediments.

  2. The effect of gravity level on the average primary dendritic spacing of a directionally solidified superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccay, M. H.; Lee, J. E.; Curreri, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of alternating low (0.01 g) and high (1.8 g) gravity force on the primary spacings in the dendrite structure in a directionally solidified Ni-based superalloy (PWA 1480, containing 5 pct Co, 10 pct Cr, 4 pct W, 12 pct Ta, 5 pct Al, 1.5 pct Ti, and the balance Ni) was investigated using samples solidified in a directional solidification furnace aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft that made a series of low-g parabolas. The cross-section slices for each growth rate were polished and etched with Kallings II, and the primary dendritic arm spacings were measured using the method of Jacobi and Schwerdtfeger (1976). The arm spacings were found to fluctuate with gravity force, increasing as the gravity level decreased, and growing finer as gravity increased.

  3. Assessing the effects of land-use changes on annual average gross erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Brath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land-use changes on potential annual gross erosion in the uplands of the Emilia-Romagna administrative region, a broad geographical area of some 22 000 km2 in northern-central Italy, have been analysed by application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. The presence of an extended mountain chain, particularly subject to soil erosion, makes the estimation of annual gross erosion relevant in defining regional soil-conservation strategies. The USLE, derived empirically for plots, is usually applied at the basin scale. In the present study, the method is implemented in a distributed framework for the hilly and mountainous portion of Emilia-Romagna through a discretisation of the region into elementary square cells. The annual gross erosion is evaluated by combining morphological, pedological and climatic information. The stream network and the tributary area drained by each elementary cell, which are needed for the local application of the USLE, are derived automatically from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM of grid size 250 x 250 m. The rainfall erosivity factor is evaluated from local estimates of rainfall of six-hour storm duration and two-year return period. The soil erodibility and slope length-steepness factors are derived from digital maps of land use, pedology and geomorphology. Furthermore, historical land-use maps of the district of Bologna (a large portion — 3720 km2 — of the area under study, allow the effect of actual land use changes on the soil erosion process to be assessed. The analysis shows the influence of land-use changes on annual gross erosion as well as the increasing vulnerability of upland areas to soil erosion processes during recent decades. Keywords: USLE, gross erosion, distributed modelling, land use changes, northern-central Italy

  4. Centrifugal Pump Effect on Average Particle Diameter of Oil-Water Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, A.; Eskin, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we review the process of oil-water emulsion particles fragmentation in a turbulent flow created by a centrifugal pump. We examined the influence of time necessary for oil-water emulsion preparation on the particle size of oil products and the dependence of a centrifugal pump emulsifying capacity on the initial emulsion dispersion. The investigated emulsion contained the brand fuel oil M-100 and tap water; it was sprayed with a nozzle in a gas-water flare. After preparation of the emulsion, the centrifugal pump was turned on and the emulsion samples were taken before and after the pump passing in 15, 30 and 45 minutes of spraying. To determine the effect the centrifugal pump has on the dispersion of the oil-water emulsion, the mean particle diameter of the emulsion particles was determined by the optical and microscopic method before and after the pump passing. A dispersion analysis of the particles contained in the emulsion was carried out by a laser diffraction analyzer. By analyzing the pictures of the emulsion samples, it was determined that after the centrifugal pump operation a particle size of oil products decreases. This result is also confirmed by the distribution of the obtained analyzer where the content of fine particles with a diameter less than 10 μm increased from 12% to 23%. In case of increasing emulsion preparation time, a particle size of petroleum products also decreases.

  5. Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Kakati, M.

    2011-01-01

    Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

  6. The effect of spatial randomness on the average fixation time of mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang-Sardroodi, Suzan; Darooneh, Amir H.; Nikbakht, Moladad; Kohandel, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The mean conditional fixation time of a mutant is an important measure of stochastic population dynamics, widely studied in ecology and evolution. Here, we investigate the effect of spatial randomness on the mean conditional fixation time of mutants in a constant population of cells, N. Specifically, we assume that fitness values of wild type cells and mutants at different locations come from given probability distributions and do not change in time. We study spatial arrangements of cells on regular graphs with different degrees, from the circle to the complete graph, and vary assumptions on the fitness probability distributions. Some examples include: identical probability distributions for wild types and mutants; cases when only one of the cell types has random fitness values while the other has deterministic fitness; and cases where the mutants are advantaged or disadvantaged. Using analytical calculations and stochastic numerical simulations, we find that randomness has a strong impact on fixation time. In the case of complete graphs, randomness accelerates mutant fixation for all population sizes, and in the case of circular graphs, randomness delays mutant fixation for N larger than a threshold value (for small values of N, different behaviors are observed depending on the fitness distribution functions). These results emphasize fundamental differences in population dynamics under different assumptions on cell connectedness. They are explained by the existence of randomly occurring “dead zones” that can significantly delay fixation on networks with low connectivity; and by the existence of randomly occurring “lucky zones” that can facilitate fixation on networks of high connectivity. Results for death-birth and birth-death formulations of the Moran process, as well as for the (haploid) Wright Fisher model are presented. PMID:29176825

  7. The effects of undergraduate nursing student-faculty interaction outside the classroom on college grade point average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Saleh, Mohammad Y N; Hayajneh, Ferial; Abdalkader, Raghed Hussein; Mahadeen, Alia I

    2011-09-01

    The effects of student-faculty interactions in higher education have received considerable empirical attention. However, there has been no empirical study that has examined the relation between student-faculty interaction and college grade point average. This is aimed at identifying the effect of nursing student-faculty interaction outside the classroom on students' semester college grade point average at a public university in Jordan. The research was cross-sectional study of the effect of student-faculty interaction outside the classroom on the students' semester college grade point average of participating juniors and seniors. Total interaction of the students was crucial as it is extremely significant (t = 16.2, df = 271, P ≤ 0.001) in relation to students' academic scores between those students who had ≥70 and those who had <70 academic scores. However, gender differences between students, and other variables were not significant either to affect students' academic scores or students' interaction. This study provides some evidence that student-faculty interactions outside classrooms are significantly associated with student's academically achievements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Chinese and US orthodontists' averaged evaluations of "facial attractiveness" from end-of-treatment facial photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Korn, Edward L; Oh, Hee Soo; Pearson, Helmer; Xu, Tian-Min; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2009-05-01

    This study continues our assessment of agreement and disagreement among 25 Chinese and 20 US orthodontists in the ranking for facial attractiveness of end-of-treatment photographs of randomly sampled growing Chinese and white orthodontic patients. The main aims of this article were to (1) measure the overall pattern of agreement between the mean rankings of US and Chinese orthodontists, and (2) measure the strength of agreement between the rankings of the US and Chinese orthodontists for each patient. Each judge independently ranked standard clinical sets of profile, frontal, and frontal-smiling photographs of 43 US patients and 48 Chinese patients. For each patient, a separate mean rank was computed from the responses of each group of judges. Pearson correlations between the mean ranks of the 2 groups of judges were used to measure their overall agreement. Paired and unpaired t tests were used to measure the agreement between the judges of the 2 groups for each patient. The overall agreement between the mean rankings of the US and Chinese judges was very high. For the US patients, the correlation between the Chinese and US judges means was r = 0.92, P <0.0001. For the Chinese patients, the analogous value was r = 0.86, P <0.0001. Agreement between the 2 groups of judges concerning each patient was also generally strong. For two thirds of the patients, the mean ranks of the US and Chinese judges differed by less than 1 unit in a scale of 12. However, for 6 patients considered individually (5 Chinese and 1 US), the assessment of the 2 groups of judges was statistically significantly different at P values ranging from 0.02 to less than 0.0001, even after the Bonferroni correction. These findings demonstrate that orthodontic clinicians can reliably identify and rank subtle differences between patients, and that differences between judges and between patients can be distinguished at a high level of statistical significance, given appropriate study designs. However, the

  9. The effects of spaying and anabolic implants on the average daily weight gain of heifers on pasture

    OpenAIRE

    ZoBell, Dale R.; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Bertagnolli, Clark; Ziegler, Ken

    1993-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the effects of spaying and implanting on the growth of heifers and compare Ralgro and Synovex-S for spayed heifers. In the first study, 121 crossbred heifers were randomly allocated to four groups: intact and no implant; intact and progesterone and estradiol benzoate (Synovex-S); spayed and no implant; and spayed and Synovex-S. The average daily gain (ADG) and body weight (BW) data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with a pasture effect wh...

  10. Eddy-correlation measurements of benthic fluxes under complex flow conditions: Effects of coordinate transformations and averaging time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorke, Andreas; McGinnis, Daniel F.; Maeck, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    hours of continuous eddy-correlation measurements of sediment oxygen fluxes in an impounded river, we demonstrate that rotation of measured current velocities into streamline coordinates can be a crucial and necessary step in data processing under complex flow conditions in non-flat environments......Eddy-correlation measurements of sediment oxygen uptake rates in aquatic systems are increasingly used to obtain areal-averaged fluxes with a high temporal resolution. Here we discuss the effects of coordinate rotation and averaging time scale for Reynolds decomposition on flux estimates. Using 119...... in the context of the theoretical concepts underlying eddy-correlation measurements and a set of recommendations for planning and analyses of flux measurements are derived....

  11. An Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Average Laser Power and Angular Scanning Speed Effects on Laser Tube Bending Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhan Khalil Ibraheem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser tube bending is a new technique of laser material forming to produce a complex and accurate shape due to its flexibility and high controllability. Moreover, the defects during conventional tube forming such as thinning, wrinkling, spring back and ovalization can be avoided in laser tube bending process, because there is no external force used. In this paper an analytical investigation has been conducted to analyses the effects of average laser power and laser scanning speed on laser tube bending process, the analytical results have been verified experimentally. The model used in this study is in the same trend of the experiment. The results show that the bending angle increased with the increasing of average laser power and decreased with the increasing of angular scanning speed.

  12. Advanced pulse oximeter signal processing technology compared to simple averaging. I. Effect on frequency of alarms in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheineck-Leyssius, A T; Kalkman, C J

    1999-05-01

    To determine the effect of a new signal processing technique (Oxismart, Nellcor, Inc., Pleasanton, CA) on the incidence of false pulse oximeter alarms in the operating room (OR). Prospective observational study. Nonuniversity hospital. 53 ASA physical status I, II, and III consecutive patients undergoing general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. In the OR we compared the number of alarms produced by a recently developed third generation pulse oximeter (Nellcor Symphony N-3000) with Oxismart signal processing technique and a conventional pulse oximeter (Criticare 504). Three pulse oximeters were used simultaneously in each patient: a Nellcor pulse oximeter, a Criticare with the signal averaging time set at 3 seconds (Criticareaverage3s) and a similar unit with the signal averaging time set at 21 seconds (Criticareaverage21s). For each pulse oximeter, the number of false (artifact) alarms was counted. One false alarm was produced by the Nellcor (duration 55 sec) and one false alarm by the Criticareaverage21s monitor (5 sec). The incidence of false alarms was higher in Criticareaverage3s. In eight patients, Criticareaverage3s produced 20 false alarms (p signal processing compared with the Criticare monitor with the longer averaging time of 21 seconds.

  13. An effective approach using blended learning to assist the average students to catch up with the talented ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijie Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the average students are the prevailing part of the student population, it is important but difficult for the educators to help average students by improving their learning efficiency and learning outcome in school tests. We conducted a quasi-experiment with two English classes taught by one teacher in the second term of the first year of a junior high school. The experimental class was composed of average students (N=37, while the control class comprised talented students (N=34. Therefore the two classes performed differently in English subject with mean difference of 13.48 that is statistically significant based on the independent sample T-Test analysis. We tailored the web-based intelligent English instruction system, called Computer Simulation in Educational Communication (CSIEC and featured with instant feedback, to the learning content in the experiment term, and the experimental class used it one school hour per week throughout the term. This blended learning setting with the focus on vocabulary and dialogue acquisition helped the students in the experimental class improve their learning performance gradually. The mean difference of the final test between the two classes was decreased to 3.78, while the mean difference of the test designed for the specially drilled vocabulary knowledge was decreased to 2.38 and was statistically not significant. The student interview and survey also demonstrated the students’ favor to the blended learning system. We conclude that the long-term integration of this content oriented blended learning system featured with instant feedback into ordinary class is an effective approach to assist the average students to catch up with the talented ones.

  14. A statistical study of gyro-averaging effects in a reduced model of drift-wave transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, J. D.; del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Sokolov, I. M.; Caldas, I. L.

    2016-08-01

    A statistical study of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on transport driven by electrostatic drift-waves is presented. The study is based on a reduced discrete Hamiltonian dynamical system known as the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM). In this system, FLR effects are incorporated through the gyro-averaging of a simplified weak-turbulence model of electrostatic fluctuations. Formally, the GSM is a modified version of the standard map in which the perturbation amplitude, K0, becomes K0J0(ρ ̂ ) , where J0 is the zeroth-order Bessel function and ρ ̂ is the Larmor radius. Assuming a Maxwellian probability density function (pdf) for ρ ̂ , we compute analytically and numerically the pdf and the cumulative distribution function of the effective drift-wave perturbation amplitude K0J0(ρ ̂ ) . Using these results, we compute the probability of loss of confinement (i.e., global chaos), Pc, and the probability of trapping in the main drift-wave resonance, Pt. It is shown that Pc provides an upper bound for the escape rate, and that Pt provides a good estimate of the particle trapping rate. The analytical results are compared with direct numerical Monte-Carlo simulations of particle transport.

  15. Effects of nutrient levels and average culture pH on the glycosylation pattern of camelid-humanized monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohseni, Hengameh; Ohadi, Kaveh; Spearman, Maureen; Krahn, Natalie; Moo-Young, Murray; Scharer, Jeno M; Butler, Mike; Budman, Hector M

    2014-09-30

    The impact of operating conditions on the glycosylation pattern of humanized camelid monoclonal antibody, EG2-hFc produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been evaluated by a combination of experiments and modeling. Cells were cultivated under different levels of glucose and glutamine concentrations with the goal of investigating the effect of nutrient depletion levels and ammonia build up on the cell growth and the glycoprofiles of the monoclonal antibody (Mab). The effect of average pH reduction on glycosylation level during the entire culture time or during a specific time span was also investigated. The relative abundance of glycan structures was quantified by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and the galactosylation index (GI) and the sialylation index (SI) were determined. Lower initial concentrations of glutamine resulted in lower glucose consumption and lower cell yield but increased GI and SI levels when compared to cultures started with higher initial glutamine levels. Similarly, reducing the average pH of culture resulted in lower growth but higher SI and GI levels. These findings indicate that there is a tradeoff between cell growth, resulting Mab productivity and the achievement of desirable higher glycosylation levels. A dynamic model, based on a metabolic flux analysis (MFA), is proposed to describe the metabolism of nutrients, cell growth and Mab productivity. Finally, existing software (GLYCOVIS) that describes the glycosylation pathways was used to illustrate the impact of extracellular species on the glycoprofiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Social comparisons in the classroom: an investigation of the better than average effect among secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Hans; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Buunk, Abraham P; van der Werf, Margaretha P C

    2011-02-01

    The better than average (BTA) effect refers to the tendency for the majority of people to rate themselves as being higher on positive attributes and lower on negative attributes than other people. The present study examined the occurrence of the BTA effect on five important characteristics among 15,806 first-year secondary school Dutch students. In addition, it explored the influence of students' gender, cultural background, and ability level on their evaluations of characteristics relative to their classmates. Results yielded small BTA effects, with the exception of the item "being eager to get high grades," on which the effect was much larger. In addition, larger BTA effects were found among boys than girls, but this difference could not be attributed to actual differences in performance. Likewise, larger BTA effects were found among ethnic minority students from Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds than ethnic majority students, but this difference also could not be attributed to actual differences in performance. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Average Time Elapsed Before Presentation to the Otolaryngologist and Effectiveness of Oral and/or Intratympanic Steroids in Late Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyah, Anwuli; Mistry, Devin; Kevern, Erin; Markiewicz, Kenneth

    2017-12-14

    Objectives To determine how long after symptom onset that the average patient with an idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) presents to the otolaryngology clinic.  In late presentations, to determine the time to presentation cutoff after which intervention may not be effective.  To evaluate the effectiveness of oral steroids versus a combination of oral and intratympanic steroid therapy in late presentations of ISSNHL.  Methods and procedures Sixty-four patients met inclusion criteria after chart review of 2,037 patients seen at Metro Health Hospital from 2006 to 2016 for sensorineural hearing loss. All sixty-four patients were used to calculate the average time to presentation, but only 40 were included to evaluate treatment efficacy because 24 were lost to follow-up or declined treatment. Audiograms were analyzed for baseline status and response to treatment. Therapy was either oral steroids or intratympanic (IT) steroids. Thirty-nine of the 40 treated patients received oral steroid therapy. Eighteen of these 39 patients received both oral and IT steroids. One patient received IT steroids only.  Results For all 64 patients in the study, the average time to presentation was 55 days, ranging from one day to 240 days. Data for 32 of the 40 treated patients were analyzed. These patients were further divided into smaller groups: Group 1 (N = 11) - treatment within seven days of symptom onset, Group 2 (N = 17) - time to treatment greater than seven days but less than 90 days of symptom onset, and Group 3 (N = 4) - greater than 90 days of symptom onset. In Group 2, there was a significant improvement in pure tone average (P-value: 0.005). Forty-seven percent of patients in this group had objective treatment response utilizing Wilson's criteria. Two patients had a complete recovery and six had a partial recovery. Hearing gains ranged from 10 dB (decibels) to 23 dB. Sixty-three percent of patients with objective improvement also

  18. Reversed better-than-average effect in direct comparisons of nonsocial stimuli depends on the set size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiarowski, Jakub; Karyłowski, Jerzy J; Szutkiewicz-Szekalska, Karolina; Cypryańska, Marzena

    2014-05-01

    Studies on direct comparative judgments typically show that, for items that are positively evaluated, a single item randomly drawn from a larger set of similar items tends to be judged as better than average (the BTA effect). However, Windschitl, Conybeare, and Krizan (2008) demonstrated that, under timing conditions that do not favor focusing attention on the single item, the reversal of the BTA effect occurs. We report two experiments showing that the magnitude of the reversed BTA effect increases as a function of the size of a multiitem referent with which a single item target is compared. Specifically, in direct comparative judgments of the attractiveness of positively evaluated objects (nice-looking cloth buttons, attractive buildings, or cupcakes), underestimation of the attractiveness of singletons, as compared with a multiitem set (reversed BTA effect), increased with the increased set size. Analysis of absolute judgments obtained for singletons and for small and large multiitem sets suggests that, for attractive stimuli, both the reversed BTA effect in comparative judgments and its sensitivity to set size occur as a result of a positive relationship between set size and perceived attractiveness in absolute judgments.

  19. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED IN THE TERRITORIES CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the average annual effective exposure doses of the inhabitants of the territories contaminated due to the Chernobul accident had been developed according to the method of the assessment of the average annual effective exposure doses of the settlements inhabitants. The cost-efficacy of the use of the average annual effective dose assessment method was 250 000 USD for the current 5 years. Average annual effective dose exceeded 1 mSv/year for 191 Belarus settlements from 2613. About 50 000 persons are living in these settlements.

  1. Non-adiabatic effects within a single thermally averaged potential energy surface: thermal expansion and reaction rates of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J L; Castro, A; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Echenique, P; Mazo, J J; Polo, V; Rubio, A; Zueco, D

    2012-12-14

    At non-zero temperature and when a system has low-lying excited electronic states, the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down and the low-lying electronic states are involved in any chemical process. In this work, we use a temperature-dependent effective potential for the nuclei which can accommodate the influence of an arbitrary number of electronic states in a simple way, while at the same time producing the correct Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for the electronic part. With the help of this effective potential, we show that thermally activated low-lying electronic states can have a significant effect in molecular properties for which electronic excitations are oftentimes ignored. We study the thermal expansion of the Manganese dimer, Mn(2), where we find that the average bond length experiences a change larger than the present experimental accuracy upon the inclusion of the excited states into the picture. We also show that, when these states are taken into account, reaction-rate constants are modified. In particular, we study the opening of the ozone molecule, O(3), and show that in this case the rate is modified as much as a 20% with respect to the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer prediction.

  2. Effect of Two Different Levels of Fiber on Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, Feed Efficiency and Ruminal Metabolites of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salary Neya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay and starter fiber level on feed intake and performance of Holstein dairy calves, using thirty two male calves in a completely randomized design assigned to four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments were as follow: T1: starter with low fiber and without alfalfa hay, T2: starter with low fiber along with alfalfa hay, T3: starter with high fiber and without alfalfa hay and T4: starter with high fiber along with alfalfa hay. Results showed feed intake was not significantly different in pre-weaning and throughout the study but after weaning there was significant difference among treatments. Average daily gain of calves was not significantly different during pre-weaning period but during post-weaning and throughout the study there was significant difference among treatments for this trait. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among treatments in pre-weaning and post-weaning periods but it was significantly different during throughout the study. The results of this experiment showed adding fiber to dairy calves ration through both starter concentrate and alfalfa hay may reduce their performance.

  3. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2014-01-01

    This article considers Bayesian model averaging as a means of addressing uncertainty in the selection of variables in the propensity score equation. We investigate an approximate Bayesian model averaging approach based on the model-averaged propensity score estimates produced by the R package BMA but that ignores uncertainty in the propensity score. We also provide a fully Bayesian model averaging approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) to account for uncertainty in both parameters and models. A detailed study of our approach examines the differences in the causal estimate when incorporating noninformative versus informative priors in the model averaging stage. We examine these approaches under common methods of propensity score implementation. In addition, we evaluate the impact of changing the size of Occam's window used to narrow down the range of possible models. We also assess the predictive performance of both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches and compare it with the case without Bayesian model averaging. Overall, results show that both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches recover the treatment effect estimates well and generally provide larger uncertainty estimates, as expected. Both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer slightly better prediction of the propensity score compared with the Bayesian approach with a single propensity score equation. Covariate balance checks for the case study show that both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer good balance. The fully Bayesian model averaging approach also provides posterior probability intervals of the balance indices.

  4. The effects of spaying and anabolic implants on the average daily weight gain of heifers on pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZoBell, Dale R.; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Bertagnolli, Clark; Ziegler, Ken

    1993-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the effects of spaying and implanting on the growth of heifers and compare Ralgro and Synovex-S for spayed heifers. In the first study, 121 crossbred heifers were randomly allocated to four groups: intact and no implant; intact and progesterone and estradiol benzoate (Synovex-S); spayed and no implant; and spayed and Synovex-S. The average daily gain (ADG) and body weight (BW) data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with a pasture effect which was considered as a block. Based on ADG for days 0-120, the response to implanting was 17.6% for spayed heifers and 1.8% for intact heifers. In the second study, 31 spayed heifers implanted with zeranol (Ralgro) were compared with 30 spayed heifers implanted with Synovex-S. The data were analyzed as a one-way analysis of variance. The ADG for spayed heifers on Ralgro did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from those implanted with Synovex-S over a period of 92 days, suggesting that both implants produce similar growth responses. PMID:17424337

  5. How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-08-01

    The long-term impact of air pollution on human health can be estimated from small-area ecological studies in which the health outcome is regressed against air pollution concentrations and other covariates, such as socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is multi-factorial and difficult to measure, and includes aspects of income, education, and housing as well as others. However, these variables are potentially highly correlated, meaning one can either create an overall deprivation index, or use the individual characteristics, which can result in a variety of pollution-health effects. Other aspects of model choice may affect the pollution-health estimate, such as the estimation of pollution, and spatial autocorrelation model. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian model averaging approach to combine the results from multiple statistical models to produce a more robust representation of the overall pollution-health effect. We investigate the relationship between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and cardio-respiratory mortality in West Central Scotland between 2006 and 2012. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Big Fish in Little Ponds Aspire More: Mediation and Cross-Cultural Generalizability of School-Average Ability Effects on Self-Concept and Career Aspirations in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2012-01-01

    Being schooled with other high-achieving peers has a detrimental influence on students' self-perceptions: School-average and class-average achievement have a negative effect on academic self-concept and career aspirations--the big-fish-little-pond effect. Individual achievement, on the other hand, predicts academic self-concept and career…

  7. The average effective dose of 4-amino-5-(furan-2-yl-4H-1 ,2,4-triazole-3-thiol in experimental hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Belay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the research of the average effective dose of 4-amino-5-(furan-2-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol in experimental hepatitis. Recalculations conducted for the human with the sensitivity coefficient, average effective dose for human is 13,87 mg/kg.

  8. Effect of dam weight and pregnancy nutrition on average lactation performance of ewe offspring over 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, A M; Pain, S J; Peterson, S W; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T

    2017-06-01

    The foetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal weight and nutrition during gestation, which could affect offspring milk production. It has previously been shown that ewes born to dams offered maintenance nutrition during pregnancy (day 21 to 140 of gestation) produced greater milk, lactose and CP yields in their first lactation when compared with ewes born to dams offered ad libitum nutrition. In addition, ewes born to heavier dams produced greater milk and lactose yields when compared with ewes born to lighter dams. The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the 5-year lactation performance of the previously mentioned ewes, born to heavy or light dams that were offered maintenance or ad libitum pregnancy nutrition. Ewes were milked once per week, for the first 6 weeks of their lactation, for 5 years. Using milk yield and composition data, accumulated yields were calculated over a 42-day period for each year for milk, milk fat, CP, true protein, casein and lactose using a Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Over the 5-year period, ewes born to heavy dams produced greater average milk (P=0.04), lactose (P=0.01) and CP (P=0.04) yields than offspring born to light dams. In contrast, over the 5-year period dam nutrition during pregnancy did not affect average (P>0.05) offspring milk yields or composition, but did increase milk and lactose accumulated yield (P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively) in the first lactation. These results indicate that maternal gestational nutrition appears to only affect the first lactational performance of ewe offspring. Neither dam nutrition nor size affected grand-offspring live weight gain to, or live weight at weaning (P>0.05). Combined these data indicate that under the conditions of the present study, manipulating dam weight or nutrition in pregnancy can have some effects of offspring lactational performance, however, these effects are not large enough to alter grand-offspring growth to weaning. Therefore, such manipulations

  9. Examining Master Schedule Practices in Rio Grande Valley Schools: Effects on Student Attendance, Discipline, and Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriaga, Benito T.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the master schedule design on student attendance, discipline, and grade point averages. Unexcused and excused absences, minor and major infraction, and grade point averages in three high schools during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years were included in the study. The purpose was to examine if any difference…

  10. The Chicken Soup Effect: The Role of Recreation and Intramural Participation in Boosting Freshman Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbison, Godfrey A.; Henry, Tracyann L.; Perkins-Brown, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Freshman grade point average, in particular first semester grade point average, is an important predictor of survival and eventual student success in college. As many institutions of higher learning are searching for ways to improve student success, one would hope that policies geared towards the success of freshmen have long term benefits…

  11. Meta-analysis to assess effect of prepubertal average daily gain of Holstein heifers on first-lactation production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2005-11-01

    Decreased mammary development has been observed as prepubertal average daily gain (ADG) is increased; however, responses in first-lactation milk production to alterations in prepubertal ADG have been inconsistent across several experiments. Due to the continuous nature of ADG, body weight at calving (BWC), milk production, and milk composition, designing an experiment that encompasses a large range of ADG while maintaining an adequate number of animals at each ADG becomes prohibitive. Therefore, the objective of the current analysis was to quantitatively and statistically assess effects of alterations in prepubertal ADG and BWC on first-lactation production of milk, fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein. Eight studies that included Holstein heifers and were published within the past 15 yr were included in this analysis. The mixed model procedure of SAS was used to assess effects of prepubertal ADG and BWC on milk production independent of genetic or management differences that were evident between trials. Linear and quadratic effects of prepubertal ADG and BWC and their combinations were modeled including a random classification variable for each trial. Milk yield responses were associated quadratically with increasing prepubertal ADG; first-lactation production increased as prepubertal gains increased up to 799 g/d, the point of maximal milk production, whereas further increases in prepubertal ADG were associated with lower milk production. Increasing BWC within the range of 477 to 550 kg tended to linearly increase first-lactation milk production, but BWC significantly affected milk production in a model that included the linear and quadratic effects of ADG as well as linear BWC. In that model, which accounted for differences in calving weight, milk production was maximal at prepubertal ADG of 836 g/d. Milk protein yield was quadratically affected by alterations in prepubertal ADG, and milk protein yield was maximized when prepubertal growth occurred at

  12. An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Steefel, Carl I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Shen, Chaopeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division

    2012-03-30

    The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO2. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. In this study we investigate the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is composed of high-performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1-D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high-resolution model is used to demonstrate that nonuniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. In conclusion, the effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

  13. Deleterious effects in mice of fish-associated methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Western populations' average fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Fujimura, Masatake; Laclau, Muriel; Sawada, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. Only a few contradictory epidemiological studies are currently available examining the impact of fish consumption on human populations. In the present study, we wanted to address whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Western populations could result in observable adverse effects in mice, and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of MeHg, if any. In Europe and the United States, fish consumption varies widely between countries, from 11 to 100 g fish/day. A mid-range value of 25 g fish/day corresponds to a fish contribution to the total diet of 1.25% on a dry weight basis. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mouse diet with 1.25% of lyophilized salmon flesh (SAL diet), or 1.25% of a blend of lyophilized cod, tuna, and swordfish (CTS diet). Total mercury contents were 1.15±0.15, 2.3±0.1 and 35.75±0.15 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control, SAL and CTS diets, respectively. After two months feeding, the CTS diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and SAL diets, encompassing decreased body growth, altered behavioral performance and increased anxiety level, modification of mitochondrial respiratory protein subunit concentrations in kidney and brain structures, modified gene expression patterns in kidneys, liver and muscles, and a decrease of dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamus and striatum. Our findings have health implications, firstly because 1.25% of CTS flesh in the diet corresponds to an average exposure to MeHg below the WHO provisory tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) (1.6 μg MeHg/kg of body weight/week), and secondly because many people in Western populations, among them women of child-bearing age, are exceeding the PTWI value (for instance, 35% of the French population inhabiting the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts

  14. Migraine treatment and placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciali, José G; Peres, Mário; Bigal, Marcelo E

    2010-03-01

    Placebos are typically defined as physiologically inactive substances that elicit a therapeutic response. The antipode of the placebo effect is the nocebo effect, or the negative effects of placebo, where unpleasant symptoms (e.g., adverse events) emerge after the administration of placebo. Placebo analgesia is one of the most striking examples of the cognitive modulation of pain perception. Herein we focus on the importance of placebo in headache research. We first review the mechanisms of the placebo effect. We then focus on the importance of placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. We follow by discussing the importance of placebo on the preventive treatment of migraine and our perspectives for the 5 years to come regarding the study of the placebos.

  15. Fertility effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Donald E; Hacker, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are a subfertile group, and most treatments have the potential to adversely affect gonadal function. As cancer treatment becomes more effective and survival rates improve there are more cancer survivors in the reproductive age group for whom parenting is an important consideration. This article outlines the effects on fertility of cancer treatments and techniques to minimise the risk of infertility. The overall prospects for younger cancer sufferers to either retain their fertility or have genetic offspring is now better than ever before, due to advances in assisted reproductive technology, the appropriate use of fertility sparing surgery and other techniques to reduce the toxicity of therapy on the reproductive organs. These advances raise new moral and ethical concerns that must be considered before advising cancer sufferers of the options for preserving reproductive capacity.

  16. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body

  17. effects of preharvest treatments on yield and chemical composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Postharvest losses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) are among others, the prime factor affecting the quantity and quality of tomato fruits in the ... their effects can be greater than the effects of adjustment of storage environment. To ... each plant (HBP) of each treatment at blooming stage was recorded. The average ...

  18. Effect of morphodynamics on annual average zonation pattern of benthic macrofauna of exposed sandy beaches in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana dos Santos Alves

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of environmental factors on the annual average zonation pattern of benthic macrofauna of sub-aerial profile of three exposed sandy beaches of Santa Catarina with different morphodynamic characteristics. Sampling was carried out between March 2000 and March 2001, with monthly frequency on reflective and dissipative morphodynamic extremes and bimonthly frequency on the intermediate state. Results showed that macrobenthic zonation presented marked differences across the morphodynamic spectrum. The main differences observed from reflective to dissipative conditions were: a increase in the number of species in lower zones of the beach; b expansion of zones characterized by high water content of sediment and c increase in the overlapping of zones, mainly on lower levels of the beach. Canonical Correspondence Analysis related these differences to distinctive cross-shore gradients in sediment moisture levels, sediment reworking and mean grain size that exist across the morphodynamic spectrum, showing that it is important to analyze these environmental factors in studies conducted to investigate zonation on microtidal exposed sandy beaches.Este estudo analisou o efeito dos fatores ambientais sobre a zonação da macrofauna bentônica da porção subaérea de praias arenosas expostas e caracterizadas por diferentes estágios morfodinâmicos em Santa Catarina. As amostragens foram realizadas entre março/2000 e março/2001, a intervalos mensais nos extremos morfodinâmicos e bimestrais no estágio intermediário. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a zonação da macrofauna bentônica apresentou as seguintes diferenças, do extremo refletivo para o dissipativo: a aumento do número de espécies nos níveis inferiores da praia; b aumento da extensão das zonas faunísticas caracterizadas por elevado teor de umidade do sedimento; e c aumento da sobreposição das zonas faunísticas, principalmente, nos níveis inferiores

  19. Effect of confounding variables on hemodynamic response function estimation using averaging and deconvolution analysis: An event-related NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Ardalan; Osharina, Victoria; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-07-15

    Slow and rapid event-related designs are used in fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) experiments to temporally characterize the brain hemodynamic response to discrete events. Conventional averaging (CA) and the deconvolution method (DM) are the two techniques commonly used to estimate the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF) profile in event-related designs. In this study, we conducted a series of simulations using synthetic and real NIRS data to examine the effect of the main confounding factors, including event sequence timing parameters, different types of noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), temporal autocorrelation and temporal filtering on the performance of these techniques in slow and rapid event-related designs. We also compared systematic errors in the estimates of the fitted HRF amplitude, latency and duration for both techniques. We further compared the performance of deconvolution methods based on Finite Impulse Response (FIR) basis functions and gamma basis sets. Our results demonstrate that DM was much less sensitive to confounding factors than CA. Event timing was the main parameter largely affecting the accuracy of CA. In slow event-related designs, deconvolution methods provided similar results to those obtained by CA. In rapid event-related designs, our results showed that DM outperformed CA for all SNR, especially above -5 dB regardless of the event sequence timing and the dynamics of background NIRS activity. Our results also show that periodic low-frequency systemic hemodynamic fluctuations as well as phase-locked noise can markedly obscure hemodynamic evoked responses. Temporal autocorrelation also affected the performance of both techniques by inducing distortions in the time profile of the estimated hemodynamic response with inflated t-statistics, especially at low SNRs. We also found that high-pass temporal filtering could substantially affect the performance of both techniques by removing the low-frequency components of

  20. Effect of average growing season temperature on seedling germination, survival and growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. David; E. Humenberger

    2017-01-01

    Because jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is serotinous, it retains multiple years of cones until environmental conditions are favorable for releasing seed. These cones, which contain seed cohorts that developed under a variety of growing seasons, can be accurately aged using bud scale scars on twigs and branches. By calculating the average daily...

  1. Investigation of timing effects in modified composite quadrupolar echo pulse sequences by mean of average Hamiltonian theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane

    2018-01-01

    The utility of the average Hamiltonian theory and its antecedent the Magnus expansion is presented. We assessed the concept of convergence of the Magnus expansion in quadrupolar spectroscopy of spin-1 via the square of the magnitude of the average Hamiltonian. We investigated this approach for two specific modified composite pulse sequences: COM-Im and COM-IVm. It is demonstrated that the size of the square of the magnitude of zero order average Hamiltonian obtained on the appropriated basis is a viable approach to study the convergence of the Magnus expansion. The approach turns to be efficient in studying pulse sequences in general and can be very useful to investigate coherent averaging in the development of high resolution NMR technique in solids. This approach allows comparing theoretically the two modified composite pulse sequences COM-Im and COM-IVm. We also compare theoretically the current modified composite sequences (COM-Im and COM-IVm) to the recently published modified composite pulse sequences (MCOM-I, MCOM-IV, MCOM-I_d, MCOM-IV_d).

  2. Determinant Effects of Average Fasting Plasma Glucose on Mortality in Diabetic End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yen-Chung; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease is an increasingly frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. However, mixed results were shown between glycated hemoglobin and mortality. We used the average fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels to predict mortality rates in long-term hemodialysis patients. We enrolled 46,332 hemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus, who were registered in the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were stratified based on the quartiles of average FPG levels measured for the first (1-year FPG) and third years (3-year FPG) of hemodialysis. Survival analysis was conducted via multivariable Cox regression. After the first year of hemodialysis, the mean FPG levels were 103.5 ± 14.5, 144.7 ± 11.5, 189.6 ± 15.2, and 280.8 ± 1.2 mg/dl for the first, second, third, and fourth quartile, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed an incremental reduction in the survival as FPG levels increased ( P  average FPG levels are useful predictors of all-cause mortality in dialysis patients. In addition, an increasing trend in average FPG levels indicates poor survival.

  3. Outcomes of the Remplissage Procedure and Its Effects on Return to Sports: Average 5-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Wu, Hao-Hua; Liu, Joseph N; Huffman, G Russell; Kelly, John D

    2016-05-01

    Short-term outcomes for patients with large, engaging Hill-Sachs lesions who underwent remplissage have demonstrated good results. However, limited data are available for longer term outcomes. To evaluate the long-term outcomes of remplissage and determine the long-term rate of return to specific sports postoperatively. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This was a retrospective review of patients treated with the remplissage procedure from 2007 to 2013. All underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating large Hill-Sachs lesions by the Rowe criteria and glenoid bone loss sports, employment, physical activities, and dislocation events. A total of 50 patients (51 shoulders) were included in the study. The average patient age at surgery was 29.8 years (range, 15.0-72.4 years), and the average follow-up time was 60.7 months (range, 25.5-97.6 months); 20.0% of patients underwent previous surgery on their shoulder. The average postoperative WOSI score was 79.5%, and the average ASES score was 89.3. Six shoulders had dislocation events (11.8%) postoperatively: 3 were traumatic, and 3 were atraumatic. Increased preoperative dislocations led to a greater risk of a postoperative dislocation (P sports was 95.5% of patients at an average of 7.0 months postoperatively; 81.0% returned to their previous intensity and level of sport. Of patients who played a throwing sport, 65.5% (n = 19) stated that they had problems throwing, and 58.6% (n = 17) felt that they could not normally wind up throwing a ball. Direct rates of return to overhead sports were volleyball, 100%; basketball, 69%; baseball, 50%; and football, 50%. The redislocation rate after remplissage was 11.8% at an average of 5 years, with 95.5% of patients returning to full sports at an average of 7 months. For throwing sports, 65.5% of patients complained of decreased range of motion during throwing. The results should be considered preoperatively in candidates for remplissage who are engaged in

  4. Long-term follow-up after surgical treatment of talar fractures: Twenty cases with an average follow-up of 7.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Xavier; Harisboure, Alain; Hemery, Xavier; Dehoux, Emile

    2011-01-01

    Displaced talar neck and body fractures are rare and serious injuries with important outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of these fractures after operative treatment in our centre between 1993 and 2005. Displaced talar fractures have a high rate of long-term complications. This was a retrospective study concerning 20 patients with an average follow-up of 7.5 years. The final follow-up examination included determination of the AHS score (ankle-hindfoot scale) from the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), range of motion evaluation and radiological analysis. Mean age at the time of trauma was 38.8 years. This study comprised ten talar neck fractures and ten talar body fractures. We always used a single surgical approach and obtained anatomical reduction in 30% of the whole series of both groups. Four early complications were noted in four patients (20%). We noted no skin complications and the rate of consolidation was 100%. Four patients (20%) developed avascular necrosis of the talus, and at final follow-up seven patients (35%) had undergone secondary surgery. Radiographic analysis showed an osteoarthritis rate of 94% and a malunion rate of 59%. The mean AOFAS score was 66.9/100 and range of motion was systematically decreased. Contrary to undisplaced talar fractures, displaced talar fractures are a therapeutic challenge with many early or late complications. The outcome often revealed stiffness and osteoarthritis.

