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Sample records for average treatment effect

  1. Sharp IV bounds on average treatment effects under endogeneity and noncompliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    econometrics. Therefore, we use treatment monotonicity and/or stochastic dominance assumptions to derive sharp bounds on the average treatment effects of the treated population, the entire population, the compliers, the always takers, and the never takers. We also provide an application to labor market data...

  2. Quasi-likelihood estimation of average treatment effects based on model information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hua SUN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the estimation of average treatment effects is considered when we have the model information of the conditional mean and conditional variance for the responses given the covariates. The quasi-likelihood method adapted to treatment effects data is developed to estimate the parameters in the conditional mean and conditional variance models. Based on the model information, we define three estimators by imputation, regression and inverse probability weighted methods.All the estimators are shown asymptotically normal. Our simulation results show that by using the model information, the substantial efficiency gains are obtained which are comparable with the existing estimators.

  3. Quasi-likelihood estimation of average treatment effects based on model information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the estimation of average treatment effects is considered when we have the model information of the conditional mean and conditional variance for the responses given the covariates. The quasi-likelihood method adapted to treatment effects data is developed to estimate the parameters in the conditional mean and conditional variance models. Based on the model information, we define three estimators by imputation, regression and inverse probability weighted methods. All the estimators are shown asymptotically normal. Our simulation results show that by using the model information, the substantial efficiency gains are obtained which are comparable with the existing estimators.

  4. The Role of Gender in Agricultural Productivity in the Philippines: The Average Treatment Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Koirala, Krishna H.; MISHRA Ashok K.; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2014-01-01

    Using average treatment effect and data from 2012 the Central Luzon Loop Survey, this study investigates the role of gender in rice production. Results indicate that female-headed farm households, despite having limited access to land, have a higher value of rice production than their male counterparts. However, there is no significant difference between net farm incomes earned by male- and female-headed farm households. Female-headed households have higher fixed costs, consequently earning l...

  5. Sharp IV bounds on average treatment effects on the treated and other populations under endogeneity and noncompliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Laffers, Lukas; Mellace, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    subpopulations has been widely ignored in econometrics. We invoke treatment monotonicity and/or dominance assumptions to derive sharp bounds on the average treatment effects on the treated, as well as on other groups. Furthermore, we use our methods to assess the educational impact of a school voucher program in...

  6. Targeted estimation and inference for the sample average treatment effect in trials with and without pair-matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Laura B; Petersen, Maya L; van der Laan, Mark J

    2016-09-20

    In cluster randomized trials, the study units usually are not a simple random sample from some clearly defined target population. Instead, the target population tends to be hypothetical or ill-defined, and the selection of study units tends to be systematic, driven by logistical and practical considerations. As a result, the population average treatment effect (PATE) may be neither well defined nor easily interpretable. In contrast, the sample average treatment effect (SATE) is the mean difference in the counterfactual outcomes for the study units. The sample parameter is easily interpretable and arguably the most relevant when the study units are not sampled from some specific super-population of interest. Furthermore, in most settings, the sample parameter will be estimated more efficiently than the population parameter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose using targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) for estimation and inference of the sample effect in trials with and without pair-matching. We study the asymptotic and finite sample properties of the TMLE for the sample effect and provide a conservative variance estimator. Finite sample simulations illustrate the potential gains in precision and power from selecting the sample effect as the target of inference. This work is motivated by the Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health (SEARCH) study, a pair-matched, community randomized trial to estimate the effect of population-based HIV testing and streamlined ART on the 5-year cumulative HIV incidence (NCT01864603). The proposed methodology will be used in the primary analysis for the SEARCH trial. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27087478

  7. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  8. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  9. Identifying the Average Causal Mediation Effects with Multiple Mediators in the Presence of Treatment Non-Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the causal mechanisms is becoming more essential in social and medical sciences. In the presence of treatment non-compliance, the Intent-To-Treated effect (hereafter, ITT effect) is identified as long as the treatment is randomized (Angrist et al., 1996). However, the mediated portion of effect is not identified without additional…

  10. The balanced survivor average causal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Joffe, Marshall; Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Boucher, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal outcomes is often complicated by the absence of observable values in patients who die prior to their scheduled measurement. In such cases, the longitudinal data are said to be "truncated by death" to emphasize that the longitudinal measurements are not simply missing, but are undefined after death. Recently, the truncation by death problem has been investigated using the framework of principal stratification to define the target estimand as the survivor average causal effect (SACE), which in the context of a two-group randomized clinical trial is the mean difference in the longitudinal outcome between the treatment and control groups for the principal stratum of always-survivors. The SACE is not identified without untestable assumptions. These assumptions have often been formulated in terms of a monotonicity constraint requiring that the treatment does not reduce survival in any patient, in conjunction with assumed values for mean differences in the longitudinal outcome between certain principal strata. In this paper, we introduce an alternative estimand, the balanced-SACE, which is defined as the average causal effect on the longitudinal outcome in a particular subset of the always-survivors that is balanced with respect to the potential survival times under the treatment and control. We propose a simple estimator of the balanced-SACE that compares the longitudinal outcomes between equivalent fractions of the longest surviving patients between the treatment and control groups and does not require a monotonicity assumption. We provide expressions for the large sample bias of the estimator, along with sensitivity analyses and strategies to minimize this bias. We consider statistical inference under a bootstrap resampling procedure. PMID:23658214

  11. TH-E-BRE-03: A Novel Method to Account for Ion Chamber Volume Averaging Effect in a Commercial Treatment Planning System Through Convolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraclough, B [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, J; Liu, C; Yan, G [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Fourier-based deconvolution approaches used to eliminate ion chamber volume averaging effect (VAE) suffer from measurement noise. This work aims to investigate a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE through convolution in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Beam profiles of various field sizes and depths of an Elekta Synergy were collected with a finite size ion chamber (CC13) to derive a clinically acceptable beam model for a commercial TPS (Pinnacle{sup 3}), following the vendor-recommended modeling process. The TPS-calculated profiles were then externally convolved with a Gaussian function representing the chamber (σ = chamber radius). The agreement between the convolved profiles and measured profiles was evaluated with a one dimensional Gamma analysis (1%/1mm) as an objective function for optimization. TPS beam model parameters for focal and extra-focal sources were optimized and loaded back into the TPS for new calculation. This process was repeated until the objective function converged using a Simplex optimization method. Planar dose of 30 IMRT beams were calculated with both the clinical and the re-optimized beam models and compared with MapCHEC™ measurements to evaluate the new beam model. Results: After re-optimization, the two orthogonal source sizes for the focal source reduced from 0.20/0.16 cm to 0.01/0.01 cm, which were the minimal allowed values in Pinnacle. No significant change in the parameters for the extra-focal source was observed. With the re-optimized beam model, average Gamma passing rate for the 30 IMRT beams increased from 92.1% to 99.5% with a 3%/3mm criterion and from 82.6% to 97.2% with a 2%/2mm criterion. Conclusion: We proposed a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE in a commercial TPS through convolution. The reoptimized beam model, with VAE accounted for through a reliable and easy-to-implement convolution and optimization approach, outperforms the original beam model in standard IMRT QA

  12. TH-E-BRE-03: A Novel Method to Account for Ion Chamber Volume Averaging Effect in a Commercial Treatment Planning System Through Convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Fourier-based deconvolution approaches used to eliminate ion chamber volume averaging effect (VAE) suffer from measurement noise. This work aims to investigate a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE through convolution in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Beam profiles of various field sizes and depths of an Elekta Synergy were collected with a finite size ion chamber (CC13) to derive a clinically acceptable beam model for a commercial TPS (Pinnacle3), following the vendor-recommended modeling process. The TPS-calculated profiles were then externally convolved with a Gaussian function representing the chamber (σ = chamber radius). The agreement between the convolved profiles and measured profiles was evaluated with a one dimensional Gamma analysis (1%/1mm) as an objective function for optimization. TPS beam model parameters for focal and extra-focal sources were optimized and loaded back into the TPS for new calculation. This process was repeated until the objective function converged using a Simplex optimization method. Planar dose of 30 IMRT beams were calculated with both the clinical and the re-optimized beam models and compared with MapCHEC™ measurements to evaluate the new beam model. Results: After re-optimization, the two orthogonal source sizes for the focal source reduced from 0.20/0.16 cm to 0.01/0.01 cm, which were the minimal allowed values in Pinnacle. No significant change in the parameters for the extra-focal source was observed. With the re-optimized beam model, average Gamma passing rate for the 30 IMRT beams increased from 92.1% to 99.5% with a 3%/3mm criterion and from 82.6% to 97.2% with a 2%/2mm criterion. Conclusion: We proposed a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE in a commercial TPS through convolution. The reoptimized beam model, with VAE accounted for through a reliable and easy-to-implement convolution and optimization approach, outperforms the original beam model in standard IMRT QA

  13. Clarifying the Relationship between Average Excesses and Average Effects of Allele Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Castro, José M; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Fisher's concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance. PMID:22509178

  14. Clarifying the relationship between average excesses and average effects of allele substitutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M eÁlvarez-Castro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fisher’s concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one-locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance.

  15. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  16. Average and Quantile Effects in Nonseparable Panel Models

    CERN Document Server

    Chernozhukov, Victor; Hahn, Jinyong; Newey, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives identification and estimation results for average and quantile effects in nonseparable panel models. Nonseparable models are important for modeling in a variety of economic settings, including discrete choice. We find that linear fixed effects estimators are not consistent for the average effect, due in part to that effect not being identified. Nonparametric bounds for quantile and average effects are derived for discrete regressors that are strictly exogenous or predetermined. We allow for location and scale time effects and show how monotonicity can be used to shrink the bounds. We derive rates at which the bounds tighten as the number $T$ of time series observations grows. We also consider semiparametric discrete choice models and find that the bounds for average effects tighten considerably. In numerical calculations we find that the bounds may be very tight for small numbers of observations, suggesting their use in practice. We propose two novel inference methods for parameters defined a...

  17. Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

  18. Environmental stresses can alleviate the average deleterious effect of mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibler Stanislas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental questions in evolutionary genetics, including the possible advantage of sexual reproduction, depend critically on the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Limited existing experimental evidence suggests that, on average, such effects tend to be aggravated under environmental stresses, consistent with the perception that stress diminishes the organism's ability to tolerate deleterious mutations. Here, we ask whether there are also stresses with the opposite influence, under which the organism becomes more tolerant to mutations. Results We developed a technique, based on bioluminescence, which allows accurate automated measurements of bacterial growth rates at very low cell densities. Using this system, we measured growth rates of Escherichia coli mutants under a diverse set of environmental stresses. In contrast to the perception that stress always reduces the organism's ability to tolerate mutations, our measurements identified stresses that do the opposite – that is, despite decreasing wild-type growth, they alleviate, on average, the effect of deleterious mutations. Conclusions Our results show a qualitative difference between various environmental stresses ranging from alleviation to aggravation of the average effect of mutations. We further show how the existence of stresses that are biased towards alleviation of the effects of mutations may imply the existence of average epistatic interactions between mutations. The results thus offer a connection between the two main factors controlling the effects of deleterious mutations: environmental conditions and epistatic interactions.

  19. The effect of cosmic inhomogeneities on the average cosmological dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, T P

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that on sufficiently large scales the Universe is well-described as a homogeneous, isotropic FRW cosmology with a dark energy. Does the formation of nonlinear cosmic inhomogeneities produce a significant effect on the average large-scale FLRW dynamics? As an answer, we suggest that if the length scale at which homogeneity sets in is much smaller than the Hubble length scale, the back-reaction due to averaging over inhomogeneities is negligible. This result is supported by more than one approach to study of averaging in cosmology. Even if no single approach is sufficiently rigorous and compelling, they are all in agreement that the effect of averaging in the real Universe is small. On the other hand, it is perhaps fair to say that there is no definitive observational evidence yet that there indeed is a homogeneity scale which is much smaller than the Hubble scale, or for that matter, if today's Universe is indeed homogeneous on large scales. If the Copernican principle can be observatio...

  20. Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given. PMID:23455291

  1. Effect of random edge failure on the average path length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect of random removal of edges on the average path length (APL) in a large class of uncorrelated random networks in which vertices are characterized by hidden variables controlling the attachment of edges between pairs of vertices. A formula for approximating the APL of networks suffering random edge removal is derived first. Then, the formula is confirmed by simulations for classical ER (Erdoes and Renyi) random graphs, BA (Barabasi and Albert) networks, networks with exponential degree distributions as well as random networks with asymptotic power-law degree distributions with exponent α > 2. (paper)

  2. On the physical effects of consistent cosmological averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Iain A; Herman, D Leigh; Latta, Joey

    2013-01-01

    We use cosmological perturbation theory to study the backreaction effects of a self-consistent and well-defined cosmological averaging on the dynamics and the evolution of the Universe. Working with a perturbed Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Einstein-de Sitter cosmological solution in a comoving volume-preserving gauge, we compute the expressions for the expansion scalar and deceleration parameter to second order, which we use to characterize the backreaction. We find that the fractional shift in the Hubble parameter with respect to the input background cosmological model is Delta~10^{-5}, which leads to an effective energy density of the order of a few times 10^{-5}. In addition, we find that an appropriate measure of the fractional shift in the deceleration parameter Q is very large.