  5. The effect of two training models on the average changes in running speed in 2400m races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolas Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Running at an even pace is, in both physical and tactical aspect, an essential factor when achieving good results in middle and long distance races. The appropriate strategy for running a tactically effective race starts by selecting the optimal running speed. Two models of training lasting for six weeks were applied on the group of subjects (N=43 composed of students from the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade. The aim of the study was to determine how the applied models of training would affect the deviations of running speed from the mean values in 2400m races when running for the best result and also, how the applied models of training would affect the improvement of aerobic capacities, showed through maximal oxygen uptake. The analysis of the obtained results showed that no statistically significant differences in the average deviations of running speed from the mean values in 2400m races were recorded in any of the experimental groups either in the initial (G1=2.44±1.74 % and G2=1±0.75 % or the final measurements (G1=3.72±3.69 % and G2=4.57±3.63 %. Although there were no statistically significant differences after training stimulus in either final measurements, the subjects achieved better result, that is, they improved the running speed in the final (G1=4.12±0.48 m/s and G2=4.23±0.31 m/s as compared with the initial measurement (G1=3.7±0.36 m/s and G2=3.84±0.38 m/s. The results of the study showed that in both groups, there was a statistically significant improvement in the final measurement (G1=56.05±6.91 ml/kg/min and G2=59.55±6.95 ml/kg/min as compared to the initial measurement (G1=53.71±7.23 ml/kg/min and G2=54.58±6.49 ml/kg/min regarding the maximal oxygen uptake so that both training models have a significant effect on this variable. The results obtained could have a significant contribution when working with students and school population, assuming that in the lessons of theory and

  6. Improvement of internal tumor volumes of non-small cell lung cancer patients for radiation treatment planning using interpolated average CT in PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ching Wang

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.

  7. Averaging in cosmological models

    OpenAIRE

    Coley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of considerable importance for the correct interpretation of cosmological data. We review cosmological observations and discuss some of the issues regarding averaging. We present a precise definition of a cosmological model and a rigorous mathematical definition of averaging, based entirely in terms of scalar invariants.

  8. Effect of a planar interface on time-averaged locomotion of a spherical squirmer in a viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Shahrzad; Borhan, Ali

    2017-09-01

    We examine the time-averaged locomotion of a spherical squirmer with reciprocal surface motion near a planar interface in a viscoelastic fluid. The system dynamics is investigated through a phase portrait in the swimming orientation and distance from the interface for three types of swimming gaits, namely, pullers, pushers, and neutral swimmers. To examine the kinematics of locomotion near different types of boundaries, the ratio of viscosities of the two phases adjacent to the planar interface is varied. Our results show that the near-wall attraction layer previously reported for a two-dimensional squirmer does not exist for spherical pullers and pushers. However, the presence of a stable node can attract the swimmer to the vicinity of the interface, depending on the initial swimming direction. In contrast to a two-dimensional neutral squirmer that always swims towards a no-slip boundary, a spherical neutral swimmer moves away from the interface, but the direction of time-averaged rotational velocity favors eventual entrapment of the squirmer at a stable node. We show that the position of the stable node depends on the boundary type and is furthest from the interface for a no-slip boundary.

  9. Effect of postweaning heifer development system on average daily gain, pregnancy rates, and subsequent feed efficiency as a pregnant heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springman, S A; Nielson, H R; Meyer, T L; Funston, R N

    2017-12-01

    A 3-yr study utilized 300 Angus-based, spring-born heifers to evaluate postweaning heifer development systems on gain, reproductive performance, and feed efficiency as a pregnant heifer. Heifers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to graze corn residue (CR), upland range (RANGE), or were fed 1 of 2 diets in a drylot differing in energy levels: high (DLHI) or low (DLLO). Heifers developed on DLHI and DLLO were managed within the drylot for 166 d in yr 1, 150 d in yr 2, and 162 d in yr 3. Heifers developed on RANGE grazed winter range for an equivalent amount of days each yr as the DLHI and DLLO heifers. Heifers assigned to CR grazed for 103 d in yr 1, 84 d in yr 2, and 97 d in yr 3 before being transported to graze winter range for the remainder of the treatment period. All heifers were managed as a single group following the treatment period. Artificial insemination and natural mating were utilized during breeding. Percent of mature BW prior to the breeding season was greater ( = 0.02) for DLHI (67%) compared with RANGE (59%) and CR (58%). Pregnancy rates to AI were not different ( = 0.51) among treatments (59 ± 6%), and final pregnancy rates were also not different (87 ± 4%, = 0.54). A subset of AI-pregnant heifers from each treatment were placed in a Calan gate feeding system. Heifers were allowed a 20-d acclimation period before beginning the 90 d trial at approximately 170 d in gestation. Heifers were offered ad libitum hay; amount offered was recorded daily and orts collected weekly. Initial BW was not different ( = 0.58) among treatments (459 ± 11 kg). Body weight at the end of the trial (497 ± 17 kg) was also not different ( = 0.41). Intake was not different ( = 0.33), either as DMI (10.00 ± 1.07 kg) or residual feed intake (0.018 ± 0.190). There was no difference in ADG ( = 0.36, 0.42 ± 0.23 kg/d) among treatments. Although the total development cost was not different among treatments ( = 0.99), there was a $41 difference ( feed efficiency as a

  10. THE STRUCTURE OF THE WATER CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE SEBES HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN AND THE STORAGE RESERVOIRS. EFFECT ON THE AVERAGE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Iulian Ioan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the upper basin of the Sebes Valley, the oldest storage lakes have been temporary artificial lakes, called haituri in Romanian. They were created within the forest exploitation areas. Inside the dams of those retention lakes, which dams are made of a wooden skeleton, filled with soil and stones, there have been weirs for the quick discharge of the water, having the purpose of creating some flood trends, capable of carrying over the logs, downstream the lake. At present, some of those temporary artificial lakes are used as trout farms, while others are damaged, or operate as basins for the sedimentation of the alluvial deposits. The difference of level between the springs of the Sebes and the Mures Rivers generates a convertible hydroelectric potential, having an average power exceeding 60,000 kW" />

  11. The Use of the Time Average Visibility for Analyzing HERA-19 Commissioning Data: Effects of Non-Redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefo, Roshan; Gallardo, Samavarti; Aguirre, James; La Plante, Paul; HERA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a radio telescope situated in South Africa designed to observe the universe from redshifts 13 through 6, in order to detect the emission of the 21 cm line from the hydrogen spin-flip transition. We perform 21 cm cosmology due to its relation with reionization; by detecting this emission line, we can identify the timing of reionization, and understand more about the nature of the universe during the birth of the first stars and galaxies. With that, we can understand the heating conditions of the initial universe, providing us a larger picture of the conditions that created the large-scale structure of the universe we observe today. The HERA array currently consists of 19 antennas, spaced in a hexagonal grid pattern. We consider a robust observable, the time-averaged visibility (TAV), which is in principle sensitive to variations in the beam pattern between antenna elements and is easier to measure than the beam pattern itself. We use this TAV to explore the non-redundancy of baselines in the HERA array due either to cross-coupling between antennas (probed by antenna location in the array) or non-uniformity in their manufacture. The TAV may provide a simple way of verifying improvements in antenna element redundancy.

  12. Fuel treatment guidebook: illustrating treatment effects on fire hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris Johnson; David L. Peterson; Crystal Raymond

    2009-01-01

    The Guide to Fuel Treatments (Johnson and others 2007) analyzes potential fuel treatments and the potential effects of those treatments for dry forest lands in the Western United States. The guide examines low- to mid-elevation dry forest stands with high stem densities and heavy ladder fuels, which are currently common due to fire exclusion and various land management...

  13. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  14. The effect of reducing spatial resolution by in-plane partial volume averaging on peak velocity measurements in phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonathan; Minhas, Kishore; Pieles, Guido; McAlindon, Elisa; Occleshaw, Christopher; Manghat, Nathan; Hamilton, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the degree of the effect of in-plane partial volume averaging on recorded peak velocity in phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PCMRA). Using cardiac optimized 1.5 Tesla MRI scanners (Siemens Symphony and Avanto), 145 flow measurements (14 anatomical locations; ventricular outlets, aortic valve (AorV), aorta (5 sites), pulmonary arteries (3 sites), pulmonary veins, superior and inferior vena cava)- in 37 subjects (consisting of healthy volunteers, congenital and acquired heart disease patients) were analyzed by Siemens Argus default voxel averaging technique (where peak velocity = mean of highest velocity voxel and four neighbouring voxels) and by single voxel technique (1.3×1.3×5 or 1.7×1.7×5.5 mm 3 ) (where peak velocity = highest velocity voxel only). The effect of scan protocol (breath hold versus free breathing) and scanner type (Siemens Symphony versus Siemens Avanto) were also assessed. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05. There was a significant mean increase in peak velocity of 7.1% when single voxel technique was used compared to voxel averaging (P<0.0001). Significant increases in peak velocity were observed by single voxel technique compared to voxel averaging regardless of subject type, anatomical flow location, scanner type and breathing command. Disabling voxel averaging did not affect the volume of flow recorded. Reducing spatial resolution by the use of voxel averaging produces a significant underestimation of peak velocity. While this is of itself not surprising this is the first report to quantify the size of the effect. When PCMRA is used to assess peak velocity recording pixel averaging should be disabled.

  15. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) load in serum on average daily weight gain during the postweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soria, S; Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; Calsamiglia, M; Manzanilla, E G; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Mínguez, A; Serrano, J M; Marín, O; Joisel, F; Charreyre, C; Segalés, J

    2014-12-05

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous virus that mainly affects nursery and fattening pigs causing systemic disease (PCV2-SD) or subclinical infection. A characteristic sign in both presentations is reduction of average daily weight gain (ADWG). The present study aimed to assess the relationship between PCV2 load in serum and ADWG from 3 (weaning) to 21 weeks of age (slaughter) (ADWG 3-21). Thus, three different boar lines were used to inseminate sows from two PCV2-SD affected farms. One or two pigs per sow were selected (60, 61 and 51 piglets from Pietrain, Pietrain×Large White and Duroc×Large White boar lines, respectively). Pigs were bled at 3, 9, 15 and 21 weeks of age and weighted at 3 and 21 weeks. Area under the curve of the viral load at all sampling times (AUCqPCR 3-21) was calculated for each animal according to standard and real time quantitative PCR results; this variable was categorized as "negative or low" (10(5.3)). Data regarding sex, PCV2 antibody titre at weaning and sow parity was also collected. A generalized linear model was performed, obtaining that paternal genetic line and AUCqPCR 3-21 were related to ADWG 3-21. ADWG 3-21 (mean±typical error) for "negative or low", "medium" and "high" AUCqPCR 3-21 was 672±9, 650±12 and 603±16 g/day, respectively, showing significant differences among them. This study describes different ADWG performances in 3 pig populations that suffered from different degrees of PCV2 viraemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  17. Long-term effects of cadmium in Lake Michigan water on average numbers and biomass in laboratory Daphnia population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Cadmium has long been recognized as a highly toxic element, but it was not until comparatively recently that concern has been expressed over the impact of anthropogenic emissions of cadmium into the environment. Very little is known about the long-term effects of cadmium on aquatic organisms, although zooplankton now appear to be more sensitive than either phytoplankton or fish and thus may be critical in determining the overall impact of cadmium on plankton-dominated ecosystems, such as the oceans or the Great Lakes. The long-term effect of elevated concentrations of cadmium in Lake Michigan water were studied on laboratory populations of Daphnia galeata mendotae, a species of some importance in all of the Great Lakes. Results indicated that an increase of 0.1 ppd in Lake Michigan would probably not have any readily detectable effect on the population of D. galeata mendotae, although there was no evidence for a true threshold for the effects of chronic Cd stress

  18. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…

  19. Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: an approach for computing dynamically averaged vibrational spectra including critical nuclear quantum effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2007-10-18

    We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.

  20. Effect of boron and zinc fertilization on white oats grown in soil with average content of these nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fertilization with zinc or boron on the growth and dry matter production, nutritional value and accumulation of nutrients in white oats. The study comprised two experiments conducted in glasshouses, the first consisting of the application of four doses of zinc (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of zinc sulphate (20% Zn, and the second consisting of the application of four doses of boron (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of Borax (11% B. The experimental design in each case was a randomized block design, with five replicates. Fertilization with zinc and boron increased the growth of white oats, but had no significant effect on the nutritional value of the forage. Higher levels of absorption and accumulation of nutrients in plant tissues were observed following the application of boron and zinc at rates of up to 0.60 mg/dm³ of soil.

  1. Baseline ICIQ-UI score, body mass index, age, average birth weight, and perineometry duration as promising predictors of the short-term efficacy of Er:YAG laser treatment in stress urinary incontinent women: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Fistonić, Nikola

    2018-01-23

    A growing body of evidence indicates that a non-invasive erbium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser may be an effective and highly tolerable treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. The primary objective was to identify pre-intervention predictors of short-term Er:YAG outcomes. The secondary objective was to identify patient segments with the best Er:YAG laser treatment short-term outcomes. A prospective cohort study performed in 2016 at Ob/Gyn Clinic, Zagreb, Croatia, recruited 85 female patients who suffered from SUI. The intervention was performed with a 2940 nm wave length Er:YAG laser (XS Dynamis, Fotona, Slovenia). Outcomes were absolute change in the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) and a relative decrease in ICIQ-UI score of ≥30% 2-6 months after the intervention. Age and pre-intervention ICIQ-UI values were independent significant predictors of laser treatment efficacy for SUI. A decrease in ICIQ-UI score (minimum important difference, MID) of ≥30% was independently significantly associated with body mass index and ICIQ-UI values before the intervention. All patients with four or five positive predictors saw a clinically relevant decrease in ICIQ-UI of ≥30%. The total accuracy of the predictive model defined by the area under the curve was 0.83 (95%CI 0.74-0.91). At the cut-off ≥3 positive predictors, C-index was 0.80 (95%CI 0.71-0.90), positive predictive value was 0.97 (95%CI 0.87-0.99), and negative predictive value was 0.53 (95%CI 0.45-0.55). A relevant decrease in ICIQ-UI (MID) of ≥30% can be predicted based on age, body mass index, average birth weight, perineometer squeeze duration, and ICIQ-UI scores before the intervention. The association between Q-tip test and treatment outcome was moderated by age. Q-tip was a significant predictor for patients between 44 and 53 years of age. The best results should be expected in younger women with a body mass index of ≤23

  2. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  3. Study of natural radioactivity and 222Rn exhalation rate in soil samples for the assessment of average effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangotra, P.; Mehra, R.; Jakhu, R.; Sahoo, B.K

    2016-01-01

    The natural radioactivity in soil is usually determined from the 226 Ra (Radium), 232 Th (Thorium) and 40 K (potassium). 222 Rn and 220 Rn are produced in soil as a result of the presence of these radionuclides. As 226 Ra decay, the newly created 222 Rn radionuclide recoil from the parent grain and then exhale through the soil. Since 98.5% of radiological effects of 238 U series are produced by 226 Ra and its daughter products. The assessment of gamma radiation dose from natural sources is of particular importance as natural radiation is the largest contributor to the external dose of the world population. Authors are advised to maximize the information content utilizing the full space available. The main objective of the present study is to measure the level of natural radioactivity 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 222 Rn exhalation rate in the soil samples for health risk assessment

  4. Adverse effects of breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Teresa G

    2014-01-01

    As breast cancer outcomes improve and more people with breast cancer survive longer following diagnosis, many survivors must deal with the effects of treatment. Some adverse effects last a short time and have little influence on breast cancer patients' quality of life, yet others can cause long-term complications and add to increased morbidity and mortality among survivors. This article reviews the adverse effects of breast cancer treatments and how they affect the health and quality of life of those receiving treatment. The article also explains how adverse effects can interrupt treatment and how physicians and survivors can manage adverse effects of breast cancer treatment.

  5. Average-energy games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bouyer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this objective arises naturally in several applications, and that it yields interesting connections with previous concepts in the literature. We prove that deciding the winner in such games is in NP inter coNP and at least as hard as solving mean-payoff games, and we establish that memoryless strategies suffice to win. We also consider the case where the system has to minimize the average-energy while maintaining the accumulated energy within predefined bounds at all times: this corresponds to operating with a finite-capacity storage for energy. We give results for one-player and two-player games, and establish complexity bounds and memory requirements.

  6. Understanding of latent tuberculosis, its treatment and treatment side effects in immigrant and refugee patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Katie; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Leder, Karin; Lemoh, Chris; O'Brien, Daniel; Marshall, Caroline

    2013-08-29

    Isoniazid treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is commonly prescribed in refugees and immigrants. We aimed to assess understanding of information provided about LTBI, its treatment and potential side effects. A questionnaire was administered in clinics at a tertiary hospital. Total Knowledge (TKS) and Total Side Effect Scores (TSES) were derived. Logistic regression analyses were employed to correlate socio-demographic factors with knowledge. Fifty-two participants were recruited, 20 at isoniazid commencement and 32 already on isoniazid. The average TKS were 5.04/9 and 6.23/9 respectively and were significantly associated with interpreter use. Approximately half did not know how tuberculosis was transmitted. The average TSES were 5.0/7 and 3.5/7 respectively, but were not influenced by socio-demographic factors. There was suboptimal knowledge about LTBI. Improvements in health messages delivered via interpreters and additional methods of distributing information need to be developed for this patient population.

  7. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Arithmetic mean of objects in a space need not lie in the space. [Frechet; 1948] Finding mean of right-angled triangles. S = {(x,y,z) ∈ R+3 : x2 + y2 = z2}. = {. [ z x − ιy x + ιy z. ] : x,y,z > 0,z2 = x2 + y2}. Surface of right triangles : Arithmetic mean not on S. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  8. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. ... then the expected extension of geometric mean A1/2B1/2 is not even self-adjoint, leave alone positive definite. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  9. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R Kilburn

    Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.

  10. Average is Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2018-02-01

    The popular perception of statistical distributions is depicted by the iconic bell curve which comprises of a massive bulk of 'middle-class' values, and two thin tails - one of small left-wing values, and one of large right-wing values. The shape of the bell curve is unimodal, and its peak represents both the mode and the mean. Thomas Friedman, the famous New York Times columnist, recently asserted that we have entered a human era in which "Average is Over" . In this paper we present mathematical models for the phenomenon that Friedman highlighted. While the models are derived via different modeling approaches, they share a common foundation. Inherent tipping points cause the models to phase-shift from a 'normal' bell-shape statistical behavior to an 'anomalous' statistical behavior: the unimodal shape changes to an unbounded monotone shape, the mode vanishes, and the mean diverges. Hence: (i) there is an explosion of small values; (ii) large values become super-large; (iii) 'middle-class' values are wiped out, leaving an infinite rift between the small and the super large values; and (iv) "Average is Over" indeed.

  11. Challenges and Perspectives in Bridging In- and Outpatient Sectors: The Implementation of Two Alternative Models of Care and Their Effect on the Average Length of Stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wullschleger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New models of care aimed at reinforcing the outpatient sector have been introduced in Germany over the last few years. Initially, a subscription-based model (“integrated care” was introduced in 2012 in the Immanuel Klinik Rüdersdorf, wherein patients had to actively subscribe to the integrated care program. This integrated care model was replaced after 2 years by a subscription-free “model project,” in which all patients insured by the contracting insurance company took part in the program. Data showed that the introduction of the integrated care program in the inpatient setting led to an increase of the average length of stay in this group. The switch to the model project corrected this unwanted effect but failed in significantly decreasing the average length of stay when compared to standard care. However, both the integrated care program and model project succeeded in reducing the length of stay in the day care setting. When adjusting for the sex and diagnosis proportions of each year, it was shown that diagnosis strongly influenced the average length of stay in both settings, whereas sex only slightly influenced the duration of stay in the inpatient setting. Thus, in spite of strong financial and clinical incentives, the introduction of the model project couldn’t fulfill its primary purpose of shifting resources from the inpatient to the outpatient setting in the initial years. Possible explanations, including struggle against long-established traditions and reluctance to change, are discussed.

  12. Validity analysis on merged and averaged data using within and between analysis: focus on effect of qualitative social capital on self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Shin, Young-Jeon

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing number of studies highlighting regional social capital (SC) as a determinant of health, many studies are using multi-level analysis with merged and averaged scores of community residents' survey responses calculated from community SC data. Sufficient examination is required to validate if the merged and averaged data can represent the community. Therefore, this study analyzes the validity of the selected indicators and their applicability in multi-level analysis. Within and between analysis (WABA) was performed after creating community variables using merged and averaged data of community residents' responses from the 2013 Community Health Survey in Korea, using subjective self-rated health assessment as a dependent variable. Further analysis was performed following the model suggested by WABA result. Both E-test results (1) and WABA results (2) revealed that single-level analysis needs to be performed using qualitative SC variable with cluster mean centering. Through single-level multivariate regression analysis, qualitative SC with cluster mean centering showed positive effect on self-rated health (0.054, prelational analysis of individual self-rated health can be performed within the group, using cluster mean centering. Other tests besides the WABA can be performed in the future to confirm the validity of using community variables and their applicability in multi-level analysis.

  13. Effects of average uncertainty and trial-type frequency on choice response time: A hierarchical extension of Hick/Hyman Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordkoff, J Toby

    2017-12-01

    Hick/Hyman Law is the linear relationship between average uncertainty and mean response time across entire blocks of trials. While unequal trial-type frequencies within blocks can be used to manipulate average uncertainty, the current version of the law does not apply to or account for the differences in mean response time across the different trial types contained in a block. Other simple predictors of the effects of trial-type frequency also fail to produce satisfactory fits. In an attempt to resolve this limitation, the present work takes a hierarchical approach, first fitting the block-level data using average uncertainty (i.e., Hick/Hyman Law is given priority), then fitting the remaining trial-level differences using various versions of trial-type frequency. The model that employed the relative probability of occurrence as the second-layer predictor produced very strong fits, thereby extending Hick/Hyman Law to the level of trial types within blocks. The advantages and implications of this hierarchical model are briefly discussed.

  14. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... to a non-linear manifold and re-normalization or orthogonalization must be applied to obtain proper rotations. These latter steps have been viewed as ad hoc corrections for the errors introduced by assuming a vector space. The article shows that the two approximative methods can be derived from natural...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation....

  15. EFFECT OF SURFACE TREATMENT ON ENAMEL SURFACE ROUGHNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda Erşahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effects of different methods of surface treatment on enamel roughness. Materials and Methods: Ninety human maxillary first premolars were randomly divided into three groups (n=30 according to type of enamel surface treatment: I, acid etching; II, Er:YAG laser; III, Nd:YAG laser. The surface roughness of enamel was measured with a noncontact optical profilometer. For each enamel sample, two readings were taken across the sample—before enamel surface treatment (T1 and after enamel surface treatment (T2. The roughness parameter analyzed was the average roughness (Ra. Statistical analysis was performed using a Paired sample t test and the post-hoc Mann- Whitney U test, with the significance level set at 0.05. Results: The highest Ra (average roughness values were observed for Group II, with a significant difference with Groups I and III (P<0.001. Ra values for the acid etching group (Group I were significantly lower than other groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Surface treatment of enamel with Er:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser results in significantly higher Ra than acid-etching. Both Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser can be recommended as viable treatment alternatives to acid etching.

  16. Advanced pulse oximeter signal processing technology compared to simple averaging. II. Effect on frequency of alarms in the postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheineck-Leyssius, A T; Kalkman, C J

    1999-05-01

    To determine the effect of a new pulse oximeter (Nellcor Symphony N-3000, Pleasanton, CA) with signal processing technique (Oxismart) on the incidence of false alarms in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Prospective study. Nonuniversity hospital. 603 consecutive ASA physical status I, II, and III patients recovering from general or regional anesthesia in the PACU. We compared the number of alarms produced by a recently developed "third"-generation pulse oximeter (Nellcor Symphony N-3000) with Oxismart signal processing technique and a conventional pulse oximeter (Criticare 504, Waukesha, WI). Patients were randomly assigned to either a Nellcor pulse oximeter or a Criticare with the signal averaging time set at either 12 or 21 seconds. For each patient the number of false (artifact) alarms was counted. The Nellcor generated one false alarm in 199 patients and 36 (in 31 patients) "loss of pulse" alarms. The conventional pulse oximeter with the averaging time set at 12 seconds generated a total of 32 false alarms in 17 of 197 patients [compared with the Nellcor, relative risk (RR) 0.06, confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.25] and a total of 172 "loss of pulse" alarms in 79 patients (RR 0.39, CI 0.28 to 0.55). The conventional pulse oximeter with the averaging time set at 21 seconds generated 12 false alarms in 11 of 207 patients (compared with the Nellcor, RR 0.09, CI 0.02 to 0.48) and a total of 204 "loss of pulse" alarms in 81 patients (RR 0.40, CI 0.28 to 0.56). The lower incidence of false alarms of the conventional pulse oximeter with the longest averaging time compared with the shorter averaging time did not reach statistical significance (false alarms RR 0.62, CI 0.3 to 1.27; "loss of pulse" alarms RR 0.98, CI 0.77 to 1.3). To date, this is the first report of a pulse oximeter that produced almost no false alarms in the PACU.

  17. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito V; Sta Maria, Madelene A

    2016-02-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  18. When good = better than average

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A. Moore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available People report themselves to be above average on simple tasks and below average on difficult tasks. This paper proposes an explanation for this effect that is simpler than prior explanations. The new explanation is that people conflate relative with absolute evaluation, especially on subjective measures. The paper then presents a series of four studies that test this conflation explanation. These tests distinguish conflation from other explanations, such as differential weighting and selecting the wrong referent. The results suggest that conflation occurs at the response stage during which people attempt to disambiguate subjective response scales in order to choose an answer. This is because conflation has little effect on objective measures, which would be equally affected if the conflation occurred at encoding.

  19. Mesothelioma Treatment: Recovery, Side Effects, What to Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment > Mesothelioma Treatment > Mesothelioma Treatment Recovery Side Effects Mesothelioma Treatment and Recovery Scenarios: e-News Signup Click ... questions. (877) END-MESO (877) 363-6376 Testimonials Mesothelioma Treatment: Recovery, Side Effects, What to Expect Mesothelioma ...

  20. Impact of Treatment Integrity on Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…

  1. Steroid Treatments Equally Effective Against Sudden Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6, 2011 Steroid Treatments Equally Effective Against Sudden Deafness Injecting steroids into the middle ear works just ... when it comes to restoring hearing for sudden deafness patients. This finding, the result of a large ...

  2. Negative Effects of School-Average Achievement on Academic Self-Concept: A Comparison of the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect across Australian States and Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.

    2004-01-01

    Attending academically selective schools is intended to have positive effects, but a growing body of theoretical and empirical research demonstrates that the effects are negative for academic self-concept. The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), based on social comparison theory, posits that equally able students will have lower academic…

  3. Folding model analyses of 12C-12C and 16O-16O elastic scattering using the density-dependent LOCV-averaged effective interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, M.; Modarres, M.

    2018-03-01

    The averaged effective two-body interaction (AEI), which can be generated through the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method for symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) with the input [Reid68, Ann. Phys. 50, 411 (1968), 10.1016/0003-4916(68)90126-7] nucleon-nucleon potential, is used as the effective nucleon-nucleon potential in the folding model to describe the heavy-ion (HI) elastic scattering cross sections. The elastic scattering cross sections of 12C-12C and 16O-16O systems are calculated in the above framework. The results are compared with the corresponding calculations coming from the fitting procedures with the input finite range D D M 3 Y 1 -Reid potential and the available experimental data at different incident energies. It is shown that a reasonable description of the elastic 12C-12C and 16O-16O scattering data at the low and medium energies can be obtained by using the above LOCV AEI, without any need to define a parametrized density-dependent function in the effective nucleon-nucleon potential, which is formally considered in the typical D D M 3 Y 1 -Reid interactions.

  4. Evaluating Treatment Effects Using Data Envelopment Analysis on Matched Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Kromann, Lene

    2018-01-01

    An intuitively obvious approach to evaluating the effects of a new business model is to compare the performance of firms using the business model (the treatment group) with the performance of a simi- lar group of firms that do not use the business model (the control group). Data Envelopment...... Analysis (DEA) can be a powerful tool in such comparisons because it allows us to estimate changes in average performance as well as in frontier performance. In this paper, we suggest using matching together with DEA as a way to ensure sub-sample homogeneity. The advantages of using a matched sample...

  5. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J Stockman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for SARS-infected patients in order to guide future treatment and identify priorities for research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In response to the WHO request we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on ribavirin, corticosteroids, lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r, type I interferon (IFN, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, and SARS convalescent plasma from both in vitro studies and in SARS patients. We also searched for clinical trial evidence of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sources of data were the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to February 2005. Data from publications were extracted and evidence within studies was classified using predefined criteria. In total, 54 SARS treatment studies, 15 in vitro studies, and three acute respiratory distress syndrome studies met our inclusion criteria. Within in vitro studies, ribavirin, lopinavir, and type I IFN showed inhibition of SARS-CoV in tissue culture. In SARS-infected patient reports on ribavirin, 26 studies were classified as inconclusive, and four showed possible harm. Seven studies of convalescent plasma or IVIG, three of IFN type I, and two of LPV/r were inconclusive. In 29 studies of steroid use, 25 were inconclusive and four were classified as causing possible harm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an extensive literature reporting on SARS treatments, it was not possible to determine whether treatments benefited patients during the SARS outbreak. Some may have been harmful. Clinical trials should be designed to validate a standard protocol for dosage

  6. Effect of the averaging volume and algorithm on the in situ electric field for uniform electric- and magnetic-field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Takano, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    The present study quantified the volume-averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissues of anatomically based numeric Japanese male and female models for exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. A quasi-static finite-difference time-domain method was applied to analyze this problem. The motivation of our investigation is that the dependence of the electric field induced in nerve tissue on the averaging volume/distance is not clear, while a cubical volume of 5 x 5 x 5 mm 3 or a straight-line segment of 5 mm is suggested in some documents. The influence of non-nerve tissue surrounding nerve tissue is also discussed by considering three algorithms for calculating the averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissue. The computational results obtained herein reveal that the volume-averaged electric field in the nerve tissue decreases with the averaging volume. In addition, the 99th percentile value of the volume-averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissue is more stable than that of the maximal value for different averaging volume. When including non-nerve tissue surrounding nerve tissue in the averaging volume, the resultant in situ electric fields were not so dependent on the averaging volume as compared to the case excluding non-nerve tissue. In situ electric fields averaged over a distance of 5 mm were comparable or larger than that for a 5 x 5 x 5 mm 3 cube depending on the algorithm, nerve tissue considered and exposure scenarios. (note)

  7. Estimation of radionuclides concentration and average annual committed effective dose due to ingestion for some selected medicinal plants of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandrashekara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight medicinal plants and soil samples from the Malnad area of Karnataka in South India (N 13°29′35.4″; E 75°18′02.4″ were analysed for activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The average annual committed effective dose (AACED due to the ingestion of radionuclides from medicinal plants were also estimated. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, and 40K were found to vary in the range of 32.27–60.12 Bqkg−1, 56.09–160.56 Bqkg−1, 49.61–98.46 Bqkg−1, and 241.57–712.85 Bqkg−1, respectively, in the soil samples and 2.66–11.27 Bqkg−1, BDL to 87.03 Bqkg−1, 2.42–8.72 Bqkg−1, and 93.79–6831.40 Bqkg−1, respectively, in the medicinal plants corresponding to the soil samples. The activity concentration of artificially produced radionuclide 137Cs was BDL to 12.34 Bqkg−1 in the soil and it was below detectable level (BDL in all the plant samples. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF varied from 0.07 to 0.27, BDL to 0.80, 0.04 to 0.13 and 0.17 to 23.80, respectively, for 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, and 40K. The AACED due to the ingestion of radionuclides from the medicinal plants varied from 0.0075 to 0.1067 mSvy−1. The AACED values reported in this study are much below the world average value of 0.30 mSvy−1 for an individual. This indicates that there is no radiological health risk in using these plants for medicinal purposes. This study may also contribute data on local medicinal plants to formulate regulations related to radiological healthcare.

  8. Use of gamma ray spectroscopy measurements for assessment of the average effective dose from the analysis of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, Rohit; Singh, Surinder

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of soil samples collected from different locations of Ludhiana and Patiala districts of Punjab were determined by using HPGe detector based on high-resolution gamma spectrometry system. The range of activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the soil from the studied areas varies from 23.32 Bq kg -1 to 43.64 Bq kg -1 , 104.23 Bq kg -1 to 148.21 Bq kg -1 and 289.83 Bq kg -1 to 394.41 Bq kg -1 with overall mean values of 32 Bq kg -1 , 126 Bq kg -1 and 348 Bq kg -1 respectively. The absorbed dose rate calculated from activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ranges between 10.75 and 20.12, 64.93 and 92.33, and 11.99 and 16.32 n Gy h -1 , respectively. The total absorbed dose in the study area ranges from 91.35 n Gy h -1 to 119.76 n Gy h -1 with an average value of 107.97 n Gy h -1 . The calculated values of external hazard index (H ex ) for the soil samples of the study area range from 0.55 to 0.72. Since these values are lower than unity, therefore, according to the Radiation Protection 112 (European Commission, 1999) report, soil from these regions is safe and can be used as a construction material without posing any significant radiological threat to population. The concentration of 232 Th in soil samples of Malwa region of Punjab are higher than the world figures reported in UNSCEAR (2000). However, the concentrations for 226 Ra is very much comparable and concentration of 40 K are lower than world figures. The results obtained have shown that the indoor and outdoor effective dose due to natural radioactivity of soil samples is lower than the average national and world recommended value of 1.0 mSv.Y -1 . These values reported for radium content in soils of study area are generally low as compared to the values reported for radium concentration in soils of Himachal Pradesh. (author)

  9. Effectiveness of psychopharmacology in Anorexia Nervosa treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadka Lukasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The eating disorder that generates the highest death rate is that of anorexia nervosa, and current treatment is a combination of equalization of somatic state and patient education. Moreover, psychical symptoms occurring in the course of anorexia nervosa are thought to have a crucial influence on the course of the disease. Hence, in medical literature, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions is also widely described. Still, the implementation of appropriate psychopharmacology is now considered an additional method of treatment, rather than a therapy of choice. Yet, in spite of many years of research, there are no absolute recommendations given, nor are instructions within the scope of psychopharmacological treatment proffered, although the selection of psychopharmacological items must respect both the patient’s psychic and somatic states. In recent years, the popularity of psychopharmacological treatment has increased; therefore, we feel that it is justified to present the latest scientific information in this respect.

  10. Correctional Facility Average Daily Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains Accumulated monthly with details from Pre-Trial Average daily caseload * Detention Services, Average daily population for MCCF, MCDC, PRRS and...

  11. Neutron spectrum perturbations due to scattering materials and their effect on the average neutron energy, the spectral index, and the hardness parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, H.L.; Meason, J.L.; Wolf, M.; Harvey, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the perturbing effect of a number of scattering materials by the 'free-field' neutron leakage spectrum from a Godiva Type Critical Assembly (White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor). The results of these measurements are interpreted in relation to some of the general parameters characterizing a neutron environment, namely, the average neutron energy >10 KeV, the spectral index and the hardness parameter. Three neutron spectrum measurements have been performed, each under different experimental configurations of scattering materials. Results from these measurements show the following with relation to the spectral index: (1) The neutron environment on the core surface and at 12-inches from the core surface (free-field) yield a spectral index of 6.8, (2) The neutron environment behind a 4.75-inch Plexiglas plate yield 4.6 for the spectral index and (3) The neutron environment behind a 2-inch aluminum plate yield 6.7 for the spectral index. It is concluded that the core surface and the 12-inch from core surface neutron environment are identical with the 'free-field' neutron environment at 20-inches when considering only those neutrons with energy >10 KeV. On the other hand, it appears that the 4.75 inches of Plexiglas severely perturbs the 'free-field' neutron environment, i.e., a much harder neutron spectrum >10 KeV. In the situation where 2-inches of aluminum is used as the perturbing medium, essentially no change in the neutron spectrum >10 KeV is noted

  12. The cost-effectiveness of depression treatment for co-occurring disorders: a clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Katherine E.; Cuellar, Alison E.; Hepner, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ewing, Brett A.; de la Cruz, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The authors aimed to determine the economic value of providing on-site group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression to clients receiving residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Using a quasi-experimental design and an intention-to-treat analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratio of the intervention were estimated relative to usual care residential treatment. The average cost of a treatment episode was $908, compared to $180 for usual care. The i...

  13. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Hillary A

    2014-11-03

    Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of toxic stress necessitates individual, community and national focus.

  14. Effects of solar activity and galactic cosmic ray cycles on the modulation of the annual average temperature at two sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Frigo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic variations in solar activity and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs on decadal and bidecadal timescales have been suggested as a climate forcing mechanism for many regions on Earth. One of these regions is southern Brazil, where the lowest values during the last century were observed for the total geomagnetic field intensity at the Earth's surface. These low values are due to the passage of the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA, which crosses the Brazilian territory from east to west following a latitude of ∼ 26°. In areas with low geomagnetic intensity, such as the SAMA, the incidence of GCRs is increased. Consequently, possible climatic effects related to the GCRs tend to be maximized in this region. In this work, we investigate the relationship between the ∼ 11-year and  ∼ 22-year cycles that are related to solar activity and GCRs and the annual average temperature recorded between 1936 and 2014 at two weather stations, both located near a latitude of 26° S but at different longitudes. The first of these stations (Torres – TOR is located in the coastal region, and the other (Iraí – IRA is located in the interior, around 450 km from the Atlantic Ocean. Sunspot data and the solar modulation potential for cosmic rays were used as proxies for the solar activity and the GCRs, respectively. Our investigation of the influence of decadal and bidecadal cycles in temperature data was carried out using the wavelet transform coherence (WTC spectrum. The results indicate that periodicities of 11 years may have continuously modulated the climate at TOR via a nonlinear mechanism, while at IRA, the effects of this 11-year modulation period were intermittent. Four temperature maxima, separated by around 20 years, were detected in the same years at both weather stations. These temperature maxima are almost coincident with the maxima of the odd solar cycles. Furthermore, these maxima occur after transitions

  15. Effects of solar activity and galactic cosmic ray cycles on the modulation of the annual average temperature at two sites in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, Everton; Antonelli, Francesco; da Silva, Djeniffer S. S.; Lima, Pedro C. M.; Pacca, Igor I. G.; Bageston, José V.

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-periodic variations in solar activity and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) on decadal and bidecadal timescales have been suggested as a climate forcing mechanism for many regions on Earth. One of these regions is southern Brazil, where the lowest values during the last century were observed for the total geomagnetic field intensity at the Earth's surface. These low values are due to the passage of the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA), which crosses the Brazilian territory from east to west following a latitude of ˜ 26°. In areas with low geomagnetic intensity, such as the SAMA, the incidence of GCRs is increased. Consequently, possible climatic effects related to the GCRs tend to be maximized in this region. In this work, we investigate the relationship between the ˜ 11-year and ˜ 22-year cycles that are related to solar activity and GCRs and the annual average temperature recorded between 1936 and 2014 at two weather stations, both located near a latitude of 26° S but at different longitudes. The first of these stations (Torres - TOR) is located in the coastal region, and the other (Iraí - IRA) is located in the interior, around 450 km from the Atlantic Ocean. Sunspot data and the solar modulation potential for cosmic rays were used as proxies for the solar activity and the GCRs, respectively. Our investigation of the influence of decadal and bidecadal cycles in temperature data was carried out using the wavelet transform coherence (WTC) spectrum. The results indicate that periodicities of 11 years may have continuously modulated the climate at TOR via a nonlinear mechanism, while at IRA, the effects of this 11-year modulation period were intermittent. Four temperature maxima, separated by around 20 years, were detected in the same years at both weather stations. These temperature maxima are almost coincident with the maxima of the odd solar cycles. Furthermore, these maxima occur after transitions from even to odd solar cycles, that is

  16. The difference between alternative averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaupel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

  17. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  18. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A James

    2010-07-05

    This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families) was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs) was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW) Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  19. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A James

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  20. Average BER analysis of SCM-based free-space optical systems by considering the effect of IM3 with OSSB signals under turbulence channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wansu; Cho, Tae-Sik; Yun, Changho; Kim, Kiseon

    2009-11-09

    In this paper, we derive the average bit error rate (BER) of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM)-based free space optics (FSO) systems using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) for optical single-sideband (OSSB) signals under atmospheric turbulence channels. In particular, we consider the third-order intermodulation (IM3), a significant performance degradation factor, in the case of high input signal power systems. The derived average BER, as a function of the input signal power and the scintillation index, is employed to determine the optimum number of SCM users upon the designing FSO systems. For instance, when the user number doubles, the input signal power decreases by almost 2 dBm under the log-normal and exponential turbulence channels at a given average BER.

  1. Effectiveness of Acupuncture Treatment in Cervical Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ríos García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study is performed, longitudinal, prospective, descriptive in patients who attended the consultation of The Health Center With Beds (CSCC of Torbeck, in the Southern Department of Haiti, in order to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment in patients with cervical pain, in the period between January and June 2011. We studied a universe of 73 patients and a sample of 60 patients, from these persons 30 used drug therapy (Group B and 30 patients which used acupuncture (Group A. We note that in both groups, the females were the most affected, with a prevalence between 31 and 60. The main symptom for both groups was pain (100%. Patients who were administered the acupuncture successfully evolved between the second and fourth days of starting treatment and patients in group B between 5 and 6 days. Acupuncture is an effective therapy in the management of neck pain, with few adverse reactions of the patient and drug zero cost.

  2. Experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the phase averaged performance characteristics of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.

  3. The effects of sweep numbers per average and protocol type on the accuracy of the p300-based concealed information test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ariana B; Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-03-01

    In the first of two experiments, we compared the accuracy of the P300 concealed information test protocol as a function of numbers of trials experienced by subjects and ERP averages analyzed by investigators. Contrary to Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), we found no evidence that 100 trial based averages are more accurate than 66 or 33 trial based averages (all numbers led to accuracies of 84-94 %). There was actually a trend favoring the lowest trial numbers. The second study compared numbers of irrelevant stimuli recalled and recognized in the 3-stimulus protocol versus the complex trial protocol (Rosenfeld in Memory detection: theory and application of the concealed information test, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 63-89, 2011). Again, in contrast to expectations from Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), there were no differences between protocols, although there were more irrelevant stimuli recognized than recalled, and irrelevant 4-digit number group stimuli were neither recalled nor recognized as well as irrelevant city name stimuli. We therefore conclude that stimulus processing in the P300-based complex trial protocol-with no more than 33 sweep averages-is adequate to allow accurate detection of concealed information.

  4. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Sheila

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with a variety of different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient\\'s lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis this process is considerably accelerated to approximately 4 days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be triggers. Disease management depends on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient\\'s lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis.

  5. The effect of using limited scene-dependent averaging kernels approximations for the implementation of fast observing system simulation experiments targeted on lower tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical implementations of chemical OSSEs (Observing System Simulation Experiments usually rely on approximations of the pseudo-observations by means of a predefined parametrization of the averaging kernels, which describe the sensitivity of the observing system to the target atmospheric species. This is intended to avoid the use of a computationally expensive pseudo-observations simulator, that relies on full radiative transfer calculations. Here we present an investigation on how no, or limited, scene dependent averaging kernels parametrizations may misrepresent the sensitivity of an observing system. We carried out the full radiative transfer calculation for a three-days period over Europe, to produce reference pseudo-observations of lower tropospheric ozone, as they would be observed by a concept geostationary observing system called MAGEAQ (Monitoring the Atmosphere from Geostationary orbit for European Air Quality. The selected spatio-temporal interval is characterised by an ozone pollution event. We then compared our reference with approximated pseudo-observations, following existing simulation exercises made for both the MAGEAQ and GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE missions. We found that approximated averaging kernels may fail to replicate the variability of the full radiative transfer calculations. In addition, we found that the approximations substantially overestimate the capability of MAGEAQ to follow the spatio-temporal variations of the lower tropospheric ozone in selected areas, during the mentioned pollution event. We conclude that such approximations may lead to false conclusions if used in an OSSE. Thus, we recommend to use comprehensive scene-dependent approximations of the averaging kernels, in cases where the full radiative transfer is computationally too costly for the OSSE being investigated.

  6. The effect of averaging multiple trials on measurement error during ultrasound imaging of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles in individuals with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhaver, Shane L; Parent, Eric C; Teyhen, Deydre S; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Fritz, Julie M

    2009-08-01

    Clinical measurement, reliability study. To investigate the improvements in precision when averaging multiple measurements of percent change in muscle thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles. Although the reliability of TrA and LM muscle thickness measurements using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) is good, measurement error is often large relative to mean muscle thickness. Additionally, percent thickness change measures incorporate measurement error from both resting and contracted conditions. Thirty volunteers with nonspecific low back pain participated. Thickness measurements of the TrA and LM muscles were obtained using RUSI at rest and during standardized tasks. Percent thickness change was calculated with the formula thickness(contracted) - thickness(rest)/thickness(rest). Standard error of measurement (SEM) quantified precision when using 1 or a mean of 2 to 6 consecutive measurements. Compared to when using a single measurement, SEM of both the TrA and LM decreased by nearly 25% when using a mean of 2 measures, and by 50% when using the mean of 3 measures. Little precision was gained by averaging more than 3 measurements. When using RUSI to determine percent change in TrA and LM muscle thickness, intra examiner measurement precision appears to be optimized by using an average of 3 consecutive measurements.

  7. Is aggressive treatment of traumatic brain injury cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Robert G; Thawani, Jayesh P; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M; Sanborn, Matthew R; Stein, Sherman C

    2012-05-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether aggressive treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), including invasive intracranial monitoring and decompressive craniectomy, is cost-effective. A decision-analytical model was created to compare costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of 3 strategies for treating a patient with severe TBI. The aggressive-care approach is compared with "routine care," in which Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines are not followed. A "comfort care" category, in which a single day in the ICU is followed by routine floor care, is included for comparison only. Probabilities of each treatment resulting in various Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were obtained from the literature. The GOS scores were converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), based on expected longevity and calculated quality of life associated with each GOS category. Estimated direct (acute and long-term medical care) and indirect (loss of productivity) costs were calculated from the perspective of society. Sensitivity analyses employed a 2D Monte Carlo simulation of 1000 trials, each with 1000 patients. The model was also used to estimate these values for patients 40, 60, and 80 years of age. For the average 20-year-old, aggressive care yields 11.7 (± 1.6 [SD]) QALYs, compared with routine care (10.0 ± 1.5 QALYs). This difference is highly significant (p care remains significantly better at all ages. When all costs are considered, aggressive care is also significantly less costly than routine care ($1,264,000 ± $118,000 vs $1,361,000 ± $107,000) for the average 20-year-old. Aggressive care remains significantly less costly until age 80, at which age it costs more than routine care. However, even in the 80-year-old, aggressive care is likely the more cost-effective approach. Comfort care is associated with poorer outcomes at all ages and with higher costs for all groups except 80-year-olds. When all the costs of severe TBI are considered, aggressive

  8. Rasagiline treatment effects on parkinsonian tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Mark F

    2013-12-01

    Tremor is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). The underlying pathophysiology of parkinsonian rest tremor is not well understood. Rest tremor is less responsive to dopaminergic therapy than are symptoms of bradykinesia and rigidity. This paper reviews the effects of 1 mg daily oral rasagiline, as monotherapy and as adjunct therapy, on parkinsonian tremor. A literature search of the EMBASE database was conducted to identify relevant articles in English published between 2000 and October, 2012 using the search terms "rasagiline," or "Azilect®," or "Agilect®," and refined using the terms "Parkinson's disease" and "clinical trial." Of 22 identified publications, two large placebo-controlled trials of rasagiline monotherapy (TEMPO and ADAGIO) and two large placebo-controlled trials of rasagiline as adjunctive therapy with levodopa (PRESTO and LARGO) specifically evaluated the effect of rasagiline on tremor using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor examination. Prospective and post-hoc analyses from these phase III studies show rasagiline monotherapy significantly improved tremor symptoms in early PD, independent of disease duration, compared with placebo. In levodopa-treated patients with motor fluctuations who were already receiving optimized dopaminergic treatment, the addition of rasagiline adjunct therapy significantly improved tremor symptoms. Significant improvement was evident as early as 10 weeks from treatment initiation. Tremor symptoms also improved in a subset of patients with severe tremor when rasagiline was added to their existing PD treatment regimen. These data suggest that rasagiline used as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy is effective for reducing tremor severity in patients with PD.

  9. Treatment Effect Estimation Using Nonlinear Two-Stage Instrumental Variable Estimators: Another Cautionary Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Cole G; Brooks, John M

    2016-12-01

    To examine the settings of simulation evidence supporting use of nonlinear two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI) instrumental variable (IV) methods for estimating average treatment effects (ATE) using observational data and investigate potential bias of 2SRI across alternative scenarios of essential heterogeneity and uniqueness of marginal patients. Potential bias of linear and nonlinear IV methods for ATE and local average treatment effects (LATE) is assessed using simulation models with a binary outcome and binary endogenous treatment across settings varying by the relationship between treatment effectiveness and treatment choice. Results show that nonlinear 2SRI models produce estimates of ATE and LATE that are substantially biased when the relationships between treatment and outcome for marginal patients are unique from relationships for the full population. Bias of linear IV estimates for LATE was low across all scenarios. Researchers are increasingly opting for nonlinear 2SRI to estimate treatment effects in models with binary and otherwise inherently nonlinear dependent variables, believing that it produces generally unbiased and consistent estimates. This research shows that positive properties of nonlinear 2SRI rely on assumptions about the relationships between treatment effect heterogeneity and choice. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler-α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.

  11. Estimate of effect of initial field distribution using streamlines of the average Poynting vector on the change of the effective spot size of the laser beam propagating in the turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marakasov, D. A.; Rytchkov, D. S.

    2015-11-01

    The results of studies of the effect of the initial distribution of the laser beam to change its effective spot size in a turbulent atmosphere are presented. Investigations were carried out for axially symmetric light beams using the method of streamlines of the averaged Poynting vector. The dependence on a shape of the initial intensity distribution of effective spot size of the beam at the receiving plane is investigated as in presence as in absence of phase dislocations in the initial field distribution. It has been shown that it is possible to choose the values of the parameters of ring and vortex beams and that the magnitude of the effective spot size in the plane of the reception will be lower than for a Gaussian beam with the same value of initial effective spot size in the propagation of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere.

  12. Immunologic Effects Of Peritoneal Photodynamic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David H.; Haddad, Sandra; Jolles, Christopher J.; King, Vernon J.; Ott, Mark J.; Robertson, Bekkie; Straight, Richard C.

    1989-06-01

    One of the side effects of peritoneal photodynamic treatment (PDT) of mice is a systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CH) responses. Treatment with either laser alone or the photosensitizer, Photofrin II (PFII), alone does not cause suppression of CH responses. Immunosuppression of CH responses is an active process that is adoptively transferable using viable cells, but not serum, from PDT-treated mice. The induction of adoptively transferable suppressor cells in PDT-treated mice requires exposure to an antigenic stimulus, yet the suppressor cells are antigen non-specific in their function. T cell function in PDT-treated mice, as measured by the ability of splenic lymphoid cells to generate allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, is comparable to that detected in normal mice. However, the ability of spleen cells from PDT-treated mice to act as stimulators in a mixed lymhocyte reaction is dramatically impaired, suggesting that the major cell type affected by peritoneal PDT is of the macrophage lineage. Support for this concept is provided by experiments in which spleen cells from PDT-treated mice were chromatographically separated into populations of T cells, B cells and macrophages prior to adoptive transfer into naive recipients. The results indicate that the cell type mediating adoptively transferable suppression of CH responsiveness is of the macrophage lineage. Analysis of hematologic parameters revealed that induction of suppression by PDT-treatment was associated with a marked neutrophilia and lymphocytosis, and was also accompanied by a 5-fold increase in concentration of the acute phase protein, Serum Amyloid P. Finally, attempts to ameliorate PDT-induced immunosuppression by pharmacologic intervention have proved successful using implants of pellets that release indomethacin at a rate of 1.25µg/day. Thus, the data suggest that PDT-treatment induces macrophages to produce factors (e.g., prostaglandins) that are known to be potently

  13. Average action for models with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornholdt, S.; Wetterich, C.

    1993-01-01

    The average action is a new tool for investigating spontaneous symmetry breaking in elementary particle theory and statistical mechanics beyond the validity of standard perturbation theory. The aim of this work is to provide techniques for an investigation of models with fermions and scalars by means of the average potential. In the phase with spontaneous symmetry breaking, the inner region of the average potential becomes flat as the averaging extends over infinite volume and the average potential approaches the convex effective potential. Fermion fluctuations in this region necessitate a calculation of the fermion determinant in a spin wave background. We also compute the fermionic contribution to the wave function renormalization in the scalar kinetic term. (orig.)

  14. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  15. Undesirable effects after treatment with dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Barata, Ana Rita; Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2013-04-01

    Soft tissue augmentation is one of the most frequent techniques in cosmetic dermatology. Nowadays, there are a high number of available materials. Nonanimal hyaluronic acid (HA) is one of most useful fillers for lip augmentation and for treating nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and the dynamic wrinkles of the upper face. To evaluate the type and management of undesirable effects of nonanimal reticulated or stabilized HA observed in our cosmetic unit in the past 3 years. The consecutive patients using HA attending to our clinic in the past 3 years were divided into 3 categories, according to the time of presentation of the adverse reactions: immediate, early, and late-onset complications. All patients were treated. Twenty-three patients presented to our clinic complaining of complications after soft tissue augmentation with HA. Ten patients presented immediate-onset complications, 8 showed early-onset complications, and 5 cases complaint of late-onset complications. Treatment of the first group consisted of hyaluronidase injection, massage, and topical antibiotics. Early- and late-onset complications were treated with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. All patients improved, with the exception of a woman with recurrent granulomas. Generally, undesirable effects of HA (immediate, early, or late onset) are not frequent, and when present, they improve if treated properly. Physicians need to be aware of these possible adverse events in order to establish proper treatment and prevent scarring or other sequelae.

  16. Convergence of multiple ergodic averages

    OpenAIRE

    Host, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    These notes are based on a course for a general audience given at the Centro de Modeliamento Matem\\'atico of the University of Chile, in December 2004. We study the mean convergence of multiple ergodic averages, that is, averages of a product of functions taken at different times. We also describe the relations between this area of ergodic theory and some classical and some recent results in additive number theory.

  17. Average glandular dose in paired digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis acquisitions in a population based screening program: effects of measuring breast density, air kerma and beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge Østerås, Bjørn; Skaane, Per; Gullien, Randi; Catrine Trægde Martinsen, Anne

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose was to compare average glandular dose (AGD) for same-compression digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisitions in a population based screening program, with and without breast density stratification, as determined by automatically calculated breast density (Quantra™). Secondary, to compare AGD estimates based on measured breast density, air kerma and half value layer (HVL) to DICOM metadata based estimates. AGD was estimated for 3819 women participating in the screening trial. All received craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views of each breasts with paired DM and DBT acquisitions. Exposure parameters were extracted from DICOM metadata. Air kerma and HVL were measured for all beam qualities used to acquire the mammograms. Volumetric breast density was estimated using Quantra™. AGD was estimated using the Dance model. AGD reported directly from the DICOM metadata was also assessed. Mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.10 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. Mean DBT/DM AGD ratio was 1.24. For fatty breasts: mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.27 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. For dense breasts: mean AGD was 1.73 and 1.79 mGy, for DM and DBT, respectively. For breasts of similar thickness, dense breasts had higher AGD for DM and similar AGD for DBT. The DBT/DM dose ratio was substantially lower for dense compared to fatty breasts (1.08 versus 1.33). The average c-factor was 1.16. Using previously published polynomials to estimate glandularity from thickness underestimated the c-factor by 5.9% on average. Mean AGD error between estimates based on measurements (air kerma and HVL) versus DICOM header data was 3.8%, but for one mammography unit as high as 7.9%. Mean error of using the AGD value reported in the DICOM header was 10.7 and 13.3%, respectively. Thus, measurement of breast density, radiation dose and beam quality can substantially affect AGD estimates.

  18. Average glandular dose in paired digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis acquisitions in a population based screening program: effects of measuring breast density, air kerma and beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerås, Bjørn Helge; Skaane, Per; Gullien, Randi; Martinsen, Anne Catrine Trægde

    2018-01-25

    The main purpose was to compare average glandular dose (AGD) for same-compression digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisitions in a population based screening program, with and without breast density stratification, as determined by automatically calculated breast density (Quantra ™ ). Secondary, to compare AGD estimates based on measured breast density, air kerma and half value layer (HVL) to DICOM metadata based estimates. AGD was estimated for 3819 women participating in the screening trial. All received craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views of each breasts with paired DM and DBT acquisitions. Exposure parameters were extracted from DICOM metadata. Air kerma and HVL were measured for all beam qualities used to acquire the mammograms. Volumetric breast density was estimated using Quantra ™ . AGD was estimated using the Dance model. AGD reported directly from the DICOM metadata was also assessed. Mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.10 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. Mean DBT/DM AGD ratio was 1.24. For fatty breasts: mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.27 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. For dense breasts: mean AGD was 1.73 and 1.79 mGy, for DM and DBT, respectively. For breasts of similar thickness, dense breasts had higher AGD for DM and similar AGD for DBT. The DBT/DM dose ratio was substantially lower for dense compared to fatty breasts (1.08 versus 1.33). The average c-factor was 1.16. Using previously published polynomials to estimate glandularity from thickness underestimated the c-factor by 5.9% on average. Mean AGD error between estimates based on measurements (air kerma and HVL) versus DICOM header data was 3.8%, but for one mammography unit as high as 7.9%. Mean error of using the AGD value reported in the DICOM header was 10.7 and 13.3%, respectively. Thus, measurement of breast density, radiation dose and beam quality can substantially affect AGD estimates.

  19. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  20. Effect of variation of average pore size and specific surface area of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Nitin A; Singh, Pramod K; Rhee, Hee Woo; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m(2)/g which was 5.54 m(2)/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m(2)/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J-V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments.

  1. An Effective Web Presence for Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Thomas W; Hefner, Jennifer L; Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Website development for health care has only been prevalent in the last two and a half decades. The first websites were electronic versions of brochures providing hardly any interaction with the consumer or potential consumer. The percentage of consumers that use the internet during the decision-making process for health care providers continues to rise. As a result, the websites of health care providers are becoming more of a representation of the facility and creating an organizational image rather than a brochure-like informational page. The purpose of this study was to analyze substance abuse treatment center's websites in the State of California with the goal of informing the management of substance abuse centers regarding an effective and inexpensive means to closing the marketing gaps in the industry. This brief research report presents the results of employing an automated web-crawler to assess website quality along five dimensions: accessibility, content, marketing, technology, and usability score. The sample mean scores for all dimensions were between 4 and 6 on a 10-point scale. On average larger facilities had higher quality websites. The low mean scores on these dimensions indicate that that substance abuse centers have significant room for improvement of their website's. Efficiently spending marketing funds to increase the effectiveness of a treatment center's website can be a low cost way for even small facilities to increase market competitiveness.

  2. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  3. Analytical treatment of the runaway-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1980-09-01

    In the analytical treatment of the runaway-effect there appear the integrals Isub(m)(α). For m = 1, 2 and 3, series expansions for these integrals can be found in the literature. Furthermore, asymptotic solutions for Isub(m)(α) are known. It is shown here that the solutions for Isub(m)(α) can be approximated by the modified Bessel Function Ksub(n)(αsup(ν)) in such a way that for α → 0 the exact limiting value for Isub(m)(α) follows and that for α → infinite essentially the known asymptotic solutions for Isub(m)(α) follow. The maximum error for this approximation in the order of percent is considered justifiable for the application considered. (orig.)

  4. Effect of grade point average and enrollment in a dental hygiene National Board review course on student performance on the National Board Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWald, Janice P; Gutmann, Marylou E; Solomon, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Passing the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination is a requirement for licensure in all but one state. There are a number of preparation courses for the examination sponsored by corporations and dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if taking a board review course significantly affected student performance on the board examination. Students from the last six dental hygiene classes at Baylor College of Dentistry (n = 168) were divided into two groups depending on whether they took a particular review course. Mean entering college grade point averages (GPA), exiting dental hygiene program GPAs, and National Board scores were compared for the two groups using a t-test for independent samples (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups for entering GPA and National Board scores. Exiting GPAs, however, were slightly higher for those not taking the course compared to those taking the course. In addition, a strong correlation (0.71, Pearson Correlation) was found between exiting GPA and National Board score. Exiting GPA was found to be a strong predictor of National Board performance. These results do not appear to support this program's participation in an external preparation course as a means of increasing students' performance on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

  5. Ergodic averages via dominating processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary...... Markov chain and we eliminate the problem of whether an appropriate burn-in is determined or not. Moreover, when a central limit theorem applies, we show how confidence intervals for the mean can be estimated by bounding the asymptotic variance of the ergodic average based on the equilibrium chain....

  6. Effect of Amblyopia Treatment on Macular Thickness in Eyes With Myopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yi; Frantz, Kelly A; Block, Sandra; Goodfellow, Geoffrey W; Allison, Christine

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether abnormal macular thickness in myopic anisometropic amblyopia differed after amblyopia treatment. Furthermore, to investigate whether effect of treatment on macular thickness was associated with subject age or improvement in stereoacuity. Seventeen children (mean age: 9.0 [±3.0] years, ranging from 5.7-13.9 years) with myopic anisometropic amblyopia (visual acuity [VA] in amblyopic eyes: 20/80-20/400) were recruited and treated with 16-week refractive correction, followed by an additional 16-week refractive correction and patching. Macular thickness, best-corrected VA, and stereoacuity were measured both before and after amblyopia treatment. Factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to determine whether macular thickness in amblyopic eyes changed after amblyopia treatment. Mean baseline VA in the amblyopic eye was 1.0 ± 0.3 logMAR and improved to 0.7 ± 0.3 after amblyopia treatment (P amblyopia treatment was statistically significant for average foveal thickness (P = 0.040). There was no treatment effect on fellow eyes (P = 0.245); however, the average foveal thickness in the amblyopic eye was significantly reduced after amblyopia treatment (P = 0.049). No statistically significant interactions were found for the other macular thickness parameters (P > 0.05). Abnormal central macula associated with myopic anisometropic amblyopia tended to be thinner following amblyopia treatment with no significant changes in peripheral macular thickness.

  7. Averaging of multivalued differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grammel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear multivalued differential equations with slow and fast subsystems are considered. Under transitivity conditions on the fast subsystem, the slow subsystem can be approximated by an averaged multivalued differential equation. The approximation in the Hausdorff sense is of order O(ϵ1/3 as ϵ→0.

  8. Fuzzy Weighted Average: Analytical Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the computation of analytical expressions for the extremal values of the α-cuts of the fuzzy weighted average, for triangular or trapeizoidal weights and attributes. Also, an algorithm for the computation of the inverses of these expressions is given, providing exact

  9. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium.

  10. Polyhedral Painting with Group Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Frank A.; Tsao, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The technique of "group-averaging" produces colorings of a sphere that have the symmetries of various polyhedra. The concepts are accessible at the undergraduate level, without being well-known in typical courses on algebra or geometry. The material makes an excellent discovery project, especially for students with some background in…

  11. The effects of periodontal treatment on diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George W

    2003-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases are common chronic diseases in the United States. Periodontal infection may adversely affect glycemic control in people with diabetes. This article reviews the evidence regarding how treatment of periodontal diseases affects glycemic control. The review consisted of a MEDLINE literature search to identify primary research reports on the relationship between periodontal therapy and changes in glycemic control. The review identified three randomized clinical trials and nine nonrandomized clinical follow-up studies. The strength, quantity and breadth of evidence are varied, precluding clear-cut guidance for determining whether treating periodontal infection has a beneficial effect on glycemic control. Despite the variation and limitations in the literature, evidence supports the concept that periodontal diseases can contribute to poorer glycemic control in people with diabetes. Although the evidence is not unequivocal, it provides sufficient support for additional investigations of the effect of preventing and treating periodontal infections on managing glycemic control. Sufficient evidence exists to incorporate oral examinations and periodontal care in management regimens for people with diabetes. It is prudent to assess patients' glycemic control status and communicate the importance of referring patients with diabetes for thorough oral health evaluations and necessary care.

  12. Improved averaging for non-null interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Jon F.; Murphy, Paul E.

    2013-09-01

    Arithmetic averaging of interferometric phase measurements is a well-established method for reducing the effects of time varying disturbances, such as air turbulence and vibration. Calculating a map of the standard deviation for each pixel in the average map can provide a useful estimate of its variability. However, phase maps of complex and/or high density fringe fields frequently contain defects that severely impair the effectiveness of simple phase averaging and bias the variability estimate. These defects include large or small-area phase unwrapping artifacts, large alignment components, and voids that change in number, location, or size. Inclusion of a single phase map with a large area defect into the average is usually sufficient to spoil the entire result. Small-area phase unwrapping and void defects may not render the average map metrologically useless, but they pessimistically bias the variance estimate for the overwhelming majority of the data. We present an algorithm that obtains phase average and variance estimates that are robust against both large and small-area phase defects. It identifies and rejects phase maps containing large area voids or unwrapping artifacts. It also identifies and prunes the unreliable areas of otherwise useful phase maps, and removes the effect of alignment drift from the variance estimate. The algorithm has several run-time adjustable parameters to adjust the rejection criteria for bad data. However, a single nominal setting has been effective over a wide range of conditions. This enhanced averaging algorithm can be efficiently integrated with the phase map acquisition process to minimize the number of phase samples required to approach the practical noise floor of the metrology environment.

  13. Late effects after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, Laurien Aletta

    2014-01-01

    Although modern treatment strategies have made Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) a highly curable disease, there is a life-long increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to treatment. Over time it has become increasingly evident that the historically used extensive treatment fields can potentially lead to

  14. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  15. ANTIPSYCHOTIC TREATMENT - SIDE-EFFECT AND/OR METABOLIC SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Žarković Palijan, Tija; Petranović, Duška; Šepić-Grahovac, Dubravka

    2011-01-01

    According to current medical opinion chronic mental diseases such as schizophrenia require life-long treatment. The choice of antipsychotics is an important treatment factor, since their side-effects often influence patients' compliance with treatment. Severe side-effects may cause the patients to reject such treatment, the latter being their right. In case a psychiatrist does not agree with the patient's decision to interrupt his antipsychotic treatment regardless its serious side-e...

  16. On the Distribution of Exchange Rate Regime Treatment Effects on International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Sabrina; Egger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides evidence of heterogeneous treatment effects on trade from switching among three types of de-facto exchange rate regimes: freely floating, currency bands, and pegs or currency unions. A cottage literature at the interface of macroeconomics and international economics focuses on the consequences of exchange rate regimes for economic outcome such as trade. The majority of contributions points to trade-stimulating average effects of tighter exchange rate tying in general and o...

  17. The effect of wind shielding and pen position on the average daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of grower/finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan B.; Toft, Nils; Cornou, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are known to be particularly sensitive to heat and cold. If the temperature becomes too low, the pigs will grow less efficiently and be more susceptible to diseases such as pneumonia. If the temperature is too high, the pigs will tend to foul the pen, leading to additional risks of infection....... Furthermore, unpublished data show that the temperature within a single section of grower/finisher pigs can vary considerably from pen to pen, and previous studies have shown that pigs can be significantly affected by wind, even when not directly exposed to it. To address this latter concern, some pig......, but no effect could be shown for Yorkshire or Danish landrace.To determine the effect of a group׳s placement relative to the central corridor of a grower/finisher station, a similar model was fitted to the data for Duroc pigs, replacing shielding with distance from the corridor (1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th pen...

  18. Batch medication of intestinal infections in nursery pigs—A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of treatment strategy, type of antibiotic and bacterial load on average daily weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Nicolai Rosager; Pedersen, Ken Steen; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Previous research projects have demonstrated the need for better diagnostic tools to support decisions on medication strategies for infections caused by Escherichia coli F4 (F4) and F18 (F18), Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and Brachyspira pilosicoli (PILO). This study was carried out...... LI-positive pens (p = 0.004), lower excretion levels of LI (p = 0.013), and fewer pens with a high level of LI (p = 0.031) compared to pens treated with tylosine. There was no significant difference in F4, F18 and PILO levels after treatment with the two antibiotic compounds. There was a significant...... difference (p = 0.04) of mean diarrhoea prevalence on day 21 of the study between pens treated with tylosine (0.254, 95% CI: 0.184–0.324), and doxycycline (0.167, 95% CI: 0.124–0.210). The type of antibiotic compound was not found to have a significant effect on ADG (p = 0.209). (3) Pigs starting treatment...

  19. Treatment effectiveness for dysfunctions of sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, L R; LoPiccolo, J

    1982-01-01

    Archival data from the Sex Therapy Center at Stony Brook were analyzed to determine the prevalence of desire phase sexual dysfunctions and the effectiveness of treating them with behavioral sex therapy. When cases were rediagnosed with a multi-axial problem-oriented system, increases from 1974-1981 in both the prevalence of desire phase problems and of male low sexual desire were observed. Data suggested that wives display more extreme patterns of sexual avoidance than do husbands in couples seeking sex therapy. Outcome statistics on marital adjustment, overall sexual satisfaction, the frequency of intercourse and masturbation, and patterns of initiation of sexual activity reveal significant positive changes after treatment. These changes are not due to nonspecific factors and are maintained at follow-up. Sex therapy was equally successful for male-centered vs. female-centered problems, for low sexual desire vs. aversion to sex, and for global or lifelong dysfunctions vs. the more recent or situational ones. Posttreatment gains reflect a minimally adequate sexual relationship, however, rather than an optimal degree of intimacy and pleasure.

  20. Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehne, L.; Boegl, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss and compile methods and results of irradiation experiments carried out on 54 plant and animal foodstuffs in order to obtain a survey on chemical changes, in particular as regards the reduction of nutritional value and savoriness of irradiated foodstuffs. According to this task, microbiological aspects as well as an interpretation of the experimental results as to the physiology of nutrition and toxicology were not included. The results published by the authors of the original papers were compiled in a kind of dictionary which contains all relevant information such as radiation sources, irradiation conditions, investigation methods, results of chemical or organoleptical changes etc. The most important results were summarized in tables and can be found at the end of this study. Because of the abundance of existing literature the series 'Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs' will be continued in Part IV, and the final discussion of the results will be published separately after further data have been included. (orig.) [de

  1. Psychological mechanisms of effective cognitive-behavioral treatments for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K

    2015-04-01

    Several psychotherapies have been established as effective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) including prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy, and cognitive therapy for PTSD. Understanding the key mechanisms of these treatments, i.e., how these treatments lead to therapeutic benefits, will enable us to maximize the efficacy, effectiveness, and efficiency of these therapies. This article provides an overview of the theorized mechanisms for each of these treatments, reviews the recent empirical evidence on psychological mechanisms of these treatments, discusses the ongoing debates in the field, and provides recommendations for future research. Few studies to date have examined whether changes in purported treatment mechanisms predict subsequent changes in treatment outcomes. Future clinical trials examining treatments for PTSD should use study designs that enable researchers to establish the temporal precedence of change in treatment mechanisms prior to symptom reduction. Moreover, further research is needed that explores the links between specific treatment components, underlying change mechanisms, and treatment outcomes.

  2. Treatment and posttreatment effects of mandibular cervical headgear followed by fixed appliances in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Angel, David; Oberti, Giovanni; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-03-01

    In this cephalometric investigation, we compared the treatment and posttreatment effects on patients undergoing an initial phase of mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) therapy followed later by comprehensive edgewise therapy with untreated Class III controls. The treated sample consisted of 21 patients treated consecutively with MCH before the pubertal growth spurt (average age, 10 years 2 months at the beginning of treatment). At the final observation period (average age, 15 years 3 months), all patients were in decelerative growth phases as determined by the cervical vertebral maturation method. Active treatment and posttreatment effects were evaluated in the treated group with nonparametric statistical analysis for paired samples. The treated sample was compared with a nonparametric statistical test for independent samples with 20 untreated Class III subjects who were matched for malocclusion, sex, and stage of cervical vertebral maturation to the treatment group. MCH therapy followed by fixed appliances was shown to be an effective treatment for the correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion at postpubertal observation. The favorable skeletal effects consisted mainly of smaller increases in mandibular length and advancement with respect to the controls, with the final outcome of significant improvements in the sagittal skeletal (+4 mm for the Wits appraisal) and dental (+2.7 mm for overjet, -4.4 mm for molar relationship) parameters. This treatment protocol also induced significant downward rotation of the mandible (2.8 degrees ).

  3. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  4. A time dependent zonally averaged energy balance model to be incorporated into IMAGE (Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect). Collaborative Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, M.; Olendrzynski, K.; Elzen, M. den

    1991-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is placing increasing emphasis on the use of time-dependent impact models that are linked with energy-emission accounting frameworks and models that predict in a time-dependent fashion important variables such as atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, surface temperature and precipitation. Integrating these tools (greenhouse gas emission strategies, atmospheric processes, ecological impacts) into what is called an integrated assessment model will assist policymakers in the IPCC and elsewhere to assess the impacts of a wide variety of emission strategies. The Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE; developed at RIVM) represents such an integrated assessment model which already calculates historical and future effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global surface temperature, sea level rise and other ecological and socioeconomic impacts. However, to be linked to environmental impact models such as the Global Vegetation Model and the Timber Assessment Model, both of which are under development at RIVM and IIASA, IMAGE needs to be regionalized in terms of temperature and precipitation output. These key parameters will then enable the above environmental impact models to be run in a time-dependent mode. In this paper we lay the scientific and numerical basis for a two-dimensional Energy Balance Model (EBM) to be integrated into the climate module of IMAGE which will ultimately provide scenarios of surface temperature and precipitation, resolved with respect to latitude and height. This paper will deal specifically with temperature; following papers will deal with precipitation. So far, the relatively simple EBM set up in this paper resolves mean annual surface temperatures on a regional scale defined by 10 deg latitude bands. In addition, we can concentrate on the implementation of the EBM into IMAGE, i.e., on the steering mechanism itself. Both reasons justify the time and effort put into

  5. 21 CFR 1240.10 - Effective bactericidal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective bactericidal treatment. 1240.10 Section... DISEASES General Provisions § 1240.10 Effective bactericidal treatment. Whenever, under the provisions of this part, bactericidal treatment is required, it shall be accomplished by one or more of the following...

  6. STUDY OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY (226Ra, 232Th AND 40K) IN SOIL SAMPLES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF AVERAGE EFFECTIVE DOSE AND RADIATION HAZARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangotra, Pargin; Mehra, Rohit; Kaur, Kirandeep; Jakhu, Rajan

    2016-10-01

    The activity concentration of 226 Ra (radium), 232 Th (thorium) and 40 K (potassium) has been measured in the soil samples collected from Mansa and Muktsar districts of Punjab (India) using NaI (Tikl) gamma detector. The concentration of three radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in the studied area has been varied from 18±4 to 46±5, 53±7 to 98±8 and 248±54 to 756±110 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ) have been calculated in soil samples for the assessment of the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these soil samples. The absorbed dose rate of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in studied area has been varied from 8 to 21, 33 to 61 and 9 to 25 nGy h -1 , respectively. The corresponding indoor and outdoor annual effective dose in studied area was 0.38 and 0.09 mSv, respectively. The external and internal hazard has been also calculated for the assessment of radiation hazards in the studied area. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [The treatment effects analysis of 164 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Wen; Xu, Hong; Liu, Yuehui

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effective treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and factors affecting its prognosis. The clinical data and follow-up results of 164 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. All the 164 patients were given intravenous vasodilator, neurotrophic drugs treatment, oral prednisone treatment, and intratympanic dexamethasone injection. All patients were divided into low frequency hearing loss type,intermediate frequency hearing loss, high frequency hearing loss, all frequency hearing loss and total deafness group. Pure tone hearing threshold test were performed before and 3 months after treatment. All patients and different groups were compared before and after treatment damage frequency of average air conduction and various frequency air conduction hearing. Analysis of gender, age, process and hearing curve type, frequency hearing of impaired before treatment, the symptoms with or without vertigo. All the patients' hearing improved after treatment. The treatment efficiency was 46.3%, and low frequency hearing improvements were better than the high frequency hearing. Including age, process, frequency hearing of impaired before treatment, with or without vertigo isindependent factors influencing its prognosis. Based on the regular treatment,oral and intratympanic injection glucocorticoid therapy are safe and effective for sudden hearing loss,The prognosis and age, course, impaired hearing before curve type, treatment frequency hearing level is closely related, with or without vertigo.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of ceftriaxone in the treatment of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effectiveness of four intravenous antibiotic treatment regimens in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults in a private hospital setting. The study compared some third-generation cephalosporin regimens with a ...