  3. Optimal Dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. for Average Adults has A Significant Anti-Cancer Effect, While Widely Used 2000 I.U. or Higher Promotes Cancer: Marked Reduction of Taurine & 1α, 25(OH)2D3 Was Found In Various Cancer Tissues and Oral Intake of Optimal Dose of Taurine 175mg for Average Adults, Rather Than 500mg, Was Found to Be A New Potentially Safe and More Effective Method of Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Yapor, Dario; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2016-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the author had found that the optimal dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. has safe & effective anticancer effects, while commonly used 2000-5000 I.U. of Vit. D3 often creates a 2-3 time increase in cancer markers. We examined the concentration of Taurine in normal internal organs and in cancer using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. We found that Taurine levels in normal tissue are 4-6ng. But, the amount of Taurine of average normal value of 5.0-5.25ng was strikingly reduced to 0.0025-0.0028ng in this study of several examples in adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, prostate, and lung, as well as breast cancer. The lowest Taurine levels of 0.0002-0.0005ng were found in so called Zika virus infected babies from Brazil with microcephaly. While Vitamin D3 receptor stimulant 1α, 25 (OH)2D3 in normal tissues was 0.45-0.53ng, they were reduced to 0.025-0.006ng in cancers (1/100th-1/200th of normal value), particularly in various adenocarcinomas. All of these adenocarcinomas had about 1500ng HPV-16 viral infection. In 500 breast cancers, about 97% had HPV-16. The optimal dose of Taurine for average adult has been found to be about 175mg, rather than the widely used 500mg. In addition, since Taurine is markedly reduced to close to 1/1000th-1/2000th of its normal value in these cancer tissues, we examined the effect of the optimal dose of Taurine on cancer patients. Optimal dose of Taurine produced a very significant decrease in cancer-associated parameters, such as Oncogene C-fosAb2 & Integrin α5β1 being reduced to less than 1/1,000th, and 8-OH-dG (which increases in the presence of DNA mutation) reduced to less than 1/10th. The optimal dose of Taurine 175mg for average adult various cancer patient 3 times a day alone provide beneficial effects with very significant anti-cancer effects with strikingly increased urinary excretion of bacteria, viruses, & funguses, asbestos, toxic metals & other toxic substances. However, optimal doses of

  4. Effects of polynomial trends on detrending moving average analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Ying-Hui; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The detrending moving average (DMA) algorithm is one of the best performing methods to quantify the long-term correlations in nonstationary time series. Many long-term correlated time series in real systems contain various trends. We investigate the effects of polynomial trends on the scaling behaviors and the performances of three widely used DMA methods including backward algorithm (BDMA), centered algorithm (CDMA) and forward algorithm (FDMA). We derive a general framework for polynomial trends and obtain analytical results for constant shifts and linear trends. We find that the behavior of the CDMA method is not influenced by constant shifts. In contrast, linear trends cause a crossover in the CDMA fluctuation functions. We also find that constant shifts and linear trends cause crossovers in the fluctuation functions obtained from the BDMA and FDMA methods. When a crossover exists, the scaling behavior at small scales comes from the intrinsic time series while that at large scales is dominated by the cons...

  5. Analyzing Average and Conditional Effects with Multigroup Multilevel Structural EquationModels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mayer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, multilevel analysis of covariance (ML-ANCOVA has been therecommended approach for analyzing treatment effects in quasi-experimental multilevel designswith treatment application at the cluster-level. In this paper, we introduce the generalizedML-ANCOVA with linear effect functions that identifies average and conditional treatment effectsin the presence of treatment-covariate interactions. We show how the generalized ML-ANCOVAmodel can be estimated with multigroup multilevel structural equation models that offerconsiderable advances compared to traditional ML-ANCOVA. The proposed model takes intoaccount measurement error in the covariates, sampling error in contextual covariates,treatment-covariate interactions, and stochastic predictors. We illustrate the implementation ofML-ANCOVA with an example from educational effectiveness research where we estimateaverage and conditional effects of early transition to secondary schooling on readingcomprehension.

  6. On the incentive effects of damage averaging in tort law

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Friehe

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally accepted for unilateral-care models that care incentives are not affected by the use of either accurate damages or average damages if injurers lack knowledge of the precise damage level they might cause. This paper shows that in bilateral-care models with heterogeneous victims, consequences of averages as damage measure are critically dependent on the weighing of respective harm levels. Importantly, we establish that there is an average measure which allows the attainmen...

  7. Effective average action for gauge theories and exact evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new nonperturbative evolution equation for Yang-Mills theories. It describes the scale dependence of an effective action. The running of the nonabelian gauge coupling in arbitrary dimension is computed. (orig.)

  8. Pulsar polarisation below 200 MHz: Average profiles and propagation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Noutsos, A; Kondratiev, V I; Weltevrede, P; Verbiest, J P W; Karastergiou, A; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Alexov, A; Breton, R P; Bilous, A V; Cooper, S; Falcke, H; Grießmeier, J -M; Hassall, T E; Hessels, J W T; Keane, E F; Osłowski, S; Pilia, M; Serylak, M; Stappers, B W; ter Veen, S; van Leeuwen, J; Zagkouris, K; Anderson, K; Bähren, L; Bell, M; Broderick, J; Carbone, D; Cendes, Y; Coenen, T; Corbel, S; Eislöffel, J; Fender, R; Garsden, H; Jonker, P; Law, C; Marko, S; Masters, J; Miller-Jones, J; Molenaar, G; Osten, R; Pietka, M; Rol, E; Rowlinson, A; Scheers, B; Spreeuw, H; Staley, T; Stewart, A; Swinbank, J; Wijers, R; Wijnands, R; Wise, M; Zarka, P; van der Horst, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the highest-quality polarisation profiles to date of 16 non-recycled pulsars and four millisecond pulsars, observed below 200 MHz with the LOFAR high-band antennas. Based on the observed profiles, we perform an initial investigation of expected observational effects resulting from the propagation of polarised emission in the pulsar magnetosphere and the interstellar medium. The predictions of magnetospheric birefringence in pulsars have been tested using spectra of the pulse width and fractional polarisation from multifrequency data. The derived spectra offer only partial support for the expected effects of birefringence on the polarisation properties, with only about half of our sample being consistent with the model's predictions. It is noted that for some pulsars these measurements are contaminated by the effects of interstellar scattering. For a number of pulsars in our sample, we have observed significant variations in the amount of Faraday rotation as a function of pulse phase, which is possi...

  9. Pulsar polarisation below 200 MHz: Average profiles and propagation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsos, A.; Sobey, C.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Weltevrede, P.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Karastergiou, A.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Alexov, A.; Breton, R. P.; Bilous, A. V.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Hassall, T. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Keane, E. F.; Osłowski, S.; Pilia, M.; Serylak, M.; Stappers, B. W.; ter Veen, S.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zagkouris, K.; Anderson, K.; Bähren, L.; Bell, M.; Broderick, J.; Carbone, D.; Cendes, Y.; Coenen, T.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fender, R.; Garsden, H.; Jonker, P.; Law, C.; Markoff, S.; Masters, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Molenaar, G.; Osten, R.; Pietka, M.; Rol, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Scheers, B.; Spreeuw, H.; Staley, T.; Stewart, A.; Swinbank, J.; Wijers, R.; Wijnands, R.; Wise, M.; Zarka, P.; van der Horst, A.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We present the highest-quality polarisation profiles to date of 16 non-recycled pulsars and four millisecond pulsars, observed below 200 MHz with the LOFAR high-band antennas. Based on the observed profiles, we perform an initial investigation of expected observational effects resulting from the propagation of polarised emission in the pulsar magnetosphere and the interstellar medium. Methods: The polarisation data presented in this paper have been calibrated for the geometric-projection and beam-shape effects that distort the polarised information as detected with the LOFAR antennas. We have used RM Synthesis to determine the amount of Faraday rotation in the data at the time of the observations. The ionospheric contribution to the measured Faraday rotation was estimated using a model of the ionosphere. To study the propagation effects, we have compared our low-frequency polarisation observations with archival data at 240, 400, 600, and 1400 MHz. Results: The predictions of magnetospheric birefringence in pulsars have been tested using spectra of the pulse width and fractional polarisation from multifrequency data. The derived spectra offer only partial support for the expected effects of birefringence on the polarisation properties, with only about half of our sample being consistent with the model's predictions. It is noted that for some pulsars these measurements are contaminated by the effects of interstellar scattering. For a number of pulsars in our sample, we have observed significant variations in the amount of Faraday rotation as a function of pulse phase, which is possibly an artefact of scattering. These variations are typically two orders of magnitude smaller than that observed at 1400 MHz by Noutsos et al. (2009), for a different sample of southern pulsars. In this paper we present a possible explanation for the difference in magnitude of this effect between the two frequencies, based on scattering. Finally, we have estimated the magnetospheric

  10. Estimation of average causal effect using the restricted mean residual lifetime as effect measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Although mean residual lifetime is often of interest in biomedical studies, restricted mean residual lifetime must be considered in order to accommodate censoring. Differences in the restricted mean residual lifetime can be used as an appropriate quantity for comparing different treatment groups ...... is also applied to an observational data set of patients after an acute myocardial infarction event....... with respect to their survival times. In observational studies where the factor of interest is not randomized, covariate adjustment is needed to take into account imbalances in confounding factors. In this article, we develop an estimator for the average causal treatment difference using the restricted...

  11. TREATMENT EFFECTS 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma J. Mielenz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical therapy researchers are interested in how beneficial an intervention is or the “treatment effect.” There are many measures of treatment effect that are applicable for understanding the efficacy and effectiveness of health interventions. Given that each treatment effect has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, understanding these characteristics can help guide which measure is most appropriate for a specific study. This article presents the more common treatment effects for both dichotomous and continues outcomes. The overall aim is to serve as a guide to newer physical therapy researchers on using and interpreting treatment effects.

  12. The effect of statins on average survival in randomised trials, an analysis of end point postponement

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Malene Lopez; Christensen, Palle Mark; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the average postponement of death in statin trials. Setting A systematic literature review of all statin trials that presented all-cause survival curves for treated and untreated. Intervention Statin treatment compared to placebo. Primary outcome measures The average postponement of death as represented by the area between the survival curves. Results 6 studies for primary prevention and 5 for secondary prevention with a follow-up between 2.0 and 6.1 years were identifie...

  13. 27 CFR 19.763 - Record of average effective tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Serial number of the batch record of each batch of the product which will be bottled or packaged, in... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of average... Records § 19.763 Record of average effective tax rates. (a) For each distilled spirits product to be...

  14. The effects of average revenue regulation on electricity transmission investment and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two-part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist's expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occurs, average revenue regulation is allocatively more efficient than a Coasian two-part tariff if the level of capacity under average revenue regulation is higher than that under a Coasian two-part tariff. (author)

  15. A Conformal Fixed-Point Equation for the Effective Average Action

    CERN Document Server

    Rosten, Oliver J

    2016-01-01

    A Legendre transform of the recently discovered conformal fixed-point equation is constructed, providing an unintegrated equation encoding full conformal invariance within the framework of the effective average action.

  16. The effect of statins on average survival in randomised trials, an analysis of end point postponement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Malene Lopez; Christensen, Palle Mark; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the average postponement of death in statin trials. SETTING: A systematic literature review of all statin trials that presented all-cause survival curves for treated and untreated. INTERVENTION: Statin treatment compared to placebo. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The average...... postponement of death as represented by the area between the survival curves. RESULTS: 6 studies for primary prevention and 5 for secondary prevention with a follow-up between 2.0 and 6.1 years were identified. Death was postponed between -5 and 19 days in primary prevention trials and between -10 and 27 days...... in secondary prevention trials. The median postponement of death for primary and secondary prevention trials were 3.2 and 4.1 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Statin treatment results in a surprisingly small average gain in overall survival within the trials' running time. For patients whose life...

  17. Thermal motion in proteins: Large effects on the time-averaged interaction energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe, Martin; Fita, Ignacio; Rubi, J. Miguel

    2016-03-01

    As a consequence of thermal motion, inter-atomic distances in proteins fluctuate strongly around their average values, and hence, also interaction energies (i.e. the pair-potentials evaluated at the fluctuating distances) are not constant in time but exhibit pronounced fluctuations. These fluctuations cause that time-averaged interaction energies do generally not coincide with the energy values obtained by evaluating the pair-potentials at the average distances. More precisely, time-averaged interaction energies behave typically smoother in terms of the average distance than the corresponding pair-potentials. This averaging effect is referred to as the thermal smoothing effect. Here, we estimate the strength of the thermal smoothing effect on the Lennard-Jones pair-potential for globular proteins at ambient conditions using x-ray diffraction and simulation data of a representative set of proteins. For specific atom species, we find a significant smoothing effect where the time-averaged interaction energy of a single atom pair can differ by various tens of cal/mol from the Lennard-Jones potential at the average distance. Importantly, we observe a dependency of the effect on the local environment of the involved atoms. The effect is typically weaker for bulky backbone atoms in beta sheets than for side-chain atoms belonging to other secondary structure on the surface of the protein. The results of this work have important practical implications for protein software relying on free energy expressions. We show that the accuracy of free energy expressions can largely be increased by introducing environment specific Lennard-Jones parameters accounting for the fact that the typical thermal motion of protein atoms depends strongly on their local environment.

  18. The Better-than-Average Effect and 1 Corinthians 13: A Classroom Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, John Eric, III; Schneller, Gregory R.; Henderson, Joy Ann

    2014-01-01

    People tend to evaluate themselves more favorably than they evaluate others, a tendency that is known as the better-than-average effect (BTA effect; Alicke, 1985; Brown, 1986). In an attempt to demonstrate the concept of the BTA effect, a classroom exercise was conducted with 78 undergraduate students in an "Introduction to Psychology"…

  19. GI Joe or Average Joe? The impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and advertisement effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Increasing body size and shape diversity in media imagery may promote positive body image. While research has largely focused on female models and women's body image, men may also be affected by unrealistic images. We examined the impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and perceived advertisement effectiveness. A sample of 330 men and 289 women viewed one of four advertisement conditions: no models, muscular, average-slim or average-large models. Men and women rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as muscular models. For men, exposure to average-size models was associated with more positive body image in comparison to viewing no models, but no difference was found in comparison to muscular models. Similar results were found for women. Internalisation of beauty ideals did not moderate these effects. These findings suggest that average-size male models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. PMID:20488770

  20. Effects of nuclear structure on average angular momentum in subbarrier fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B.; Bennett, J. R.; Kuyucak, S

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the effects of nuclear quadrupole and hexadecapole couplings on the average angular momentum in sub-barrier fusion reactions. This quantity could provide a probe for nuclear shapes, distinguishing between prolate vs. oblate quadrupole and positive vs. negative hexadecapole couplings. We describe the data in the O + Sm system and discuss heavier systems where shape effects become more pronounced.

  1. LEVERAGE EFFECT FORECAST FOR THE YEAR 2014 THROUGH THE MOVING AVERAGE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HADA TEODOR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for the proper development of various financial and economic activities to be an achievable goal. This can be determined by a forecast of a phenomenon in order to know where they could hover value. This paper is structured in three parts. The first part highlights the theoretical aspects of using the moving average method for determining the prognosis of a given phenomenon. The second part presents in detail the steps to follow within the moving average method. The phenomenon analyzed in this study is the leverage effect. We examine each step of the process, which will ultimately lead to a more precise forecast for the leverage effect. Each stage of the procedure is analyzed, which will lead in the end to a most accurate prognosis of the leverage effect. At the end of this paper, findings of practically using the moving average method, for establishing the forecast and its subsequent interpretations, will be presented.

  2. Ra and the average effective strain of surface asperities deformed in metal-working processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Petersen, A. S

    1975-01-01

    Based upon a slip-line analysis of the plastic deformation of surface asperities, a theory is developed determining the Ra-value (c.l.a.) and the average effective strain in the surface layer when deforming asperities in metal-working processes. The ratio between Ra and Ra0, the Ra-value after and...... before deformation, is a function of the nominal normal pressure and the initial slope γ0 of the surface asperities. The last parameter does not influence Ra significantly. The average effective strain View the MathML sourcege in the deformed surface layer is a function of the nominal normal pressure and...

  3. Numerical Investigation of Thermal Effect in Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell for High Average Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ding-Xiang; ZHANG Xiong-Jun; ZHENG Wan-Guo; HE Shao-Bo; SUI Zhan

    2006-01-01

    @@ The average power of a Pockels cell is limited by thermal effects arising from the optical absorption of the laser pulse. These thermal effects can be managed by configuring the switch as a plasma-electrode thin plate Pockels cell, which works under heat-capacity operation. Simulation results show that, based on KD*P (in thickness 0.5cm) at an average power loading of 1 kW, the aperture integrated depolarization loss at 1.06 um is less than 10% in 5min working time.

  4. The effects of noise in cardiac diffusion tensor imaging and the benefits of averaging complex data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Ferreira, Pedro F; McGill, Laura-Ann; Pennell, Dudley J; Firmin, David N

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (cDTI), but, unlike other diffusion MRI applications, there has been little investigation of the effects of noise on the parameters typically derived. One method of mitigating noise floor effects when there are multiple image averages, as in cDTI, is to average the complex rather than the magnitude data, but the phase contains contributions from bulk motion, which must be removed first. The effects of noise on the mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), helical angle (HA) and absolute secondary eigenvector angle (E2A) were simulated with various diffusion weightings (b values). The effect of averaging complex versus magnitude images was investigated. In vivo cDTI was performed in 10 healthy subjects with b = 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 s/mm(2) . A technique for removing the motion-induced component of the image phase present in vivo was implemented by subtracting a low-resolution copy of the phase from the original images before averaging the complex images. MD, FA, E2A and the transmural gradient in HA were compared for un-averaged, magnitude- and complex-averaged reconstructions. Simulations demonstrated an over-estimation of FA and MD at low b values and an under-estimation at high b values. The transition is relatively signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) independent and occurs at a higher b value for FA (b = 1000-1250 s/mm(2) ) than MD (b ≈ 250 s/mm(2) ). E2A is under-estimated at low and high b values with a transition at b ≈ 1000 s/mm(2) , whereas the bias in HA is comparatively small. The under-estimation of FA and MD at high b values is caused by noise floor effects, which can be mitigated by averaging the complex data. Understanding the parameters of interest and the effects of noise informs the selection of the optimal b values. When complex data are available, they should be used to maximise the benefit from the acquisition of multiple averages. The combination of

  5. Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general intelligence.…

  6. Simulations of Viscous Flow Fields of ASTM Assembly and the Effective Average Velocities of Flow Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; ZHANG Wei-min; CHEN Nai-lu; WANG Ming-hua; LI Lin-lin; Yuan Jian

    2004-01-01

    With the finite element analysis of viscous quenchant flow fields of the ASTM assembly, the effective average velocities of flow tubes are introduced in this paper. And through the results of experiments, the influences of quenchant velocities upon the whole cooling processes are discussed.

  7. On the Correlation of Effective Terahertz Refractive Index and Average Surface Roughness of Pharmaceutical Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Ervasti, Tuomas; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have studied terahertz (THz) pulse time delay of porous pharmaceutical microcrystalline compacts and also pharmaceutical tablets that contain indomethacin (painkiller) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the matrix of the tablet. The porosity of a pharmaceutical tablet is important because it affects the release of drug substance. In addition, surface roughness of the tablet has much importance regarding dissolution of the tablet and hence the rate of drug release. Here, we show, using a training set of tablets containing API and with a priori known tablet's quality parameters, that the effective refractive index (obtained from THz time delay data) of such porous tablets correlates with the average surface roughness of a tablet. Hence, THz pulse time delay measurement in the transmission mode provides information on both porosity and the average surface roughness of a compact. This is demonstrated for two different sets of pharmaceutical tablets having different porosity and average surface roughness values.

  8. Attentional switching in intellectually gifted and average children: effects on performance and ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoju; Shi, Jiannong

    2014-04-01

    The study compared the performance and brain activity of children who were intellectually gifted or of average intelligence. 13 intellectually gifted (4 girls, 9 boys; M age = 12.0 yr., SD = 0.2) and 13 average children (5 girls, 8 boys; M age = 11.9 yr., SD = 0.3) participated in a task-switching experiment. The children performed a task repeatedly (single-trial blocks) or switched between two different tasks (mixed-trial blocks). Intellectually gifted children performed quicker than the average group for both mixed and single-trial blocks. The electroencephalography P300 amplitude was larger in the mixed compared to the single-trial condition, but this effect was observed only in the gifted children. The results support the notion that gifted children are characterized by a faster maturation that leads to an 'adult-like' brain activity. PMID:24897910

  9. On the Correlation of Effective Terahertz Refractive Index and Average Surface Roughness of Pharmaceutical Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Ervasti, Tuomas; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have studied terahertz (THz) pulse time delay of porous pharmaceutical microcrystalline compacts and also pharmaceutical tablets that contain indomethacin (painkiller) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the matrix of the tablet. The porosity of a pharmaceutical tablet is important because it affects the release of drug substance. In addition, surface roughness of the tablet has much importance regarding dissolution of the tablet and hence the rate of drug release. Here, we show, using a training set of tablets containing API and with a priori known tablet's quality parameters, that the effective refractive index (obtained from THz time delay data) of such porous tablets correlates with the average surface roughness of a tablet. Hence, THz pulse time delay measurement in the transmission mode provides information on both porosity and the average surface roughness of a compact. This is demonstrated for two different sets of pharmaceutical tablets having different porosity and average surface roughness values.

  10. The Effect of Area Averaging on the Approximated Profile of the H α Spectral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnárová, M.; Utz, D.; Rybák, J.

    2016-04-01

    The Hα line is massively used as a diagnostics of the chromosphere. Often one needs to average the line profile over some area to increase the signal to noise ratio. Thus it is important to understand how derived parameters vary with changing approximations. In this study we investigate the effect of spatial averaging of a selected area on the temporal variations of the width, the intensity and the Dopplershift of the Hα spectral line profile. The approximated profile was deduced from co-temporal observations in five points throughout the Hα line profile obtained by the tunable Lyot filter installed on the Dutch Open Telescope. We found variations of the intensity and the Doppler velocities, which were independent of the size of the area used for the computation of the area averaged Hα spectral line profile.

  11. Cortical Effects on Ipsilateral Hindlimb Muscles Revealed with Stimulus-Triggered Averaging of EMG Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messamore, William G; Van Acker, Gustaf M; Hudson, Heather M; Zhang, Hongyu Y; Kovac, Anthony; Nazzaro, Jules; Cheney, Paul D

    2016-07-01

    While a large body of evidence supports the view that ipsilateral motor cortex may make an important contribution to normal movements and to recovery of function following cortical injury (Chollet et al. 1991; Fisher 1992; Caramia et al. 2000; Feydy et al. 2002), relatively little is known about the properties of output from motor cortex to ipsilateral muscles. Our aim in this study was to characterize the organization of output effects on hindlimb muscles from ipsilateral motor cortex using stimulus-triggered averaging of EMG activity. Stimulus-triggered averages of EMG activity were computed from microstimuli applied at 60-120 μA to sites in both contralateral and ipsilateral M1 of macaque monkeys during the performance of a hindlimb push-pull task. Although the poststimulus effects (PStEs) from ipsilateral M1 were fewer in number and substantially weaker, clear and consistent effects were obtained at an intensity of 120 μA. The mean onset latency of ipsilateral poststimulus facilitation was longer than contralateral effects by an average of 0.7 ms. However, the shortest latency effects in ipsilateral muscles were as short as the shortest latency effects in the corresponding contralateral muscles suggesting a minimal synaptic linkage that is equally direct in both cases. PMID:26088970

  12. Scaling Effect of Area-Averaged NDVI: Monotonicity along the Spatial Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yoshioka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the spatial distributions of vegetation across the globe are routinely monitored by satellite remote sensing, in which the reflectance spectra over land surface areas are measured with spatial and temporal resolutions that depend on the satellite instrumentation. The use of multiple synchronized satellite sensors permits long-term monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolutions. However, differences in the spatial resolution of images collected by different sensors can introduce systematic biases, called scaling effects, into the biophysical retrievals. This study investigates the mechanism by which the scaling effects distort normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. This study focused on the monotonicity of the area-averaged NDVI as a function of the spatial resolution. A monotonic relationship was proved analytically by using the resolution transform model proposed in this study in combination with a two-endmember linear mixture model. The monotonicity allowed the inherent uncertainties introduced by the scaling effects (error bounds to be explicitly determined by averaging the retrievals at the extrema of theresolutions. Error bounds could not be estimated, on the other hand, for non-monotonic relationships. Numerical simulations were conducted to demonstrate the monotonicity of the averaged NDVI along spatial resolution. This study provides a theoretical basis for the scaling effects and develops techniques for rectifying the scaling effects in biophysical retrievals to facilitate cross-sensor calibration for the long-term monitoring of vegetation dynamics.

  13. Effects of network-average magnitude bias on yield estimates for underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISC body-wave magnitude, msub(b ISC), of presumed underground nuclear explosions in Kazakhstan, USSR, is shown to be systematically biased, by comparison to that recorded at the array station EKA (msub(b EKA)). This is found to be due in part to anelastic attenuation effects on msub(b EKA), but several characteristics of the ISC data demonstrate that the bias is also due to network-averaging effects. For the smaller explosions, those stations with a positive msub(b) bias dominate the data set, but the remainder of the network fails to detect the event. Conversely, for larger explosions, additional stations, with negative msub(b) bias will detect. Use of published station corrections for EKA allows estimation of an msub(b EKA): Y relationship and hence, a magnitude: yield relationship which takes account of network-average bias. (author)

  14. Effects of stratospheric aerosol surface processes on the LLNL two-dimensional zonally averaged model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effects of incorporating representations of heterogeneous chemical processes associated with stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol into the LLNL two-dimensional, zonally averaged, model of the troposphere and stratosphere. Using distributions of aerosol surface area and volume density derived from SAGE 11 satellite observations, we were primarily interested in changes in partitioning within the Cl- and N- families in the lower stratosphere, compared to a model including only gas phase photochemical reactions

  15. Effect of Carbohydrate Solutions with Different level of Sugar on Average Anaerobic power and Fatigue index of karate Players

    OpenAIRE

    AMINIAN, Ensiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Main aim of this research was investigating effect of carbohydrate solutions with different level of sager on average anaerobic power and fatigue index of karate players. Statistical sample of this research was 72 karate players of Khorasa Razavi province and 48 people were selected randomly. Average age, weight, height, and BMI were measures Average age of athletes was 22.23, average height 175cm and average weight 72.77. We used frequency distribution tables and indexes of the cen...

  16. Effects of time-averaging climate parameters on predicted multicompartmental fate of pesticides and POPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim to investigate the justification of time-averaging of climate parameters in multicompartment modelling the effects of various climate parameters and different modes of entry on the predicted substances' total environmental burdens and the compartmental fractions were studied. A simple, non-steady state zero-dimensional (box) mass-balance model of intercompartmental mass exchange which comprises four compartments was used for this purpose. Each two runs were performed, one temporally unresolved (time-averaged conditions) and a time-resolved (hourly or higher) control run. In many cases significant discrepancies are predicted, depending on the substance and on the parameter. We find discrepancies exceeding 10% relative to the control run and up to an order of magnitude for prediction of the total environmental burden from neglecting seasonalities of the soil and ocean temperatures and the hydroxyl radical concentration in the atmosphere and diurnalities of atmospheric mixing depth and the hydroxyl radical concentration in the atmosphere. Under some conditions it was indicated that substance sensitivity could be explained by the magnitude of the sink terms in the compartment(s) with parameters varying. In general, however, any key for understanding substance sensitivity seems not be linked in an easy manner to the properties of the substance, to the fractions of its burden or to the sink terms in either of the compartments with parameters varying. Averaging of diurnal variability was found to cause errors of total environmental residence time of different sign for different substances. The effects of time-averaging of several parameters are in general not additive but synergistic as well as compensatory effects occur. An implication of these findings is that the ranking of substances according to persistence is sensitive to time resolution on the scale of hours to months. As a conclusion it is recommended to use high temporal resolution in multi

  17. Averaging period effects on the turbulent flux and transport efficiency during haze pollution in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Yang, Ting; Sun, Yele

    2015-08-01

    Based on observations at the heights of 140 and 280 m on the Beijing 325-m meteorological tower, this study presents an assessment of the averaging period effects on eddy-covariance measurements of the momentum/scalar flux and transport efficiency during wintertime haze pollution. The study period, namely from January 6 to February 28 2013, is divided into different episodes of particulate pollution, as featured by varied amounts of the turbulent exchange and conditions of the atmospheric stability. Overall, turbulent fluxes of the momentum and scalars (heat, water vapor, and CO2) increase with the averaging period, namely from 5, 15, and 30 up to 60 min, an outcome most evident during the `transient' episodes (each lasting for 2-3 days, i.e., preceded and followed by clean-air days with mean concentrations of PM1 less than 40 μg m-3). The conventional choice of 30 min is deemed to be appropriate for calculating the momentum flux and its transport efficiency. By comparison, scalar fluxes and their transport efficiencies appear more sensitive to the choice of an averaging period, particularly at the upper level (i.e., 280 m). It is presupposed that, for urban environments, calculating the momentum and scalar fluxes could invoke separate averaging periods, rather than relying on a single prescription (e.g., 30 min). Furthermore, certain characteristics of urban turbulence are found less sensitive to the choice of an averaging period, such as the relationship between the heat-to-momentum transport efficiency and the local stability parameter.