  9. [Case control study on clinical effects of sacrococcygeal manipulation in the treatment of coccyx pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Luo, Jie; Li, Jia-Dong; Pei, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-25

    To study the clinical efficacy of sacral manual therapy in the treatment of coccygodynia. From November 2013 to July 2015, 184 patients with sacrococcygeal pain were divided into treatment group and control group. There were 26 males and 65 females in the treatment group, with an average age of (39.63±11.62) years old. In the control group, there were 31 males and 62 females, with an average age of (41.47±11.56) years old. The patients in the treatment group were treated with sacrococcygeal massage therapy, 3 times a week for 2 weeks. The patients in the control group were treated with Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel, 2 times a day for 2 weeks. The VAS pain score, score in rating scale of sacrococcygeal pain and degree of tenderness were obtained on the first day of treatment, 2, 7, 14 days and 3 months after treatment to evaluate clinical results. When comparing the VAS pain score of sacrococcygeal pain within the two groups, the differences began to reach statistical significance on the second day( P pain scores, the change of scores in rating scale of sacrococcygeal pain and the degree of tenderness in the treatment group were all significontly larger that those in the contral group from the second day. The curative effect of sacral manipulation group is better than that of Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel group in the treatment of sacrococcygeal pain.

  10. Technological progress and average job matching quality

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, Mário; Corrêa, Márcio V.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective is to study, in a labor market characterized by search frictions, the effect of technological progress on the average quality of job matches. For that, we use an extension of Mortensen and Pissarides (1998) and obtain as results that the effects of technological progress on the labor market depend upon the initial conditions of the economy. If the economy is totally characterized by the presence of low-quality job matches, an increase in technological progress is accompanied by ...

  11. Herbal Treatment for Anxiety: Is It Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Several herbal remedies have been studied as a treatment for anxiety, ... is preliminary and limited. Oral lavender can cause constipation and headaches. It can also increase appetite, increase ...

  12. Detecting treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered data with generalized linear mixed-effects model trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, M; Smits, N; Zeileis, A; Hothorn, T; Kelderman, H

    2017-10-25

    Identification of subgroups of patients for whom treatment A is more effective than treatment B, and vice versa, is of key importance to the development of personalized medicine. Tree-based algorithms are helpful tools for the detection of such interactions, but none of the available algorithms allow for taking into account clustered or nested dataset structures, which are particularly common in psychological research. Therefore, we propose the generalized linear mixed-effects model tree (GLMM tree) algorithm, which allows for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions, while accounting for the clustered structure of a dataset. The algorithm uses model-based recursive partitioning to detect treatment-subgroup interactions, and a GLMM to estimate the random-effects parameters. In a simulation study, GLMM trees show higher accuracy in recovering treatment-subgroup interactions, higher predictive accuracy, and lower type II error rates than linear-model-based recursive partitioning and mixed-effects regression trees. Also, GLMM trees show somewhat higher predictive accuracy than linear mixed-effects models with pre-specified interaction effects, on average. We illustrate the application of GLMM trees on an individual patient-level data meta-analysis on treatments for depression. We conclude that GLMM trees are a promising exploratory tool for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered datasets.

  13. Adaptive modification of treatment planning to minimize the deleterious effects of treatment setup errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Di; Wong, John; Vicini, Frank; Michalski, Jeff; Pan Cheng; Frazier, Arthur; Horwitz, Eric; Martinez, Alvaro

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Using daily setup variation measured from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), radiation treatment of the individual patient can be adaptively reoptimized during the course of therapy. In this study, daily portal images were retrospectively examined to: (a) determine the number of initial days of portal imaging required to give adequate prediction of the systematic and random setup errors; and (b) explore the potential of using the prediction as feedback to reoptimize the individual treatment part-way through the treatment course. Methods and Materials: Daily portal images of 64 cancer patients, whose treatment position was not adjusted during the course of treatment, were obtained from two independent clinics with similar setup procedures. Systematic and random setup errors for each patient were predicted using different numbers of initial portal measurements. The statistical confidence of the predictions was tested to determine the number of daily portal measurements needed to give reasonable predictions. Two treatment processes were simulated to examine the potential opportunity for setup margin reduction and dose escalation. The first process mimicked a conventional treatment. A constant margin was assigned to each treatment field to compensate for the average setup error of the patient population. A treatment dose was then prescribed with reference to a fixed normal tissue tolerance, and then fixed in the entire course of treatment. In the second process, the same treatment fields and prescribed dose were used only for the initial plan and treatment. After several initial days of treatments, the treatment field shape and position were assumed to be adaptively modified using a computer-controlled multileaf collimator (MLC) in light of the predicted systematic and random setup errors. The prescribed dose was then escalated until the same normal tissue tolerance, as determined in the first treatment process, was reached. Results: The systematic

  14. intercritical heat treatments effects on low carbon steels quenched

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR B. A. EZEKOYE

    hardening and precipitation effects [2]. Of all the metallic materials of engineering ... of this work was to investigate the effect of diverse intercritical heat treatments on the ... INTERCRITICAL HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON LOW CARBON STEELS QUENCHED FROM INTERMEDIATE ... Series II- Intercritical quench with.

  15. Some Finite Sample Properties and Assumptions of Methods for Determining Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovski, Erik

    2016-01-01

    of this paper, three popular methods for determining treatment effects were chosen: ordinary least squares regression, propensity score matching, and inverse probability weighting. The assumptions and properties tested across these methods are: unconfoundedness, differences in average treatment effects......There is a growing interest in determining the exact effects of policies, programs, and other social interventions within the social sciences. In order to do so, researchers have a variety of econometric techniques at their disposal. However, the choice between them may be obscure. In this paper, I...... will compare assumptions and properties of select methods for determining treatment effects with Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison will highlight the pros and cons of using one method over another and the assumptions that researchers need to make for the method they choose. To limit the scope...

  16. Effectiveness of Emdogain in the periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Łojewski, Włodzimierz; Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate how the periodontal disease treatment with Emdogain may influence the parameters of serum acute phase response and the total antioxidant status (TAS) of nonstimulated saliva. The wound healing process after periodontal treatment provided with EMD and regular open flap procedure was observed in 28 patients. TAS in saliva and acute phase proteins in blood was measured before and after treatment. The PD varied from 3,91 mm before treatment to 1,27 after it in EMD group and from 3,83 mm and 1,33 in the control group. CAL varied from 3,2 - 2,4 mm in EMD group and from 2,70 - 2,2 in the control group (p<0,01 and p<0,001). On the basis and after treatment of acute phase proteins analysis existence of chronic inflammatory state with slight decreased total concentration of AGP, ACP. Low TAS level found in the saliva of the subjects in our study may suggest that the antioxidant defence of saliva in patients with chronic periodontitis is poor.

  17. Effectiveness of propanolol for treatment of infantile haemangioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gillberg; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Charabi, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    was considered sufficient in most cases (71%). Children who started treatment before five months of age had a significantly better response than children who started treatment at a later age. No relation was found between location of IH and the effect of treatment. There were only few and mild side effects....... CONCLUSION: Propranolol is effective in the treatment of IH and it has only few and mild side effects. In most cases, a low dose of 1 mg/kg/day was sufficient. Early initiation of treatment is recommended as the response to treatment was better in younger children and because early initiation helps prevent......INTRODUCTION: Infantile haemangiomas (IH) are the most common benign tumours in children. They are characterised by rapid growth during the first year of life followed by spontaneous regression during childhood. Indications for treatment are functional impairment, bleeding/ulceration, rapid growth...

  18. Psychiatric side effects of interferon treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B

    2006-05-01

    Interferons are employed in the management of multiple sclerosis, hepatitis C and certain malignancies. Neuropsychiatric toxicity can interfere with the successful use of these drugs. This review was based on Medline literature searches, supplemented by bibliographical citations in identified papers. Information uncovered in the literature review was interpreted in light of related pharmacoepidemiological and psychiatric literature. Interferon-associated neurotoxicity does not adhere closely to standard psychiatric syndromal and diagnostic definitions. Delirium, depression, non-specific symptoms related to sickness behavior and, rarely, manic and psychotic syndromes are all potential adverse events during interferon treatment. For depression, the evidence of increased risk is stronger for interferon alpha than for interferon beta. The availability of preventive and treatment interventions suggest that neuropsychiatric toxicity can often be managed without needing to discontinue the treatment. Safety can be maximized by organization of health services in ways that enhance detection and management of neuropsychiatric problems, and which support access to basic and specialized mental health services.

  19. The Effects of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Children’s Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keilow, Maria; Holm, Anders; Fallesen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We use Danish register data to estimate the effect of medical treatment of ADHD on children’s academic achievement. Using a sample of 7,523 children who undergo medical treatment, we exploit plausibly exogenous variation in medical nonresponse to estimate the effect of medical treatment on school-leaving...... grades. Heckman two-stage sample selection models allow us to account for selection into the sample of children treated medically for ADHD. We find significant effects of treatment on ninth grade school-leaving grade point average (GPA). Compared to consistent treatment, part or full discontinuation...... of treatment has large significant negative effects on teacher evaluation and exam GPA, reducing grades with .18 to .19 standard deviations. A supplementary identification strategy and placebo regressions support our findings. The results demonstrate that ADHD treatment may mitigate the negative social...

  20. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness and safety of topical tacrolimus in treatment of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is one of the most primitive well-known dermatoid disorders with different suggested therapies. Therefore, this study investigated the efficiency and safety of topical tacrolimus in treatment of patients with vitiligo. This study was a clinical randomized designed study pre- post-test method, has been conducted on thirty cases with vitiligo who have referred to polyclinic and dermatology clinic. Participant′s evaluated and demographic information recorded in designed checklist. In the next stage, the disease activity scored by vitiligo index disease activity system. Photography and depigmentation percent has recorded before treatment and further in 4 th , 8 th , 12 th , 16 th , 20 th , and 24 th weeks. Finally, gathered data compared through SPSS-20 software. The final sample comprised 30 persons including: 12 men (40% and 18 women (60%. The average of patient′s age in this study was 26/13 ΁ 18/20 (2-76-year-old. Eleven persons was ≤15 years old and rest was older than 15. Sixty-six lesions have funded in patients that maximum has accrued on face and neck (37/87% and trunk (21/21%. In addition, minimum of lesions is related to genitalia (9/09%. In the in 4 th , 8 th , 12 th , 16 th weeks, improvement in face and neck had increased significantly, into the past weeks. In the 20 th and 24 th weeks, the improvement has increased although it was not significant enhancement. Also about trunk, in the 4 th week the improvement does not have significant increasing in compare to the past week. In the eighth, 12 th , 16 th , 20 th , and 24 th weeks the improvement has been increased significantly in compare to the past weeks. Although in the case of limbs and genitalia, the improvement was lower. There was no significant difference between male and females and age. Although the improvement was, slow in older persons. Study results, has presented applying topical tacrolimus in vitiligo, particularly in face and neck, could be effective and

  2. Effects of Outpatient Treatment of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daal, Victor H. P.; Reitsma, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    A Dutch intervention program proved to be successful with 109 10-year-old children with dyslexia and 29 children with reading problems and cognitive deficits or psychiatric symptoms. The children with pure dyslexia profited most. Differences in treatment outcomes were related to the absolute level of word reading and age at intake. (Author/CR)

  3. Effects of ecosystem-based management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Harrington; Carl E. Fiedler; Stephen F. Arno; Ward W. McCaughey; Leon J. Theroux; Clinton E. Carlson; Kristin L. Zouhar; Thomas H. DeLuca; Donald J. Bedunah; Dayna M. Ayers; Elizabeth A. Beringer; Sallie J. Hejl; Lynn Bacon; Robert E. Benson; Jane Kapler Smith; Rick Floch

    1999-01-01

    The prescribed burn treatments were applied to reduce pre-existing and new slash fuel loadings, reduce understory tree density to lower crown fire potential, stimulate vigor of decadent understory vegetation, produce mineral seedbeds for seral species establishment, and increase availability of mineral nutrients. To test the feasibility of prescribed burning under a...

  4. Nonparametric Bounds and Sensitivity Analysis of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amy; Hudgens, Michael G.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Fine, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers conducting inference about the effect of a treatment (or exposure) on an outcome of interest. In the ideal setting where treatment is assigned randomly, under certain assumptions the treatment effect is identifiable from the observable data and inference is straightforward. However, in other settings such as observational studies or randomized trials with noncompliance, the treatment effect is no longer identifiable without relying on untestable assumptions. Nonetheless, the observable data often do provide some information about the effect of treatment, that is, the parameter of interest is partially identifiable. Two approaches are often employed in this setting: (i) bounds are derived for the treatment effect under minimal assumptions, or (ii) additional untestable assumptions are invoked that render the treatment effect identifiable and then sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess how inference about the treatment effect changes as the untestable assumptions are varied. Approaches (i) and (ii) are considered in various settings, including assessing principal strata effects, direct and indirect effects and effects of time-varying exposures. Methods for drawing formal inference about partially identified parameters are also discussed. PMID:25663743

  5. Long-Term Effects of a Psycholinguistic Treatment for Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Jurgen; Hoeks, Jan J. W. M.; Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Marja C.; Smolenaars, Anton J.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates short- and long-term effects of a treatment for dyslexia. Notes that the treatment focuses on learning to recognize and to make use of the phonological and morphological structure of Dutch words. Finds that the results of the treatment were clear improvements in reading words, reading text and spelling. (SG)

  6. Treatment effects in prostate cancer following traditional and emerging therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, R; Scarpelli, M; Lopez-Beltran, A; Cheng, L; Di Primio, R; Montironi, R

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for prostate cancer consist of radical prostatectomy, hormonal therapy and radiation therapy. Hormonal and radiation therapy have well-known, often profound, effects on the histological appearance of benign and malignant prostate tissue. Novel therapies including focal ablative treatments, chemotherapies and targeted molecular therapies are beginning to emerge and pathologists will play a central role in documenting the effects of these treatments at the tissue level. As such, knowledge of treatment-related changes and access to clinical information are essential to ensure accurate interpretation and reporting of post-treatment prostate specimens by pathologists.

  7. The flattening of the average potential in models with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornholdt, S.

    1993-01-01

    The average potential is a scale dependent scalar effective potential. In a phase with spontaneous symmetry breaking its inner region becomes flat as the averaging extends over infinite volume and the average potential approaches the convex effective potential. Fermion fluctuations affect the shape of the average potential in this region and its flattening with decreasing physical scale. They have to be taken into account to find the true minimum of the scalar potential which determines the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  8. Side effects as influencers of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Zafar

    2008-01-01

    Research relative to the efficacy of a therapeutic agent commands a clinician's greatest interest, but treatment decisions are made based on optimizing efficacy and tolerability/safety considerations. Second-generation atypical antipsychotic drugs are a study in the importance of taking a careful look at the full benefit-risk profile of each drug. The disorders that atypical antipsychotics are approved to treat--schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder--are associated with an increased rate of certain medical comorbidities compared to the general population. Between-drug differences in efficacy are relatively modest for the atypicals, or between atypicals and conventionals, while differences in safety and tolerability are larger and more clinically relevant. The current article will provide a brief summary of safety-related issues that influence treatment outcome and choice of drug.

  9. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility KidsHealth / For Parents / ... infertile couple's embryo via in vitro fertilization. Emotional Effects As you explore the options, it's important to ...

  10. Evaluation of treatment effects by ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, U; Kristensen, K

    2008-01-01

    to account for the repeated measurements. The estimation was based on a Bayesian approach, which was analysed via Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling. A simulation study showed that the approach was able to estimate the relative ordering of the treatments. The efficiency of the estimation increased....... This method seems to be less sensitive to the judge and also eliminates any possible drift over the judging process in the more traditional method...

  11. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Hillary A.

    2014-01-01

    Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrat...

  12. Treatment effect on biases in size estimation in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiban, Youssef; Fruth, Martina B; Pauli, Paul; Kinateder, Max; Reichenberger, Jonas; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    The current study investigates biases in size estimations made by spider-phobic and healthy participants before and after treatment. Forty-one spider-phobic and 20 healthy participants received virtual reality (VR) exposure treatment and were then asked to rate the size of a real spider immediately before and, on average, 15days after the treatment. During the VR exposure treatment skin conductance response was assessed. Prior to the treatment, both groups tended to overestimate the size of the spider, but this size estimation bias was significantly larger in the phobic group than in the control group. The VR exposure treatment reduced this bias, which was reflected in a significantly smaller size rating post treatment. However, the size estimation bias was unrelated to the skin conductance response. Our results confirm the hypothesis that size estimation by spider-phobic patients is biased. This bias is not stable over time and can be decreased with adequate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Heat treatment of wood is an effective method to improve the dimensional stability and durability against biodegradation. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of European Hophornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop.) wood were examined. Samples obtained ...

  14. Effects of long-term treatment with corticosteroids in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, TEJ; Schouten, JP; Koeter, GH; Postma, DS

    Study objective: To determine the effectiveness of treatment with corticosteroids in patients with COPD. Methods: In this study, we investigated the effect of a 2-year treatment with corticosteroids on clinical symptoms and the decline of lung function in 58 nonallergic patients with COPD. Subjects

  15. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  16. Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Treatment on the Number and Intensity of Migraine Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bakhshipour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a common headache with an unknown cause. Migraine is about three times more common in women (18.2% than in men (6.2%. The recent studies have posed the possible relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection and migraine headache. This study tries to analyze the effect of treating H. pylori infection on number and severity of migraine attacks.Materials and Methods: In this clinical pilot study, a number of 60 patients with migraine were examined in terms of infecting with H. pylori. Patients with the infections were treated by H. pylori eradication treatment standard triple regimen and the frequency and severity of their migraine attacks were measured for three months and finally the average of frequency and severity of attacks before and after treatment were compared. Results: The average frequency of the migraine attacks in patients with the H.pylori infection who have been treated was 7.1 before treatment and 2.7 after treatment (p=0.001. Likewise, the severity rate of such attacks in such patients was 9 which decreased to 4.5 after treatment (p=0.002. Conclusion: According to our study, patients with migraine attacks are preferred to be examined tested in terms of infecting with H. pylori. Thus, and eradication of this infection can be effective in decreasing of the migraine attacks.

  17. Continuum treatment of electronic polarization effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Hong; Luo, Ray

    2007-03-07

    A continuum treatment of electronic polarization has been explored for in molecular mechanics simulations in implicit solvents. The dielectric constant for molecule interior is the only parameter in the continuum polarizable model. A value of 4 is found to yield optimal agreement with high-level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations for the tested molecular systems. Interestingly, its performance is not sensitive to the definition of molecular volume, in which the continuum electronic polarization is defined. In this model, quantum mechanical electrostatic field in different dielectric environments from vacuum, low-dielectric organic solvent, and water can be used simultaneously in atomic charge fitting to achieve consistent treatment of electrostatic interactions. The tests show that a single set of atomic charges can be used consistently in different dielectric environments and different molecular conformations, and the atomic charges transfer well from training monomers to tested dimers. The preliminary study gives us the hope of developing a continuum polarizable force field for more consistent simulations of proteins and nucleic acids in implicit solvents.

  18. Continuum treatment of electronic polarization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Hong; Luo, Ray

    2007-03-01

    A continuum treatment of electronic polarization has been explored for in molecular mechanics simulations in implicit solvents. The dielectric constant for molecule interior is the only parameter in the continuum polarizable model. A value of 4 is found to yield optimal agreement with high-level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations for the tested molecular systems. Interestingly, its performance is not sensitive to the definition of molecular volume, in which the continuum electronic polarization is defined. In this model, quantum mechanical electrostatic field in different dielectric environments from vacuum, low-dielectric organic solvent, and water can be used simultaneously in atomic charge fitting to achieve consistent treatment of electrostatic interactions. The tests show that a single set of atomic charges can be used consistently in different dielectric environments and different molecular conformations, and the atomic charges transfer well from training monomers to tested dimers. The preliminary study gives us the hope of developing a continuum polarizable force field for more consistent simulations of proteins and nucleic acids in implicit solvents.

  19. Effective operator treatment of the Lipkin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, K.J.; Vary, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the Lipkin model in the strong coupling limit using effective operator techniques. We present both analytical and numerical results for low energy effective Hamiltonians. We investigate the reliability of various approximations used to simplify the nuclear many body problem, such as the cluster approximation. We demonstrate, in explicit examples, certain limits to the validity of the cluster approximation but caution that these limits may be particular to this model where the interactions are of unlimited range

  20. The modification of turbulent transport by orbit averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynick, H.E.; Zweben, S.J.

    1991-05-01

    The effect on plasma turbulence of orbit averaging by thermal ions is considered, and illustrated for two modes of potential importance for tokamaks. The effect can reduce the ion response below that in earlier treatments, modifying the predicted mode growth rate, which in turn modifies the turbulent transport. For both modes, the effect modifies earlier transport expressions with a neoclassical factor,'' which makes the scalings of the resultant transport coefficients with plasma current and magnetic field closer to those found experimentally. Additionally, for the trapped electron mode, this mechanism provides a potential explanation of the observed more favorable scaling of {chi}{sub i} with T{sub i} in supershots than in L-modes. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  1. The oral adverse effects of isotretinoin treatment in acne vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isotretinoin is the most effective therapy to treat severe acne vulgaris and its systemic adverse effects have been well documented, but little is known on dental side effects over the course of treatment. Objectives: This prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in ...

  2. Costs and effectiveness of treatment alternatives for proximal caries lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Schwendicke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Invasive therapy of proximal caries lesions initiates a cascade of re-treatment cycles with increasing loss of dental hard tissue. Non- and micro-invasive treatment aim at delaying this cascade and may thus reduce both the health and economic burden of such lesions. This study compared the costs and effectiveness of alternative treatments of proximal caries lesions. METHODS: A Markov-process model was used to simulate the events following the treatment of a proximal posterior lesion (E2/D1 in a 20-year-old patient in Germany. We compared three interventions (non-invasive; micro-invasive using resin infiltration; invasive using composite restoration. We calculated the risk of complications of initial and possible follow-up treatments and modelled time-dependent non-linear transition probabilities. Costs were calculated based on item-fee catalogues in Germany. Monte-Carlo-microsimulations were performed to compare cost-effectiveness of non- versus micro-invasive treatment and to analyse lifetime costs of all three treatments. RESULTS: Micro-invasive treatment was both more costly and more effective than non-invasive therapy, with ceiling-value-thresholds for willingness-to-pay between 16.73 € for E2 and 1.57 € for D1 lesions. Invasive treatment was the most costly strategy. Calculated costs and effectiveness were sensitive to lesion stage, patient's age, discounting rate and assumed initial treatment costs. CONCLUSIONS: Non- and micro-invasive treatments have lower long-term costs than invasive therapy of proximal lesions. Micro-invasive therapy had the highest cost-effectiveness for treating D1 lesions in young patients. Decision makers with a willingness-to-pay over 16.73 € and 1.57 € for E2 and D1 lesions, respectively, will find micro-invasive treatment more cost-effective than non-invasive therapy.

  3. Costs and effectiveness of treatment alternatives for proximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Stolpe, Michael; Dörfer, Christof Edmund; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Invasive therapy of proximal caries lesions initiates a cascade of re-treatment cycles with increasing loss of dental hard tissue. Non- and micro-invasive treatment aim at delaying this cascade and may thus reduce both the health and economic burden of such lesions. This study compared the costs and effectiveness of alternative treatments of proximal caries lesions. A Markov-process model was used to simulate the events following the treatment of a proximal posterior lesion (E2/D1) in a 20-year-old patient in Germany. We compared three interventions (non-invasive; micro-invasive using resin infiltration; invasive using composite restoration). We calculated the risk of complications of initial and possible follow-up treatments and modelled time-dependent non-linear transition probabilities. Costs were calculated based on item-fee catalogues in Germany. Monte-Carlo-microsimulations were performed to compare cost-effectiveness of non- versus micro-invasive treatment and to analyse lifetime costs of all three treatments. Micro-invasive treatment was both more costly and more effective than non-invasive therapy, with ceiling-value-thresholds for willingness-to-pay between 16.73 € for E2 and 1.57 € for D1 lesions. Invasive treatment was the most costly strategy. Calculated costs and effectiveness were sensitive to lesion stage, patient's age, discounting rate and assumed initial treatment costs. Non- and micro-invasive treatments have lower long-term costs than invasive therapy of proximal lesions. Micro-invasive therapy had the highest cost-effectiveness for treating D1 lesions in young patients. Decision makers with a willingness-to-pay over 16.73 € and 1.57 € for E2 and D1 lesions, respectively, will find micro-invasive treatment more cost-effective than non-invasive therapy.

  4. Strategic Placement of Treatments (SPOTS): Maximizing the Effectiveness of Fuel and Vegetation Treatments on Problem Fire Behavior and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Gercke; Susan A. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, eight U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management interdisciplinary teams participated in a test of strategic placement of treatments (SPOTS) techniques to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing problem fire behavior, adverse fire effects, and suppression costs. This interagency approach to standardizing the assessment of risks and...

  5. Enhancing treatment effectiveness through social modelling: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Perera, Anna; Loveys, Kate; Grey, Andrew; Petrie, Keith J

    2017-05-01

    Medical treatments take place in social contexts; however, little research has investigated how social modelling might influence treatment outcomes. This experimental pilot study investigated social modelling of treatment effectiveness and placebo treatment outcomes. Fifty-nine participants took part in the study, ostensibly examining the use of beta-blockers (actually placebos) for examination anxiety. Participants were randomly assigned to observe a female confederate report positive treatment effects (reduced heart rate, relaxed, calm) or feeling no different. Heart rate, anxiety and blood pressure were assessed, as were symptoms and attributed side effects. Heart rate decreased significantly more in the social modelling compared to control condition, p = .027 (d = .63), and there were trends towards effects in the same direction for both anxiety, p = .097 (d = .46), and systolic blood pressure, p = .077 (d = .51). Significant pre-post placebo differences in heart rate, anxiety and diastolic blood pressure were found in the social modelling group, ps  .28 (ds = .09-.59). Social observation of medication effectiveness enhanced placebo effectiveness in heart rate, and showed a trend towards enhancing treatment effectiveness in both anxiety and systolic blood pressure. Social modelling may have utility in enhancing the effectiveness of many active medical treatments.

  6. Effect of thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro E., E-mail: pacunaa004@alumno.uaemex.mx; López, Roberto; Vigueras-Santiago, Enrique; Hernández-López, Susana; Camacho-López, Marco [Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA). Facultad de Química de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. Paseo Colón esquina Paseo Tollocan C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Ornelas-Gutierrez, Carlos; Antunez, Wilber [Centro de investigación en Materiales Avanzados S. C. (CIMAV). Miguel de Cervantes N° 120. C.P. 31109. Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    Metallic Zn nanodisks with hexagonal morphology were obtained onto glass substrate under vacuum thermal evaporation. A thermal characterization of Zn nanodiks showed a lower oxidation temperature than source powder Zn. Different thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks played an important role on the morphology, crystal size and surface vibrational modes of ZnO. The growth of ZnO nanoneedles started at the edge of metallic zinc hexagonal structures according with SEM images, the higher temperature the longer needles were grown. XRD diffractogram confirmed the wurtzite structure of ZnO with metallic nuclei. A wide band between 530 and 580 cm{sup −1} of Raman scattering corresponded at surface vibrational modes not observed at higher temperature.

  7. Effect of thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro E. Acuña-Avila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic Zn nanodisks with hexagonal morphology were obtained onto glass substrate under vacuum thermal evaporation. A thermal characterization of Zn nanodiks showed a lower oxidation temperature than source powder Zn. Different thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks played an important role on the morphology, crystal size and surface vibrational modes of ZnO. The growth of ZnO nanoneedles started at the edge of metallic zinc hexagonal structures according with SEM images, the higher temperature the longer needles were grown. XRD diffractogram confirmed the wurtzite structure of ZnO with metallic nuclei. A wide band between 530 and 580 cm−1 of Raman scattering corresponded at surface vibrational modes not observed at higher temperature.

  8. Fibromyalgia Syndrome in Need of Effective Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilioni, Irene; Arbetman, Lauren; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Stewart, Julia M.; Gleason, Rae M.; Russell, Irwin J.

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, idiopathic condition of widespread musculoskeletal pain, affecting primarily women. It is clinically characterized by chronic, nonarticular pain and a heightened response to pressure along with sleep disturbances, fatigue, bowel and bladder abnormalities, and cognitive dysfunction. The diagnostic criteria have changed repeatedly, and there is neither a definitive pathogenesis nor reliable diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Clinical and laboratory studies have provided evidence of altered central pain pathways. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of neuroinflammation with stress peptides triggering the release of neurosenzitizing mediators. The management of FMS requires a multidimensional approach including patient education, behavioral therapy, exercise, and pain management. Here we review recent data on the pathogenesis and propose new directions for research and treatment. PMID:26306765

  9. The effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, D; Kamarulzaman, A; Meacham, M C; Rafful, C; Fischer, B; Strathdee, S A; Wood, E

    2016-02-01

    Despite widespread implementation of compulsory treatment modalities for drug dependence, there has been no systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment. We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the outcomes of compulsory treatment. We conducted a search in duplicate of all relevant peer-reviewed scientific literature evaluating compulsory treatment modalities. The following academic databases were searched: PubMed, PAIS International, Proquest, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Soc Abstracts, JSTOR, EBSCO/Academic Search Complete, REDALYC, SciELO Brazil. We also searched the Internet, and article reference lists, from database inception to July 15th, 2015. Eligibility criteria are as follows: peer-reviewed scientific studies presenting original data. Primary outcome of interest was post-treatment drug use. Secondary outcome of interest was post-treatment criminal recidivism. Of an initial 430 potential studies identified, nine quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated compulsory treatment options including drug detention facilities, short (i.e., 21-day) and long-term (i.e., 6 months) inpatient treatment, community-based treatment, group-based outpatient treatment, and prison-based treatment. Three studies (33%) reported no significant impacts of compulsory treatment compared with control interventions. Two studies (22%) found equivocal results but did not compare against a control condition. Two studies (22%) observed negative impacts of compulsory treatment on criminal recidivism. Two studies (22%) observed positive impacts of compulsory inpatient treatment on criminal recidivism and drug use. There is limited scientific literature evaluating compulsory drug treatment. Evidence does not, on the whole, suggest improved outcomes related to compulsory treatment approaches, with some studies suggesting potential harms. Given the potential for human rights abuses within compulsory

  10. Psychotherapy: The Humanistic (and Effective) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well established that psychotherapy is remarkably effective, the change process in psychotherapy is not well understood. Psychotherapy is compared with medicine and cultural healing practices to argue that critical aspects of psychotherapy involve human processes that are used in religious, spiritual, and cultural healing practices.…

  11. Key indexes of the effectiveness of mask surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Yang; Liu, Chung-Hsuan; Lin, Kuan-Wen; Lu, Chi-Lun; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Yen, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    A proper surface treatment, such as O2 plasma, helps to improve particle removal efficiency (PRE) because of the formation of hydrogen bonding between particles, water and the mask surface after treatment. The effectiveness of surface treatments cannot be determined only by the static wettability after processes. More key indexes should be considered. In this paper, we report our findings on the relationship between surface treatments on photomasks and the resulting wettability. In addition, added defects after the treatment and the cleaning process were inspected with a 193- nm KLA inspector on 193-nm immersion and EUV photomasks, which consist of SiO2, MoSi, Cr, Ta-based absorber and Ru. Based on our work, three indexes can be built for determining the effectiveness of surface treatments. The first is to check whether the surface becomes super-hydrophilic after treatment. The second is to determine the efficiency of surface treatments on enhancing wettability. The last is to quantify the added watermark count after the surface treatment and the cleaning process. With a proper surface treatment, watermarks can be greatly eased. These three indexes can quickly determine possible effective methods for treating the surfaces of different materials.

  12. Site Averaged Neutron Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the neutron probe soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  13. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  14. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  15. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  16. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  17. Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, C G

    2004-01-01

    It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient's condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future.

  18. Effect of argon plasma treatment on the output performance of triboelectric nanogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Guang-Gui, E-mail: ggcheng@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China); Jiang, Shi-Yu; Li, Kai [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Zhang, Zhong-Qiang [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China); Wang, Ying; Yuan, Ning-Yi [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China); Ding, Jian-Ning, E-mail: dingjn@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China); Zhang, Wei [Research Center of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Two different kinds of PDMS films were prepared by spin-coated. • The PDMS surface was plasma treated with different power and time. • The output performance of TENG was significantly enhanced by plasma treatment. • Plasma treatment effect has time-efficient, the output declines with store time. - Abstract: Physical and chemical properties of the polymer surface play great roles in the output performance of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Specific texture on the surface of polymer can enlarge the contact area and enhance the power output performance of TENG. In this paper, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films with smooth and micro pillar arrays on the surface were prepared respectively. The surfaces were treated by argon plasma before testing their output performance. By changing treatment parameters such as treating time and plasma power, surfaces with different roughness and their relationship were achieved. The electrical output performances of the assembled TENG for each specimen showed that argon plasma treatment has a significant etching effect on the PDMS surface and greatly strengthen its output performance. The average surface roughness of PDMS film increases with the etching time from 5 mins to 15 mins when the argon plasma power is 60 W. Nevertheless, the average surface roughness is inversely proportional to the treatment time for the power of 90W. When treated with 90 W and 5 mins, many uniform micro pillars appeared on the both PDMS surface, and the output performance of the TENG for plasma treated smooth surface is 2.6 times larger than that before treatment. The output voltage increases from 42 V to 72 V, and the short circuit current increases from 4.2 μA to 8.3 μA after plasma treatment of the micro pillar array surface. However, this plasma treatment has time-efficient due to the hydrophobic recovery property of Ar plasma treated PDMS surface, both output voltage and short circuit current decrease significantly after 3

  19. The effectiveness of empirical anti-parasitic treatment in returning travellers with persistent abdominal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Batel; Lachish, Tamar; Schwartz, Eli

    2018-01-01

    Persistent abdominal symptoms (PAS) are common among returning-travellers. In the absence of sensitive tests to identify intestinal parasites, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms often remain a diagnostic challenge. In this study we examined the effectiveness of empirical anti-parasitic treatment in returning-travellers with PAS despite no positive stool-test. A retrospective study among returning travellers who approached the clinic between the years 2014 and 2016 with GI complaints without a positive stool-test. The empirical treatment included broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agents-oral Tinidazole and Albendazole. A follow-up questionnaire was performed at least 6 months post-treatment. A total of 102 patients responded the questionnaire-50% women; average age 31.14 (±12.20) years. The average duration of complaints before treatment was 16.52 (±30.06) months. Common GI symptoms included abdominal pain (83.3%) and diarrhoea (78.4%); 67.6% of the patients complained of extreme fatigue. Overall, 69% of the patients reported an improvement in GI symptoms, 37% of them reported full recovery within a few weeks post-treatment. Furthermore, there was an improvement in the energy level and general well-being in 68% and 70% of the patients, respectively. Only 33% of the patients reported minor side effects related to the treatment. The improvement in GI symptoms, energy level and general well-being shortly after anti-parasitic treatment justifies this empirical approach in returning-travellers with PAS despite negative stool-tests. The association between fatigue and PAS post-travel and the improvement in both as a response to treatment defines fatigue as part of a new syndrome-'Post-travel fatigue and abdominal symptoms'. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Comparative Characteristics of the Results of Evacuation to Healthcare Facilities and Treatment Outcomes of Children Who Applied for First Aid With Acute Abdominal Pains. The Case of an Emergency Medical Setting of an Average Municipal Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina А. Romanova; Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova; Elena Yu. Dyakonova; Aleksey Yu. Romanov; Kazbek S. Mezhidov; Zharadat I. Dohshukaeva

    2017-01-01

    Background. Despite the active development of diagnostic capabilities, the problems of diagnosis at the pre-hospital stage with abdominal pain remain unresolved. Objective. Our aim was to analyze the results of evacuation to healthcare facilities as well as treatment outcomes (conservative and surgical) of hospitalized children who applied for first aid with acute abdominal pain, in order to identify possible shortcomings in the existing diagnostic algorithm and its optimization. Methods. The...

  1. The effect of tetrafluoromethane plasma post-treatment on the electrical property of tungsten oxide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Lin, Jun-Cheng; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Mangindaan, Dave; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2011-09-01

    The effects of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma on the surface morphology, chemical compositions, and electrical property of tungsten oxide (W18O49) nanowires are investigated. The nanostructured tungsten oxide nanowires with average length of 250-350 nm were self-catalytically grown on Si substrate. By post-treatment with CF4 plasma for 10 min, the W18O49 nanowires on the substrate showed the highest current response. Longer CF4 plasma post-treatment time demonstrated higher etching effect which demolished the nanowires and resulted in lower conductivity of the samples. The disintegration of the W18O49 nanowires layer after CF4 plasma treatment, revealed physically by the decrease of the average thickness and chemically by the decrease of XRD peak ratio (I 23.0/I 26.0), was closely related to the overall electrical performance. The etching effect was further reveled by Raman spectra showing the evolution of O-W-O and W=O characteristics with the increased post-treatment time. Moreover, the improvement of the electrical property of W18O49 nanowires was elucidated by the exposure rate to explain the mechanism of plasma post treatment in three stages: passivation, degradation and ablation. The maximum exposure rate, corresponding to the maximum conductivity, was achieved by 10 min of CF4 plasma treatment. The time-differentiated exposure analyses confirmed the evolution of resistance of W18O49 nanowires on Si with different post-treatment time which supported the results of surface characterizations.

  2. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research : Standards for establishing the effects of treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present

  3. Recidivism after treatment in a forensic youth-psychiatric setting: the effect of treatment characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Breuk, R.; Jongman, E.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of treatment characteristics on recidivism in a forensic youth-psychiatric outpatient clinic. The treatment offered comprised functional family therapy (FFT), individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or CBT in combination with parent training.

  4. Comparative Characteristics of the Results of Evacuation to Healthcare Facilities and Treatment Outcomes of Children Who Applied for First Aid With Acute Abdominal Pains. The Case of an Emergency Medical Setting of an Average Municipal Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina А. Romanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the active development of diagnostic capabilities, the problems of diagnosis at the pre-hospital stage with abdominal pain remain unresolved. Objective. Our aim was to analyze the results of evacuation to healthcare facilities as well as treatment outcomes (conservative and surgical of hospitalized children who applied for first aid with acute abdominal pain, in order to identify possible shortcomings in the existing diagnostic algorithm and its optimization. Methods. The results of treatment outcomes for children with acute abdominal pain at the pre-hospital stage and evacuation to healthcare facilities by visiting teams for the period 2014–2015. are presented by the example of the State Institution «Engels Emergency Medical Setting». Results. Difficulties in routing children to the necessary healthcare facilities (surgical or somatic are due to the complexities of differential diagnosis of the disease in children with acute abdominal pain at the pre-hospital stage. Conclusion. The main task of the primary care and emergency physician at the pre-hospital stage, whose decision determines the direction of the diagnostic search, timeliness and adequacy of the subsequent treatment measures, is to give a correct assessment of abdominal pain syndrome. 