  18. Averaging Tesseral Effects: Closed Form Relegation versus Expansions of Elliptic Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitude-dependent terms of the geopotential cause nonnegligible short-period effects in orbit propagation of artificial satellites. Hence, accurate analytical and semianalytical theories must cope with tesseral harmonics. Modern algorithms for dealing analytically with them allow for closed form relegation. Nevertheless, current procedures for the relegation of tesseral effects from subsynchronous orbits are unavoidably related to orbit eccentricity, a key fact that is not enough emphasized and constrains application of this technique to small and moderate eccentricities. Comparisons with averaging procedures based on classical expansions of elliptic motion are carried out, and the pros and cons of each approach are discussed.

  19. Analysis of terrestrial natural radionuclides in soil samples and assessment of average effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides that are present in soil significantly affect terrestrial gamma radiation levels which in turn can be used for the assessment of terrestrial gamma dose rates. Natural radioactivity analysis has been done for the soil samples collected from different villages/towns of Hoshiarpur district of Punjab, India. The measurements have been carried out using HPGe detector based on high-resolution gamma spectrometry system. The calculated activity concentration values for terrestrial gamma viz. 238U, 232Th and 40K have been found to vary from 8.89 to 56.71 Bq kg-1, from 137.32 to 334.47 Bq kg-1 and from 823.62 to 1064.97 Bq kg-1, respectively. The total average absorbed dose rate in the study areas is 185.32 nGyh-1. The calculated value of average radium equivalent activity (401.13 Bq kg-1) exceeds the permissible limit (370 Bqkg-1) recommended by Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD). The calculated average value of external hazard index (Hex) is 1.097. The calculated values of Indoor and Outdoor annual effective doses vary from 0.61 to 1.28 mSv and from 0.15 to 0.32 mSv, respectively. A positive correlation (R2 = 0.71) has also been observed for concentration of 232Th and 40K. (author)

  20. Effects of measurement procedure and equipment on average room acoustic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Bradley, J S; Siebein, G W

    1993-01-01

    . In some of the halls measurements were repeated using the procedures of the other teams to make it possible to separate the effects of different equipment and different procedures. The paper will present position-averaged results from the three teams and will discuss reasons for the differences......This paper reports the results of a measurement tour of nine U.S. concert halls. Three measurements teams, from the University of Florida, the National Research Council of Canada, and the Technical University of Denmark, made parallel sets of measurements using their own equipment and procedures...

  1. The effect of three-dimensional fields on bounce averaged particle drifts in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of applied 3D magnetic fields on the bounce-averaged precessional drifts in a tokamak plasma are calculated. Local 3D MHD equilibrium theory is used to construct solutions to the equilibrium equations in the vicinity of a magnetic surface for a large aspect ratio circular tokamak perturbed by applied 3D fields. Due to modulations of the local shear caused by near-resonant Pfirsch-Schlüter currents, relatively weak applied 3D fields can have a large effect on trapped particle precessional drifts

  2. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  3. The role of size polydispersity in magnetic fluid hyperthermia: average vs. local infra/over-heating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Menendez, Cristina; Conde-Leboran, Ivan; Baldomir, Daniel; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Serantes, David

    2015-11-01

    An efficient and safe hyperthermia cancer treatment requires the accurate control of the heating performance of magnetic nanoparticles, which is directly related to their size. However, in any particle system the existence of some size polydispersity is experimentally unavoidable, which results in a different local heating output and consequently a different hyperthermia performance depending on the size of each particle. With the aim to shed some light on this significant issue, we have used a Monte Carlo technique to study the role of size polydispersity in heat dissipation at both the local (single particle) and global (macroscopic average) levels. We have systematically varied size polydispersity, temperature and interparticle dipolar interaction conditions, and evaluated local heating as a function of these parameters. Our results provide a simple guide on how to choose, for a given polydispersity degree, the more adequate average particle size so that the local variation in the released heat is kept within some limits that correspond to safety boundaries for the average-system hyperthermia performance. All together we believe that our results may help in the design of more effective magnetic hyperthermia applications. PMID:26437746

  4. A note on scaling arguments in the effective average action formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Pagani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The effective average action (EAA) is a scale dependent effective action where a scale $k$ is introduced via an infrared regulator. The $k-$dependence of the EAA is governed by an exact flow equation to which one associates a boundary condition at a scale $\\mu$. We show that the $\\mu-$dependence of the EAA is controlled by an equation fully analogous to the Callan-Symanzik equation which allows to define scaling quantities straightforwardly. Particular attention is paid to composite operators which are introduced along with new sources. We discuss some simple solutions to the flow equation for composite operators and comment their implications in the case of a local potential approximation.

  5. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  6. Finite size effects in the averaged eigenvalue density of Wigner random-sign real symmetric matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhesi, G. S.; Ausloos, M.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, strict finite size effects must be taken into account in condensed matter problems when treated through models based on lattices or graphs. On the other hand, the cases of directed bonds or links are known to be highly relevant in topics ranging from ferroelectrics to quotation networks. Combining these two points leads us to examine finite size random matrices. To obtain basic materials properties, the Green's function associated with the matrix has to be calculated. To obtain the first finite size correction, a perturbative scheme is hereby developed within the framework of the replica method. The averaged eigenvalue spectrum and the corresponding Green's function of Wigner random sign real symmetric N ×N matrices to order 1 /N are finally obtained analytically. Related simulation results are also presented. The agreement is excellent between the analytical formulas and finite size matrix numerical diagonalization results, confirming the correctness of the first-order finite size expression.

  7. The effect of temperature on the average volume of Barkhausen jump on Q235 carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Shu, Di; Yin, Liang; Chen, Juan; Qi, Xin

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the average volume of Barkhausen jump (AVBJ) vbar generated by irreversible displacement of magnetic domain wall under the effect of the incentive magnetic field on ferromagnetic materials, the functional relationship between saturation magnetization Ms and temperature T is employed in this paper to deduce the explicit mathematical expression among AVBJ vbar, stress σ, incentive magnetic field H and temperature T. Then the change law between AVBJ vbar and temperature T is researched according to the mathematical expression. Moreover, the tensile and compressive stress experiments are carried out on Q235 carbon steel specimens at different temperature to verify our theories. This paper offers a series of theoretical bases to solve the temperature compensation problem of Barkhausen testing method.

  8. Quaternion Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  9. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25 and 1.60% (0.74;2.46, respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of

  10. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of environmental factors can

  11. Effect of filter on average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsaeng, C.; Krisanachinda, A.; Theerakul, K.

    2016-03-01

    To determine the average glandular dose and entrance surface air kerma in both phantoms and patients to assess image quality for different target-filters (W/Rh and W/Ag) in digital mammography system. The compressed breast thickness, compression force, average glandular dose, entrance surface air kerma, peak kilovoltage and tube current time were recorded and compared between W/Rh and W/Ag target filter. The CNR and the figure of merit were used to determine the effect of target filter on image quality. The mean AGD of the W/Rh target filter was 1.75 mGy, the mean ESAK was 6.67 mGy, the mean CBT was 54.1 mm, the mean CF was 14 1bs. The mean AGD of W/Ag target filter was 2.7 mGy, the mean ESAK was 12.6 mGy, the mean CBT was 75.5 mm, the mean CF was 15 1bs. In phantom study, the AGD was 1.2 mGy at 4 cm, 3.3 mGy at 6 cm and 3.83 mGy at 7 cm thickness. The FOM was 24.6, CNR was 9.02 at thickness 6 cm. The FOM was 18.4, CNR was 8.6 at thickness 7 cm. The AGD from Digital Mammogram system with W/Rh of thinner CBT was lower than the AGD from W/Ag target filter.

  12. Effects of declining aerosols on projections of zonally averaged tropical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All of the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) assume that future emissions of aerosols and aerosol precursors will decline sharply. There is considerable evidence that historically increasing aerosols have substantially affected tropical precipitation, but the effects of projected aerosol declines have received little attention. We compare projections forced by the medium-low RCP4.5 pathway in two subsets of models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5): one group (HiForc) includes treatments of indirect aerosol effects on cloud albedo and cloud lifetime as well as direct aerosol effects, while the other group (LoForc) only treats direct aerosol effects. In this scenario we find that models in the HiForc group consistently project larger increases in both the mean and inter-hemispheric (north minus south) asymmetry of tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) and precipitation than do models in the LoForc group. Earlier projections from CMIP3, in which future aerosol declines were assumed to be smaller, behave more like the CMIP5 LoForc group. These results show that projected tropical SST and precipitation changes are sensitive to assumptions about aerosol emissions and indirect aerosol effects. If the real world resembles the HiForc group, then future aerosol changes are likely to be an important (even dominant) driver of tropical precipitation changes under low to moderate forcing scenarios. (letter)

  13. Effect of Noise on the Average Received SNR of Different Combining Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless communication system, the multipath fading affects the performance of the system. Diversity-combining scheme is one of the powerful tools to mitigate the effect of fading. The multiple antennas provide an improvement in the capacity and reliability of the system. The performance of four combining schemes - Selection Combining (SC, Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC, Equal Gain Combining (EGC, and Generalised Selection combining (GSC- in the presence of both the perfect and an imperfect channel state information (CSI at the receiver is studied in this contribution by Monte Carlo simulations in the MATLAB environment, when communicating over Rayleigh fading channels. Our results show that the presence of the complex noise in the channel degrades the performance of the system in all four combining schemes, but the degradation in performance is found to be maximum in MRC and minimum in SC. Performance of EGC lies in between the performance of MRC and SC, whereas the performance of GSC depends upon the number of antennas being selected and it is upper bounded by the MRC and lower bounded by the SC. Also, the results show that as the value of SNR is increased the average received SNR increases in both the channels.

  14. The effect of average A-site cation radius on TC in perovskite manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three series of samples Ln0.7T0.3MnO3 (I), Ln0.7T0.3Mn0.9Cr0.1O3 (II), and Ln0.7T0.3Mn0.9Fe0.1O3 (III) (Ln=La, (La, Nd), (La, Y), T=Ca, CaSr, Sr) were prepared by sol-gel technique. The effect of the average A-site cation radius A> on the ferromagnetic transition temperature TC has been investigated. TC was obtained from M-T curves measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. For a little Nd3+ doped at the A-site, the TC of Ln0.7T0.3MnO3 (I) drops linearly with decreasing A> (1.18 AA>C values than series I due to the weakening of the influence of double-exchange interactions upon substituting Fe and Cr for Mn

  15. Effect of spatial averaging on multifractal properties of meteorological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Baranowski, Piotr; Krzyszczak, Jaromir; Zubik, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Introduction The process-based models for large-scale simulations require input of agro-meteorological quantities that are often in the form of time series of coarse spatial resolution. Therefore, the knowledge about their scaling properties is fundamental for transferring locally measured fluctuations to larger scales and vice-versa. However, the scaling analysis of these quantities is complicated due to the presence of localized trends and non-stationarities. Here we assess how spatially aggregating meteorological data to coarser resolutions affects the data's temporal scaling properties. While it is known that spatial aggregation may affect spatial data properties (Hoffmann et al., 2015), it is unknown how it affects temporal data properties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the aggregation effect (AE) with regard to both temporal and spatial input data properties considering scaling properties (i.e. statistical self-similarity) of the chosen agro-meteorological time series through multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). Materials and Methods Time series coming from years 1982-2011 were spatially averaged from 1 to 10, 25, 50 and 100 km resolution to assess the impact of spatial aggregation. Daily minimum, mean and maximum air temperature (2 m), precipitation, global radiation, wind speed and relative humidity (Zhao et al., 2015) were used. To reveal the multifractal structure of the time series, we used the procedure described in Baranowski et al. (2015). The diversity of the studied multifractals was evaluated by the parameters of time series spectra. In order to analyse differences in multifractal properties to 1 km resolution grids, data of coarser resolutions was disaggregated to 1 km. Results and Conclusions Analysing the spatial averaging on multifractal properties we observed that spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum (MS) of all meteorological variables differed from 1 km grids and MS-parameters were biased

  16. Effective soil moisture estimate and its uncertainty using multimodel simulation based on Bayesian Model Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Shin, Yongchul

    2015-08-01

    Various hydrological models have been developed for estimating root zone soil moisture dynamics. These models, however, incorporated their own parameterization approaches indicating that the output from the different model inherent structures might include uncertainties because we do not know which model structure is correct for describing the real system. More recently, multimodel approaches using a Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) scheme can improve the overall predictive skill while individual models retain their own uncertainties for simulated soil moisture based on a single set of weights in modeling under different land surface wetness conditions (e.g., wet, moderately wet, and dry conditions). In order to overcome their limitations, we developed a BMA-based multimodel simulation approach based on various soil wetness conditions for estimating effective surface soil moisture dynamics (0-5 cm) and quantifying uncertainties efficiently based on the land surface wetness conditions. The newly developed approach adapts three different hydrological models (i.e., Noah Land Surface Model, Noah LSM; Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant, SWAP; and Community Land Model, CLM) for simulating soil moisture. These models were integrated with a modified-microGA (advanced version of original Genetic Algorithm (GA)) to search for optimized soil parameters for each model. Soil moisture was simulated from the estimated soil parameters using the hydrological models in a forward mode. It was found that SWAP performed better than others during wet condition, while Noah LSM and CLM showed a good agreement with measurements during dry condition. Thus, we inferred that performance of individual models with different model structures can be different with land surface wetness. Taking into account the effects of soil wetness on different model performances, we categorized soil moisture measurements and estimated different weights for each category using the BMA scheme. Effective surface soil

  17. Average Interest

    OpenAIRE

    George Chacko; Sanjiv Ranjan Das

    1997-01-01

    We develop analytic pricing models for options on averages by means of a state-space expansion method. These models augment the class of Asian options to markets where the underlying traded variable follows a mean-reverting process. The approach builds from the digital Asian option on the average and enables pricing of standard Asian calls and puts, caps and floors, as well as other exotica. The models may be used (i) to hedge long period interest rate risk cheaply, (ii) to hedge event risk (...

  18. The Effect of Labour Turnover Costs on Average Labour Demand When Recessions Are More Persistent than Booms

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Díaz-Vázquez; Luis E. Arjona-Béjar

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how labour turnover costs affect average labour demand when troughs are more persistent than booms. We show that the effect of firing costs on average labour demand is more expansionary (or less contractionary): the greater is the difference between the persistence of troughs and the persistence of booms, and the more prolonged are the macroeconomic shocks. This analysis may shed some light on the expected effect of a reduction of firing costs when an economy is suffering ...