  5. A pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic model to evaluate the treatment effectiveness of danoprevir against chronic HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canini, Laetitia; Chatterjee, Anushree; Guedj, Jeremie; Lemenuel-Diot, Annabelle; Brennan, Barbara; Smith, Patrick F; Perelson, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    Viral kinetic models have proven useful to characterize treatment effectiveness during HCV therapy with interferon (IFN) or with direct-acting antivirals. We use a pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic (PK/VK) model to describe HCV RNA kinetics during treatment with danoprevir, a protease inhibitor. In a Phase I study, danoprevir monotherapy was administered for 14 days in ascending doses ranging from 200 to 600 mg per day to 40 patients of whom 32 were treatment-naive and 8 were non-responders to prior pegylated IFN-α/ribavirin treatment. In all patients, a biphasic decline of HCV RNA during therapy was observed. A two-compartment PK model and a VK model that considered treatment effectiveness to vary with the predicted danoprevir concentration inside the second compartment provided a good fit to the viral load data. A time-varying effectiveness model was also used to fit the viral load data. The antiviral effectiveness increased in a dose-dependent manner, with a 14-day time-averaged effectiveness of 0.95 at the lowest dose (100 mg twice daily) and 0.99 at the highest dose (200 mg three times daily). Prior IFN non-responders exhibited a 14-day time-averaged effectiveness of 0.98 (300 mg twice daily). The second phase decline showed two different behaviours, with 30% of patients exhibiting a rapid decline of HCV RNA, comparable to that seen with other protease inhibitors (>0.3 day(-1)), whereas the viral decline was slower in the other patients. Our results are consistent with the modest SVR rates from the INFORM-SVR study where patients were treated with a combination of mericitabine and ritonavir-boosted danoprevir.

  6. Between-centre differences and treatment effects in randomized controlled trials: A case study in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Ian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI, large between-centre differences in outcome exist and many clinicians believe that such differences influence estimation of the treatment effect in randomized controlled trial (RCTs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of between-centre differences in outcome on the estimated treatment effect in a large RCT in TBI. Methods We used data from the MRC CRASH trial on the efficacy of corticosteroid infusion in patients with TBI. We analyzed the effect of the treatment on 14 day mortality with fixed effect logistic regression. Next we used random effects logistic regression with a random intercept to estimate the treatment effect taking into account between-centre differences in outcome. Between-centre differences in outcome were expressed with a 95% range of odds ratios (OR for centres compared to the average, based on the variance of the random effects (tau2. A random effects logistic regression model with random slopes was used to allow the treatment effect to vary by centre. The variation in treatment effect between the centres was expressed in a 95% range of the estimated treatment ORs. Results In 9978 patients from 237 centres, 14-day mortality was 19.5%. Mortality was higher in the treatment group (OR = 1.22, p = 0.00010. Using a random effects model showed large between-centre differences in outcome (95% range of centre effects: 0.27- 3.71, but did not substantially change the estimated treatment effect (OR = 1.24, p = 0.00003. There was limited, although statistically significant, between-centre variation in the treatment effect (OR = 1.22, 95% treatment OR range: 1.17-1.26. Conclusion Large between-centre differences in outcome do not necessarily affect the estimated treatment effect in RCTs, in contrast to current beliefs in the clinical area of TBI.

  7. The Effects of Spiral Taping Treatment on Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jae-Ok

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of spiral taping treatment on low back pain. Methods : 420 low back pain patients were treated with spiral taping or spiral taping plus herbal medicine, and no other treatments such as acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, and chiropractic therapy were added. We evaluated the improvement by physical examination and pain. Results : 364 patients felt no pain or inconvenience of daily life and 43 patients showed improvement of pain or symptom after 1 month of treatment. 13 patients showed same pain with before treatment. Conclusions : These results suggest spiral taping treatments contribute to the improvement of low back pain. Further study is needed for the confirmation of this effect of spiral taping treatments on low back pain.

  8. Unpacking the therapist effect: Impact of treatment length differs for high- and low-performing therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Simon B; Hoyt, William T; Nissen-Lie, Helene A; Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Wampold, Bruce E

    2016-09-12

    Differences between therapists in their average outcomes (i.e., therapist effects) have become a topic of increasing interest in psychotherapy research in the past decade. Relatively little work, however, has moved beyond identifying the presence of significant between-therapist variability in patient outcomes. The current study sought to examine the ways in which therapist effects emerge over the course of time in psychotherapy. We used a large psychotherapy data set (n = 5828 patients seen by n = 158 therapists for 50,048 sessions of psychotherapy) and examined whether outcomes diverge for high-performing (HP) and low-performing (LP) therapists as treatment duration increases. Therapists accounted for a small but significant proportion of variance in patient outcomes that was not explained by differences between therapists' caseload characteristics. The discrepancy in outcomes between HP and LP therapists increased as treatment duration increased (interaction coefficient = 0.071, p < .001). In addition, patients' trajectories of change were a function of their therapist's average outcome as well as the patient's duration of treatment (interaction coefficient = 0.060, p = .040). Indeed, patterns of change previously described ignoring between-therapist differences (e.g., dose-effect, good-enough level model) may vary systematically when disaggregated by therapist effect.

  9. The Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Khedkar, Nitin K.; Jagtap, Bhushan; Singh, T. P.

    2017-08-01

    Enhancing the cutting tool life is important and economic factor to reduce the tooling as well as manufacturing cost. The tool life is improved considerably by 92 % after cryogenic treatment. The cryogenic treatment is a one-time permanent, sub-zero heat treatment that entirely changes cross-section of cutting tool. The cryogenic treatment is carried out with deep freezing of cutting tool materials to enhance physical and mechanical properties. The cryogenic treatment improves mechanical such as hardness, toughness and tribological properties such as wear resistance, coefficient of friction, surface finish, dimensional stability and stress relief. The deep cryogenic treatment is the most beneficial treatment applied on cutting tools. The cryogenic treatment is the most advanced heat treatment and popular to improve performance of the cutting tool. The optimization of cryogenic treatment variables is necessary to improve tool life. This study reviews the effects of cryogenic treatment on microstructure, tribological properties of tool steels and machining applications of cutting tool by investigating the surface and performing the surface characterization test like SEM. The economy of cutting tool can be achieved by deep cryogenic treatment.

  10. The treatment effects of Invisalign orthodontic aligners: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagravère, Manuel O; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine the treatment effects of the Invisalign orthodontic system (Align Technology), Santa Clara, Calif.). The authors reviewed clinical trials that assessed Invisalign's treatment effects in nongrowing patients. They did not consider trials involving surgical or other simultaneous fixed or removable orthodontic treatment interventions. The authors searched electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, EMBASE Excerpta Medica, Thomsen's ISI Web of Science and LILACS) with the help of a senior health sciences librarian. They used "Invisalign" as the sole search term, and 22 documents appeared in the combined search. Thereafter, they used "clinical trials," "humans" and "Invisalign treatment effects" as abstract selection criteria. Only two published articles met these inclusion criteria, though after reading the actual articles, the authors determined that they did not adequately evaluate Invisalign treatment effects. Both articles identified methodological issues. The inadequately designed studies the authors found represented only a lower level of evidence (level II). Therefore, the authors found that no strong conclusions could be made regarding the treatment effects of Invisalign appliances. Future prospective randomized clinical trials are required to support, with sound scientific evidence, the claims about Invisalign's treatment effects. Clinicians will have to rely on their Invisalign clinical experience, the opinions of experts and the limited published evidence when using Invisalign appliances.

  11. The Holistic Effects of Acupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, as a complex medical science which reflects philosophical principles and embodies large dialectical thought, is used to place the human body into a large system for observation. Acupuncture as a vital part of TCM, has been practiced to treat various diseases and symptoms. However, acupuncture is also facing severe challenges resulted from insufficient modern scientific research. Nowadays, the holistic effects of acupuncture can be researched by some modern approaches, such as the systems biology and fMRI technique. It is believed that having a better understand will greatly promote acupuncture research and be beneficial to scientization and modernization of acupuncture.

  12. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    measurement of satisfaction with treatment . AM J Man Care. 1997;3:579-594. 38. Borras JM, Sancez-Hernandez A, Navarro M, et al. Compliance...of Prostate Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ravishankar Jayadevappa, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0257 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ravishankar

  13. Costs and water quality effects of wastewater treatment plant centralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    The costs and water quality impacts of two regional configurations of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Northeastern Illinois are compared. In one configuration, several small treatment plants are consolidated into a smaller number of regional facilities. In the other, the smaller plants continue to operate. Costs for modifying the plants to obtain various levels of pollutant removal are estimated using a simulation model that considers the type of equipment existing at the plants and the costs of modifying that equipment to obtain a range of effluent levels for various pollutants. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine the water quality effects of the various treatment technologies and pollutant levels. Cost and water quality data are combined and the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment configurations is compared. The regionalized treatment-plant configuration is found to be the more cost-effective.

  14. The effectiveness of evidence-based treatments for personality disorders when comparing treatment-as-usual and bona fide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Stephanie L; Moore, Jonathan T; Del Re, A C; Wampold, Bruce E; Baardseth, Timothy P; Nienhuis, Jacob B

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of Study 1 was to examine the relative efficacy of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) when compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) for adults diagnosed with a personality disorder (PD). The purpose of Study 2 was to investigate the strength of the differences between bona fide psychotherapeutic treatments for PDs. Two separate computerized searches were conducted of: (a) studies that directly compared an EBT with a TAU for treatment of PDs, or (b) studies that compared at least two bona fide treatments for PDs. Meta-analytic methods were used to estimate the effectiveness of the treatments when compared to one another and to model how various confounding variables impacted the results of this comparative research. A total of 30 studies (Study 1; N=1662) were included in the meta-analysis comparing EBTs to TAU. A total of 12 studies (Study 2; N=723) were included in the meta-analysis comparing bona fide treatments. Study 1 found that EBTs were superior to TAU, although the TAU conditions were not comparable in many respects (e.g., not psychotherapy, lacking supervision, lacking training, etc.) to the EBT and there was significant heterogeneity in the effects. Study 2 found that some bona fide treatments were superior to others. © 2013.

  15. Identification of Local Treatment Effects Using a Proxy for an Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Chalak

    2010-01-01

    The method of indirect least squares (ILS) using a proxy for a discrete instrument is shown to identify a weighted average of local treatment effects. The weights are nonnegative if and only if the proxy is intensity preserving for the instrument. A similar result holds for instrumental variables (IV) methods such as two stage least squares. Thus, one should carefully interpret estimates for causal effects obtained via ILS or IV using an error-laden proxy of an instrument, a proxy for an inst...

  16. Effect of the personality traits of the patient on pain perception and attitude toward orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Kadu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits, pain perception, and person′s attitude toward orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of two groups: Group 1 consisted of 100 treated subjects (50 males, 50 females; average age, 16.07 ± 1.36 years, and Group 2 consisted of 100 untreated subjects (50 males, 50 females; average age, 16.07 ± 1.41 years. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire that included an assessment of patients′ personality profiles, pain expectation for untreated subjects, pain experience for treated subjects, and attitude toward orthodontic treatment. Results: Gender and treatment status did not affect pain perception and attitude of a person toward orthodontic treatment. There was a strong relationship between pain perception and attitude with Pearson′s correlation of 0.367 and P ≤ 0.0001. With one unit increase in attitude there was 0.43 units increase in pain. Patients with high levels of trait neuroticism (P = 0.01 and low levels of trait conscientiousness (P = 0.02 experienced more pain. Patients with high levels of trait conscientiousness showed better attitude (P = 0.01. Conclusion: Personality traits, neuroticism, and conscientiousness have effect on pain perception and attitude of patients toward orthodontic treatment. Patients with better attitude experienced less pain and patients with less pain exhibited better attitude.

  17. EFFECT OF THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT ON PROPERTIES OF PARICA PLYWOODS (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian de Almeida Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Thermo-mechanical treatment is a technique for wood modification in which samples are densified by means of heat and mechanical compression, applied perpendicularly to fibers, which under different combinations of time, temperature, and pressure increases wood density and thus improve some of its properties. This study aimed to treat thermo-mechanically parica plywood and observe the effects on its physical and mechanical properties. Specimens were submitted to two treatments, 120 and 150 ºC, remaining under pressure for seven minutes and, subsequently, under zero pressure for 15 minutes. Results showed a significant increase in specific mass from 0.48 g cm-3 to an average of 0.56 g cm-3, and a compression ratio of about 31.7% on average. Physical properties also varied significantly and results showed that treated samples swelled and absorbed more water than those untreated, leading to a greater thickness non-return rate. This indicates the proposed thermal treatments did not release the internal compressive stress generated during panel pressing, not improving its dimensional stability as a result. On the other hand, mechanical properties were positively affected, leading to an increase of 27.5% and 51.8% in modulus of rupture after treatments at 120 and 150 ºC, respectively. Modulus of elasticity and glue-line shear strength did not vary statistically and Janka hardness was 29.7% higher after treatment at 150 ºC.

  18. Mode-Specific Effects among Three Treatments for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Stanley D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Randomly assigned 250 depressed outpatients to interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine plus clinical management, or pill placebo plus clinical management treatments. All treatments demonstrated significant symptom reduction with few differences in general outcomes. None of the therapies produced consistent effects on…

  19. Effect of heat treatment on structure and magnetic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Fe46Co35Ni19/CNTs nanocomposites have been prepared by an easy two-step route including adsorp- tion and heat treatment processes. We investigated the effect of heat treatment conditions on structure, mor- phology, nanoparticle sizes and magnetic properties of the Fe46Co35Ni19 alloy nanoparticles ...

  20. Clinical effects of sirolimus treatment in patients with increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, liver function, blood glucose, blood lipid levels, rejection reaction incidence, and mortality were recorded to evaluate the effects of SRL. Results: Scr .... and after treatment (p > 0.05). Blood glucose levels were normalized after treatment, and this difference was significant (p < 0.05) (Table 1). Adverse reactions.

  1. Effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on mechanical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roystonea regia fibre; epoxy resin; alkali treatment; mechanical properties. Abstract. The present paper investigates the effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on tensile, flexural and impact properties of unidirectional Roystonea regia natural-fibre-reinforced epoxy composites which are partially biodegradable.

  2. Effects of source, water conditioning and thermal treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of source, water conditioning and thermal treatment on germination of Ricinodendron heudelotii (baill.) seeds. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... R. heudelotii seeds soaked in water for 15 days at moisture content of 24 % over dry weight followed by thermal treatment improved germination by 22 %.

  3. Moringa extracts used in sugarcane juice treatment and effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane juice treatment using Moringa oleifera leaf and seeds extracts on ethanolic fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments were three sedimentation agents (synthetic polyelectrolyte, ...

  4. The Clinical effectiveness of sequential treatment of skeletal class III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the dentofacial changes induced by the sequential treatment in the skeletal class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathism. Study design: Controlled clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of sequential treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The treated group consisted of 30 ...

  5. Effect of polyaluminium chloride water treatment sludge on effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of polyaluminium chloride water treatment sludge on effluent quality of domestic wastewater treatment. ... The results obtained showed a decrease in total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total ammonium nitrogen (TAN), and total phosphates (TP) in the supernatant after 30 min of settlement.

  6. Effects of Hot Water Treatment and Temperature on Seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, to study the effect of hot water treatment and temperature on the morphological characteristics of Arabic gum. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial arrangement. The treatments included a ...

  7. Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    diagnosis and treatment is the type of acupuncture we offered the veterans and we found good results. 11 We will mail a public version of these...325. 7 Wigers SH, Stiles TC, Vogael PA. Effects of aerobic exercise versus stress management treatment in fibromyalgia : a 4.5 year prospective study

  8. Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and their Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    of leaves (10.05) respectively. Pre-germination treatments of seeds soaked in running water (SRW) for 24 hours were found to be more effective in seedlings growth and biomass production. Keywords: Tectona grandis, pre-germination treatment, seed dormancy, seedling growth. Introduction. Tectona grandis is one of the ...

  9. Predicting the effect of psychoeducational group treatment for hypochondriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, F.M.; Bouman, T.K.

    2008-01-01

    Both individual cognitive-behavioural therapy and short-term psychoeducational courses have shown to be effective in reducing hypochondriacal complaints. However, it is unknown which patients benefit from treatment. The aim of the present study is to explore which variables predict treatment outcome

  10. Effect of heat treatment on structure and magnetic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fe46Co35Ni19/CNTs nanocomposites have been prepared by an easy two-step route including adsorption and heat treatment processes. We investigated the effect of heat treatment conditions on structure, morphology, nanoparticle sizes and magnetic properties of the Fe46Co35Ni19 alloy nanoparticles attached on the ...

  11. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain physico-chemical properties including viscoelasticity, crystallinity and maltose content of corn depends on the gelatinization of starch under different treatments. Three different treatments were performed; boiling in water, steam heating, and germination. The effects of gelatinization on viscoelastic property of corn ...

  12. Effect of time on dyeing wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tingjin; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Chen, Xiaogang; Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent using high temperature activated fly ash and sodium carboxymethyl chitosan (CWF), as with the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis process simulation and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The effects of mixing time and static time on decolorization ratio, COD removing rate and turbidness removing rate were investigated. The experimental results show that the wastewater stirring times on the decolorization rate and COD removal rate and turbidity removal rate influence, with increasing of the stirring time, three showed a downward trend, and reached the peak at 10 min time; wastewater time on the decolorization ratio and COD removing efficiency and turbidness removing rate influence, along with standing time increase, three who declined and reached the maximum in 30min time.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of diacetylmorphine versus methadone for chronic opioid dependence refractory to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Guh, Daphne P; Bansback, Nicholas J; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Brissette, Suzanne; Marsh, David C; Meikleham, Evan; Schechter, Martin T; Anis, Aslam H

    2012-04-03

    Although diacetylmorphine has been proven to be more effective than methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, its direct costs are higher. We compared the cost-effectiveness of diacetylmorphine and methadone maintenance treatment for chronic opioid dependence refractory to treatment. We constructed a semi-Markov cohort model using data from the North American Opiate Medication Initiative trial, supplemented with administrative data for the province of British Columbia and other published data, to capture the chronic, recurrent nature of opioid dependence. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to compare diacetylmorphine and methadone over 1-, 5-, 10-year and lifetime horizons. Diacetylmorphine was found to be a dominant strategy over methadone maintenance treatment in each of the time horizons. Over a lifetime horizon, our model showed that people receiving methadone gained 7.46 discounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) on average (95% credibility interval [CI] 6.91-8.01) and generated a societal cost of $1.14 million (95% CI $736,800-$1.78 million). Those who received diacetylmorphine gained 7.92 discounted QALYs on average (95% CI 7.32-8.53) and generated a societal cost of $1.10 million (95% CI $724,100-$1.71 million). Cost savings in the diacetylmorphine cohort were realized primarily because of reductions in the costs related to criminal activity. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of diacetylmorphine being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $0 per QALY gained was 76%; the probability was 95% at a threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results were confirmed over a range of sensitivity analyses. Using mathematical modelling to extrapolate results from the North American Opiate Medication Initiative, we found that diacetylmorphine may be more effective and less costly than methadone among people with chronic opioid dependence refractory to treatment.

  14. The Effect of Temperature Treatment on the Structure of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Zerball

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the effect of thermal treatment on the internal structure of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs. In order to get insight into the internal structure of PEMs, Neutron Reflectometry (NR was used. PEMs with a deuterated inner block towards the substrate and a non-deuterated outer block were prepared and measured in 1% RH and in D2O before and after a thermal treatment. Complementarily, PEMs with the same number of layers but completely non-deuterated were investigated by ellipsometry. The analysis for the overall thickness (d, the average scattering length density (SLD and the refractive index (n indicate a degradation of the PEM. The loss in material is independent of the number of layers, i.e., only a constant part of the PEM is affected by degradation. The analysis of the internal structure revealed a more complex influence of thermal treatment on PEM structure. Only the outermost part of the PEM degenerates, while the inner part becomes denser during the thermal treatment. In addition, the swelling behavior of PEMs is influenced by the thermal treatment. The untreated PEM shows a well pronounced odd—even effect, i.e., PDADMAC-terminated PEMs take up more water than PSS-terminated PEMs. After the thermal treatment, the odd-even effect becomes much weaker.

  15. Acute effects of acupuncture treatment with Baihui (GV20) on human arterial stiffness and wave reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroyasu

    2009-06-01

    Treatment by manual acupuncture needling affects the vascular wall tone, and hemodynamic parameters for arterial stiffness may be characterized by treatment at the traditional acupuncture point (acupoint) of Baihui (GV20). The acute effects of acupuncture treatment on arterial stiffness and wave reflection were investigated and, simultaneously, an augmentation index (AI), as an index of wave reflection, was estimated. These parameters were measured in male volunteers using applanation tonometry during 20 minutes of acupuncture treatment and 40 minutes post-acupuncture. During treatment, diastolic blood pressure (BP), but not systolic BP, increased significantly. Heart rates (HR) initially tended to increase and then decrease. The AI from radial arteries increased significantly, while central aortic blood pressure (CBP) was unaffected. Post-acupuncture, the effects lasted for 30-40 minutes. The average BP and HR were +10.1+/-0.3% and -7.2+/-0.2%, respectively, and the CBPs were not altered, but the AI decreased markedly; this latter effect presumably resulted from the involvement of neurovascular modulators. These results indicated that acute treatment at Baihui enhanced arteriosclerotic parameters. In post-acupuncture, the AI profoundly decreased, presumably resulting from the involvement with neurovascular modulators.

  16. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, L; Flores, J; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics

  17. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed.

  18. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Standards for establishing the effects of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present both group and single-subject experimental or case-series design options for doing this and address advantages and disadvantages of each. We also discuss general components of and requirements for treatment research studies, including operational definitions of variables, criteria for defining behavioral change and treatment efficacy, and reliability of measurement. Important considerations that are unique to neuroimaging-based treatment research are addressed, pertaining to the relation between the selected treatment approach and anticipated changes in language processes/functions and how such changes are hypothesized to map onto the brain. PMID:23063559

  19. Prolotherapy: An Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain? Is prolotherapy an effective treatment for chronic low back pain? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Prolotherapy is ... reduced pain. Studies of prolotherapy in people with low back pain have had mixed results. A combination of prolotherapy ...

  20. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Colorectal cancer Uterine cancer Vaginal cancer Breast cancer Bladder cancer Types of Sexual Side Effects For women, the ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  1. Weighted south-wide average pulpwood prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; Kevin D. Growther

    1991-01-01

    Weighted average prices provide a more accurate representation of regional pulpwood price trends when production volumes valy widely by state. Unweighted South-wide average delivered prices for pulpwood, as reported by Timber Mart-South, were compared to average annual prices weighted by each state's pulpwood production from 1977 to 1986. Weighted average prices...

  2. Averaging of nonlinearity-managed pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharnitsky, Vadim; Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the nonlinearity management which describes Bose-Einstein condensates under Feshbach resonance. By using an averaging theory, we derive the Hamiltonian averaged equation and compare it with other averaging methods developed for this problem. The averaged equation is used for analytical approximations of nonlinearity-managed solitons

  3. Effects of rehabilitation treatment on thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Irene; Romitelli, Federica; Piazzini, Diana Barbara; Padua, Luca; Lancellotti, Stefano; Maggi, Loredana; Zuppi, Cecilia; Bertolini, Carlo; Di Stasio, Enrico

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of an intensive rehabilitation programme on thyroid metabolism, the relationship between disability and thyroid hormone level, and the occurrence of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) before and after rehabilitation. This was a clinical prospective study. Orthopaedic surgery patients (n = 82) were classified into two groups: patients in whom early active mobilization and walking were possible (walking group, WG, n = 45), and patients in whom these were not recommended (nonwalking group, NWG, n = 37). Levels of free T3 (fT3), fT4, TSH and rT3 were measured before and after surgery, and then at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days from the beginning of rehabilitation. Personal, nutritional and clinical data were acquired for all patients. The Barthel Index (BI) was used to assess disability before and after rehabilitation. Immediately after surgery, both groups of patients showed a significant decrease in mean fT3 concentrations and a significant increase in rT3; mean fT4 values decreased significantly only in NWG patients. Once rehabilitation had been completed, fT3 and rT3 levels returned to baseline values in WG patients. In NWG patients mean fT3 and fT4 levels continued to decrease significantly and rT3 values remained significantly high until the end of rehabilitation. NTIS occurred in 38% of the NWG patients. No significant changes in TSH levels were observed in either group. Finally, we observed a direct correlation between fT3 levels and the BI in WG patients. Our data suggest that early patient mobilization and physical activity during an active and intensive rehabilitation programme induce recovery of thyroid function and avoid occurrence of NTIS.

  4. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR ZONATION PURPOSES, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ja. Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Cu/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are 10 more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15,1991 «On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant». The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: – The average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; – Soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Cu/km2. The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2014. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the

  5. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR THE ZONATION PURPOSES, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Bruk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Ci/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are ten more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15 1991 “On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant”. The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: 1 the average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; 2 soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Ci/km2.The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2017. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the calculations have been

  6. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ren; Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting; Sze, S.M.; Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H.; Yeh, Fon-Shan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  7. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng, E-mail: scchen0213@gmail.co [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute of Electronic Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang [Department of Physics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Ren [Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Sze, S.M. [Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H. [ProMOS Technologies, No. 19 Li Hsin Rd., Science-Based Industrial Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Yeh, Fon-Shan [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute of Electronic Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  8. Modelling the effects of treatment and quarantine on measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beay, Lazarus Kalvein

    2018-03-01

    Treatment and quarantine are efforts to cure as well as to overcome the spread of diseases including measles. The spread of measles can be expressed by mathematical modelling in the form of nonlinear dynamical systems. In this study was conducted on the spread of measles by considering the effect of treatment and quarantine on the infected individuals. By using the basic reproduction number of the model, can be analyzed the effects of treatment and quarantine to reduce the spread of measles. Basic reproduction number of models is monotonically descreasing as treatment and quarantine increasing. Numerical simulations conducted on the analysis of the results. The results showed that treatment and quarantine was given to infected individuals who were infectious has a major influence to eliminate measles from the system.

  9. Adverse breast cancer treatment effects: the economic case for making rehabilitative programs standard of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; DiSipio, Tracey; Gordon, Louisa G; Hayes, Sandra C

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the patient-borne financial cost of common, adverse breast cancer treatment-associated effects, comparing cost across women with or without these side effects. Two hundred eighty-seven Australian women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer were prospectively followed starting at 6 months post-surgery for 12 months, with three monthly assessments of detailed treatment-related side effects and their direct and indirect patient costs attributable to breast cancer. Bootstrapping statistics were used to analyze cost data, and adjusted logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between costs and adverse events from breast cancer. Costs were inflated and converted from 2002 Australian to 2014 US dollars. More than 90 % of women experienced at least one adverse effect (i.e., post-surgical issue, reaction to radiotherapy, upper-body symptoms or reduced function, lymphedema, fatigue, or weight gain). On average, women paid $5,636 (95 % confidence interval (CI), $4,694, $6,577) in total costs. Women with any one of the following symptoms (fatigue, reduced upper-body function, upper-body symptoms) or women who report ≥4 adverse treatment-related effects, have 1.5 to nearly 4 times the odds of having higher healthcare costs than women who do not report these complaints (p treatment-related health problems, which may persist beyond the treatment period. Improving breast cancer care by incorporating prospective surveillance of treatment-related side effects and strategies for prevention and treatment of concerns (e.g., exercise) has real potential for reducing patient-borne costs.

  10. Chemistry of cost effective water treatment programme in HWP (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Laxmana Prasad, K.

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a water treatment programme following points must be kept in mind: Effectiveness to achieve desired water quality objectives; Compliance with regulatory requirements; Cost minimization; Safety; Easy operation and protection to equipments. Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) laboratory has developed treatment programs to treat raw water and cooling water which satisfy the above requirements and has been in use for last several years successfully without any problem. These treatment programs have been given to other plants in Heavy Water Board for implementation. This paper describes the chemistry of the treatment program and cost minimization achieved. Further these treatments have helped the plant in achieving ΦZero Discharge and indirectly reduced the production cost. The chemistry parameters are monitored regularly to ascertain the effectiveness of these treatments. The areas where significant benefits derived are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and development of in-house cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments helped the plant in achieving Zero discharge and indirectly reduced production cost of heavy water. The dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15 - 20 Lakhs in a year besides other advantages. The changeover of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs. 1.4 Crore a year along with other advantages. The change over of proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted a saving about Rs. 11 Lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored (author)

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of the Different Treatment Modalities for Snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Stefanie; De Medts, Joris; Delsupehe, Kathelijne

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate what effects treatments of sleep-disordered breathing have on snoring and sleepiness: snoring surgery including osteotomies, mandibular advancement device (MAD), and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Single-institution prospective comparative effectiveness trial. University-affiliated secondary care teaching hospital. We prospectively studied 224 patients presenting with snoring at our department. All patients underwent detailed evaluation, including symptom questionnaires, clinical examination, polysomnography, and drug-induced sleep endoscopy. Based on these results, a treatment was proposed after multidisciplinary consultation. Treatment was evaluated through 4 questionnaires before treatment and 6 weeks and 6 months after. Treatment success was defined as a global snoring visual analog scale score ≤3 at 6 months. A total of 195 patients complied with full workup and were proposed treatment. The mean age was 46 ± 11 years; the mean body mass index, 27 ± 4; and the median apnea-hypopnea index, 10.0 (interquartile range, 4.7-20.1). After discussion, 116 (59.5%) patients agreed to start treatment (46%, surgery; 26% MAD; 28% CPAP). All symptom scores, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale, decreased significantly for all treatments at 6 weeks and 6 months. Treatment was successful in 67% of the surgery patients, 67% of the MAD group, and 76% of the CPAP group. Only 6.7% reported an unchanged snoring score in the surgery group, compared with 13.6% in the MAD group and 9.6 % in the CPAP group. Multidisciplinary agreed-on treatment of snoring is effective across the proposed treatments. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of treatments for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer C; Louie, Michelle; Moulder, Janelle K; Ellis, Victoria; Schiff, Lauren D; Toubia, Tarek; Siedhoff, Matthew T; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2017-11-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding affects up to one third of women in the United States, resulting in a reduced quality of life and significant cost to the health care system. Multiple treatment options exist, offering different potential for symptom control at highly variable initial costs, but the relative value of these treatment options is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of 4 treatment options for heavy menstrual bleeding: hysterectomy, resectoscopic endometrial ablation, nonresectoscopic endometrial ablation, and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. We formulated a decision tree evaluating private payer costs and quality-adjusted life years over a 5 year time horizon for premenopausal women with heavy menstrual bleeding and no suspected malignancy. For each treatment option, we used probabilities derived from literature review to estimate frequencies of minor complications, major complications, and treatment failure resulting in the need for additional treatments. Treatments were compared in terms of total average costs, quality-adjusted life years, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to understand the range of possible outcomes if model inputs were varied. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system had superior quality-of-life outcomes to hysterectomy with lower costs. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system was cost-effective compared with hysterectomy in the majority of scenarios (90%). Both resectoscopic and nonresectoscopic endometrial ablation were associated with reduced costs compared with hysterectomy but resulted in a lower average quality of life. According to standard willingness-to-pay thresholds, resectoscopic endometrial ablation was considered cost effective compared with hysterectomy in 44% of scenarios, and nonresectoscopic endometrial ablation was considered cost effective

  13. Morphea - selected local treatment methods and their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutt, Joanna; Hołdrowicz, Agnieszka; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Localised scleroderma is an uncommon connective tissue disease of multifactorial aetiology occurring in the paediatric and adult population. It is relatively difficult to conduct any research on the subject of this disease entity treatment due to the low number of patients suffering from morphea, a tendency of the disease to remit spontaneously, and not yet well recognised aetiology. Hence, there has been developed no causal treatment of well-proven effectiveness, and schedules of symptomatic therapy are not yet clearly determined. The paper depicts most widely used topical treatment methods in morphea therapy, which due to minor risk of systemic adverse effects seem to be a beneficial therapeutic alternative. The main aim of this article was to analyse different topical treatment options used in localised scleroderma therapy and to indicate the most appropriate, safe, and effective one.

  14. Expectation, the placebo effect and the response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Walter A

    2015-05-01

    What we believe we will experience from a treatment--our expectation--has a substantial impact on what we actually experience. Expectation has been established as a key process behind the placebo effect. Studies in both laboratory and clinical settings consistently show that when people ingest a pharmacologically inert substance (placebo) but believe that it is an active substance, they experience both the subjective sensations and physiologic effects expected from that active substance. Expectation has an important place in the response to "real" treatment as well. This paper provides an overview of the data which point to the role of expectation in both the placebo effect and the response to treatment. These data suggest that clinicians might enhance the benefit of all treatments by promoting patients' positive expectations.

  15. Towards a framework for treatment effectiveness in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juckel G

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Georg Juckel,1 Andrea de Bartolomeis,2 Philip Gorwood,3 Sergey Mosolov,4 Luca Pani,5 Alessandro Rossi,6 Julio Sanjuan7 1Department of Psychiatry, LWL-University Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry and Unit of Treatment Resistant Psychosis, University School of Medicine of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy; 3Groupe Hospitalier Sainte-Anne (CMME, Paris-Descartes University, Paris, France; 4Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia; 5Institute of Translational Pharmacology, Italian National Research Council, Rome, Italy; 6Università de L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy; 7Clinic Hospital, Spanish Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain Introduction: Prompt administration of antipsychotic treatment that is adhered to is essential for the optimal treatment of schizophrenia. Many patients have benefited from the advent of second-generation antipsychotics, which can offer good symptomatic control with reduced incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms, although with higher risk of metabolic side effects. It is unsurprising that accounts as to whether first- and second-generation antipsychotics differ in their efficacy vary, since treatment effectiveness is a broad notion and difficult to define. Objectives: Numerous factors may be used to gauge treatment effectiveness and, while it has largely been defined in terms of improvements in four domains (symptoms of disease, treatment burden, disease burden, and health and wellness, the real-world clinical utility of this consensus is unclear. Therefore, this article aims to provide a framework that can aid psychiatrists in making assessments about treatment effectiveness. Methods and results: A panel of 12 psychiatrists and psychopharmacologists convened to develop and propose an accessible and globally-applicable framework for assessing the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments in patients with schizophrenia

  16. Effects of heat treatment on the radiosensitivity of Salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.H.; Yang, J.S.; Lee, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    When the food poisoning bacteria Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium were treated with radiation (cobalt-60 γ-rays) and heat (10 minutes at 45 0 C or 50 0 C), their sterilizing effect was revealed differently depending on the order of treatments. Post-irradiation heating showed a synergistic effect whereas pre-irradiation heating revealed the opposite effect and the effects differed slightly with heating temperature. (author)

  17. Integrating fasciolosis control in the dry cow management: the effect of closantel treatment on milk production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Charlier

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals exposed to F. hepatica to 1 assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80-42 days before calving in first-calving heifers on milk production parameters and 2 evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3-6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg and a slightly higher persistence (9% of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3-0.5 optical density ratio (ODR, but not a very high (≥ 0.5 ODR F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters.

  18. The effect of different surface treatments on the molten salt hot corrosion of IN-657 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, E.; Utrilla, M.V.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of different surface treatments (laser surface treatment, silicon nitride, and 25 wt.% Al 2 (OH) 4 Si 2 O 5 -75 wt.% Na 2 SiO 3 ), on the hot corrosion behaviour of IN-657 superalloy has been studied. The corrosion tests were performed in an oxidizing atmosphere in contact with a molten mixture of 82% K 2 S 2 O 7 -18% V 2 O 5 . The effects of operation temperature and carbon residues as component of the molten mixture were also analyzed. The best results were obtained for the kaolin and methasilicate mixture coating. Laser surface treatment and the CVD-silicon nitride are not recommended for surface modification of the IN-657 superalloy. Taking into account the results obtained, the authors suggest the average temperature and molten salt compositions where the above coating can work satisfactorily. (orig.)

  19. [EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPREHENSIVE TREATMENT ON THE PREOPERATIVE CONDITIONS OF OBESE WOMEN CANDIDATES FOR BARIATRIC SURGERY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Jerez Mayorga, Daniel; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Concha Díaz, Manuel; Ovalle Elgueta, Héctor; Osorio Poblete, Aldo

    2015-12-01

    in Chile, a high prevalence of women presents morbid obesity, this condition generates serious medical complications and high costs for public health. to determine the effects of a total treatment program consisting of physical exercise, psychological therapy and nutrition education on the preoperative conditions of obese women candidates for bariatric surgery. nineteen women between the ages of 30 and 55 applicants to bariatric surgery, with morbid obesity (n=6) or obesity and comorbidities (n=13), underwent a program of comprehensive treatment of sixteen weeks duration (3 session/week). Before and 72 hours after the last intervention session was evaluated on fasting (≥12 hours): body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (% BF), contour waist (CW) and basal blood glucose. Cardiorespiratory fitness was also estimated. the average age was 40.32 years, post-sixteen weeks of comprehensive treatment study variables improved significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-08-01

    In this multicentric, randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled field study, the effect of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox(®) Bovis, Bayer) on oocyst excretion, diarrhoea score and weight gain was studied in Danish dairy herds with confirmed history of eimeriosis (coccidiosis) and prevalence of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 - 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced the first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 - 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial was initiated. Thus, no significant difference in weight gain was found between toltrazuril and placebo treated calves (p = 0.523), and the oocyst excretion of toltrazuril treated calves was significantly higher during week 7 and 8. Significant differences in faecal scores were observed between the herds (ptoltrazuril treatment on weight gain and oocyst excretion.

  1. Effectiveness of Educational Technology in Promoting Quality of Life and Treatment Adherence in Hypertensive People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Caetano de Souza

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention with use of educational technology (flipchart to promote quality of life (QOL and treatment adherence in people with hypertension. It was an intervention study of before-and-after type conducted with 116 hypertensive people registered in Primary Health Care Units. The educational interventions were conducted using the flipchart educational technology. Quality of life was assessed through the MINICHAL (lowest score = better QOL and the QATSH (higher score = better adherence was used to assess the adherence to hypertension treatment. Both were measured before and after applying the intervention. In the analysis, we used the Student's t-test for paired data. The average baseline quality of life was 11.66 ± 7.55, and 7.71 ± 5.72 two months after the intervention, showing a statistically significant reduction (p <0.001 and mean of differences of 3.95. The average baseline adherence to treatment was 98.03 ± 7.08 and 100.71 ± 6.88 two months after the intervention, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001, and mean of differences of 2.68. The conclusion was that the educational intervention using the flipchart improved the total score of quality of life in the scores of physical and mental domains, and increased adherence to hypertension treatment in people with the disease.