  19. Average-atom treatment of relaxation time in X-ray Thomson scattering from warm-dense matter

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Walter R.; Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The influence of finite relaxation times on Thomson scattering from warm-dense plasmas is examined within the framework of the average-atom approximation. Presently most calculations use the collision-free Lindhard dielectric function to evaluate the free-electron contribution to the Thomson cross section. In this work, we use the Mermin dielectric function, which includes relaxation time explicitly. The relaxation time is evaluated by treating the average atom as an impurity in a uniform ele...

  20. Effect of various solvents on the viscosity-average molecular weight of poly (vinyl acetate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution polymerization of Vinyl Acetate was carried out in various solvents (benzene, toluene, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile). Dilute solution viscometry was used to determine the viscosity-average molecular weight of the resulting Poly (Vinyl Acetate) (PV Ac) in each case. The viscosity-average molecular weight (M,J of PVAc was found to increase in the order benzene < toluene < ethyl acetate < acetonitrile, It was concluded that under the same reaction conditions (polymerization time, initiator quantity, solvent/monomer ratio, temperature), acetonitrile served as the best solvent for solution. polymerization of Vinyl Acetate monomer. (author)

  1. Radiation degradation of polypropylene - immediate and long term effects on average molecular weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of polypropylenes commercially available for production of single use syringes were studied. All are intended (and used) for products sterilized by radiation. Average molecular weights were determined immediately after and at different times up to more than 2.5 years, after irradiation. (author)

  2. Using National Data to Estimate Average Cost Effectiveness of EFNEP Outcomes by State/Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Ranju; Davis, George C.; Blake, Stephanie; You, Wen; Serrano, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This report demonstrates how existing national data can be used to first calculate upper limits on the average cost per participant and per outcome per state/territory for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). These upper limits can then be used by state EFNEP administrators to obtain more precise estimates for their states,…

  3. Plantar Fasciitis: Prescribing Effective Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Michael; Fields, Karl B.

    2002-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is an extremely common, painful injury seen among people in running and jumping sports. While prognosis for recovery with conservative care is excellent, prolonged duration of symptoms affects sports participation. Studies on treatment options show mixed results, so finding effective treatments can be challenging. A logical…

  4. Average-atom treatment of relaxation time in X-ray Thomson scattering from warm-dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Walter R

    2016-01-01

    The influence of finite relaxation times on Thomson scattering from warm-dense plasmas is examined within the framework of the average-atom approximation. To this end, the Lindhard dielectric function, commonly used to evaluate the free-electron contribution to the Thomson cross section, is replaced by the Mermin dielectric function, which includes relaxation time explicitly. The relaxation time, which is evaluated by treating the average atom as an impurity in a uniform electron gas, depends critically on the transport cross section, which is evaluated in terms of scattering phase shifts in the average-atom potential. For the examples considered here, the calculated relaxation rates agree well, over a wide range of plasma densities and temperatures, with values inferred from the Ziman formula for the static conductivity and also with rates inferred from a fit to the frequency-dependent conductivity. Transport cross sections determined by the phase-shift analysis are compared with cross sections evaluated in ...

  5. Effects of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Average Daily Gain, Fecal Shedding of Escherichia Coli, and Immune System Status in Newborn Female Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Roodposhti, Pezhman Mohamadi; Dabiri, Najafgholi

    2012-01-01

    Thirty two Holstein female calves (initial body weight = 40±3.0 kg) were used to investigate the effects of probiotic and prebiotic on average daily gain (ADG), fecal E. coli count, white blood cell count, plasma IgG1 level and cell-mediated immune response to injection of phytohemagglutinin in suckling female calves. Calves were assigned randomly to one of the four treatments, including whole milk without additives (control), whole milk containing probiotic, whole milk containing prebiotic a...

  6. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    Objectives The objective of this PhD. was to examine the relation between low weekly average maternal alcohol consumption and ‘Binge drinking' (defined as intake of 5 or more drinks per occasion) during pregnancy and information processing time (IPT) in children aged five years. Since a method...... that provided detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy and other lifestyle factors. These women were categorized in groups of prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking, timing and number of episodes. At the age of five years the children of these women...... familiar to this age group. Two different versions, one with coloured fruits and one with black and white wild animals, were tried out. One version displayed rows of 1, 2 and 3 pictures and the other of 2, 3, and 4 pictures. For the development of the test 60 children, 39 girls and 21 boys, were selected...

  7. Energy dependence of average transverse momentum in hadron production due to collective effects

    CERN Document Server

    Troshin, S M

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the first measurements of the experiment CMS at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=0.9$ and 2.36 TeV, we discuss energy dependence of average transverse momentum of the secondary particles in hadron production in pp collisions. We suggest a possible explanation of this dependence as a result of collective rotation of the transient state and associate its further possible decrease with flattening off at higher energies with transition to the genuine QGP state of matter.

  8. Investigation Effects of Magnetetic Impurity Doping on Average Magnetization of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ghafourian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT extensively are attractive from both theoretical and experimental point of view, due to its technological applications such as nano electronics devises. SWCNT are created by rolling a graphen sheet into a cyclindrical form. We have investigated the possibility of making a ferromagnetic semiconductor zigzag SWCNT by doping magnetic impurities. We found by increasing magnetic impurities doping on a zigzag SWCNT, average magnetization is increased and one can make a ferromagnetic semiconductor

  9. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members : The group attractiveness effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H. J.; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of

  10. Antitumor effects of electrochemical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Héctor Manuel Camué Ciria; Maraelys Morales González; Lisset Ortíz Zamora; Luis Enrique Bergues Cabrales; Gustavo Victoriano Sierra González; Luciana Oliveira de Oliveira; Rodrigo Zanella

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas.This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness,minimal invasiveness and local effect.Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy.In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained.By this reason,researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells.Although,it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis,electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues.However,action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood.Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple,a standardized method is not yet available.The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process.The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors.We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy.Also,we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy.In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done.Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods.

  11. Effects of Lawsonia intracellularis on Average Daily Gain in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, M.; Nielsen, M.; Dahl, J.;

    Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy1, a disease that is found with high prevalence in all countries with industrial pig production. The infection is known to cause disease in different age groups. In pigs between 6 to 20 weeks of age the endem...... form called Porcine Intestinal Andenomatosis (PIA) is predominant. The clinical signs are diarrhoea, ill-thriftiness and wasting. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of LI detected in faeces on Average Daily Gain (ADG) in grower-finisher pigs....

  12. Estimation of treatment effects with high-dimensional controls

    OpenAIRE

    Belloni, Alexandre; Chernozhukov, Victor; Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We propose methods for inference on the average effect of a treatment on a scalar outcome in the presence of very many controls. Our setting is a partially linear regression model containing the treatment/policy variable and a large number p of controls or series terms, with p that is possibly much larger than the sample size n, but where only s

  13. Effects of anisotropic turbulence on average polarizability of Gaussian Schell-model quantized beams through ocean link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Yixin; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Minyu

    2016-07-01

    Based on the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of anisotropic turbulence, the average polarizability of the Gaussian Schell-model quantized beams and lateral coherence length of the spherical wave propagating through the ocean water channel are derived. Numerical results show that, in strong temperature fluctuation, the depolarization effects of anisotropic turbulence are inferior to isotropic turbulence, as the other parameters of two links are the same. The depolarization effects of salinity fluctuation are less than the effects of the temperature fluctuation; the average polarizability of beams increases when increasing the inner scale of turbulence and the source's transverse size; and the larger rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid enhances the average polarizability of beams. The region of the receiving radius is smaller than the characteristic radius and the average polarizability of beams in isotropy turbulence is smaller than that of beams in anisotropy turbulence. However, the receiving radius region is larger than a characteristic radius and the average polarizability of beams in isotropy turbulence is larger than that of beams in anisotropy turbulence. PMID:27409215

  14. TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE EFFECT OF SECONDARY FLOWS IN DEPTH AVERAGED MORPHODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas MALCHEREK

    2001-01-01

    Due to centrifugal forces in a bend secondary currents perpendicular to the main flow are generated.Because they can be the reason for important bed forming processes such as meandering they have to be taken into account in morphodynamic simulations. Their influence on the bed shear stress is proportional to the ratio of water depth and curve radius. The latter one is a curve parameter and is not defined in 2D digital terrain models. This paper presents a new formulation for the bed shear stress which takes into account the influence of secondary currents in depth averaged simulations without using the curve radius.The new formulation is applied to a morphodynamic model of the Weser estuary located in Northern Germany. Its capability to simulate the deflection of the bed shear stress in bends is shown.Because of the smoothness of the curves in the Weser no significant differences in the bed evolutioncan be seen in this case.

  15. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of anisotropic pressure-free models. Adopting the Buchert scheme, we recast the averaged scalar equations in Bianchi-type form and close the standard system by introducing a propagation formula for the average shear magnitude. We then investigate the evolution of anisotropic average vacuum models and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. The presence of nonzero average shear in our equations also allows us to examine the constraints that a phase of backreaction-driven accelerated expansion might put on the anisotropy of the averaged domain. We close by assessing the status of these and other attempts to define and calculate 'average' spacetime behaviour in general relativity

  16. Differential effectiveness of placebo treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Karin; Fässler, Margrit; Rücker, Gerta;

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE When analyzing results of randomized clinical trials, the treatment with the greatest specific effect compared with its placebo control is considered to be the most effective one. Although systematic variations of improvements in placebo control groups would have important implications...... pooled random-effects estimates according to the type of placebo for the proportions of treatment response. We performed meta-regression analyses to identify sources of heterogeneity. In a network meta-analysis, direct and indirect comparisons within and across trials were combined. Additional analyses....... CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sham acupuncture and sham surgery are associated with higher responder ratios than oral pharmacological placebos. Clinicians who treat patients with migraine should be aware that a relevant part of the overall effect they observe in practice might be due to nonspecific effects and...

  17. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members: the group attractiveness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Yvette; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H J; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-04-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of physical attractiveness are more positive than the average ratings of the group members. A meta-analysis on 33 comparisons reveals that the effect is medium to large (Cohen's d = 0.60) and moderated by group size. We explored two explanations for the GA-effect: (a) selective attention to attractive group members, and (b) the Gestalt principle of similarity. The results of our studies are in favor of the selective attention account: People selectively attend to the most attractive members of a group and their attractiveness has a greater influence on the evaluation of the group. PMID:25733515

  18. Empirical insights into multi-grain averaging effects from ‘pseudo’ single-grain OSL measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we assess the signatures of multi-grain averaging effects for a series of sedimentary samples taken from the archaeological site of Hotel California, Atapuerca, Spain. We focus on the special case of equivalent dose (De) measurements made on single-grain discs that contain more than one quartz grain in each of the individual grain-hole positions with the aims of (i) providing insight into the nature and extent of averaging effects in very small multi-grain aliquots of sedimentary quartz, and (ii) assessing the suitability of ‘pseudo’ single-grain De measurements for this particular dating application. Pseudo single-grain OSL measurements made on standard discs loaded with 90–100 μm grains (equivalent to ∼30 grains per hole) yield significantly different De distribution characteristics and finite mixture model (FMM) burial dose estimates compared with single-grain OSL measurements. Grains with aberrant luminescence behaviours, which are routinely rejected during single-grain analysis, exert strong averaging effects on the pseudo single-grain and multi-grain aliquot De distributions. Grain-hole averaging effects arising from pseudo single-grain measurements also give rise to ‘phantom’ dose components and are apt to provide bias assessments of quartz signal characteristics and grain type classifications. Though this is a site-specific study, it serves as a cautionary note for interpretations of other pseudo single-grain OSL and De datasets – particularly those obtained from measurements of discs containing several tens of grains per hole and those derived from complex depositional environments. The use of custom single-grain discs drilled with smaller sized grain holes is recommended as a means of limiting grain-hole averaging effects when dealing with very fine (<180 μm) sediments.

  19. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Joel Schwartz; Antonella Zanobetti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were u...

  20. The Good, the Bad, and the Average: Evidence on Ability Peer Effects in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Lavy; Olmo Silva; Felix Weinhardt

    2012-01-01

    We study ability peer effects in English secondary schools using data on four cohorts of students taking age-14 national tests and measuring peers' ability by prior achievements at age 11. Our identification is based on within-pupil regressions exploiting variation in achievements across three compulsory subjects tested at age 14 and age 11. Using this novel strategy, we find significant and sizable negative effects arising from bad peers at the bottom of the ability distribution but little e...

  1. Averaging Tesseral Effects: Closed Form Relegation versus Expansions of Elliptic Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lara; San-Juan, Juan F.; Luis M. López-Ochoa

    2013-01-01

    Longitude-dependent terms of the geopotential cause nonnegligible short-period effects in orbit propagation of artificial satellites. Hence, accurate analytical and semianalytical theories must cope with tesseral harmonics. Modern algorithms for dealing analytically with them allow for closed form relegation. Nevertheless, current procedures for the relegation of tesseral effects from subsynchronous orbits are unavoidably related to orbit eccentricity, a key fact that is not enough emphasized...

  2. Effect of nonuniform varying delay on the rate of convergence in averaging-based consensus

    OpenAIRE

    CİHAN, ONUR; AKAR, MEHMET

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of nonuniform varying communication delay on distributed consensus algorithms in discrete time. After introducing the delayed mathematical model, we first investigate the ergodicity of the delayed system using the properties of scrambling matrices. Subsequently, the effect of nonuniform varying delay on convergence is examined. It is shown theoretically that nonuniform delay is not detrimental to the convergence rate of the algorithm for directed acyclic graphs...

  3. Doppler broadening effect on collision cross section functions - Deconvolution of the thermal averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The surprising feature of the Doppler problem in threshold determination is the 'amplification effect' of the target's thermal energy spread. The small thermal energy spread of the target molecules results in a large dispersion in relative kinetic energy. The Doppler broadening effect in connection with thermal energy beam experiments is discussed, and a procedure is recommended for the deconvolution of molecular scattering cross-section functions whose dominant dependence upon relative velocity is approximately that of the standard low-energy form.

  4. Covariant and background independent functional RG flow for the effective average action

    CERN Document Server

    Safari, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    We extend our prescription for the construction of a covariant and background-independent effective action for scalar quantum field theories to the case where momentum modes below a certain scale are suppressed by the presence of an infrared regulator. The key step is an appropriate choice of the infrared cutoff for which the Ward identity, capturing the information from single-field dependence of the ultraviolet action, continues to be exactly solvable, and therefore, in addition to covariance, manifest background independence of the effective action is guaranteed at any scale. A practical consequence is that in this framework one can adopt truncations dependent on the single total field. Furthermore we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the preservation of symmetries along the renormalization group flow.