  2. Effectiveness of bridge V.A.C. dressings in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Nather

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This is a prospective study of the clinical efficacy of the V.A.C. Granufoam Bridge Dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and methods: Five consecutive patients with diabetic foot ulcers were treated with V.A.C. Granufoam Bridge Dressings and studied over a period of 22–48 days. The indications for treatment included diabetic patients with open ray amputation wounds and wounds post-drainage for abscess with exposed deep structures. Clinical outcome was measured in terms of reduction in wound dimensions, presence of wound granulation, microbial clearance, and development of wound complications. Results: Our results showed that with V.A.C. therapy, wound healing occurred in all patients. The number of dressings required ranged from 8 to 10. The baseline average wound size was 23.1 cm2. Wound areas shrunk by 18.4–41.7%. All subjects achieved 100% wound bed granulation with an average length of treatment of 33 days. Microbial clearance was achieved in all cases. All wounds healed by secondary intention in one case and four cases required split-thickness skin grafting. Conclusion: The V.A.C. Granufoam Bridge Dressing is effective in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. It promotes reduction of wound area, wound bed granulation, and microbial clearance. By allowing placement of the suction pad outside the foot, it allowed patients to wear protective shoes and to walk non-weight bearing with crutches during V.A.C. therapy.

  3. The Effect of Mannitol Treatment on Renal Functions in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Eşkut

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic agent and reduces intracranial pressure. The most serious side effect of mannitol is kidney dysfunction. In this study, renal functions in acute stroke patients treated with mannitol were evaluated. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two patients followed in the neurology intensive care unit with the diagnosis of stroke and treated with fractionated mannitol for 5 days were evaluated retrospectively. Ninety-six patients had ischemic and 26 had hemorrhagic stroke. Mean age was 69.9 ± 11.8 (18-91 years. Serum urea, creatinine and electrolyte levels measured before and on the second, third, fourth, fifth and tenth days of treatment were compared statistically with paired sample t test. RESULTS: The average urea and creatinine levels on the second, third, fourth and fifth days of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline (p< 0.05. On the other hand, mannitol treatment did not change average sodium, potassium and chlorine levels. The creatinine levels had returned to the normal range on the tenth day of treatment, but the urea levels, although decreased, did not fall to the normal range. CONCLUSION: Our results support the view that close monitoring of renal function is necessary in patients treated with mannitol

  4. Averaging in cosmological models using scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A A

    2010-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of considerable importance for the correct interpretation of cosmological data. A rigorous mathematical definition of averaging in a cosmological model is necessary. In general, a spacetime is completely characterized by its scalar curvature invariants, and this suggests a particular spacetime averaging scheme based entirely on scalars. We clearly identify the problems of averaging in a cosmological model. We then present a precise definition of a cosmological model, and based upon this definition, we propose an averaging scheme in terms of scalar curvature invariants. This scheme is illustrated in a simple static spherically symmetric perfect fluid cosmological spacetime, where the averaging scales are clearly identified.

  5. Psychiatrist effects in the psychopharmacological treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Kevin M; Imel, Zac E; Wampold, Bruce E

    2006-06-01

    The National Institutes of Mental Health's (NIMH) 1985 Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (TDCRP) reported that imipramine hydrochloride with clinical management (IMI-CM) was significantly more beneficial than placebo with clinical management (PLA-CM) for individuals undergoing treatment for depression. Unfortunately, in analyzing the NIMH TDCRP data, researchers ignored the potential effect that psychiatrists have on patient outcomes, thereby assuming that psychiatrists are equally effective. However, this assumption has yet to be supported empirically. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to examine psychiatrist effects in the NIMH TDCRP study and to compare the variation among psychiatrists to the variation between treatments. Data from 112 patients [IMI-CM (n = 57, 9 psychiatrists); PLA-CM (n = 55, 9 psychiatrists)] from the NIMH TDCRP study were reanalyzed using a multi-level model. The proportion of variance in the BDI scores due to medication was 3.4% (p < .05), while the proportion of variance in BDI scores due to psychiatrists was 9.1% (p < .05). The proportion of variance in the HAM-D scores due to medication was 5.9% (p < .05), while the proportion of variance in HAM-D scores due to psychiatrist was 6.7% (p = .053). Therefore, the psychiatrist effects were greater than the treatment effects. In this study, both psychiatrists and treatments contributed to outcomes in the treatment of depression. However, given that psychiatrists were responsible for more of the variance in outcomes it can be concluded that effective treatment psychiatrists can, in fact, augment the effects of the active ingredients of anti-depressant medication as well as placebo.

  6. Some consequences of assuming simple patterns for the treatment effect over time in a linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamia, Christina; White, Ian R; Kenward, Michael G

    2013-07-10

    Linear mixed models are often used for the analysis of data from clinical trials with repeated quantitative outcomes. This paper considers linear mixed models where a particular form is assumed for the treatment effect, in particular constant over time or proportional to time. For simplicity, we assume no baseline covariates and complete post-baseline measures, and we model arbitrary mean responses for the control group at each time. For the variance-covariance matrix, we consider an unstructured model, a random intercepts model and a random intercepts and slopes model. We show that the treatment effect estimator can be expressed as a weighted average of the observed time-specific treatment effects, with weights depending on the covariance structure and the magnitude of the estimated variance components. For an assumed constant treatment effect, under the random intercepts model, all weights are equal, but in the random intercepts and slopes and the unstructured models, we show that some weights can be negative: thus, the estimated treatment effect can be negative, even if all time-specific treatment effects are positive. Our results suggest that particular models for the treatment effect combined with particular covariance structures may result in estimated treatment effects of unexpected magnitude and/or direction. Methods are illustrated using a Parkinson's disease trial. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Average spectral efficiency analysis of FSO links over turbulence channel with adaptive transmissions and aperture averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarthi, G.; Ramachandra Reddy, G.

    2018-03-01

    In our paper, the impact of adaptive transmission schemes: (i) optimal rate adaptation (ORA) and (ii) channel inversion with fixed rate (CIFR) on the average spectral efficiency (ASE) are explored for free-space optical (FSO) communications with On-Off Keying (OOK), Polarization shift keying (POLSK), and Coherent optical wireless communication (Coherent OWC) systems under different turbulence regimes. Further to enhance the ASE we have incorporated aperture averaging effects along with the above adaptive schemes. The results indicate that ORA adaptation scheme has the advantage of improving the ASE performance compared with CIFR under moderate and strong turbulence regime. The coherent OWC system with ORA excels the other modulation schemes and could achieve ASE performance of 49.8 bits/s/Hz at the average transmitted optical power of 6 dBm under strong turbulence. By adding aperture averaging effect we could achieve an ASE of 50.5 bits/s/Hz under the same conditions. This makes ORA with Coherent OWC modulation as a favorable candidate for improving the ASE of the FSO communication system.

  8. Effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... ventilation can promote photosynthesis, metabolites and accumulation of ... artificial ventilation, thereby setting different ventilation frequency .... light conditions. Effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on plant height. Effects of different irrigation on plant height, in conditions of a certain ...

  9. effects of preharvest treatments on yield and chemical composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    quantity and quality of tomato fruits in the market. Options to avert these losses ... conducted to study effects of preharvest treatment of ComCat® spray, manure, NP fertilisation and the combi- nations of ..... TABLE 3. The effect of ComCat®, manure, nitrogen and phosphorous fertiliser on the yield components of fresh market.

  10. Comparative study of the effects of treatment techniques on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the effects of some fibre treatment techniques namely: mercerization, acetylation and semi-carbonisation on the performance of Kenaf fibres. The treated kenaf fibres which are considered biodegradable, cost effective, renewable and user friendly have been used as a possible base friction material for ...

  11. Effect of combination pre-treatment on physicochemical, sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of combination pre-treatment on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of fresh aerobically stored minced goat (Black Bengal) meat organs. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... However, acetic acid and glucose pretreatment controlled the fungal growth in meat samples most effectively. The

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Mectizan treatment Programmes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study analyzed the operational costs of two Mectizan treatment strategies in relation to their effectiveness. Methods: The study was conducted in 24 communities located in Irewole and Egbeda districts of Osun and Oyo State, Nigeria respectively. Cost-effectiveness analysis included retrospective analysis of ...

  13. Effect of Cedar Honey in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sanatkhani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Oral Lichen Planus(OLPis a chronic mucocutaneus disease with an immunological etiology. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Cedar honey in treatment of erosive- atrophic OLP.Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with confirmed clinical and histopathologic of OLP participated in a randomized clinical trial in Mashhad Dental School.Patients were randomly allocated in two groups. Both groups received the standard treatment of OLP (dexamethasone mouthwash 0.5mg 3 times daily and fluconazole capsule 100 mg daily.Intervention group received Cedar honey (20 ml 3 times daily , swish and swallow techniquein addition to standard treatment. The patients were followed for 4 weeks.The pain and severity of the lesions were recorded at the initial visit and follow ups. All recorded data were analyzed with chi- square, T test, ANOVA using SPSS version 11.5and p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Thirty patients were included in the study. Both groups had markedly reduction in pain, size of erosive area and atrophic lesions specially in first follow up but there was not a significant different between two groups (p>0.05. Honey was effective in healing of ulcerative lesions.(The average recovery in experimental group was 69% while the average relief of ulcerative lesion in control group was 50%.but this difference was not significant(p=0.896Conclusion :No significant difference was found in the treatment of atrophic and erosive lesions of OLP by using honey as an alternative treatment, but it may be effective in ulcerative lesions of OLP , although more research with larger sample size is necessary.

  14. Effective treatment of spasticity using dronabinol in pediatric palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlen, Michaela; Hoell, Jessica I; Gagnon, Gabriele; Balzer, Stefan; Oommen, Prasad T; Borkhardt, Arndt; Janßen, Gisela

    2016-11-01

    Cannabis extracts have a wide therapeutic potential but in many countries they have not been approved for treatment in children so far. We conducted an open, uncontrolled, retrospective study on the administration of dronabinol to determine the value, efficacy, and safety of cannabis-based medicines in the treatment of refractory spasticity in pediatric palliative care. Sixteen children, adolescents and young adults having complex neurological conditions with spasticity (aged 1.3-26.6 years, median 12.7 years) were treated with dronabinol by our specialized pediatric palliative care team between 01.12.2010 and 30.04.2015 in a home-care setting. Therapeutic efficacy and side effects were closely monitored. Drops of the 2.5% oily tetrahydrocannabinol solution (dronabinol) were administered. A promising therapeutic effect was seen, mostly due to abolishment or marked improvement of severe, treatment resistant spasticity (n = 12). In two cases the effect could not be determined, two patients did not benefit. The median duration of treatment was 181 days (range 23-1429 days). Dosages to obtain a therapeutic effect varied from 0.08 to 1.0 mg/kg/d with a median of 0.33 mg/kg/d in patients with a documented therapeutic effect. When administered as an escalating dosage scheme, side effects were rare and only consisted in vomiting and restlessness (one patient each). No serious and enduring side effects occurred even in young children and/or over a longer period of time. In the majority of pediatric palliative patients the treatment with dronabinol showed promising effects in treatment resistant spasticity. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of atmospheric plasma treatment on seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penado, Keith Nealson M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Culaba, Ivan B.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple methods of improving plant development have been utilized over the past decades. Despite these improvements, there still exists a need for better planting methods due to the increasing population of a global community. Studies have reported that plasma treatment affects the growth and germination of a variety of plant species, including a multitude of grains which often takes the bulk in the diet of the average human being. This study explores the effect of atmospheric air plasma jet treatment on the seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The seeds were treated using an atmospheric air plasma jet for 1, 2, and 3 s. The effect of plasma exposure shows a reduction of trichomes on the surface of the seed. This caused a possible increase in wettability which significantly affected the seed germ length but did not affect the seed germination count after the germination period of 72 h.

  16. The Effect of Organic Loading Rate on Milk WastewaterTreatment Using Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Hajiabadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs were operated under the same conditions for the treatment of milk wastewater at different organic loading rates (OLRs. Cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 56 days (including 21 days of acclimatization and 35 days of data gathering. Effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate, and sludge retention time (SRT of reactors were 5.5 L, 3.5 L/d, and 10 d, respectively. The average COD removal efficiency for the reactors R1, R2, R3, and R4 with influent OLRave values of 633, 929, 1915, and 3261 gCOD/m3d were 95, 96, 95, and 82 percent, respectively. The average effluent suspended solid (SS for all reactors was lower than 44 mg/L. Also, except for R4 with an average effluent turbidity of 270 NTU, other reactors met the Iranian wastewater emission standard (50 NTU. In addition, the average sludge volume index of reactors R1 to R3 was found to be lower than 67 mL/g. According to the results, the overall variation of COD removal efficiency versus influent OLR shows a decreasing rate with a correlation factor of 0.8 (R2.

  17. A unified treatment of kinetic effects in a tokamak pedestal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, Peter J; Landreman, Matt; Kagan, Grigory; Pusztai, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effects of a finite pedestal radial electric field on ion orbits using a unified approach. We then employ these modified orbit results to retain finite E x B drift departures from flux surfaces in an improved drift-kinetic equation. The procedure allows us to make a clear distinction between transit averages and flux surface averages when solving this kinetic equation. The technique outlined here is intended to clarify and unify recent evaluations of the banana regime decrease and plateau regime alterations in the ion heat diffusivity; the reduction and possible reversal of the poloidal flow in the banana regime, and its augmentation in the plateau regime; the increase in the bootstrap current; and the enhancement of the residual zonal flow regulation of turbulence.

  18. Testing Overall and Subpopulation Treatment Effects with Measurement Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanyuan; Yin, Guosheng

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the discovery of important predictors from many potential biomarkers for therapeutic use. In particular, a biomarker has predictive value for treatment if the treatment is only effective for patients whose biomarker values exceed a certain threshold. However, biomarker expressions are often subject to measurement errors, which may blur the biomarker's predictive capability in patient classification and, as a consequence, may lead to inappropriate treatment decisions. By taking into account the measurement errors, we propose a new testing procedure for the overall and subpopulation treatment effects in the multiple testing framework. The proposed method bypasses the permutation or other resampling procedures that become computationally infeasible in the presence of measurement errors. We conduct simulation studies to examine the performance of the proposed method, and illustrate it with a data example.

  19. [Treatment of venous ulcers with low frequency pulsed current (Dermapulse): effects on cutaneous microcirculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, M; Zuder, D; Steins, A; Hahn, M; Klyscz, T

    1997-12-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is characterised by stage-dependent microangiopathy. With increasing severity there is a decrease in the number of skin capillaries and the oxygen partial pressure. The cutaneous vascular reserve, which is measured by laser-doppler fluxmetry, is reduced. Cutaneous microangiopathy is one of the main causes of the trophic disturbances associated with CVI. Low frequency pulsed current improves cutaneous microcirculation and thus nutrition as well as accelerating the formation of granulation tissue. In a open prospective pilot study, 15 patients suffering from CVI with persistent leg ulcers were treated with low frequency pulsed current (Dermapulse), which is thought to improve particularly the tissue microcirculation. The average age of the patients was 70.3 years and the average duration of ulceration was 79.1 months. The patients were treated over a period of 38 days. With this treatment, 2 ulcers healed completely and 13 showed a reduction of size of on average 63%. Capillary density increased by 43.5%, while transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure increased by 82.4%. Electrostimulation is a treatment with few or no side effects.

  20. Assessment of treatment efficacy and sebosuppressive effect of fractional radiofrequency microneedle on acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Real; Lee, Eo Gin; Lee, Hee Jung; Yoon, Moon Soo

    2013-12-01

    A minimally invasive fractional radiofrequency microneedle (FRM) device has been used in skin rejuvenation and acne scars, and a recent pilot study demonstrated the positive therapeutic effect on acne. We evaluated the efficacy of FRM device for acne vulgaris in Asians and conducted objective measurement to assess its effect on sebum production. Twenty Korean patients with acne vulgaris received a single full-face FRM treatment. Outcome assessments included standardized photography, physician's global assessment, patient's satisfaction scores, acne lesion count, and objective measurements of casual sebum level (CSL) and sebum excretion rate (SER). They were evaluated at baseline and 2, 4, 8 weeks after the treatment. After a single FRM treatment, the CSL and the SER showed 30-60% and 70-80% reduction, respectively, at week 2 (P acne severity and acne lesion count also revealed clinical improvement with maximum efficacy at week 2, but returned to the baseline in most patients by week 8. Patients' satisfaction scores (0-4) were above 2 on average, and adverse effects were minimal. This prospective study demonstrated the sebosuppressive effect from a single FRM treatment, but its therapeutic efficacy in acne requires further evaluation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Amblyopia: prevalence, natural history, functional effects and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ann L; Wood, Joanne

    2005-11-01

    Amblyopia, defined as poor vision due to abnormal visual experience early in life, affects approximately three per cent of the population and carries a projected lifetime risk of visual loss of at least 1.2 per cent. The presence of amblyopia or its risk factors, mainly strabismus or refractive error, have been primary conditions targeted in childhood vision screenings. Continued support for such screenings requires evidence-based understanding of the prevalence and natural history of amblyopia and its predisposing conditions, and proof that treatment is effective in the long term with minimal negative impact on the patient and family. This review summarises recent research relevant to the clinical understanding of amblyopia, including prevalence data, risk factors, the functional impact of amblyopia and optimum treatment regimes and their justification from a vision and life skills perspective. Collectively, these studies indicate that treatment for amblyopia is effective in reducing the overall prevalence and severity of visual loss from amblyopia. Correction of refractive error alone has been shown to significantly reduce amblyopia and less frequent occlusion can be just as effective as more extensive occlusion. Occlusion or penalisation in amblyopia treatment can create negative changes in behaviour in children and impact on family life, and these factors should be considered in prescribing treatment, particularly because of their influence on compliance. Ongoing treatment trials are being undertaken to determine both the maximum age at which treatment of amblyopia can still be effective and the importance of near activities during occlusion. This review highlights the expansion of current knowledge regarding amblyopia and its treatment to help clinicians provide the best level of care for their amblyopic patients that current knowledge allows.

  2. Lithium in older patients: treatment patterns and somatic adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    van Melick, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium has been used in psychiatry for over 60 years and is still one of the first-line treatments in bipolar disorder. It is also used as augmentation to antidepressants in treatment resistant depression. Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may influence lithium use patterns in an ageing population. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy could make older patients more vulnerable to the adverse effects of lithium. The main objectives of this thesis were to study t...

  3. Effects of surface treatment on the properties of UV coating

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaolei; Li, Rongrong; Teng, Yu; Cao, Pingxiang; Wang, Xiaodong (Alice); Ji, Futang

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the surface treatment of raw medium-density fiberboard on the properties of 1st ultraviolet putty coating film and the effects of primer coating arrangement on the qualities of 1st ultraviolet primer film were investigated. With regard to surface roughness and the recorded adhesion of the coating film, there were significant variations when the surface treatment was modified or when the coating arrangement was changed. The findings led to the conclusion that there was a close...

  4. The average size of ordered binary subgraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    To analyse the demands made on the garbage collector in a graph reduction system, the change in size of an average graph is studied when an arbitrary edge is removed. In ordered binary trees the average number of deleted nodes as a result of cutting a single edge is equal to the average size of a

  5. Effects of heat treatment parameters on liquid whole egg proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Soykut, Esra Acar; Ertaş, Nusret

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of heat treatment parameters on liquid whole egg (LWE) proteins by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Heat treatment (at 60-68°C for 1-5min) was applied to LWE. Treated LWE was centrifuged and supernatant was taken for measurement of UV-VIS spectroscopy and CE. The change in UV absorbance showed loss of protein solubility depending on heat treatments parameters. Electropherograms of samples demonstrated the effect of treatment parameters on composition of LWE proteins. It was found that conalbumin and lysozyme were influenced by the treatment, while ovalbumin and ovomucoid were not affected. CE combined with principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of samples untreated or treated and treated at different treatment parameters. The results of the study revealed that the extent of heat treatment in LWE samples could be determined with PCA of the CE measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Profile analysis of treatment effect changes in eating disorder indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang; Annunziato, Rachel A; Olatunji, Bunmi O

    2017-11-23

    We investigated differential treatment effects on specific eating disorder (ED) indicators to enhance conclusions about treatment efficacy. Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling, which identifies core profiles in a population and interprets person profiles with core profile information, was utilized to identify core profiles from a sample of 5,177 patients who were repeatedly measured with the ED inventory-2 at admission and at discharge. To assess differential treatment effects for individual ED indicators, we compared the core profiles at admission with those at discharge. Three core profiles were identified and labeled as High Body Dissatisfaction with Low Bulimia (Core Profile 1), High Interoceptive Awareness with Low Body Dissatisfaction (Core Profile 2), and High Ineffectiveness with Low Bulimia (Core Profile 3). Treatment had the greatest effects on Core Profile 2. The patients whose profile patterns were similar to that of Core Profiles 1 and 2 were positively related with weight gain. However, treatment was least on Core Profile 3, and the patients whose profile patterns were like that of Core Profile 3 were negatively related with weight gain. In conclusion, those patients who fit Core Profile 3 may benefit from different treatment modalities than those that are standard in inpatient settings. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Pharmacogenomic study of side-effects for antidepressant treatment options in STAR*D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S L; Adkins, D E; Aberg, K; Hettema, J M; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-06-01

    Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side-effects is essential to optimize the treatment of depression. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to search for genetic variation affecting the susceptibility to side-effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1439 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Outcomes included four indicators of side-effects: general side-effect burden, sexual side-effects, dizziness and vision/hearing-related side-effects. Our criterion for genome-wide significance was a prespecified threshold ensuring that, on average, only 10% of the significant findings are false discoveries. Thirty-four SNPs satisfied this criterion. The top finding indicated that 10 SNPs in SACM1L mediated the effects of bupropion on sexual side-effects (p = 4.98 × 10(-7), q = 0.023). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs in MAGI2, DTWD1, WDFY4 and CHL1. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that could mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medication.

  8. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Antonelli, R.; Fine, W.; Li, F.P.; Sallan, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy

  9. Sensitivity analysis for matched pair analysis of binary data: From worst case to average case analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Raiden; Small, Dylan

    2017-12-01

    In matched observational studies where treatment assignment is not randomized, sensitivity analysis helps investigators determine how sensitive their estimated treatment effect is to some unmeasured confounder. The standard approach calibrates the sensitivity analysis according to the worst case bias in a pair. This approach will result in a conservative sensitivity analysis if the worst case bias does not hold in every pair. In this paper, we show that for binary data, the standard approach can be calibrated in terms of the average bias in a pair rather than worst case bias. When the worst case bias and average bias differ, the average bias interpretation results in a less conservative sensitivity analysis and more power. In many studies, the average case calibration may also carry a more natural interpretation than the worst case calibration and may also allow researchers to incorporate additional data to establish an empirical basis with which to calibrate a sensitivity analysis. We illustrate this with a study of the effects of cellphone use on the incidence of automobile accidents. Finally, we extend the average case calibration to the sensitivity analysis of confidence intervals for attributable effects. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Effects of inlet treatment location and treatment cavity depth on compressor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of acoustic liners to reduce compressor noise inside and in front of an inlet was studied. An axial flow research compressor and a specially designed inlet were used inside an anechoic chamber. Acoustic and performance data were obtained for a range of inlet treatment locations and cavity depths to determine their effects on inlet noise over a range of blade passing frequencies. The greatest noise reductions in front of the inlet were obtained with acoustic treatment located close to the compressor and backed with the deepest cavities tested. Inside the inlet the maximum noise level reductions were obtained in the area of the treatment regardless of treatment location. No appreciable losses in compressor performance were measured.

  11. The cost-effectiveness of an intensive treatment protocol for severe dyslexia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Goettsch, Wim G; Ekkebus, Michel; Gerretsen, Patty; Stolk, Elly A

    2011-08-01

    Studies of interventions for dyslexia have focused entirely on outcomes related to literacy. In this study, we considered a broader picture assessing improved quality of life compared with costs. A model served as a tool to compare costs and effects of treatment according to a new protocol and care as usual. Quality of life was measured and valued by proxies using a general quality-of-life instrument (EQ-5D). We considered medical cost and non-medical cost (e.g. remedial teaching). The model computed cost per successful treatment and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) in time. About 75% of the total costs was related to diagnostic tests to distinguish between children with severe dyslexia and children who have reading difficulties for other reasons. The costs per successful treatment of severe dyslexia were €36 366. Successful treatment showed a quality-of-life gain of about 11%. At primary school, the average cost per QALY for severe dyslexia amounted to €58 647. In the long term, the cost per QALY decreased to €26 386 at secondary school and €17 663 thereafter. The results of this study provide evidence that treatment of severe dyslexia is cost-effective when the investigated protocol is followed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  13. Effectiveness of permethrin standard and modified methods in scabies treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Sungkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permethrin is the drug of choice for scabies with side effects such as erythema, pain, itching and prickling sensation. Whole-body (standard topical application of permethrin causes discomfort; thus, modified application of permethrin to the lesion only, followed with baths twice daily using soap was proposed. The objective of the study is to know the effectiveness of standard against lesion-only application of permethrin in scabies treatment.Methods: An experimental study was conducted in pesantren in East Jakarta and data was collected in May-July 2012. Diagnosis of scabies was made through anamnesis and skin examination. Subjects positive for scabies were divided into three groups: one standard method group (whole-body topical application and two modified groups (lesion-only application followed by the use of regular soap and antiseptic soap group. The three groups were evaluated weekly for three consecutive weeks. Data was processed using SPSS 20 and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test.Results: Total of 94 subjects was scabies positive (prevalence 50% but only 69 subjects were randomly picked to be analyzed. The cure rate at the end of week III of the standard method group was 95.7%, modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 91.3%, and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 78.3% (p = 0.163. The recurrence rate of standard treatment was 8.7%,  modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 13% and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 26.1% (p = 0.250.Conclusion: The standard scabies treatment was as effective as the modified scabies treatment.

  14. Cosmological ensemble and directional averages of observables

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Maartens, Roy; Umeh, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    We show that at second order ensemble averages of observables and directional averages do not commute due to gravitational lensing. In principle this non-commutativity is significant for a variety of quantities we often use as observables. We derive the relation between the ensemble average and the directional average of an observable, at second-order in perturbation theory. We discuss the relevance of these two types of averages for making predictions of cosmological observables, focussing on observables related to distances and magnitudes. In particular, we show that the ensemble average of the distance is increased by gravitational lensing, whereas the directional average of the distance is decreased. We show that for a generic observable, there exists a particular function of the observable that is invariant under second-order lensing perturbations.

  15. Immunological effects of methylprednisolone pulse treatment in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, R; Romme Christensen, J; Romme Nielsen, B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of monthly oral methylprednisolone pulse treatment in progressive MS. METHODS: 30 progressive MS patients were treated with oral methylprednisolone every month. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Out of 102 leukocyte...... phenotypes investigated, 25 changed at nominal significance from baseline to week 12 (pmultiple comparisons, we found 5 subpopulations that changed compared to baseline. No pattern were suggesting modulation of Th17 or TFH cells. CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone pulse treatment has...... some effects on circulating immune cells but does not modulate markers of Th17 and TFH cell activity in progressive MS....

  16. On heterogeneity of treatment effects and clinical freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, J A; Avendaño-Solá, C

    2015-01-01

    Three decades ago, John R Hampton announced the death of clinical freedom. Since then, evidence-based medicine has been the predominant paradigm in clinical research. By applying a population-based approach, the randomised controlled trial has become the cornerstone for demonstrating the overall effect of a treatment and for developing guidelines. The new patient-centred medicine movement is rediscovering the important implications of heterogeneity of treatment effects for clinical practice and that a better understanding of such variability can contribute to improve health outcomes for individual patients through practicing a science-based clinical freedom. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Stability of additive treatment effects in multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund1, Edward Mills1,21Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CanadaBackground: Many medical interventions are administered in the form of treatment combinations involving two or more individual drugs (eg, drug A + drug B. When the individual drugs and drug combinations have been compared in a number of randomized clinical trials, it is possible to quantify the comparative effectiveness of all drugs simultaneously in a multiple treatment comparison (MTC meta-analysis. However, current MTC models ignore the dependence between drug combinations (eg, A + B and the individual drugs that are part of the combination. In particular, current models ignore the possibility that drug effects may be additive, ie, the property that the effect of A and B combined is equal to the sum of the individual effects of A and B. Current MTC models may thus be suboptimal for analyzing data including drug combinations when their effects are additive or approximately additive. However, the extent to which the additivity assumption can be violated before the conventional model becomes the more optimal approach is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative statistical performance of the conventional MTC model and the additive effects MTC model in MTC scenarios where additivity holds true, is mildly violated, or is strongly violated.Methods: We simulated MTC scenarios in which additivity held true, was mildly violated, or was strongly violated. For each scenario we simulated 500 MTC data sets and applied the conventional and additive effects MTC models in a Bayesian framework. Under each scenario we estimated the proportion of treatment effect estimates that were 20% larger than ‘the truth' (ie, % overestimates, the proportion that were 20% smaller than ‘the truth' (ie, % underestimates,The coverage of the 95% credible

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of electronic signal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Robert H; Sorgnard, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation often plays a key role in the perpetuation of pain. Chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g. osteoarthritis, immune system dysfunction, micro-circulatory disease, painful neuritis, and even heart disease) have increased as baby boomers age. Medicine's current anti-inflammatory choices are NSAIDs and steroids; the value in promoting cure and side effect risks of these medications are unclear and controversial, especially considering individual patient variations. Electricity has continuously been a powerful tool in medicine for thousands of years. All medical professionals are, to some degree, aware of electrotherapy; those who directly use electricity for treatment know of its anti-inflammatory effects. Electronic signal treatment (EST), as an extension of presently available technology, may reasonably have even more anti-inflammatory effects. EST is a digitally produced alternating current sinusoidal electronic signal with associated harmonics to produce theoretically reasonable and/or scientifically documented physiological effects when applied to the human body. These signals are produced by advanced electronics not possible even 10 to 15 years ago. The potential long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects of some electrical currents are based on basic physical and biochemical facts listed in the text below, namely that of stimulating and signaling effective and long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects in nerve and muscle cells. The safety of electrotherapeutic treatments in general and EST in particular has been established through extensive clinical use. The principles of physics have been largely de-emphasized in modern medicine in favor of chemistry. These electrical treatments, a familiar application of physics, thus represent powerful and appropriate elements of physicians' pain care armamentaria in the clinic and possibly for prescription for use at home to improve overall patient care and maintenance of quality of life via low-risk and potentially

  19. The cost-effectiveness of depression treatment for co-occurring disorders: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Katherine E; Cuellar, Alison E; Hepner, Kimberly A; Hunter, Sarah B; Paddock, Susan M; Ewing, Brett A; de la Cruz, Erin

    2014-02-01

    The authors aimed to determine the economic value of providing on-site group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression to clients receiving residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Using a quasi-experimental design and an intention-to-treat analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratio of the intervention were estimated relative to usual care residential treatment. The average cost of a treatment episode was $908, compared to $180 for usual care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was $131 for each point improvement of the BDI-II and $49 for each additional depression-free day. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from $9,249 to $17,834 for each additional quality adjusted life year. Although the intervention costs substantially more than usual care, the cost effectiveness and cost-utility ratios compare favorably to other depression interventions. Health care reform should promote dissemination of group CBT to individuals with depression in residential SUD treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Properties of Wool Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C. W.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, M. P.

    Wool fiber is commonly used in textile industry, however, it has some technical problems which affect the quality and performance of the finished products such as felting shrinkage, handle, lustre, pilling, and dyeability. These problems may be attributed mainly in the presence of wool scales on the fiber surface. Recently, chemical treatments such as oxidation and reduction are the commonly used descaling methods in the industry. However, as a result of the pollution caused by various chemical treatments, physical treatment such as low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment has been introduced recently because it is similarly capable of achieving a comparable descaling effect. Most of the discussions on the applications of LTP treatment on wool fiber were focused on applying this technique for improving the surface wettability and shrink resistance. Meanwhile, little discussion has been made on the mechanical properties, thermal properties, and the air permeability. In this paper, wool fabric was treated with LTP treatment with the use of a non-polymerizing gas, namely oxygen. After the LTP treatment, the fabrics low-stress mechanical properties, air permeability, and thermal properties were evaluated and discussed.

  1. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental Study of the Effects of Blade Treatments on the Tip Vortex Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchenko, Vera

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigates the effects of blade tip treatments on the characteristics of a wind turbine blade tip vortex. Three blade tip shapes including a blunt edge, leading edge comb, and a winglet were designed and tested in a low speed wind tunnel. The rotor with a blunt edge was considered to be a baseline case corresponding to an untreated blade tip. The leading-edge comb rotor was designed with leading edge tubercles extending from the tip of the blade inward, 6 percent of rotor diameter. The winglet located at the tip of the winglet rotor had a cant angle of 45 degrees. The wind turbine operated at a tip speed ratio of 5 and a tip Reynolds number of 14,000. The tip treatments were intended to weaken the tip vortices by encouraging dissipation (leading edge comb) or promoting the formation of weaker vortices (winglet). Time-resolved and phase-averaged PIV was used to measure the velocity field behind the rotor. The time-averaged velocity field was subtracted from the phase-averaged velocity field to isolate the time-varying components of the flow. The vorticity of the phase-averaged time-varying field was calculated, and the tip vortices were identified using a vortex identification method. Vortex characteristics such as core radius and vortex strength were calculated and compared for the three rotors. The analysis of the vorticity showed that the winglet rotor had weaker tip vortices with a larger core radius, while the serrated tip rotor had strong tip vortices with the same core radius as the baseline case.

  3. Neuroimaging the Effectiveness of Substance Use Disorder Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Wiers, Corinde E; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e.g., naltrexone, bupropion hydrochloride, baclofen, methadone, varenicline) and that improve cognitive control (e.g., modafinil, N-acetylcysteine), of behavioral treatments for substance use disorders (e.g., cognitive bias modification training, virtual reality, motivational interventions) and neuromodulatory interventions such as neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation. A consistent finding for the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions identifies the improvement of executive control networks and the dampening of limbic activation, highlighting their values as targets for therapeutic interventions in substance use disorders.

  4. Effectiveness of combined intermittent preventive treatment for children and timely home treatment for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seakey Atsu K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiles awaiting for the arrival of an effective and affordable malaria vaccine, there is a need to make use of the available control tools to reduce malaria risk, especially in children under five years and pregnant women. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT has recently been accepted as an important component of the malaria control strategy. This study explored the potential of a strategy of intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTC and timely treatment of malaria-related febrile illness in the home in reducing the parasite prevalence and malaria morbidity in young children in a coastal village in Ghana. Methods The study combined home-based delivery of IPTC among six to 60 months old and home treatment of suspected febrile malaria illness within 24 hours. All children between six and 60 months of age received intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine and artesunate, delivered by community assistants every four months (three times in 12 months. Malaria parasite prevalence surveys were conducted before the first and after the third dose of IPTC. Results Parasite prevalence was reduced from 25% to 3% (p Conclusion The evaluation result indicates that IPTC given three times in a year combined with timely treatment of febrile malaria illness, impacts significantly on the parasite prevalence. The marked reduction in the parasite prevalence with this strategy points to the potential for reducing malaria-related childhood morbidity and mortality, and this should be explored by control programme managers.

  5. Botulinum toxin type A as an effective prophylactic treatment in primary headache disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Andrew

    2003-09-01

    To measure the effect of botulinum toxin type A (Botox, Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA) treatment in 271 patients diagnosed with headache in accordance with International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. Botulinum toxin type A has shown promise for the treatment of headache in several clinical trials, but uncertainty remains as to how botulinum toxin type A optimally should be used for treating headache and which patients are best suited for this treatment. This was a retrospective chart review of all patients who received botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of headache from January 1999 to February 2002. Patients were injected with an average dose of 63.2 U (SD, 14.5) of botulinum toxin type A on 2 or more visits, with treatments involving a "fixed-site" or a "follow-the-pain" (or a combination of both) approach. In the fixed-site approach, botulinum toxin type A was injected into the procerus, corrugator, frontalis, and temporalis muscles. In the follow-the-pain approach, botulinum toxin type A was injected into a combination of the procerus, corrugator, frontalis, temporalis, occipitalis, trapezius, and/or semispinalis capitis muscles. The primary outcomes for the trial were the reduction in headache days per month or headache intensity (0 to 3 scale) (or both) from baseline. Patients were diagnosed according to IHS criteria and subsequently classified into the following categories: chronic daily headache (more than 15 headache days per month), episodic tension-type headache, episodic migraine, and "mixed" HA (less than 15 headache days per month, combination of migraine and tension-type headache). Treatment period was an average of 8.6 months (SD, 6.4); patients received an average of 3.4 doses (SD, 1.6) 3 months apart. Of the 271 patients, 29 (10.7%) had episodic migraine, 17 (6.3%) had episodic tension-type headache, 71 (26.2%) had mixed headache, and 154 (56.8%) had chronic daily headache. Two-hundred fifty-six patients had data for the number of headache

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Radcliff, Kristen; Norvell, Daniel C; Eastlack, Robert; Phillips, Frank M; Berland, Daniel; Sherry, Ned; Freedman, Mitchell; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-06-01

    A systematic review and network meta-analysis. To determine current treatment options of chronic low back pain (LBP) as defined by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to compare effectiveness of those treatments using a mixed-treatment comparison (MTC). It is important to provide an evidence-based assessment of the treatment options that exist for LBP. A systematic search of RCTs was conducted in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library from 1990 to 2014. From the selected studies, we extracted preoperative and postoperative ODI and VAS back pain scores, additional surgeries, and complications. Standard and network meta-analytic techniques were used. Twelve RCTs were included in the analysis: 5 total disk replacement (TDR) versus fusion; 1 TDR versus exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); 5 fusion versus exercise and CBT; and 1 fusion versus physical therapy (PT). On the basis of MTC, with respect to ODI change scores, the pooled mean difference favoring fusion over exercise and CBT was 2.0 points (95% CI, -1.2 to 4.8). The pooled mean difference favoring TDR over exercise and CBT was 6.4 points (95% CI, 3.2-9.3). The pooled mean difference favoring fusion over PT was 8.8 points (95% CI, 4.1-13.6). The pooled mean differences favoring TDR over fusion was 4.4 points (95% CI, 2.37-6.63). For PT versus structured exercise with CBT, the pooled mean difference favoring exercise with CBT over PT was 6.8 points (95% CI, 1.5-12.8). For TDR versus PT, the pooled mean difference favoring TDR over PT was 13.2 points (95% CI, 8.0-18.4). Additional surgery rates were similar between treatment options. All 4 treatments provided some benefit to patients with chronic LBP. According to the MTC analysis, TDR may be the most effective treatment and PT the least effective treatment for chronic LBP. This review is based on a limited number of RCT studies and does not support any 1 treatment modality for all patients.

  7. EFFECT OF PAINT-BAKE LIKE TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    EFFECT OF PAINT-BAKE LIKE TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MG-ZN-CA ALLOY. F. Bakare, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology,. Vol. 37, No. 1, January 2018 125 oxidation resistance [7-11]. ..... mechanical properties in Mg–6 mass %Zn alloys by combined addition of Ca and Ce," Materials. Science ...

  8. Effect of rolling deformation and solution treatment on microstructure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The present study deals with the effect of rolling deformation and solution treatment on the microstruc- ture and mechanical properties of a cast duplex stainless steel. Cast steel reveals acicular/Widmanstätten morpho- logy as well as island of austenite within the δ-ferrite matrix. Hot rolled samples exhibit the ...