  5. The effect of capsule-filling machine vibrations on average fill weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusa, Marcos; Faulhammer, Eva; Biserni, Stefano; Calzolari, Vittorio; Lawrence, Simon; Bresciani, Massimo; Khinast, Johannes

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the speed of capsule filling and the inherent machine vibrations on fill weight for a dosator-nozzle machine. The results show that increasing speed of capsule filling amplifies the vibration intensity (as measured by Laser Doppler vibrometer) of the machine frame, which leads to powder densification. The mass of the powder (fill weight) collected via the nozzle is significantly larger at a higher capsule filling speed. Therefore, there is a correlation between powder densification under more intense vibrations and larger fill weights. Quality-by Design of powder based products should evaluate the effect of environmental vibrations on material attributes, which in turn may affect product quality. PMID:23872302

  6. Effect of Interest, Moving Average, and Historical Volatility in Forecasting Exchange Prices of Major International Currencies

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Mohammad Abu Orabi; Abdul Aziz F. AA. Saymeh

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting foreign exchange prices drives the concerns of financial investors and occupies the minds of financial analysts as well. Most Current forecasting formulas used to employ individual financial factors, either fundamental or technical. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of combined financial factors in forecasting future exchange prices of world currencies. This study used one fundamental factor and two technical factors merged in one mathematical formula. Researchers ha...

  7. Location, investment and regional policy: the contribution of the average effective tax rate theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mignolet , Michel; Eyckmans, Nathalie; Meunier, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    For decades, most industrialised countries have implemented some forms of fiscal and financial incentives to stimulate fixed capital formation. Tax cuts and capital grants are of great use in regional policy. Since these instruments mobilise huge amounts of public resources the issue of their efficiency is of particular interest for policymakers. The impact of taxation on investment income was traditionally apprehended through models measuring the effective tax rate on marginal investments. H...

  8. Analysis of thermal effects of high average power Nd:YAG laser as a pump laser of wavelength tunable laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For AVLIS (Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation), high average power frequency tunable laser is required to excite and ionize 235U. To realize such a tunable laser, a pump laser with high pulse repetition rate and high average power is inevitable. A copper vapor laser was thought to be a pump laser and had been developed. However, it is thought that all solid state Nd:YAG laser, pumped by laser diode array can reduce separation energy because of its high efficiency. And high average power Nd:YAG laser has been developing. In a laser crystal of such Nd:YAG laser, a part of pumping energy is converted to thermal energy, and thermal gradient is generated. As a result, thermal stress is caused and the effects of thermal lensing and depolarization of laser radiation are generated. These effects decrease output power and deteriorate laser beam quality. Therefore, analysis of thermal characteristics of laser crystal is carried out for laser crystals with the pulse repetition rate of around 2 kHz. As a result, a prospect of realizing high average power Nd:YAG is obtained. (author)

  9. Effect of anode/filter combination on average glandular dose in mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Biegala; Teresa Jakubowska; Karolina Markowska

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the mean glandular doses was conducted in 100 female patients who underwent screening mammography in 2011 and 2013. Siemens Mammomat Novation with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination was used in 2011, whereas in 2013 anode/filter combination was Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh. The functioning of mammography was checked and the effectiveness of the automatic exposure control (AEC) system was verified by measuring compensation of changes in the phantom thickness and m...

  10. Assessing the effects of land-use changes on annual average gross erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Brath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of land-use changes on potential annual gross erosion in the uplands of the Emilia-Romagna administrative region, a broad geographical area of some 22 000 km2 in northern-central Italy, have been analysed by application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. The presence of an extended mountain chain, particularly subject to soil erosion, makes the estimation of annual gross erosion relevant in defining regional soil-conservation strategies. The USLE, derived empirically for plots, is usually applied at the basin scale. In the present study, the method is implemented in a distributed framework for the hilly and mountainous portion of Emilia-Romagna through a discretisation of the region into elementary square cells. The annual gross erosion is evaluated by combining morphological, pedological and climatic information. The stream network and the tributary area drained by each elementary cell, which are needed for the local application of the USLE, are derived automatically from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM of grid size 250 x 250 m. The rainfall erosivity factor is evaluated from local estimates of rainfall of six-hour storm duration and two-year return period. The soil erodibility and slope length-steepness factors are derived from digital maps of land use, pedology and geomorphology. Furthermore, historical land-use maps of the district of Bologna (a large portion — 3720 km2 — of the area under study, allow the effect of actual land use changes on the soil erosion process to be assessed. The analysis shows the influence of land-use changes on annual gross erosion as well as the increasing vulnerability of upland areas to soil erosion processes during recent decades. Keywords: USLE, gross erosion, distributed modelling, land use changes, northern-central Italy

  11. The Effect of Antagonistic Pleiotropy on the Estimation of the Average Coefficient of Dominance of Deleterious Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, B.; García-Dorado, A; Caballero, A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the impact of antagonistic pleiotropy on the most widely used methods of estimation of the average coefficient of dominance of deleterious mutations from segregating populations. A proportion of the deleterious mutations affecting a given studied fitness component are assumed to have an advantageous effect on another one, generating overdominance on global fitness. Using diffusion approximations and transition matrix methods, we obtain the distribution of gene frequencies for n...

  12. The effect of antagonistic pleiotropy on the estimation of the average coefficient of dominance of deleterious mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, B; García-Dorado, A; Caballero, A

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the impact of antagonistic pleiotropy on the most widely used methods of estimation of the average coefficient of dominance of deleterious mutations from segregating populations. A proportion of the deleterious mutations affecting a given studied fitness component are assumed to have an advantageous effect on another one, generating overdominance on global fitness. Using diffusion approximations and transition matrix methods, we obtain the distribution of gene frequencies for nonpleiotropic and pleiotropic mutations in populations at the mutation-selection-drift balance. From these distributions we build homozygous and heterozygous chromosomes and assess the behavior of the estimators of dominance. A very small number of deleterious mutations with antagonistic pleiotropy produces substantial increases on the estimate of the average degree of dominance of mutations affecting the fitness component under study. For example, estimates are increased three- to fivefold when 2% of segregating loci are over-dominant for fitness. In contrast, strengthening pleiotropy, where pleiotropic effects are assumed to be also deleterious, has little effect on the estimates of the average degree of dominance, supporting previous results. The antagonistic pleiotropy model considered, applied under mutational parameters described in the literature, produces patterns for the distribution of chromosomal viabilities, levels of genetic variance, and homozygous mutation load generally consistent with those observed empirically for viability in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:16118193

  13. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Influence of a Combined Inpatient/Outpatient Methadone Treatment Regimen on the Average Length of Stay of a Medicaid NICU Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, Sonia; Musci, Michael; Stang, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prescription opioid and heroin abuse have been increasing steadily year after year, and continue to be a serious national problem. A sequela of the increase in opioid abuse has been an increase in the number of infants born with opioid dependence. These infants often require costly, prolonged stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for drug withdrawal treatment. The authors studied a population of infants from a large Medicaid health plan who were born with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) secondary to in utero opioid exposure to assess the average length of stay in the NICU, and to determine the variables that may account for differences in interinstitutional lengths of stay. The overall average length of stay for NAS was 21.1 days for the 139 infants included in the study. Analysis of the medication used for treatment revealed that infants who were treated with a combined inpatient/outpatient regimen with methadone had an average length of stay of 11.4 days versus 25.1 days for infants who were treated entirely as inpatients (PPopulation Health Management 2015;18:392–397) PMID:25803316

  14. Impact of trees on pollutant dispersion in street canyons: A numerical study of the annual average effects in Antwerp, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, Stijn; Vos, Peter; Maiheu, Bino; Janssen, Stijn

    2015-11-01

    Effects of vegetation on pollutant dispersion receive increased attention in attempts to reduce air pollutant concentration levels in the urban environment. In this study, we examine the influence of vegetation on the concentrations of traffic pollutants in urban street canyons using numerical simulations with the CFD code OpenFOAM. This CFD approach is validated against literature wind tunnel data of traffic pollutant dispersion in street canyons. The impact of trees is simulated for a variety of vegetation types and the full range of approaching wind directions at 15° interval. All these results are combined using meteo statistics, including effects of seasonal leaf loss, to determine the annual average effect of trees in street canyons. This analysis is performed for two pollutants, elemental carbon (EC) and PM10, using background concentrations and emission strengths for the city of Antwerp, Belgium. The results show that due to the presence of trees the annual average pollutant concentrations increase with about 8% (range of 1% to 13%) for EC and with about 1.4% (range of 0.2 to 2.6%) for PM10. The study indicates that this annual effect is considerably smaller than earlier estimates which are generally based on a specific set of governing conditions (1 wind direction, full leafed trees and peak hour traffic emissions). PMID:26100726

  15. Identification of Average Treatment Effects in Social Experiments under Alternative Forms of Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Martin

    2012-01-01

    As any empirical method used for causal analysis, social experiments are prone to attrition which may flaw the validity of the results. This article considers the problem of partially missing outcomes in experiments. First, it systematically reveals under which forms of attrition--in terms of its relation to observable and/or unobservable…

  16. Identification of Average Treatment Effects in Social Experiments Under Alternative Forms of Attrition

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Martin

    2012-01-01

    As any empirical method used for causal analysis, social experiments are prone to attrition which may flaw the validity of the results. This paper considers the problem of partially missing outcomes in experiments. Firstly, it systematically reveals under which forms of attrition - in terms of its relation to observable and/or unobservable factors - experiments do (not) yield causal parameters. Secondly, it shows how the various forms of attrition can be controlled for by different methods of...

  17. Identification of average treatment effects in social experiments under different forms of attrition

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Huber

    2010-01-01

    As any empirical method used for causal analysis, social experiments are prone to attrition which may flaw the validity of the results. This paper considers the problem of partially missing outcomes in experiments. Firstly, it systematically reveals under which forms of attrition - in terms of its relation to observable and/or unobservable factors - experiments do (not) yield causal parameters. Secondly, it shows how the various forms of attrition can be controlled for by different methods of...

  18. An effective approach using blended learning to assist the average students to catch up with the talented ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijie Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the average students are the prevailing part of the student population, it is important but difficult for the educators to help average students by improving their learning efficiency and learning outcome in school tests. We conducted a quasi-experiment with two English classes taught by one teacher in the second term of the first year of a junior high school. The experimental class was composed of average students (N=37, while the control class comprised talented students (N=34. Therefore the two classes performed differently in English subject with mean difference of 13.48 that is statistically significant based on the independent sample T-Test analysis. We tailored the web-based intelligent English instruction system, called Computer Simulation in Educational Communication (CSIEC and featured with instant feedback, to the learning content in the experiment term, and the experimental class used it one school hour per week throughout the term. This blended learning setting with the focus on vocabulary and dialogue acquisition helped the students in the experimental class improve their learning performance gradually. The mean difference of the final test between the two classes was decreased to 3.78, while the mean difference of the test designed for the specially drilled vocabulary knowledge was decreased to 2.38 and was statistically not significant. The student interview and survey also demonstrated the students’ favor to the blended learning system. We conclude that the long-term integration of this content oriented blended learning system featured with instant feedback into ordinary class is an effective approach to assist the average students to catch up with the talented ones.

  19. Treatment Effect Heterogeneity in a Science Professional Development Initiative: The Case for School Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Sarah; Grigg, Jeffrey; Hanselman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on how the treatment effects of a teacher professional development initiative in science differed by school capacity. In other words, the authors are primarily concerned with treatment effect heterogeneity. As such, this paper complements ongoing evaluation of the average treatment effects of the initiative over time. The…

  20. Statistical mechanics of the ``Chinese restaurant process'': Lack of self-averaging, anomalous finite-size effects, and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Bruno; Zarei, Mina; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2009-12-01

    The Pitman-Yor, or Chinese restaurant process, is a stochastic process that generates distributions following a power law with exponents lower than 2, as found in numerous physical, biological, technological, and social systems. We discuss its rich behavior with the tools and viewpoint of statistical mechanics. We show that this process invariably gives rise to a condensation, i.e., a distribution dominated by a finite number of classes. We also evaluate thoroughly the finite-size effects, finding that the lack of stationary state and self-averaging of the process creates realization-dependent cutoffs and behavior of the distributions with no equivalent in other statistical mechanical models.

  1. Assessment of annual average effective dose status in the cohort of medical staff in Lithuania during 1991-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samerdokiene, Vitalija; Mastauskas, Albinas; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2015-12-01

    The use of radiation sources for various medical purposes is closely related to irradiation of the medical staff, which causes harmful effects to health and an increased risk of cancer. In total, 1463 medical staff who have been occupationally exposed to sources of ionising radiation (IR) had been monitored. Records with annual dose measurements (N = 19 157) were collected and regularly analysed for a 23-y period: from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 2013. The collected annual average effective dose (AAED) data have been analysed according to different socio-demographic parameters and will be used in future investigation in order to assess cancer risk among medical staff occupationally exposed to sources of IR. A thorough analysis of data extracted from medical staff's dose records allows one to conclude that the average annual effective dose of Lithuanian medical staff occupationally exposed to sources of IR was consistently decreased from 1991 (1.75 mSv) to 2013 (0.27 mSv) (p < 0.0001). PMID:25614631

  2. A statistical study of gyro-averaging effects in a reduced model of drift-wave transport

    CERN Document Server

    da Fonseca, J D; Sokolov, M; Caldas, I L

    2016-01-01

    A statistical study of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on transport driven by electrostatic drift-waves is presented. The study is based on a reduced discrete Hamiltonian dynamical system known as the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM). In this system, FLR effects are incorporated through the gyro-averaging of a simplified weak-turbulence model of electrostatic fluctuations. Formally, the GSM is a modified version of the standard map in which the perturbation amplitude, $K_0$, becomes $K_0 J_0(\\hat{\\rho})$, where $J_0$ is the zeroth-order Bessel function and $\\hat{\\rho}$ is the Larmor radius. Assuming a Maxwellian probability density function (pdf) for $\\hat{\\rho}$, we compute analytically and numerically the pdf and the cumulative distribution function of the effective drift-wave perturbation amplitude $K_0 J_0(\\hat{\\rho})$. Using these results we compute the probability of loss of confinement (i.e., global chaos), $P_{c}$, and the probability of trapping in the main drift-wave resonance, $P_{t}$. It is sho...

  3. Assessment of annual average effective dose status in the cohort of medical staff in Lithuania during 1991-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation sources for various medical purposes is closely related to irradiation of the medical staff, which causes harmful effects to health and an increased risk of cancer. In total, 1463 medical staff who have been occupationally exposed to sources of ionising radiation (IR) had been monitored. Records with annual dose measurements (N = 19 157) were collected and regularly analysed for a 23-y period: from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 2013. The collected annual average effective dose (AAED) data have been analysed according to different socio-demographic parameters and will be used in future investigation in order to assess cancer risk among medical staff occupationally exposed to sources of IR. A thorough analysis of data extracted from medical staff's dose records allows one to conclude that the average annual effective dose of Lithuanian medical staff occupationally exposed to sources of IR was consistently decreased from 1991 (1.75 mSv) to 2013 (0.27 mSv) (p < 0.0001). (authors)

  4. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers

  5. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, A. S. [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnology (Russian Federation); Starkov, I. A., E-mail: ferroelectrics@ya.ru [Brno University of Technology, SIX Research Centre (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  6. The effect of pasture pregrazing herbage mass on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and average daily gain of grazing beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, T M; Quinlan, C; Pierce, K M; Lynch, M B; Kenny, D A; Kelly, A K; Purcell, P J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pregrazing pasture herbage mass (HM) on CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation, and ADG of grazing beef heifers at 2 stages of the grazing season. Thirty Limousin cross heifers were allocated to 1 of 2 target pregrazing HM treatments [a low HM (LHM) or high HM (HHM) treatment] for 126 d in a randomized block design experiment. Pasture herbage and heifer rumen fluid samples were collected, and enteric CH4 emissions were determined using an SF6 tracer technique during two 5-d measurement periods [MP; MP 1 (25 to 29 May) and MP 2 (6 to 10 September)]. Both DMI and GE intake (GEI) were measured during MP 2, and ADG of the heifers was measured every 14 d throughout the 126-d grazing period. Mean HM for the LHM and HHM treatments were 1,300 and 2,000 kg DM/ha, respectively, during MP 1 and 2,800 and 3,200 kg DM/ha, respectively, during MP 2. The CP concentration of the offered herbage was greater (P 0.10) in the NDF concentration of the herbage was found between the HM treatments during MP 1 or 2. There was no effect (P > 0.10) of HM treatment on total CH4 emissions (g/d) for either MP [mean value across HM treatments of 121 (SED 5.4) g/d during MP 1 and 132 (8.8) g/d during MP 2], but CH4 emissions (g) per kilogram of ADG were reduced (P 0.10) in DMI or GEI of the heifers between the HM treatments. The results of this study suggest that offering a low pregrazing HM sward will reduce enteric CH4 emissions relative to ADG throughout the grazing season because of increased ADG. PMID:23908161

  7. SU-D-213-04: Accounting for Volume Averaging and Material Composition Effects in An Ionization Chamber Array for Patient Specific QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study explores novel methods to address two significant challenges affecting measurement of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) with IBA’s Matrixx Evolution™ ionization chamber array. First, dose calculation algorithms often struggle to accurately determine dose to the chamber array due to CT artifact and algorithm limitations. Second, finite chamber size and volume averaging effects cause additional deviation from the calculated dose. Methods: QA measurements were taken with the Matrixx positioned on the treatment table in a solid-water Multi-Cube™ phantom. To reduce the effect of CT artifact, the Matrixx CT image set was masked with appropriate materials and densities. Individual ionization chambers were masked as air, while the high-z electronic backplane and remaining solid-water material were masked as aluminum and water, respectively. Dose calculation was done using Varian’s Acuros XB™ (V11) algorithm, which is capable of predicting dose more accurately in non-biologic materials due to its consideration of each material’s atomic properties. Finally, the exported TPS dose was processed using an in-house algorithm (MATLAB) to assign the volume averaged TPS dose to each element of a corresponding 2-D matrix. This matrix was used for comparison with the measured dose. Square fields at regularly-spaced gantry angles, as well as selected patient plans were analyzed. Results: Analyzed plans showed improved agreement, with the average gamma passing rate increasing from 94 to 98%. Correction factors necessary for chamber angular dependence were reduced by 67% compared to factors measured previously, indicating that previously measured factors corrected for dose calculation errors in addition to true chamber angular dependence. Conclusion: By comparing volume averaged dose, calculated with a capable dose engine, on a phantom masked with correct materials and densities, QA results obtained with the Matrixx Evolution™ can be significantly

  8. SU-D-213-04: Accounting for Volume Averaging and Material Composition Effects in An Ionization Chamber Array for Patient Specific QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugal, M; McDonald, D; Jacqmin, D; Koch, N; Ellis, A; Peng, J; Ashenafi, M; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study explores novel methods to address two significant challenges affecting measurement of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) with IBA’s Matrixx Evolution™ ionization chamber array. First, dose calculation algorithms often struggle to accurately determine dose to the chamber array due to CT artifact and algorithm limitations. Second, finite chamber size and volume averaging effects cause additional deviation from the calculated dose. Methods: QA measurements were taken with the Matrixx positioned on the treatment table in a solid-water Multi-Cube™ phantom. To reduce the effect of CT artifact, the Matrixx CT image set was masked with appropriate materials and densities. Individual ionization chambers were masked as air, while the high-z electronic backplane and remaining solid-water material were masked as aluminum and water, respectively. Dose calculation was done using Varian’s Acuros XB™ (V11) algorithm, which is capable of predicting dose more accurately in non-biologic materials due to its consideration of each material’s atomic properties. Finally, the exported TPS dose was processed using an in-house algorithm (MATLAB) to assign the volume averaged TPS dose to each element of a corresponding 2-D matrix. This matrix was used for comparison with the measured dose. Square fields at regularly-spaced gantry angles, as well as selected patient plans were analyzed. Results: Analyzed plans showed improved agreement, with the average gamma passing rate increasing from 94 to 98%. Correction factors necessary for chamber angular dependence were reduced by 67% compared to factors measured previously, indicating that previously measured factors corrected for dose calculation errors in addition to true chamber angular dependence. Conclusion: By comparing volume averaged dose, calculated with a capable dose engine, on a phantom masked with correct materials and densities, QA results obtained with the Matrixx Evolution™ can be significantly

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED IN THE TERRITORIES CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the average annual effective exposure doses of the inhabitants of the territories contaminated due to the Chernobul accident had been developed according to the method of the assessment of the average annual effective exposure doses of the settlements inhabitants. The cost-efficacy of the use of the average annual effective dose assessment method was 250 000 USD for the current 5 years. Average annual effective dose exceeded 1 mSv/year for 191 Belarus settlements from 2613. About 50 000 persons are living in these settlements.

  10. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  11. Intra-event isotope and raindrop size data of tropical rain reveal effects concealed by event averaged data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managave, S. R.; Jani, R. A.; Narayana Rao, T.; Sunilkumar, K.; Satheeshkumar, S.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-08-01

    Evaporation of rain is known to contribute water vapor, a potent greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ18O and, δD, respectively) of precipitation, usually measured/presented as values integrated over rain events or monthly mean values, are important tools for detecting evaporation effects. The slope ~8 of the linear relationship between such time-averaged values of δD and δ18O (called the meteoric water line) is widely accepted as a proof of condensation under isotopic equilibrium and absence of evaporation of rain during atmospheric fall. Here, through a simultaneous investigation of the isotopic and drop size distributions of seventeen rain events sampled on an intra-event scale at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), southern India, we demonstrate that the evaporation effects, not evident in the time-averaged data, are significantly manifested in the sub-samples of individual rain events. We detect this through (1) slopes significantly less than 8 for the δD-δ18O relation on intra-event scale and (2) significant positive correlations between deuterium excess ( d-excess = δD - 8*δ18O; lower values in rain indicate evaporation) and the mass-weighted mean diameter of the raindrops ( D m ). An estimated ~44 % of rain is influenced by evaporation. This study also reveals a signature of isotopic equilibration of rain with the cloud base vapor, the processes important for modeling isotopic composition of precipitation. d-excess values of rain are modified by the post-condensation processes and the present approach offers a way to identify the d-excess values least affected by such processes. Isotope-enabled global circulation models could be improved by incorporating intra-event isotopic data and raindrop size dependent isotopic effects.

  12. Intra-event isotope and raindrop size data of tropical rain reveal effects concealed by event averaged data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managave, S. R.; Jani, R. A.; Narayana Rao, T.; Sunilkumar, K.; Satheeshkumar, S.; Ramesh, R.

    2015-11-01

    Evaporation of rain is known to contribute water vapor, a potent greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ18O and, δD, respectively) of precipitation, usually measured/presented as values integrated over rain events or monthly mean values, are important tools for detecting evaporation effects. The slope ~8 of the linear relationship between such time-averaged values of δD and δ18O (called the meteoric water line) is widely accepted as a proof of condensation under isotopic equilibrium and absence of evaporation of rain during atmospheric fall. Here, through a simultaneous investigation of the isotopic and drop size distributions of seventeen rain events sampled on an intra-event scale at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), southern India, we demonstrate that the evaporation effects, not evident in the time-averaged data, are significantly manifested in the sub-samples of individual rain events. We detect this through (1) slopes significantly less than 8 for the δD-δ18O relation on intra-event scale and (2) significant positive correlations between deuterium excess (d-excess = δD - 8*δ18O; lower values in rain indicate evaporation) and the mass-weighted mean diameter of the raindrops (D m ). An estimated ~44 % of rain is influenced by evaporation. This study also reveals a signature of isotopic equilibration of rain with the cloud base vapor, the processes important for modeling isotopic composition of precipitation. d-excess values of rain are modified by the post-condensation processes and the present approach offers a way to identify the d-excess values least affected by such processes. Isotope-enabled global circulation models could be improved by incorporating intra-event isotopic data and raindrop size dependent isotopic effects.

  13. Study of natural radioactivity and 222Rn exhalation rate in soil samples for the assessment of average effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of natural radionuclides and 222Rn (Radon) exhalation rate in soil samples were determined using NaI Scintillation detector and Scintillation Radon Monitor. Soil samples were collected from different geological formations of the same area. The average value of 226Ra (Radium) equivalent activity in soil samples of the studied area was 124.9 Bq kg-1. 226Ra equivalent activities was calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these soil samples in the construction of dwellings. The 222Rn exhalation rate in the studied area was varied from 6.9 ± 0.2 mBq Kg-1 h-1 to 33.2 ± 2 mBq Kg-1. A positive correlation was obtained between the Ra (Radium) and 222Rn exhalation rate. The overall average annual effective dose in the studied is lower than the world recommended value of 1.0 mSva-1. (author)

  14. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  15. Effect of sorbent hydration on the average activity of CaO in a Ca-looping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, B.; Grasa, G.S.; Abanades, J.C. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that the solid sorbents used in calcium looping CO{sub 2} capture systems experience a reduction in carrying capacity with the number of cycles. Several sorbent reactivation schemes have been proposed as means of overcoming this deactivation process. This work analyzes the integration of a reactivation process in a Ca-looping cycle by means of a hydration reactor. The mass balances involved in this three-reactor systems must then be solved in order to evaluate the effect of the different variables on the average activity of the sorbent. The positive impact of reactivation by hydration (i.e. average increase in activity of the sorbent arriving at the carbonator) is discussed in conjunction with the negative impacts on the overall operation of the system (e.g. steam consumption, etc.) and on the large reactivation reactors. Two different scenarios employing different degrees of hydration have been evaluated. The results obtained show that steam is used more efficiently when only a small fraction of the circulating solids is hydrated to a high degree. Moreover, the performance of the sorbent reactivation step is better when low make up flows of limestone are used.

  16. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Barrow, John D.; Tsagas, Christos G.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of pressure-free Bianchi-type models. Adopting the Buchert averaging scheme, we identify the kinematic backreaction effects by focussing on spacetimes with zero or isotropic spatial curvature. This allows us to close the system of the standard scalar formulae with a propagation equation for the shear magnitude. We find no change in the already known conditions for accelerated expansion. The backreaction terms are expressed as algebraic relations between the mean-square fluctuations of the models' irreducible kinematical variables. Based on these we investigate the early evolution of averaged vacuum Bianchi type $I$ universes and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. We also discuss the possibility of accelerated expansion due to ...

  17. On the average effect of a highly turbulent gravito-hydrodynamic field in the hadron era of the universe, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previous formalism for dealing with the average effect of a highly supersonic turbulent gravito-hydrodynamic field in the hadron era of the universe is extended so as to take into consideration various dissipative processes in the hadronic substratum. After a phenomenological fixation of the coefficients of bulk viscosity, shear viscosity and heat conduction, it is shown that those dissipative processes have a considerable influence upon the three characteristic mean-value quantities (at the bounce epoch of our regular model-universe) corresponding to metric, velocity and density fluctuations. A possibility of fixing the dissipation coefficients of the hadronic matter under consideration, i.e., the one based on the concept of statistical bootstrap, in a more well-founded manner is also conjectured. (auth.)

  18. Effects of volume averaging on the line spectra of vertical velocity from multiple-Doppler radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Chen, T.; Wyngaard, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of the ratio of the true one-dimensional spectrum of vertical velocity and that measured with multiple-Doppler radar beams are presented. It was assumed that the effects of pulse volume averaging and objective analysis routines is replacement of a point measurement with a volume integral. A u and v estimate was assumed to be feasible when orthogonal radars are not available. Also, the target fluid was configured as having an infinite vertical dimension, zero vertical velocity at the top and bottom, and having homogeneous and isotropic turbulence with a Kolmogorov energy spectrum. The ratio obtained indicated that equal resolutions among radars yields a monotonically decreasing, wavenumber-dependent response function. A gain of 0.95 was demonstrated in an experimental situation with 40 levels. Possible errors introduced when using unequal resolution radars were discussed. Finally, it was found that, for some flows, the extent of attenuation depends on the number of vertical levels resolvable by the radars.