  9. Household water treatment and safe storage-effectiveness and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, Stefanie M L; Pelgrim-Adams, Alida; Szántó, Gabor L.; van Halem, D.

    2016-01-01

    Household Water Treatment and safe Storage (HWTS) systems aim to provide safe drinking water in an affordable manner to users where safe piped water supply is either not feasible or not reliable. In this study the effectiveness, economic parameters and costs of three selected HWTS systems were

  10. PERMEABLE TREATMENT WALL EFFECTIVENESS MONITORING PROJECT, NEVADA STEWART MINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 39, Permeable Treatment Wall Effectiveness Monitoring Project, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. De...

  11. Effects of treatment on free radicals in patients with pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), a free radical, in Tuberculosis patients does occur when Tubercule bacilli induces reactive oxygen species as a result of phagocytic respiratory burst. Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of treatment on plasma level of Malondialdehyde among patients infected with ...

  12. Effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of heat treatment (55°C/20 min) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities and total phenolic compounds was investigated in Algerian dates (Deglet Nour variety) at Tamar (fully ripe) stage and in dates stored for 5 months at ambient temperature and in cold storage (10°C). Results obtained ...

  13. Effects of Acid treatment on the compression and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of acid treatment on the compression and mechanical properties of the cellulosic fibrous residue obtained after a high proportion of starch has been removed from the peeled and rasped tuberous root of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Family: Araceae). Powdered fibrous residues were subjected ...

  14. Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. ... on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Young-Jun Lee, Bokcheul Kong, Byoungho Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho ... induced brain damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, licorice, stroke, apoptosis ...

  15. Relative Effectiveness of Three Modes of Treatment on English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effectiveness of Study Skill Counselling (SSC), Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), and a combined treatment of SSC & RET in improving the performance of students in English Language. Forty students in SS II class were randomly selected and assigned to the three experimental groups and control ...

  16. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  17. Effects of heat treatment on density, dimensional stability and color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties and color change of Pinus nigra wood which has high industrial use potential and large growing stocks in Turkey. Wood samples which comprised the material of the study were obtained from an industrial plant. Samples were ...

  18. Effect of normabaric hyperoxia treatment on neuronal damage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes significant mortality in most developing countries worldwide. At present, it is imperative to identify a treatment to address the devastating post-TBI consequences. Therefore, the present study has been performed to assess the specific effect of immediate exposure to normabaric hyperoxia ...

  19. Effect of protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authorised User

    Six Red Maasai sheep were used to investigate the effects of urea treatment and cotton seed cake ... of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and cellulose as .... lignin and cell wall carbohydrates (which increases the availability of the carbohydrate for degradation by.

  20. Effect of lime pre-treatment mellowing duration on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of lime pre-treatment duration on some geotechnical properties of shale treated with cement for use as flexible pavement material was studied. Atterberg's limits, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the natural shale and shale pre-treated ...

  1. Storage period, husking and seed treatment effects on germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted with the aim to assess the effects of storage period (years), husking and seed treatment on germination rate of Rhodes grass seeds of two cultivars, Callide and Masaba, at Kulumsa and Debre Zeit Research Centers. The first experiment included two seed lots (harvested in years 2013 and ...

  2. Effects of co-treatment of Rauwolfia vomitoria and Gongronema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of co-treatment of Rauwolfia vomitoria and Gongronema latifolium on neurobehaviour and the neurohistology of the cerebral cortex in mice. ... Light and dark field behaviour test was carried out on day 8 and the animals were immediately sacrificed. Their brains were excised and routinely processed by haematoxylin ...

  3. Effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on water and nutrients absorption of maize. The pot experiment was conducted using three methods: no ventilation, two day ventilation and four day ventilation, under conditions of the different levels of irrigation methods.

  4. Related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Xin Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children, and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical intervention. METHODS: Totally 100 cases of anisometropic amblyopia children in our hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 were selected and were divided into groups A, B and C according to curative effect after 6~18mo's treatment. Fifty-four cases of group A were judged to be cured, 34 cases of group B were judged to be improved, and 12 cases of group C was invalid. The age, compliance, anisometropia degree, anisometropia type, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior were analyzed. RESULTS: Anisometropia type among the three groups of patients showed no significant difference(P>0.05. While the age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior among three groups of patients had statistically significant differences(PCONCLUSION: There are closed relationship between comprehensive treatment effect and age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree, fixation behavior, but there is no significant correlation between anisometropia type and comprehensive treatment effect.

  5. Cost effectiveness of Tuberculosis Treatment from the Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: At the end of the study, the control group incurred personal cost in transport fare 14 times higher, and lost income 6.5 times more, than the study group. Conclusion: It is concluded that home-based lay worker supervised Directly Observed Treatment Short course is more cost effective from the patients' point of view.

  6. Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and purpose: Palm pollen is a good source of natural antioxidants and has a high level of health benefits and nutritional value. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment with cyclophosphamide among rats. Materials and Methods: This ...

  7. Effect of packaging and chemical treatment on storage life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are inherently more liable to deterioration under tropical conditions characterized by high ambient temperatures and humidity. In determining the effects of chemical treatment on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma), fruits purchased at turning stage of ripening were packaged in low ...

  8. Effects of treatment on free radicals in patients with pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cite as: Adebimpe WO, Faremi AO, Nassar SA. Effects of treatment on free radicals in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in South ... of different T- lymphocytes in immune response against. M. tuberculosis,4 but production of interferon- ..... Rook GA, Seah G, Ustianowski AM Tuberculosis immunology and vaccination.

  9. Effect of heat treatment temperature on microstructure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat treatment was carried out between 800 and 1200°C to investigate its effects on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the hollow carbon spheres (HCSs) prepared in high-pressure argon. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, ...

  10. Apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease: Any Effective Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Rea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This review has evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment of apathy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted on published clinical trials assessing the effects of pharmacological treatment on apathy in AD over the last 10 years. Results. Fourteen studies considered of good quality were included in the analysis (4 randomized controlled trials, 9 open-label studies, and 1 retrospective analysis. Cholinesterase inhibitors were investigated in 9 studies, monoaminergic compounds such as methylphenidate and modafinil in two trials and one trial, respectively, and Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761 extract and citalopram in one study each. Cholinesterase inhibitors did not show statistical significant effect in 1 RCT study but were associated to improvement in 3 open-label studies. Methylphenidate elicited a small but significant activity accompanied by relevant side effects such as high blood pressure, cough, and osteoarticular pain. EGb 761 was well tolerated and countered apathy. Other treatments induced modest improvements or were ineffective. Conclusions. Apathy treatment remains a challenge and there is no evident advantage of any specific pharmacotherapy tested so far. The development of controlled studies according to updated guidelines for the diagnosis of apathy in patients with AD is desirable.

  11. Heat treatment effect on impact strength of 40Kh steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.K.; Novikov, S.A.; Sobolev, Yu.S.; Yukina, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies on the effect of heat treatment on strength and pattern of 40Kh steel impact failure. Loading levels corresponding to macroscopic spalling microdamage initiation in the material are determined for three initial states. Metallographic study on the spalling failure pattern for 40Kh steel in different initial states and data on microhardness measurement are presented

  12. Carryover effects after cessation of drug treatment: trophies or dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth M; Psaty, Bruce M

    2008-01-01

    In randomized trials of primary prevention, there has been interest in the persistence of a beneficial effect of therapy after treatment has been stopped. We investigated the impact of measurement error in the outcome on results of the trial of preventing hypertension (TROPHY), a trial of candesartan vs. placebo for preventing hypertension in prehypertensive subjects. We simulated the TROPHY study design, assuming that candesartan reduced blood pressure by 8/6 mm Hg during treatment, but had no carryover effect after treatment stopped. We simulated individual true blood pressures in the TROPHY-eligible range of 130-140 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and 80-90 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure, and added individual measurement variability. As in TROPHY, incident hypertension was defined as any three occurrences of systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg. In the absence of any carryover effect, typical incidence curves for time to hypertension were similar to those from TROPHY. A significant difference in cumulative incidence 2 years after stopping treatment was detected in 80% simulated studies, giving a Type I error rate of 80%. The published data from TROPHY are consistent with a lack of carryover effect of candesartan.

  13. The effect of homogenization, stabilizwe and amylase treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of homogenization, stabilizwe and amylase treatment on viscosity of passion fruit juice. AR Kahawa, MW Okoth, JK Imungi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfta.v4i1.48043.

  14. Effect of protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six Red Maasai sheep were used to investigate the effects of urea treatment and cotton seed cake supplementation of maize stover on intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters. The basal feeds were Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (H), untreated maize (Zea mays) stover (US) and treated maize stover ...

  15. Combined effect of hormonal priming and salt treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined effect of hormonal priming and salt treatments on germination percentage and antioxidant activities in lettuce seedlings. Mahmoudi Hela, Zargouni Hanen, Tarchoune Imen, Baatour Olfa, Nasri Nawel, Ben Massoud Raouia, Zaghdoudi Maha, Abidi wissal, Huang Jun, Hannoufa Abdelali, Lachaâl Mokhtar, Ouerghi ...

  16. Assessing Instructional Modalities: Individualized Treatment Effects for Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemer, Joshua; Spoon, Kelly; Fan, Juanjuan; Stronach, Jeanne; Frazee, James P.; Bohonak, Andrew J.; Levine, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Estimating the efficacy of different instructional modalities, techniques, and interventions is challenging because teaching style covaries with instructor, and the typical student only takes a course once. We introduce the individualized treatment effect (ITE) from analyses of personalized medicine as a means to quantify individual student…

  17. Practical implications of the effect of drying and treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Practical implications of the effect of drying and treatment on nitrogen content and in vitro digestibility of samples collected by oesophageally fistulated animals. E.A.N. Engels, H.O. de Waal, L.C. Biel, A Malan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  18. Effects of heat treatment on deformation characteristics of medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of heat treatment on bending deformation, tensile strength and hardness of RST 37 medium carbon steels were investigated. Steel rod ... Mechanical tests conducted on the sam-ples were bending, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, % elongation, breaking strength, yield strength, and yield ratio. The results ...

  19. The effectiveness of conventional water treatment in removing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algal blooms are a global problem due to various negative effects that can compromise water quality, such as the production of metabolites that are responsible for odour, colour, taste and ... This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of conventional water treatment for the removal of algae, cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.

  20. Rapid bioassessment of the effects of repeated rotenone treatments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential collateral effects of eradicating invasive fishes in streams necessitate the monitoring of invertebrate communities during treatment. In an environmental rehabilitation programme, non-native smallmouth bass were removed from the lower reaches of the Rondegat River, Western Cape, South Africa, in 2012 and ...

  1. Side effects of drugs used in directly observed treatment short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study assessed the side effects of drugs used in directly observed treatment short course in a newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients at the chest unit of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital in Enugu State, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study, involving a 3-year review of case files of TB patients ...

  2. Effect of normabaric hyperoxia treatment on neuronal damage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-10

    Jan 10, 2013 ... [Muthuraju S, Pati S, Rafiqul M, Abdullah JM and Jaafar H 2013 Effect of normabaric hyperoxia treatment on neuronal damage following fluid percussion ... patients were reported to exhibit focal lesions in basal gan- glia, but .... was placed on the slide using a glass rod, taking care to leave no bubbles.

  3. Effect of packaging and chemical treatment on storage life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tonna Anyasi

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... Fresh fruits and vegetables are inherently more liable to deterioration under tropical conditions characterized by high ambient temperatures and humidity. In determining the effects of chemical treatment on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma), fruits purchased at turning stage of ripening were ...

  4. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  5. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating optimal conditions for germination of medicinal plants seed is essential for their cultivation. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of two medicinal species, Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovata collected in 2009 from Tehran Province, an experiment with a factorial ...

  6. Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G.; Boswell, James F.; Constantino, Michael J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Hill, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on…

  7. Cost-effective treatment of existing guardrail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    A cost-effective means for upgrading existing guardrail systems with deviations from current practice (i.e., low-rail heights, antiquated end : treatments, and improper installation) does not exist. As a result these systems remain on U.S. highways. ...

  8. The Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities for Ureteral Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ji-Yuen Siu MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Additional intervention and medical treatment of complications may follow the primary treatment of a ureteral stone. We investigated the cost of the treatment of ureteral stone(s within 45 days after initial intervention by means of retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. All patients of ages ≥20 years diagnosed with ureteral stone(s( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification/ICD-9-CM: 592.1 from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled. We included a comorbidity code only if the diagnosis appeared in at least 2 separate claims in a patient’s record. Treatment modalities (code included extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL; 98.51, ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL; 56.31, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL; 55.04, (open ureterolithotomy (56.20, and laparoscopy (ie, laparoscopic ureterolithotomy; 54.21. There were 28 513 patients with ureteral stones (13 848 men and 14 665 women in the randomized sample of 1 million patients. The mean cost was 526.4 ± 724.1 United States Dollar (USD. The costs of treatment were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities. The costs of treatment among each primary treatment modalities were 1212.2 ± 627.3, 1146.7 ± 816.8, 2507.4 ± 1333.5, 1533.3 ± 1137.1, 2566.4 ± 2594.3, and 209.8 ± 473.2 USD in the SWL, URSL, PNL, (open ureterolithotomy, laparoscopy (laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, and conservative treatment group, respectively. In conclusion, URSL was more cost-effective than SWL and PNL as a primary treatment modality for ureteral stone(s when the possible additional costs within 45 days after the initial operation were included in the calculation.

  9. [Long-term effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression in treatment of cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hui; Li, Kangren; Fan, Shanjun; Xue, Li; Qiu, Xueyong; Yu, Bin; Gao, Shen; Chen, Jian

    2010-12-01

    To retrospectively analyze the long-term effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) in treatment of cervical spondylosis. Between March 2003 and June 2005, 156 patients with cervical spondylosis were treated with PLDD. There were 74 males and 82 females with an average age of 55.4 years (range, 31-74 years). The disease duration varied from 2 months to 15 years. Fifty-nine patients were classified as cervical spondylotic radiculopathy, 48 as vertebral-artery-type cervical spondylosis, 19 as cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and 30 as mixed type spondylosis. The lesions were located at the levels of C3, 4 in 32 discs, C4, 5 in 66 discs, C5, 6 in 89 discs, and C6, 7 in 69 discs, and including 71 one-level lesion and 85 multi-level lesions. All cases were followed up to study the long-term effectiveness and correlative factors. A total of 117 (75%) patients' symptoms were lightened or eased up immediately after operation. Discitis occurred in 1 case at 3 days after operation and was cured after 3 weeks of antibiotic use. All patients were followed up 5 years to 7 years and 3 months (5 years and 6 months on average). According to Macnab criteria, the long-term effectiveness was excellent in 60 cases (38.46%), good in 65 cases (41.67%), fair in 19 cases (12.18%), and poor in 12 cases (7.69%); the excellent and good rate was 80.13%. No significant difference was observed in the wedge angels and displacements of the intervertebral discs between before and after operations (P > 0.05). Multiple-factors logistic regression showed that the disease duration and patient's age had obvious relationship with the effectiveness of treatment (P spondylosis, disc protrusion degree, mild cervical instability, and lesion scope had no correlation with the effectiveness of treatment (P > 0.05). PLDD is safe and effective in treatment of cervical spondylosis with less complication. There is no impact on the stability in cervical spinal constructs. The disease duration and

  10. Technological progress and average job matching quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Centeno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to study, in a labor market characterized by search frictions, the effect of technological progress on the average quality of job matches. For that, we use an extension of Mortensen and Pissarides (1998 and obtain as results that the effects of technological progress on the labor market depend upon the initial conditions of the economy. If the economy is totally characterized by the presence of low-quality job matches, an increase in technological progress is accompanied by an increase in the quality of jobs. In turn, if the economy is totally characterized by the presence of high-quality job matches, an increase in the technological progress rate implies the reverse effect. Finally, if the economy is totally characterized by the presence of very high-quality jobs, an increase in the technological progress rate implies an increase in the average quality of the job matches.O objetivo deste artigo é o de estudar, em um mercado de trabalho caracterizado por fricções, os efeitos do progresso tecnológico sobre a qualidade média das parcerias produtivas. Para tal, utilizamos uma extensão do modelo de Mortensen and Pissarides (1998 e obtivemos, como resultados, que os efeitos de variações na taxa de progresso tecnológico sobre o mercado de trabalho dependerão das condições da economia. Se a economia for totalmente caracterizada pela presença de parcerias produtivas de baixa qualidade, um aumento na taxa de progresso tecnológico vem acompanhado por um aumento na qualidade médias das parcerias produtivas. Por sua vez, se a economia for totalmente caracterizada pela presença de parcerias produtivas de alta qualidade, um aumento na taxa de progresso tecnológico gera um efeito inverso. Finalmente, se a economia for totalmente caracterizada pela presença de parcerias produtivas de muito alta qualidade, um aumento na taxa de progresso tecnológico virá acompanhado de uma elevação na qualidade média dos empregos.

  11. Class II Division 1 malocclusion with severe overbite: cephalometric evaluation of the effects of orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Leticia; Araujo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Bolognese, Ana Maria

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of orthodontic treatment among individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion and severe overbite. The sample was made up of 70 patients (35 males and 35 females), with an average age of 11.6 years in pretreatment and 14.9 years in posttreatment. One hundred forty lateral cephalograms were obtained and traced by a single investigator. All individuals were treated with the edgewise technique associated with the Kloehn cervical extraoral headgear during the growth spurt, and simultaneously presented ANB > or = 5 degrees and overbite > or = 4 mm. Statistical analysis involved t tests for both independent and paired samples and the Spearman correlation test. There were no significant differences between genders regarding the effects of treatment. The cases treated with extraction presented a greater reduction in the SNA angle. On average, all the variables of the study were significantly different when comparing the pretreatment and posttreatment conditions, except for the measurement of the mandibular plane angle (SNGoMe). Correction of severe overbite occurred in virtue of the intrusion of the maxillary and mandibular incisors associated to a reduction of the maxillary prognathism and differential growth of the mandible, as well as dentoalveolar growth.

  12. Record keeping, genetic selection, educational experience and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow, milk fat percentage, bacterial score and bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy farms in the Central region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-12-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the record keeping, genetic selection, educational, and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow (AYC), milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) of dairy farms in the central region of Thailand. Farms were located in the provinces of Saraburi and Nakhon Ratchisima and were members of the Muaklek dairy cooperative. Records from individual animals were unavailable. Thus, farm records of milk yield, milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and BTCCC were collected from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2006. Additional record keeping, genetic selection, education, and farm management information was collected through a questionnaire in May of 2006. Data from the Muaklek dairy cooperative and the questionnaire were then merged by a farm identification number. A single trait mixed model was used to analyze AYC, milk fat percentage, and BTSCC, while a log linear model was used to analyze bacterial score. Results showed that farms that kept records on individual animals had higher (P farms that did not. Farms that used genetic information (EBV) and phenotypes when selecting sires were higher (P farms that used only phenotypes and personal opinion. Farms milking cows with a single unit milking machine and by hand, had higher (P farms using only a single or multi unit machine. Overall farms that kept individual animal records, used EBV when selecting sires, used a single method for collecting milk, and used family labor achieved higher performance from their herds than farms that did not.

  13. Averaging and sampling for magnetic-observatory hourly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Love

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A time and frequency-domain analysis is made of the effects of averaging and sampling methods used for constructing magnetic-observatory hourly data values. Using 1-min data as a proxy for continuous, geomagnetic variation, we construct synthetic hourly values of two standard types: instantaneous "spot" measurements and simple 1-h "boxcar" averages. We compare these average-sample types with others: 2-h average, Gaussian, and "brick-wall" low-frequency-pass. Hourly spot measurements provide a statistically unbiased representation of the amplitude range of geomagnetic-field variation, but as a representation of continuous field variation over time, they are significantly affected by aliasing, especially at high latitudes. The 1-h, 2-h, and Gaussian average-samples are affected by a combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing. Brick-wall values are not affected by either amplitude distortion or aliasing, but constructing them is, in an operational setting, relatively more difficult than it is for other average-sample types. It is noteworthy that 1-h average-samples, the present standard for observatory hourly data, have properties similar to Gaussian average-samples that have been optimized for a minimum residual sum of amplitude distortion and aliasing. For 1-h average-samples from medium and low-latitude observatories, the average of the combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing is less than the 5.0 nT accuracy standard established by Intermagnet for modern 1-min data. For medium and low-latitude observatories, average differences between monthly means constructed from 1-min data and monthly means constructed from any of the hourly average-sample types considered here are less than the 1.0 nT resolution of standard databases. We recommend that observatories and World Data Centers continue the standard practice of reporting simple 1-h-average hourly values.

  14. Spacetime averaging of exotic singularity universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a spacetime average as a measure of the strength of singularities we show that big-rips (type I) are stronger than big-bangs. The former have infinite spacetime averages while the latter have them equal to zero. The sudden future singularities (type II) and w-singularities (type V) have finite spacetime averages. The finite scale factor (type III) singularities for some values of the parameters may have an infinite average and in that sense they may be considered stronger than big-bangs.

  15. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  16. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  17. Birth weight differences between those offered financial voucher incentives for verified smoking cessation and control participants enrolled in the Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), employing an intuitive approach and a Complier Average Causal Effects (CACE) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnachie, Alex; Haig, Caroline; Sinclair, Lesley; Bauld, Linda; Tappin, David M

    2017-07-20

    The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), which offered financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement in cessation. However, infant birth weight was not seen to be affected. This study re-examines birth weight using an intuitive and a complier average causal effects (CACE) method to uncover important information missed by intention-to-treat analysis. CPIT offered financial incentives up to £400 to pregnant smokers to quit. With incentives, 68 women (23.1%) were confirmed non-smokers at primary outcome, compared to 25 (8.7%) without incentives, a difference of 14.3% (Fisher test, p financial incentives to quit. Viewed in this way, the overall birth weight gain with incentives is attributable only to potential quitters. We compared an intuitive approach to a CACE analysis. Mean birth weight of potential quitters in the incentives intervention group (who therefore quit) was 3338 g compared with potential quitters in the control group (who did not quit) 3193 g. The difference attributable to incentives, was 3338 - 3193 = 145 g (95% CI -617, +803). The mean difference in birth weight between the intervention and control groups was 21 g, and the difference in the proportion who managed to quit was 14.3%. Since the intervention consisted of the offer of incentives to quit smoking, the intervention was received by all women in the intervention group. However, "compliance" was successfully quitting with incentives, and the CACE analysis yielded an identical result, causal birth weight increase 21 g ÷ 0.143 = 145 g. Policy makers have great difficulty giving pregnant women money to stop smoking. This study indicates that a small clinically insignificant improvement in average birth weight is likely to hide an important clinically significant increase in infants born to pregnant smokers who want to stop but cannot achieve smoking cessation without the addition of financial

  18. The effectiveness of biofeedback therapy in children with monosymptomatic enuresis resistant to desmopressin treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Eyüp Burak; Akbaş, Alpaslan; Kurt, Ömer; Alan, Cabir; Ersay, Ahmet Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of biofeedback therapy on children with desmopressin- resistant primary monosymptomatic enuresis (MsE). Material and methods The study comprised both retrospective and prospective sections. A total of 262 medical files of patients who were diagnosed as enuresis between November 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively screened. Patients with neuropathic bladder, daytime voiding problems, anatomical pathology and enuresis-related diseases were excluded from the study. The demographic data and family characteristics of 29 children with desmopressin- resistantprimary MsE were recorded. After biofeedback treatment patients whose frequency of enuretic episodes decrease by more than 50% were included in the successful biofeedback treatment group (SBTG), while other patients were categorized in the unsuccessful biofeedback treatment group (USGBT). The outcomes of uroflowmetry, voided volume, postvoiding residue (PVR) and total bladder volume/age-adjusted normal bladder capacity (TBV/NBC) were recorded before and at the sixth month of the treatment. Results The mean age of 29 patients included in the study was 9.14±3.07 (6–15) years. Of patients, 16 were male (55.2%) and 13 were female (44.8%). Before biofeedback treatment the frequency of enuresis was 25.1±5.76 days/month, while after treatment this was calculated as 8.52±10.07 days/month. After treatment 8 patients (28.6%) achieved complete dryness. Twenty patients (69%), benefited from biofeedback (SBTG), while there were 9 patients (31%) in the USBTG group. There was no significant difference between the SBTG and USBTG groups in terms of age, body mass index and sex. The average bladder capacity of the patients increased from 215 mL to 257 mL after biofeedback treatment (p<0.001). The TBV/NBC value before treatment was 0.66, while after treatment it was 0.77 (p<0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the SBTG and USBTG groups in terms of presence of Ms

  19. Effectiveness of hypnosis therapy and Gestalt therapy as depression treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth González-Ramírez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effectiveness of two psychological therapies to treat depression in the Culiacan population, Mexico. According to criteria of MINI (international Neuropsychiatric interview, 30 individuals from a total of 300 were selected and diagnosed with some kind of depression. Patients were divided in three groups: 1 treatment with hypnosis therapy, 2 treatment with Gestalt-hypnosis therapy, and 3 control group. Before and after the treatments the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI was applied to know the depression level of the analyzed groups. The results show that the three groups were presenting a moderated level of depression. The groups under hypnosis therapy and Gestalt-hypnosis therapy show statistical differences between pre-test and post-test. The hypnosis therapy shows significant statistic differences to treat depression with respect to the other two groups. In conclusion, the therapeutic hypnosis is an effective treatment and has relevance to treat depression, while other therapeutic treatments tend to be slow and with minor result. This study is the first of this kind carried out in Culiacan in Sinaloa, Mexico.

  20. Short- and long-term clinical skin effects of testosterone treatment in trans men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Van de Peer, Fleur; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Dedecker, David; Van Caenegem, Eva; Toye, Kaatje; Kaufman, Jean Marc; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the effects of testosterone (T) therapy on the skin of trans men (female-to-male transsexuals) is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term clinical effects of T treatment on the skin of trans men. We conducted a prospective intervention study in 20 hormone naive trans men and a cross-sectional study in 50 trans men with an average of 10 years on T therapy. Acne lesions were assessed using the Gradual Acne Grading Scale, hair patterns using the Ferriman and Gallwey classification (F&G), and androgenetic alopecia using the Norwood Hamilton Scale. T treatment increased facial and body hair growth. The F&G score increased progressively from a median value of 0.5 at baseline to a value of 12 after 12 months of T administration. After long-term T treatment, all but one trans man achieved an F&G score indicative of hirsutism in women, with a median value of 24. Only one trans man acquired mild frontotemporal hair loss during the first year of T treatment, whereas 32.7% of trans men had mild frontotemporal hair loss and 31% had moderate to severe androgenetic alopecia after long-term T therapy. The presence and severity of acne increased during the first year of T therapy, and peaked at 6 months. After long-term T treatment, most participants had no or mild acne lesions (93.9%). Dermatological outcome was not demonstrably related to individual serum T or dihydrotestosterone levels. T treatment increased facial and body hair in a time-dependent manner. The prevalence and severity of acne in the majority of trans men peaked 6 months after beginning T therapy. Severe skin problems were absent after short- and long-term T treatment. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Individually dosed omalizumab: an effective treatment for severe peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandström, J; Vetander, M; Lilja, G; Johansson, S G O; Sundqvist, A-C; Kalm, F; Nilsson, C; Nopp, A

    2017-04-01

    Treatment with omalizumab has shown a positive effect on food allergies, but no dosages are established. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity (CD-sens) can be used to objectively measure omalizumab treatment efficacy and correlates with the outcome of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to peanut. To evaluate whether individualized omalizumab treatment monitored by CD-sens could be an effective intervention for suppression of allergic reactions to peanut. Severely peanut allergic adolescents (n = 23) were treated with omalizumab for 8 weeks, and CD-sens was analysed before and after. Based on whether CD-sens was suppressed after 8 weeks, the patients either were subject to a peanut challenge or received eight more weeks with increased dose of omalizumab, followed by peanut challenge or another 8-week cycle of omalizumab. IgE and IgE-antibodies to peanut and its components were analysed before treatment. After individualized omalizumab treatment (8-24 weeks), all patients continued with an open peanut challenge with no (n = 18) or mild (n = 5) objective allergic symptoms. Patients (n = 15) needing an elevated omalizumab dose (ED) to suppress CD-sens had significantly higher CD-sens values at baseline 1.49 (0.44-20.5) compared to those (n = 8) who managed with normal dose (ND) 0.32 (0.24-5.5) (P omalizumab, monitored by CD-sens, is an effective and safe treatment for severe peanut allergy. The ratio of IgE-ab to storage protein Ara h 2/IgE as well as CD-sens to peanut may predict the need of a higher omalizumab dose. Clinical trials numbers: EudraCT; 2012-005625-78, ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02402231. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of the transpalatal arch during extraction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablocki, Heather L; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-06-01

    The transpalatal arch (TPA) can be used as an adjunct during orthodontic treatment to help control the movement of the maxillary first molars in 3 dimensions, including producing molar rotation and uprighting, maintaining transverse dimensions posteriorly during treatment, and maintaining leeway spaces during the transition of the dentition. The purpose of this retrospective cephalometric study was to test an additional function of the TPA: its ability to enhance orthodontic anchorage during extraction treatment. Records consisting of pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms were gathered from several orthodontic practices that used an .018 x .025-in preangulated appliance. All patients were white and had 4 first premolars extracted as part of their treatment protocol. Patients were treated either with or without a TPA of the soldered Goshgarian design. Patients were excluded if headgear or any other auxiliary anchorage device beside the TPA was used during treatment. Matched samples of 30 patients were identified based on sex, age at the start of treatment, treatment duration, and cervical vertebral maturation stage. Statistical comparisons were made with nonparametric statistical tests. Analysis of the changes from pretreatment to posttreatment for the TPA and the no-TPA groups showed no statistically significant differences in any of the variables examined. The net difference for both vertical and mesial movement of the maxillary first molar in relation to the maxilla between the 2 groups was 0.4 mm, with the no-TPA group in a more downward and forward position. Although the usefulness of the TPA for the abovementioned functions is not negated, it does not provide a significant effect on either the anteroposterior or the vertical position of the maxillary first molars during extraction treatment.

  3. Effects of Bright Light Treatment on Psychomotor Speed in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Paavo Tulppo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days. A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both treatment was given every morning between 8–12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time x group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024 but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308. Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year.

  4. Effective Coagulation Technology for Treatment of Grease Filter Washwater

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel E. Ghaly; A. Snow; B. E. Faber

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of grease filter washwater by chemical coagulation and sedimentation using different dosages of aluminum sulfate was investigated. Pollutant removal efficiency was measured in terms of total solids, pH and optical density. The process was found to be effective at the room temperature and the filter washwater pH (9.5). The optimum aluminum sulfate dosage was 2 g/L. The treatment reduced the total solids of the wastewater by 89.6%, and produced a supernatant with a pH of 4.15 and ...

  5. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...... the 15 min air corona treatment. A significant reduction in anodic and cathodic reactivities was observed starting from 1 min exposure, which further decreased with prolonged exposure (15 min) and after delayed testing (after 30 days). The reduction in surface reactivity is due to the formation...

  6. Effects of ultraviolet/ozone treatment on benzocyclobutene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viallet, Benoit; Daran, Emmanuelle; Malaquin, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Benzocyclobutene (BCB) is a dielectric polymer resin used in microelectronics for its physical properties and its chemical resistance. UV/ozone photochemical treatment modifies the chemical properties of BCB: It creates a near SiO 2 composition oxidized surface layer and degrades the polymer structure of BCB. The oxidized surface layer can be etched with fluoride acid and the degraded layer underneath is soluble with acetone. These BCB chemical modifications may be useful for BCB reworking after polymerization. UV/ozone treatment also has an effect on surface characteristics improving the surface tension and decreasing surface roughness of BCB

  7. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an electronic medication management system to reduce medication errors, adverse drug events and average length of stay at two paediatric hospitals: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J I; Li, L; Raban, M Z; Baysari, M T; Mumford, V; Prgomet, M; Georgiou, A; Kim, T; Lake, R; McCullagh, C; Dalla-Pozza, L; Karnon, J; O'Brien, T A; Ambler, G; Day, R; Cowell, C T; Gazarian, M; Worthington, R; Lehmann, C U; White, L; Barbaric, D; Gardo, A; Kelly, M; Kennedy, P

    2016-10-21

    Medication errors are the most frequent cause of preventable harm in hospitals. Medication management in paediatric patients is particularly complex and consequently potential for harms are greater than in adults. Electronic medication management (eMM) systems are heralded as a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs), yet internationally evidence of their effectiveness in paediatric populations is limited. This study will assess the effectiveness of an eMM system to reduce medication errors, ADEs and length of stay (LOS). The study will also investigate system impact on clinical work processes. A stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) will measure changes pre-eMM and post-eMM system implementation in prescribing and medication administration error (MAE) rates, potential and actual ADEs, and average LOS. In stage 1, 8 wards within the first paediatric hospital will be randomised to receive the eMM system 1 week apart. In stage 2, the second paediatric hospital will randomise implementation of a modified eMM and outcomes will be assessed. Prescribing errors will be identified through record reviews, and MAEs through direct observation of nurses and record reviews. Actual and potential severity will be assigned. Outcomes will be assessed at the patient-level using mixed models, taking into account correlation of admissions within wards and multiple admissions for the same patient, with adjustment for potential confounders. Interviews and direct observation of clinicians will investigate the effects of the system on workflow. Data from site 1 will be used to develop improvements in the eMM and implemented at site 2, where the SWCRCT design will be repeated (stage 2). The research has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network and Macquarie University. Results will be reported through academic journals and seminar and conference presentations. Australian New Zealand

  8. Order and session size effects on treatment discrimination: Case study liking for Dulce de Leche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica Ferreira; da Silveira, Andreza Pereira Lage; Bueno Filho, Júlio Silviode de Sousa; Souza, Vanessa Rios de; da Silva, André Barbosa Ventura; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the implications of the number of samples per panelist in experimental precision and relative efficiency of treatment comparisons when modelling order effects for Dulce de Leche samples using a Sudoku design. Precision is defined as small variance and relative efficiency is defined as smaller variance than other alternative. Both are related to increasing discrimination power. A series of 8 Sudoku 16×16 squares being 4 randomized independently and 4 others in the reverse order, was designed to allow a linear model fitting to experiments of different sizes (orders 1 to 4, 1 to 8, 1 to 12 and 1 to 16). Data from 112 panelists were kept. Responses were recorded using a nine-point hedonic scale. Data was analyzed using a mixed linear model panelist, order and treatment (sample) effects. Analysis has shown a pronounced order effect, showing a first sample effect overestimation. Moreover, it was noted that order effect was rather evidenced in the first four orders, making for a relatively more precise experiment than the ones using remaining samples. Therefore, the use of Sudoku can be a convenient strategy to organize smaller testing sessions that could result in efficient experiments, with small variance of the estimated averages or effects and needing a lot less panelists to make a design as efficient as the large one used. Moreover, Sudoku can also inspire an efficient design that allows different test sessions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parameter trajectory analysis to identify treatment effects of pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Tiemann

    Full Text Available The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT, to analyze the long-term effects of a pharmacological intervention. A concept of time-dependent evolution of model parameters is introduced to study the dynamics of molecular adaptations. The progression of these adaptations is predicted by identifying necessary dynamic changes in the model parameters to describe the transition between experimental data obtained during different stages of the treatment. The trajectories provide insight in the affected underlying biological systems and identify the molecular events that should be studied in more detail to unravel the mechanistic basis of treatment outcome. Modulating effects caused by interactions with the proteome and transcriptome levels, which are often less well understood, can be captured by the time-dependent descriptions of the parameters. ADAPT was employed to identify metabolic adaptations induced upon pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor (LXR, a potential drug target to treat or prevent atherosclerosis. The trajectories were investigated to study the cascade of adaptations. This provided a counter-intuitive insight concerning the function of scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a receptor that facilitates the hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Although activation of LXR promotes cholesterol efflux and -excretion, our computational analysis showed that the hepatic capacity to clear cholesterol was reduced upon prolonged treatment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by immunoblotting measurements of SR-B1

  10. Fixed Average Spectra of Orchestral Instrument Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Plazak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fixed spectrum for an average orchestral instrument tone is presented based on spectral data from the Sandell Harmonic Archive (SHARC. This database contains non-time-variant spectral analyses for 1,338 recorded instrument tones from 23 Western instruments ranging from contrabassoon to piccolo. From these spectral analyses, a grand average was calculated, providing what might be considered an average non-time-variant harmonic spectrum. Each of these tones represents the average of all instruments in the SHARC database capable of producing that pitch. These latter tones better represent common spectral changes with respect to pitch register, and might be regarded as an “average instrument.” Although several caveats apply, an average harmonic tone or instrument may prove useful in analytic and modeling studies. In addition, for perceptual experiments in which non-time-variant stimuli are needed, an average harmonic spectrum may prove to be more ecologically appropriate than common technical waveforms, such as sine tones or pulse trains. Synthesized average tones are available via the web.

  11. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

  12. Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    is less clear if the teacher distribution is unknown. I define a class of averaging procedures, the temperated likelihoods, including both Bayes averaging with a uniform prior and maximum likelihood estimation as special cases. I show that Bayes is generalization optimal in this family for any teacher...

  13. Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.

    We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW

  14. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  15. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of donepezil in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Germany using discrete event simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous cost-effectiveness studies of cholinesterase inhibitors have modeled Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and treatment effects through single or global severity measures, or progression to "Full Time Care". This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of donepezil versus memantine or no treatment in Germany by considering correlated changes in cognition, behavior and function. Methods Rates of change were modeled using trial and registry-based patient level data. A discrete event simulation projected outcomes for three identical patient groups: donepezil 10 mg, memantine 20 mg and no therapy. Patient mix, mortality and costs were developed using Germany-specific sources. Results Treatment of patients with mild to moderately severe AD with donepezil compared to no treatment was associated with 0.13 QALYs gained per patient, and 0.01 QALYs gained per caregiver and resulted in average savings of €7,007 and €9,893 per patient from the healthcare system and societal perspectives, respectively. In patients with moderate to moderately-severe AD, donepezil compared to memantine resulted in QALY gains averaging 0.01 per patient, and savings averaging €1,960 and €2,825 from the healthcare system and societal perspective, respectively. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, donepezil dominated no treatment in most replications and memantine in over 70% of the replications. Donepezil leads to savings in 95% of replications versus memantine. Conclusions Donepezil is highly cost-effective in patients with AD in Germany, leading to improvements in health outcomes and substantial savings compared to no treatment. This holds across a variety of sensitivity analyses. PMID:22316501

  16. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of donepezil in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Germany using discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartz Susanne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous cost-effectiveness studies of cholinesterase inhibitors have modeled Alzheimer's disease (AD progression and treatment effects through single or global severity measures, or progression to "Full Time Care". This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of donepezil versus memantine or no treatment in Germany by considering correlated changes in cognition, behavior and function. Methods Rates of change were modeled using trial and registry-based patient level data. A discrete event simulation projected outcomes for three identical patient groups: donepezil 10 mg, memantine 20 mg and no therapy. Patient mix, mortality and costs were developed using Germany-specific sources. Results Treatment of patients with mild to moderately severe AD with donepezil compared to no treatment was associated with 0.13 QALYs gained per patient, and 0.01 QALYs gained per caregiver and resulted in average savings of €7,007 and €9,893 per patient from the healthcare system and societal perspectives, respectively. In patients with moderate to moderately-severe AD, donepezil compared to memantine resulted in QALY gains averaging 0.01 per patient, and savings averaging €1,960 and €2,825 from the healthcare system and societal perspective, respectively. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, donepezil dominated no treatment in most replications and memantine in over 70% of the replications. Donepezil leads to savings in 95% of replications versus memantine. Conclusions Donepezil is highly cost-effective in patients with AD in Germany, leading to improvements in health outcomes and substantial savings compared to no treatment. This holds across a variety of sensitivity analyses.

  17. Microplasma effect on skin scaffold for melanoma cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zulaika; Zaaba, S. K.; Mustaffa, M. T.; Mohamad, C. W. S. R.; Zakaria, A.

    2017-03-01

    An atmospheric plasma system using Helium gas was developed. The effect of helium plasma treatment on skin scaffold surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The changes of skin scaffold surfaces before and after helium plasma treatment was recorded. The surface of skin scaffold changed with the prolonged of helium plasma treatment time. The depth of helium plasma penetration was studied using methylene blue dye staining method. The methylene blue will detect the presence or absence of an oxygen that was induced from plasma excitation. The presence of the oxygen indicated on the depth of helium plasma penetration. Results showed plasma are able to penetrate 4mm of skin scaffold after 1200 seconds of exposure.

  18. Comparison of central adjudication of outcomes and onsite outcome assessment on treatment effect estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndounga Diakou, Lee Aymar; Trinquart, Ludovic; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Barnes, Caroline; Yavchitz, Amelie; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle

    2016-03-10

    Assessment of events by adjudication committees (ACs) is recommended in multicentre randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, its usefulness has been questioned. The aim of this systematic review was to compare 1) treatment effect estimates of subjective clinical events assessed by onsite assessors versus by AC, and 2) treatment effect estimates according to the blinding status of the onsite assessor as well as the process used to select events to adjudicate. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Google Scholar (25 August 2015 as the last updated search date), using a combination of terms to retrieve RCTs with commonly used terms to describe ACs. We included all reports of RCTs and the published RCTs included in reviews and meta-analyses that reported the same subjective outcome event assessed by both an onsite assessor and an AC. We extracted the odds ratio (OR) from onsite assessment and the corresponding OR from AC assessment and calculated the ratio of the odds ratios (ROR). A ratio of odds ratios effect estimates in favour of the experimental treatment than ACs. Data from 47 RCTs (275,078 patients) were used in the meta-analysis. We excluded 11 RCTs because of incomplete outcome data to calculate the OR for onsite and AC assessments. On average, there was no difference in treatment effect estimates from onsite assessors and AC (combined ROR: 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.04; I(2) = 0%, 47 RCTs). The combined ROR was 1.00 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.04; I(2) = 0%, 35 RCTs) when onsite assessors were blinded; 0.76 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.12, I(2) = 0%, two RCTs) when AC assessed events identified independently from unblinded onsite assessors; and 1.11 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.27, I(2) = 0%, 10 RCTs) when AC assessed events identified by unblinded onsite assessors. However, there was a statistically significant interaction between these subgroups (P = 0.03) AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: On average

  19. Effectiveness of Radioiodine Treatment for Toxic Nodular Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Şakı

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the treatment outcomes in patients with toxic nodular goiter (TNG that received radioiodine treatment (RAIT and to determine the influence of age, gender, nodule size, I-131 dose, underlying etiology and antithyroid drugs on the outcomes of RAIT. Methods: Two hundred thirty three patients (mean 64±10 years old with TNG that received RAIT were included in the study. Treatment success was analyzed according to demographic (age and gender and clinical data (thyroid function tests before and after RAIT, thyroid sonography and scintigraphy, I-131 dose, antithyroid drugs. A fixed dose of 555 MBq was administered to patients with nodules smaller than 2 cm in diameter and of 740 MBq to patients with nodules larger than 2 cm. Hyperthyroidism treatment success was defined as achieving hypothyroidism or euthyroidism six months after RAIT. Results: In our study, the cure rate was 93.9% six months after RAIT. Hypothyroidism was observed in 74 (31.7% patients, and euthyroidism was achieved in 145 (62.2% patients while 14 (6% patients remained in hyperthyroid state. Age and gender did not affect treatment outcomes. No correlation was found between underlying etiology or antithyroid drugs and therapeutic effectiveness. The effectiveness of RAIT was better in patients with nodules smaller than 2 cm. Conclusion: We observed that high cure rates were obtained in patients with TNG with 555 MBq and 740 MBq doses of I-131. While nodule diameter and RAI dose are important factors for treatment efficacy; age, gender, underlying etiology and antithyroid drugs do not affect the outcome of RAIT.

  20. CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT THE PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Gadzhula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The success of endodontic treatment is provided by a thorough instrumental and antiseptic treatment of infected root canals, and it depends on the composition of filling material, the degree of adhesion to dentin, hermetic obturation of apical foramen, solubility of sealer. Objective. The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of root canal obturation with BioRootTM RCS sealer in the treatment of patients with chronic apical periodontitis. Methods. Endodontic treatment of 23 teeth in 20 patients with chronic apical periodontitis by method of lateral compaction of gutta-percha was carried out. In the main group root canals were obturated with BioRootTM RCS, in the control group the canals were filled with Apexit Plus. The percentage of efficient or non-efficient cases was evaluated on the basis of radiographic comparison of treated chronic apical periodontitis immediately after obturation, in three, six months and one year. Radiographic conditions were defined as existing state, improvement and worsening. Results. In a year of dynamic evaluation the final results were: in the main group – 54.55% of the patients had complete bone healing, in 27.27% of cases the focus of bone destruction was decreased by ½ or more of the initial sizes, 18.18% – resorption lesion was decreased by less than ½; in the control group – 33.33% of improvement, 25.0% of existing state and 41.66% of worsening. Conclusions. BioRootTM RCS using for root canals obturation in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis we proved the high effectiveness of the treatment undertaken: complete healing or improvement of radiographic conditions of periapical bone destruction with X-ray signs of bone regeneration.

  1. Autoregressive transitional ordinal model to test for treatment effect in neurological trials with complex endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo G. Tanadini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of potential therapeutic approaches for neurological disorders have failed to provide convincing evidence of efficacy, prompting pharmaceutical and health companies to discontinue their involvement in drug development. Limitations in the statistical analysis of complex endpoints have very likely had a negative impact on the translational process. Methods We propose a transitional ordinal model with an autoregressive component to overcome previous limitations in the analysis of Upper Extremity Motor Scores, a relevant endpoint in the field of Spinal Cord Injury. Statistical power and clinical interpretation of estimated treatment effects of the proposed model were compared to routinely employed approaches in a large simulation study of two-arm randomized clinical trials. A revisitation of a key historical trial provides further comparison between the different analysis approaches. Results The proposed model outperformed all other approaches in virtually all simulation settings, achieving on average 14 % higher statistical power than the respective second-best performing approach (range: -1 %, +34 %. Only the transitional model allows treatment effect estimates to be interpreted as conditional odds ratios, providing clear interpretation and visualization. Conclusion The proposed model takes into account the complex ordinal nature of the endpoint under investigation and explicitly accounts for relevant prognostic factors such as lesion level and baseline information. Superior statistical power, combined with clear clinical interpretation of estimated treatment effects and widespread availability in commercial software, are strong arguments for clinicians and trial scientists to adopt, and further extend, the proposed approach.

  2. Is group pelvic floor retraining as effective as individual treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H J S; Gosselink, M P; Fourie, S; Lindsey, I

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, pelvic floor retraining for faecal incontinence or obstructed defaecation has been delivered to patients through individual sessions with a specialist pelvic floor nurse, a resource-intensive practice. This study aimed to assess whether a similar outcome can be achieved by delivering retraining to patients in small groups, allowing considerable savings in the use of resources. Data were collected prospectively in a pelvic floor database. Patients received pelvic floor retraining either individually or in a small group setting and completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Two hundred and fifteen patients were treated, 119 individually and 96 in a small group setting. Scores before and after treatment for the two settings were compared for the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms. Additionally patients receiving group treatment completed a short questionnaire on their experience. The median change in Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index score was 5 (range -62 to 73) for individual treatment and 4 (range -41 to 47) for group treatment, both showing statistically significant improvement. However, there was no significant difference between the settings. Similar results were obtained with the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scores for the faecal incontinence and obstructed defaecation subgroups respectively. The majority of patients experienced symptomatic improvement following pelvic floor retraining and there was no significant difference in the resulting improvement according to treatment setting. As treatment costs are considerably less in a group setting, group pelvic floor retraining is more cost-effective than individual treatment. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Effect of combined treatments on viscosity of whey dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, A.; Sabato, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    Whey proteins, enriched protein fractions from milk, are of great interest as ingredients due to nutritional value associated with its functional properties. These proteins could have their structural properties improved when some treatments are applied, such as thermal and gamma irradiation or when some compounds are added. The current work aimed to study the viscometer behavior of whey dispersions submitted to two different combined treatments: (1) thermal plus irradiation and (2) thermal plus vacuum and N 2 plus irradiation. Dispersions of whey protein in water (5% and 8% protein (w/v) base) and containing proteins and glycerol at ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein:glycerol) were submitted to both combined treatments. The irradiation doses were 0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy. The viscosity of the two combined treatments and for four levels of absorbed doses is presented and the combined effects are discussed. The thermal treatment combined with gamma irradiation contributed to increase the viscosity as irradiation doses increases for both (5% and 8%) concentrations of proteins (p<0.05). For protein and glycerol solutions, the irradiation dose seemed to result in a slightly increase. The vacuum applied before the irradiation showed a small contribution

  4. Multiple sclerosis treatment effects on plasma cytokine receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Sahl Khalid; Fink, Katharina; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Lundström, Wangko; Kockum, Ingrid; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Glaser, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Genetic variants within some cytokine receptor genes have been associated with MS susceptibility, including IL7RA and IL2RA. As these genes are expressed by cells targeted by immune-modulatory drugs, we explored the potential role of their gene products as biomarkers in monitoring MS treatment. We assessed the impact of natalizumab followed by fingolimod on the intra-individual changes of plasma protein levels of sIL-7Rα, sIL-2Rα and also sIL-6R and sgp130 in MS patients. During natalizumab treatment we observed a decline in sgp130 and sIL-7Rα levels, while subsequent fingolimod treatment lead to increased sgp130 and sIL-7Rα and decreased sIL-2Rα levels. In addition, during fingolimod treatment sIL-7Rα levels were increasing significantly more in patients homozygous for the MS risk genotype of rs6897932. We also observed an effect of the MS associated rs71624119 on sgp130 levels. These results may elucidate the pharmacodynamics of treatments and help identify biomarkers for MS outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghui, Peng; Jing, Kang; Xiao, Deng

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to probe the psychological factors adolescent orthodontic patients, the role of body image and self-esteem in the whole process of orthodontic treatment and the impact on the efficacy and satisfaction of orthodontic. Five hundred and twenty-eight patients were selected in this study. The Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) , Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Negative Physical Self-General (NPS-G) and other body analysis scale study after orthodontic lasted 18-24 months were used to investigate the role of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment. Esthetic evaluation of patients teeth after correction had been significantly improved, patient self-evaluation difference IOTN-AC doctor evaluation, Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire-tooth confidence, aesthetic concerns, psychological impact and social function were significantly improved. The improvement of the dental aesthetics component (T2 when doctors evaluate IOTN-AC) was positively correlated with the evaluation of the efficacy, and was significantly negatively correlated with the negative emotions of patients at baseline. Negative body image-dental dissatisfied-cognitive component and the affective component, the overall negative body image and negative emotions can predict patient satisfaction with treatment efficacy. Orthodontic treatment not only improves the self-aesthetic evaluation of adolescent patients, but also has a positive effect on the mental health of adolescent patients.

  6. Small scale magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Sudan, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    By relaxing exact magnetic flux conservation below a scale λ a system of flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived from Hamilton's principle with modified constraints. An energy principle can be derived from the linearized averaged system because the total system energy is conserved. This energy principle is employed to treat the resistive tearing instability and the exact growth rate is recovered when λ is identified with the resistive skin depth. A necessary and sufficient stability criteria of the tearing instability with line tying at the ends for solar coronal loops is also obtained. The method is extended to both spatial and temporal averaging in Hamilton's principle. The resulting system of equations not only allows flux reconnection but introduces irreversibility for appropriate choice of the averaging function. Except for boundary contributions which are modified by the time averaging process total energy and momentum are conserved over times much longer than the averaging time τ but not for less than τ. These modified boundary contributions correspond to the existence, also, of damped waves and shock waves in this theory. Time and space averaging is applied to electron magnetohydrodynamics and in one-dimensional geometry predicts solitons and shocks in different limits

  7. Effects of teriparatide versus alendronate for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Kang; Qin, Si-Qing; Ma, Tao; Song, Wei; Jiang, Ren-Qi; Guo, Jian-Bin; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yu-Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Osteoporosis remains a clinical challenge. Teriparatide is an anabolic drug and alendronate is an antiresorptive agent; both are used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Comprehensive reviews investigating the comparative safety and efficacy of teriparatide versus alendronate are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of teriparatide versus alendronate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, and the China Academic Journal Network Publishing databases for relevant RCTs of teriparatide versus alendronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. Outcome measures were percentage change in lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. Effect size was reported as weighted mean differences (WMDs) for continuous outcomes and odds ratios (OR) for dichotomous outcomes, with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Six trials involving 618 patients were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated a significant increase in lumbar spine BMD (WMD: 3.46, 95% CI: 2.15–4.77, P osteoporosis patients treated with teriparatide compared with alendronate for 6 to 18 months. These beneficial effects were apparent in the lumbar spine at 12 months of treatment (WMD: 4.49, 95% CI: 2.57–6.40, P osteoporosis. The efficacy and safety of long-term teriparatide and alendronate treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis should be further investigated in clinical trials. PMID:28538396

  8. Effect of technological treatments on bovine lactoferrin: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Indira; Pérez, María Dolores; Conesa, Celia; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein that exerts important activities in the neonate through its presence in milk, and also in other external mucosas, acting as a defense protein of innate immunity. The addition of bovine LF to infant formula and also to other functional products and cosmetics has increased during the last decades. Consequently, it is essential to know the effect that the technological processes, necessary to elaborate those products, have on LF activity. In this study, we have revised the effect of classical treatments on lactoferrin structure and activity, such as heat treatment or drying, and also of emerging technologies, like high pressure or pulsed electric field. The results of the studies included in this review indicate that LF stability is dependent on its level of iron-saturation and on the characteristics of the treatment media. Furthermore, the studies revised here reveal that the non-thermal treatments are interesting alternatives to the traditional ones, as they protect better the structure and activity of lactoferrin. It is also clear the need for research on LF encapsulation by different ways, to protect its properties before it reaches the intestine. All this knowledge would allow designing processes less harmful for LF, thus maintaining all its functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors Associated with Effectiveness of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients with Thin Endometrium Undergoing Estrogen Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Miao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Thinner EMT before estrogen treatment requires longer treatment duration and predicts poorer treatment outcomes. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the duration of estrogen administration. Assisted reproductive outcomes of patients whose treatment is successful (i.e., achieves an EMT ≥8 mm are similar to those of controls. The quality of embryos transferred is an important predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes in patients treated successfully with exogenous estrogen.

  10. Average-passage flow model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  11. Computation of the bounce-average code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, T.A.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rensink, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    The bounce-average computer code simulates the two-dimensional velocity transport of ions in a mirror machine. The code evaluates and bounce-averages the collision operator and sources along the field line. A self-consistent equilibrium magnetic field is also computed using the long-thin approximation. Optionally included are terms that maintain μ, J invariance as the magnetic field changes in time. The assumptions and analysis that form the foundation of the bounce-average code are described. When references can be cited, the required results are merely stated and explained briefly. A listing of the code is appended

  12. Extension of the time-average model to Candu refueling schemes involving reshuffling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouben, Benjamin; Nichita, Eleodor

    2008-01-01

    Candu reactors consist of a horizontal non-pressurized heavy-water-filled vessel penetrated axially by fuel channels, each containing twelve 50-cm-long fuel bundles cooled by pressurized heavy water. Candu reactors are refueled on-line and, as a consequence, the core flux and power distributions change continuously. For design purposes, a 'time-average' model was developed in the 1970's to calculate the average over time of the flux and power distribution and to study the effects of different refueling schemes. The original time-average model only allows treatment of simple push-through refueling schemes whereby fresh fuel is inserted at one end of the channel and irradiated fuel is removed from the other end. With the advent of advanced fuel cycles and new Candu designs, novel refueling schemes may be considered, such as reshuffling discharged fuel from some channels into other channels, to achieve better overall discharge burnup. Such reshuffling schemes cannot be handled by the original time-average model. This paper presents an extension of the time-average model to allow for the treatment of refueling schemes with reshuffling. Equations for the extended model are presented, together with sample results for a simple demonstration case. (authors)

  13. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  14. Weightbath hydrotraction treatment: application, biomechanics, and clinical effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kurutz, M?rta; Bender, Tam?s

    2010-01-01

    Márta Kurutz1, Tamás Bender21Department of Structural Mechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary; 2Department of Physical Medicine, Polyclinic and Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers of St. John of God, Budapest, Medical University of Szeged, HungaryBackground and purpose: Weightbath hydrotraction treatment (WHT) is a simple noninvasive effective method of hydro- or balneotherapy to stretch the spine or lower limbs, applied successfully in hospi...

  15. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies of prevention and treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Hay, Phillipa; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2018-04-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental disorders and are associated with substantial economic and social burden. The aim of this study is to undertake a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness studies of both preventive and treatment interventions for eating disorder. Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, CINAHL complete, Health Business Elite, Econlit, Health Policy Reference Center and ERIC) were searched for published cost-effectiveness studies of eating disorder prevention and treatment including papers published up to January 2017. The quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. In all, 13 studies met the review inclusion criteria as full cost-effectiveness studies and 8 were published since 2011. The studies included three modelled and one trial-based study focused on prevention, two trial-based and one modelled study for anorexia nervosa treatment and three trial-based studies for bulimia nervosa treatment. The remaining studies targeted binge-eating disorder or non-specific eating disorder treatment. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 71% (standard deviation 21%). Eating disorder interventions were mainly cost-saving or more effective and more costly compared to comparators; however, some results did not reach statistical significance. In the two studies that achieved 100% CHEERS checklist, one study reported that a cognitive dissonance intervention might be cost-effective for prevention of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with a 90% participation rate and the second study supported lisdexamfetamine to be cost-effective in the treatment of binge-eating disorder. Insufficient evidence for long-term cost-effectiveness (e.g. over 2 years) was found. Cost-effectiveness studies in eating disorder appear to be increasing in number over the last 6 years. Findings

  16. Cost-effectiveness of preventive treatment of intracranial aneurysms New data and uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greving, Jacoba P.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Buskens, Erik; Algra, Ale

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous modeling studies on treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms largely disregarded detailed data on treatment risks and omitted several factors that could influence cost-effectiveness. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of surgical and endovascular treatment of

  17. Weightbath hydrotraction treatment: application, biomechanics, and clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutz, Márta; Bender, Tamás

    2010-04-07

    Weightbath hydrotraction treatment (WHT) is a simple noninvasive effective method of hydro- or balneotherapy to stretch the spine or lower limbs, applied successfully in hospitals and health resort sanitaria in Hungary for more than fifty years. This study aims to introduce WHT with its biomechanical and clinical effects. History, development, equipment, modes of application, biomechanics, spinal traction forces and elongations, indications and contraindications of WHT are precented. The calculation of traction forces acting along the spinal column during the treatment is described together with the mode of suspension and the position of extra weight loads applied. The biomechanics of the treatment are completed by in vivo measured elongations of lumbar segments using a special underwater ultrasound measuring method. The clinical effects, indications, and contraindications of the treatment are also presented. In the underwater cervical suspension of a human body, approximately 25 N stretching load occurs in the cervical spine, and about 11 N occurs in the lumbar spine. By applying extra weights, the above tensile forces along the spinal column can be increased. Thus, the traction effect can be controlled by applying such loads during the treatment. Elongations of segments L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 were measured during the usual WHT of patients suspended cervically in water for 20 minutes, loaded by 20-20 N lead weights on the ankles. The mean initial elastic elongations of spinal segments were about 0.8 mm for patients aged under 40 years, 0.5 mm between 40-60 years, and 0.2 mm for patients over 60 years. The mean final viscoelastic elongations were 1.5 mm, 1.2 mm, and 0.6 mm for the same age classes, respectively. No significant difference was found between the sexes regarding age-dependence in tension. WHT for discopathy showed significant improvement of clinical parameters, which was still evident three months later, as demonstrated by using a controlled pilot

  18. Weightbath hydrotraction treatment: application, biomechanics, and clinical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Kurutz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Márta Kurutz1, Tamás Bender21Department of Structural Mechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary; 2Department of Physical Medicine, Polyclinic and Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers of St. John of God, Budapest, Medical University of Szeged, HungaryBackground and purpose: Weightbath hydrotraction treatment (WHT is a simple noninvasive effective method of hydro- or balneotherapy to stretch the spine or lower limbs, applied successfully in hospitals and health resort sanitaria in Hungary for more than fifty years. This study aims to introduce WHT with its biomechanical and clinical effects. History, development, equipment, modes of application, biomechanics, spinal traction forces and elongations, indications and contraindications of WHT are precented.Subjects and methods: The calculation of traction forces acting along the spinal column during the treatment is described together with the mode of suspension and the position of extra weight loads applied. The biomechanics of the treatment are completed by in vivo measured elongations of lumbar segments using a special underwater ultrasound measuring method. The clinical effects, indications, and contraindications of the treatment are also presented.Results: In the underwater cervical suspension of a human body, approximately 25 N stretching load occurs in the cervical spine, and about 11 N occurs in the lumbar spine. By applying extra weights, the above tensile forces along the spinal column can be increased. Thus, the traction effect can be controlled by applying such loads during the treatment. Elongations of segments L3–L4, L4–L5, and L5–S1 were measured during the usual WHT of patients suspended cervically in water for 20 minutes, loaded by 20–20 N lead weights on the ankles. The mean initial elastic elongations of spinal segments were about 0.8 mm for patients aged under 40 years, 0.5 mm between 40–60 years, and 0.2 mm for patients over 60 years. The mean

  19. Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate treatment for severe hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Gong, Chun-Xiu; Zhang, Wei-Ping

    2015-06-01

    We sought to evaluate the effects of oral testosterone undecanoate treatment based on the temporary growth of penis and the complications of surgery in children with microphallic hypospadias. A total of 72 randomized consecutive children with microphallic hypospadias were included in the study from March 2011 to September 2013. While 34 children were treated with oral testosterone undecanoate treatment prior to surgery on time (group 1), 36 children did not receive any treatment preoperatively (group 2). All children underwent hypospadias repair using transverse preputial island flap (Duckett technique) urethroplasty or combination of Duckett and Thiersch-Duplay techniques. Penile length, diameter, serum testosterone level, and secondary effects were recorded before and after therapy in group 1. Postoperative complications were assessed with respect to fistulas, urethral strictures, diverticula, meatal stenosis, and glanular dehiscence in both groups. Mean penile length and diameter increased significantly by 1.06 ± 0.53 cm (P testosterone group had this complication (P > 0.05). There were three patients (8.3 %) with diverticula in group 2 and three patients (8.9 %) with this complication in group 1 (P > 0.05). None of our patients had signs or symptoms of meatal stenosis, glanular dehiscence, or residual chordee in both groups. Finally, there was a significant difference between the overall reoperation rates of group 2 (14 patients, 38.9 %) and group 1 (five patients, 14.7 %, P testosterone undecanoate was effective in improving the temporary penile growth and decreasing the surgical complications in children with microphallic hypospadias.

  20. The effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Moghtaderi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an annoying disease cause major problems including insomnia, impaired concentration, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.Methods: This was a pilot experimental study with pre- and post-test method. 20 people suffered from subjective tinnitus were divided equally in two groups of experimental and control. The two groups were matched according to age and severity of tinnitus. They completed tinnitus clinical questionnaires before and after the test and the severity of their tinnitus was recorded by a number from one to ten. Experimental group went under hypnotherapy for 10 sessions. The control group did not perform any psychological treatment. The gathered data were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test (independent and dependent.Results: There were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of each group and also, between the post-test scores of experimental and control groups (p = 0.001 for all.Conclusion: The results showed that hypnotherapy could effectively reduce the seventy of tinnitus in patients in the experimental group; in other words, the results confirm the effectiveness of medical hypnosis in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening and treatment methods: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Farbod Ebadifard; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Mazdaki, Alireza; Rezapour, Aziz; Ebrahimi, Parvin; Yousefzadeh, Negar

    2017-06-19

    Due to extensive literature in the field of lung cancer and their heterogeneous results, the aim of this study was to systematically review of systematic reviews studies which reviewed the cost-effectiveness of various lung cancer screening and treatment methods. In this systematic review of systematic reviews study, required data were collected searching the following key words which selected from Mesh: "lung cancer", "lung oncology", "lung Carcinoma", "lung neoplasm", "lung tumors", "cost- effectiveness", "systematic review" and "Meta-analysis". The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Two reviewers (RA and A-AS) evaluated the articles according to the checklist of "assessment of multiple systematic reviews" (AMSTAR) tool. Overall, information of 110 papers was discussed in eight systematic reviews. Authors focused on cost-effectiveness of lung cancer treatments in five systematic reviews. Targeted therapy options (bevacizumab, Erlotinib and Crizotinib) show an acceptable cost-effectiveness. Results of three studies failed to show cost-effectiveness of screening methods. None of the studies had used the meta-analysis method. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) tool and Drummond checklist were mostly used in assessing the quality of articles. Most perspective was related to the Payer (64 times) and the lowest was related to Social (11times). Most cases referred to Incremental analysis (82%) and also the lowest point of referral was related to Discounting (in 49% of the cases). The average quality score of included studies was calculated 9.2% from 11. Targeted therapy can be an option for the treatment of lung cancer. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of computerized tomographic colonography (CTC) in lung cancer screening is recommended. The perspective of the community should be more taken into consideration in studies of cost-effectiveness. Paying more attention to the topic of

  2. Curative effect and mechanism of radiofrequency ablation nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Xin-Mei; Huang, Ming-Guang; Chen, Wei; Song, Yang; Du, Qing-Jun; Wu, Yu-Ning; Yang, Ruo-Bin

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the curative effects and mechanism of radiofrequency ablation nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical vertigo. A total of 27 patients diagnosed with cervical vertigo from January 2012 to October 2014 received treatment of radiofrequency ablation nucleoplasty. The narrow-side vertebral artery diameters were examined by using Philips 1.5-T body dual-gradient MRI system. The haemodynamic parameters were detected by using transcranial Doppler sonography. Both of the vertebral artery diameters and haemodynamic parameters were recorded and compared before and after treatment. The curative effects in early post-operative application were evaluated according to the Nagashima standards. Radiofrequency ablation nucleoplasty was performed in a total of 59 cervical discs in 27 patients. The average operation time was 42.7 min, and the symptoms of 92.6% patients were alleviated after radiofrequency ablation nucleoplasty post-operation application. There was no significant difference in the narrow-side vertebral artery diameters before and after treatment in both Group A (p = 0.12) and Group B (p = 0.48); however, the blood flow velocity was significantly higher than that before treatment in both Group A (p = 0.01) and Group B (p = 0.03), respectively. Radiofrequency ablation nucleoplasty improves the blood flow in the narrow-side vertebral artery and illustrates the therapeutic effect on cervical vertigo in patients who have no direct compression of the vertebral artery. Advances in knowledge: Radiofrequency intradiscal nucleoplasty can be used as a minimally invasive procedure for treating cervical vertigo.

  3. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawito, M.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons on M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments

  4. [Clinical curative effect of early treatment on cracked tooth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qua

    2007-04-01

    To study the effective method of early treatment on cracked tooth. Sixty cracked teeth were randomly divided into Group A and Group B. Teeth of Group A were treated by means of occlusal adjustment and filling. Teeth of Group B were treated by employing porcelain complete veneer crown. Curative effect was evaluated every half a year and last 2 years. The achievement ratio of Group A and Group B was 53.33% and 83.33%. There was significant difference between them (Pcracked tooth. It can decrease the occurrence of pulpitis and fracture.

  5. Monthly snow/ice averages (ISCCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11.5 percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. Data from NASA show that the land ice sheets in...

  6. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  7. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  8. Schedule of average annual equipment ownership expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-06

    The "Schedule of Average Annual Equipment Ownership Expense" is designed for use on Force Account bills of Contractors performing work for the Illinois Department of Transportation and local government agencies who choose to adopt these rates. This s...

  9. Should the average tax rate be marginalized?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feldman, N. E.; Katuščák, Peter

    -, č. 304 (2006), s. 1-65 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : tax * labor supply * average tax Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp304.pdf

  10. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Impact Toughness of Ti-6Al-4V Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee K.-A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy using one of the powder bed fusion 3D-printing processes, selective laser melting, and investigated the effect of heat treatment (650°C/3hrs on microstructure and impact toughness of the material. Initial microstructural observation identified prior-β grain along the building direction before and after heat treatment. In addition, the material formed a fully martensite structure before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, α and β phase were formed simultaneously. Charpy impact tests were conducted. The average impact energy measured as 6.0 J before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, the average impact energy increased by approximately 20% to 7.3 J. Fracture surface observation after the impact test showed that both alloys had brittle characteristics on macro levels, but showed ductile fracture characteristics and dimples at micro levels.

  11. The Effect of Tamsulosin in the Medical Treatment of Distal Ureteral Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M.; Magsudi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Renal stones are common disorders that affect approximately 5% to 10% of the population and the incidence of renal stones is rising. Treatment of ureteral stones is an important part of urologists and minimally invasive procedures such as ESWL and ureteroscopy effectiveness has been proven in various studies. However, these methods are not completely safe and are expensive and can be complicated. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of tamsulosin in the medical treatment of distal ureteral stones. Patients and methods: A total of 96 patients with distal ureteral stones or UVj are randomly divided into two study group (50 patients) and control group (46 patients). Patients in the control group allowed to freely consuming fluids (hydration) and indomethacin 100 mg PRN. Study group in addition to indomethacin and daily analgesic 0.4 mg tamsulosin was administered. All subjects in terms of analgesic dose, duration of expulsion and expulsion were studied. Results: Spontaneous expulsion of stone was occurred in 62.5% (30 patients out of 46) of control group patients and 82% (41 patients out of 50) that there was no significant difference (P>0.05). Average time to fix the stone in control group 4.7±8.03 days (range 2 to 28 days) and in the study group, 3.7±5.70 days (range 1 to 23 days) is significantly different (P>0.05). The average amount of analgesic consumption in the control group was 2.3±4.31and in the study group was 1.48±2.15 that showed significant differences (Ptamsulosin to conservative treatment of distal ureteral stones in the distal ureteral stone expulsion showed no significant difference between the two groups, but the reduction in the duration of expulsion, reduce pain and reduce the need for analgesic has been beneficial. PMID:25363178

  12. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  13. Aplikasi Moving Average Filter Pada Teknologi Enkripsi

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawi, Adrianto

    2007-01-01

    A method of encrypting and decrypting is introduced. The type of information experimented on is a mono wave sound file with frequency 44 KHZ. The encryption technology uses a regular noise wave sound file (with equal frequency) and moving average filter to decrypt and obtain the original signal. All experiments are programmed using MATLAB. By the end of the experiment the author concludes that the Moving Average Filter can indeed be used as an alternative to encryption technology.

  14. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Balogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

  15. [Chronic pain patients' readiness to change after multimodal treatment. Short- and long-term effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, A; Sabatowski, R; Kaiser, U

    2012-12-01

    Patients' readiness to behavioural changes according to the transtheoretical model (TTM) and criteria of treatment outcome are positively associated and have in part already been confirmed. For a stable effect of therapeutic treatment, patients' readiness to change seems indispensable for an independent and active pain management. Thus, in addition to an enhanced quality of life, increasing patients' motivation is a declared objective of the treatment at Dresden's Comprehensive Pain Center. In this study, it was examined how the readiness to change develops in the course of and during the 2 years following the multimodal treatment program. Furthermore, associations between outcome criteria of the treatment and patients' readiness to change were explored. The database constitutes 169 patients who took part in a 4-week interdisciplinary, partially residential pain treatment. Beside the Freiburg Pain Stages questionnaire ("Frieburger Fragebogen - Stadien der Bewältigung chronischer Schmerzen", FF-STABS), a comprehensive pain diagnostic inventory including the Pain Disability Index (PDI), the SF-36 questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was completed at six different time points (beginning of treatment, end of treatment, booster session after 10 weeks, after 6, 12, and 24 months). The statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 16.0 including nonparametric analyses and variance analyses. Significant differences in the level of readiness to change between the beginning of treatment and all follow-up measures were observed. The average patients' readiness to change was still higher after 2 years than at the first measurement. However, a differentiated consideration revealed a small portion of patients who showed no change or even a reduction of motivation. After an additional week (booster session), the stages of readiness to change remained stable, irrespective of the direction of the previous change. Regarding therapeutic outcome

  16. Effect of heat treatment on corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, duplex WC-Co/NiCrAlY coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate and vacuum heat treatment is employed to investigate the corrosion behavior of heat treated samples as well as Ti6Al4V substrate for comparison. In this duplex coating system, High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF process is used to deposit NiCrAlY interlayer with a constant thickness of 200 μm and WC-Co ceramic top layer with varying thickness of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by Detonation Spray (DS process. Different heat treatment temperatures (600–1150 °C were employed for the coated samples to study the microstructure and the effect on corrosion resistance of the duplex coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated heat treated samples and the substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and prepared the pH to 5.7. The microstructure upon corrosion after heat treatment was characterized by SEM analysis to understand the corrosion behavior. The results disclosed that at all heat treatment temperatures, all the coated samples exhibited better corrosion resistance than the base substrate. However, during 950 °C and 1150 °C heat treatment temperatures, it was observed highest corrosion potential than 600 °C and 800 °C. The 350 μm thickness, coated sample exhibited highest corrosion resistance compared to other two coated samples and the substrate at all heat treatment temperatures.

  17. Orlistat for the treatment of obesity: rapid review and cost-effectiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, D R; Milne, R

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the potential benefits, disbenefits and costs of Orlistat for the treatment of obesity. The method was a search for relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials, in Medline, Pre-Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library, using Orlistat and its synonyms. Identified trials were appraised using a standard appraisal checklist and trial data were extracted for use in cost-effectiveness modelling. Three large multicentre, randomized placebo controlled trials were included in the rapid review. On average, Orlistat results in obese people losing an additional 3-4% of their initial body weight over diet alone during a 2 year period. There was no strong evidence that this short-term weight loss would have a longer-term impact on morbidity and mortality. The cost utility of Orlistat treatment was estimated at around 46,000 Pounds per Quality Adjusted Life Year gained (extreme values sensitivity analysis 14,000 Pounds to 132,000 Pounds). This rapid review raises some important questions about the potential value of Orlistat in the treatment of obesity. Further research is needed, not only to clarify the longer-term impact of Orlistat treatment, but also to uncover the longer-term impact on mortality and morbidity from short-term weight loss.

  18. Effect of post-sintering treatment on properties of Bi-based high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masayuki; Kozuka, Akira; Morishita, Ken; Nishino, Tadashi; Hattori, Takeo; Takata, Masasuke

    1989-01-01

    A new method to obtain the pure 110K phase in the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O was examined employing post-sintering treatment. The mixture of Bi 2 O 3 , SrCO 3 , CaCO 3 and CuO with the basic composition of Bi/Sr/Ca/Cu=2/2/1/2 was calcined. The resulting powder was soaked in ethanol containing copper acetate and calcium acetate, the amounts of which were determined to give the composition of Bi/Sr/Ca/Cu=2/2/2/3 after sintering. The resistivity was measured by the d.c. four probe method in a cryostat. The current level was maintained at 50 mA and the voltage drop was determined by averaging the values in the forward and reverse directions. The zero T c ranged from 65 to 69K for the samples after sintering, while that ranged from 69 to 71K for those with post-sintering treatment. The effect of the treatment was not drastic but significant. Modified post-sintering treatment is being examined and the results are reported in the symposium

  19. Is immunotherapy an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga

    2015-11-27

    Immunotherapy has a great potential of becoming a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs. It may be used to treat addiction but also to prevent neurotoxic complications of drug overdose. In preclinical studies two immunological methods have been tested; active immunization, which relies on the administration of vaccines and passive immunization, which relies on the administration of monoclonal antibodies. Until now researchers have succeeded in developing vaccines and/or antibodies against addiction to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and phencyclidine. Their effectiveness has been confirmed in preclinical studies. At present, clinical studies are being conducted for vaccines against nicotine and cocaine and also anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. These preclinical and clinical studies suggest that immunotherapy may be useful in the treatment of addiction and drug overdose. However, there are a few problems to be solved. One of them is controlling the level of antibodies due to variability between subjects. But even obtaining a suitable antibody titer does not guarantee the effectiveness of the vaccine. Additionally, there is a risk of intentional or unintentional overdose. As vaccines prevent passing of drugs through the blood/brain barrier and thereby prevent their positive reinforcement, some addicted patients may erroneously seek higher doses of psychoactive substances to get "high". Consequently, vaccination should be targeted at persons who have a strong motivation to free themselves from drug dependency. It seems that immunotherapy may be an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction if directed to adequate candidates for treatment. For other addicts, immunotherapy may be a very important element supporting psycho- and pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with acute episodes of mania were enrolled in this study, and they were randomly assigned into a risperidone group of 24 cases and an aripiprazole group of 26 cases. In group A, aripiprazole with a dose of 5-30 mg/day and in group B, risperidone with a dose of 2-8 mg/day was given to patients. The average dose of aripiprazole was 27 mg/day, and the average dose of risperidone was 6 mg/day. The effects of each drug for the treatment of acute mania were assessed on the 1 st day of admission and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 after therapy using the young mania rating scale (YMRS and at the baseline and on weeks 3 and 6 after admission using the clinical global impression (CGI scale. Results: The mean age of the group of risperidone was 34 ± 8.6 years and in a group of aripiprazole it was 34 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.83. Comparison of YMRS scores over the period of 6 weeks revealed a statistically significant difference in both groups (P < 0.0001.There was also a statistically significant difference in YMRS scores between risperidone and aripiprazole at day 8 (P = 0.026 and weeks 2 (P = 0.035 and 4 (P = 0.042. There was also a statistically significant difference in CGI-Severity scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.003 and 6 (P = 0.000 and in CGI-Improvement scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.005 and 6 (P = 0.002. The most common side-effect observed in both groups was headache (0%15/4 in aripiprazole vs. %16/7 in risperidone Conclusion: Aripiprazole that is readily