  19. Mortality effects of average education: a multilevel study of small neighbourhoods in rural and urban areas in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravdal Øystein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intention was to find out whether there was an association between the socio-economic resources in a small neighbourhood ("basic statistical unit"; BSU and individual mortality, net of individual resources, and whether this association differed between municipalities including a quite large city and others. The possibility of a rural-urban difference in the health effect of community resources has not been checked earlier. Methods Discrete-time hazard models for mortality at age 60-89 were estimated for 1990-1992 and 2000-2002, using register data that cover the entire Norwegian population. For each person, the educational level and the municipality and BSU of residence in 1990 and 2000 were known. Average education was computed by aggregating over the individual data. In total, there were about 200000 deaths in more than 13000 BSUs during 5 million person-years of observation. Results There was a significant relationship between average education in the BSU and individual mortality, but only in the medium-sized and largest municipalities. The sharpest relationship was seen in the latter, where for example OR per year of education was 0.908 (95% CI 0.887-0.929 in the 1990-92 period. The findings were robust to various alternative specifications. Conclusion These results from a large data set are consistent with the idea that neighbourhood socio-economic resources may affect individual mortality, but suggest that distinctions according to population size or density be made in future research and that one should be careful, if focusing on cities, to generalize beyond that setting. With these data, one can only speculate about the reasons for the rural-urban difference. A stronger higher-level spatial segregation in urban areas may be one explanation.

  20. The effect of stress and incentive magnetic field on the average volume of magnetic Barkhausen jump in iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Di; Guo, Lei; Yin, Liang; Chen, Zhaoyang; Chen, Juan; Qi, Xin

    2015-11-01

    The average volume of magnetic Barkhausen jump (AVMBJ) v bar generated by magnetic domain wall irreversible displacement under the effect of the incentive magnetic field H for ferromagnetic materials and the relationship between irreversible magnetic susceptibility χirr and stress σ are adopted in this paper to study the theoretical relationship among AVMBJ v bar(magneto-elasticity noise) and the incentive magnetic field H. Then the numerical relationship among AVMBJ v bar, stress σ and the incentive magnetic field H is deduced. Utilizing this numerical relationship, the displacement process of magnetic domain wall for single crystal is analyzed and the effect of the incentive magnetic field H and the stress σ on the AVMBJ v bar (magneto-elasticity noise) is explained from experimental and theoretical perspectives. The saturation velocity of Barkhausen jump characteristic value curve is different when tensile or compressive stress is applied on ferromagnetic materials, because the resistance of magnetic domain wall displacement is different. The idea of critical magnetic field in the process of magnetic domain wall displacement is introduced in this paper, which solves the supersaturated calibration problem of AVMBJ - σ calibration curve.

  1. Directed-inquiry approach to learning science process skills: treatment effects and aptitude-treatment interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Paul J.

    The directed-inquiry approach to learning science process skills and scientific problem solving [DIAL(SPS)2] was developed to help high-school students gain the critical thinking skills required to solve problems in the biology lab. This curriculum integrated several learning strategies into a single approach: advance organizers, the learning cycle, concept maps, Vee diagrams, a focusing strategy, and writing. Two general questions were addressed. First, was the DIAL(SPS)2 treatment more effective than a conventional treatment? Second, was there evidence of an aptitude-treatment interaction? Four high-school biology classes taught by this investigator were used to test the DIAL(SPS)2 curriculum. Scheduling of students involved ability grouping. To test the curriculum in the most rigorous way, the experimental group consisted of average ability students and the comparison group consisted of above-average students. Both the groups were pretested in August and posttested in May. In the intervening time, the experimental group received the DIAL(SPS)2 treatment while the comparison group received a more traditional approach. Analysis of covariance revealed that the DIAL(SPS)2 curriculum had no significant effect on the learning of science process skills or on cognitive development. Aptitude-treatment interaction analyses revealed an interaction of DIAL(SPS)2 treatment and cognitive development.

  2. The Chicken Soup Effect: The Role of Recreation and Intramural Participation in Boosting Freshman Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbison, Godfrey A.; Henry, Tracyann L.; Perkins-Brown, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Freshman grade point average, in particular first semester grade point average, is an important predictor of survival and eventual student success in college. As many institutions of higher learning are searching for ways to improve student success, one would hope that policies geared towards the success of freshmen have long term benefits…

  3. The Baryon Cycle at High Redshifts: Effects of Galactic Winds on Galaxy Evolution in Overdense and Average Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoun, Raphael; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Romano-Díaz, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations in order to analyze galaxy evolution at redshifts z~6-12 in highly-overdense 5 sigma density peaks. Strong stellar feedback, in the form of galactic winds, is expected to play an important role in the evolution of these regions. We investigate the effects of these winds by comparing different galactic outflow prescriptions, including (i) a constant velocity model (CW), (ii) a variable velocity model scaling with galaxy properties (VW), and (iii) a model with no outflows (NW). The CW model is also applied to a simulation of an average density region to study the impact of environment on galaxy evolution. A direct consequence of the overdensity is a shallow galaxy mass function slope at the low-mass end and an accelerated evolution of dark matter and baryonic structures. The overdensity hosts massive haloes, up to ~10^{12} Msun, with embedded galaxies up to ~10^{11} Msun in stellar mass by z~6, which are absent in the "normal" region. The CW model leads to...

  4. Average Air Temperature Inside a Room With a Semitransparent Wall With a Solar Control Film: Effect of The Emissivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xamán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a theoretical study on conjugated heat transfer (natural convection, radiation and conduction in a squareroom (cavity with turbulent flow is presented, taking into account variation on the opaque wall emissivity. The room isformed by an isothermal vertical wall, two adiabatic horizontal walls and a semitransparent wall with and without acontrol solar radiation film. The governing equations for turbulent flow in 2D were solved using a finite volumeformulation and k- turbulent model. Results for an isothermal wall at 21°C and an external temperature of 35°C arepresented. The size of the room is 4.0 m length and height and the solar radiation falling directly on thesemitransparent wall was 750 W/m2 (AM2. The emissivity of the opaque walls was varied between 0.1 ≤ * ≤ 1.0.Results show that, based on the air average temperature and the effective heat flux inside the room, the solar controlfilm under study was advantageous for energy saving purposes, for emissivity values of * ≤ 0.46. A correlation onthis system for the heat transfer as a function of the emissivities was determined.

  5. Effect of Contract Farming on the Farmers' Average Return - The Case of the Grain Industry in the U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wu-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    In the literature, the effect of contract farming on the productivity efficiency or profitability is rarely studied, especially in the crop sector. In this paper, we use a farm-level dataset (Agriculture and Resource Management Survey) to examine the effect of contract farming on the farmers' average return for the corn, soybean and wheat producers. The results of the matching estimation show that without matching, the effect of contract farming on the average returns of the corn and soybean ...

  6. An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafa, S. Molins; Trebotich, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Shen, C.

    2012-02-01

    The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. Here, the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media is investigated by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is comprised of high performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high resolution model is used to demonstrate that non-uniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. The effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

  7. JUSTIFICATION OF TRANSITION FROM ZONING OF CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES TO SETTLEMENTS CLASSIFICATION AT AN AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES IN REMOTE PERIOD AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an existing exposure situation (in a remote period after the Chernobyl accident there is a need of the transition from "radioactive area zoning" to "the settlements classification by average annual effective doses to the critical group of persons among the settlement's residents", to ensure the appropriate radiation level and social protection of the settlement's residents, located on the contaminated territory.The comparative allocation analysis of the average annual external and internal effective doses, the average annual effective cumulative doses to residents of settlements, related to the relevant areas (the Council of Ministers of Belarus latest decision, the proposed dose range according to the Catalogue of average annual effective doses of residents of settlements radiation Republic of Belarus confirmed the validity of the transition from "radioactive zoning area" to "the classification of settlements by average annual effective dose."In accordance with the radiation protection principles, it seems reasonable to classify the settlements located on the contaminated territory at the average annual effective dose as follows: < 0.1 mSv / year (not required to carry out radiation protection measures in the agricultural sector;  0.1-1 mSv / year (periodic radiation monitoring should be carried out;  1 mSv / year (it is necessary to apply a complex of protective measures.

  8. EFFECT OF SURFACE TREATMENT ON ENAMEL SURFACE ROUGHNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda Erşahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effects of different methods of surface treatment on enamel roughness. Materials and Methods: Ninety human maxillary first premolars were randomly divided into three groups (n=30 according to type of enamel surface treatment: I, acid etching; II, Er:YAG laser; III, Nd:YAG laser. The surface roughness of enamel was measured with a noncontact optical profilometer. For each enamel sample, two readings were taken across the sample—before enamel surface treatment (T1 and after enamel surface treatment (T2. The roughness parameter analyzed was the average roughness (Ra. Statistical analysis was performed using a Paired sample t test and the post-hoc Mann- Whitney U test, with the significance level set at 0.05. Results: The highest Ra (average roughness values were observed for Group II, with a significant difference with Groups I and III (P<0.001. Ra values for the acid etching group (Group I were significantly lower than other groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Surface treatment of enamel with Er:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser results in significantly higher Ra than acid-etching. Both Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser can be recommended as viable treatment alternatives to acid etching.

  9. Reconsidering Findings of "No Effects" in Randomized Control Trials: Modeling Differences in Treatment Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    The primary technique that many researchers use to analyze data from randomized control trials (RCTs)--detecting the average treatment effect (ATE)--imposes assumptions upon the data that often are not correct. Both theory and past research suggest that treatments may have significant impacts on subgroups even when showing no overall effect.…

  10. The effect of above average weight gains on the incidence of radiographic bone aberrations and epiphysitis in growing horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between body weight gain and the onset of bone aberrations (e.g. epiphysitis) is described. A model was derived which described the increase in transverse epiphyseal width, and the major factor found to affect epiphyseal width was average daily gain in body weight. In addition, a radiographic examination of the epiphyseal areas showed a larger number of bone aberrations in groups gaining weight at an above-average rate. Thus, a rapid increase in body weight can be suggested as a significant factor in the onset of epiphysitis

  11. Improvement of internal tumor volumes of non-small cell lung cancer patients for radiation treatment planning using interpolated average CT in PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ching Wang

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.

  12. Late effects after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Daniëls, Laurien Aletta

    2014-01-01

    Although modern treatment strategies have made Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) a highly curable disease, there is a life-long increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to treatment. Over time it has become increasingly evident that the historically used extensive treatment fields can potentially lead to numerous long-term adverse effects, often presenting clinically with a delay of more than 10-15 years. Epidemiological studies have shown an increased risks of second malignancies in HL survivors. H...

  13. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.

    2014-12-01

    The cost of fighting large wildland fires in the western United States has grown dramatically over the past decade. This trend will likely continue with growth of the WUI into fire prone ecosystems, dangerous fuel conditions from decades of fire suppression, and a potentially increasing effect from prolonged drought and climate change. Fuel treatments are often considered the primary pre-fire mechanism to reduce the exposure of values at risk to wildland fire, and a growing suite of fire models and tools are employed to prioritize where treatments could mitigate wildland fire damages. Assessments using the likelihood and consequence of fire are critical because funds are insufficient to reduce risk on all lands needing treatment, therefore prioritization is required to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatment budgets. Cost-effectiveness, doing the most good per dollar, would seem to be an important fuel treatment metric, yet studies or plans that prioritize fuel treatments using costs or cost-effectiveness measures are absent from the literature. Therefore, to explore the effect of using costs in fuel treatment planning we test four prioritization algorithms designed to reduce risk in a case study examining fuel treatments on the Sisters Ranger District of central Oregon. For benefits we model sediment retention and standing biomass, and measure the effectiveness of each algorithm by comparing the differences among treatment and no treat alternative scenarios. Our objective is to maximize the averted loss of net benefits subject to a representative fuel treatment budget. We model costs across the study landscape using the My Fuel Treatment Planner software, tree list data, local mill prices, and GIS-measured site characteristics. We use fire simulations to generate burn probabilities, and estimate fire intensity as conditional flame length at each pixel. Two prioritization algorithms target treatments based on cost-effectiveness and show improvements over those

  14. Impact of Treatment Integrity on Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…

  15. IMPACT OF TREATMENT INTEGRITY ON INTERVENTION EFFECTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Fryling, Mitch J; Wallace, Michele D; Yassine, Jordan N

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity failures and the efficacy of behavioral interventions. Avenues for future research are provided.

  16. Effective treatments for social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Baeza

    2007-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), also known as Social Phobia, is now recognised as a chronicand disabling psychiatric condition. The high prevalence and clinical significance of the disease emphasize the need for early recognition and effective treatment. The main current treatment will be presented paying special attention to meta-analyses and studies, which try to differentiate types of interventions, by their efficacy.

  17. Effect of Liberalization on Institutional Agricultural Credit Flow and its Relationship with Average Cost of Cultivation in Indian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, A R; Tewari, S. K.; Shukla, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper has examined (i) the nature and extent of inter-state disparities in per hectare flow of short-term institutional credit to agriculture, and (ii) its relationship with average cost of cultivation across states. It has covered all the six regions of the country comprising seventeen agriculturally most important states having about 96 per cent agricultural land in the country. It has revealed that inter-regional disparities in per hectare flow of institutional credit as measured thro...

  18. Treatment Effect Heterogeneity in Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Angrist, Joshua D.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumental Variables (IV) methods identify internally valid causal effects for individuals whose treatment status is manipulable by the instrument at hand. Inference for other populations requires some sort of homogeneity assumption. This paper outlines a theoretical framework that nests all possible homogeneity assumptions for a causal treatment-effects model with a binary instrument. The framework suggests strategies for using IV estimates for extrapolation, while making it clear that eff...

  19. Average Range and Network Synchronizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of structural properties of a network on the network synchronizability is studied by introducing a new concept of average range of edges. For both small-world and scale-free networks, the effect of average range on the synchronizability of networks with bounded or unbounded synchronization regions is illustrated through numerical simulations. The relations between average range, range distribution, average distance, and maximum betweenness are also explored, revealing the effects of these factors on the network synchronizability of the small-world and scale-free networks, respectively. (general)

  20. Negative Effects from Psychological Treatments: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The author offers a 40-year perspective on the observation and study of negative effects from psychotherapy or psychological treatments. This perspective is placed in the context of the enormous progress in refining methodologies for psychotherapy research over that period of time, resulting in the clear demonstration of positive effects from…

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF THE WATER CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE SEBES HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN AND THE STORAGE RESERVOIRS. EFFECT ON THE AVERAGE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Iulian Ioan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the upper basin of the Sebes Valley, the oldest storage lakes have been temporary artificial lakes, called haituri in Romanian. They were created within the forest exploitation areas. Inside the dams of those retention lakes, which dams are made of a wooden skeleton, filled with soil and stones, there have been weirs for the quick discharge of the water, having the purpose of creating some flood trends, capable of carrying over the logs, downstream the lake. At present, some of those temporary artificial lakes are used as trout farms, while others are damaged, or operate as basins for the sedimentation of the alluvial deposits. The difference of level between the springs of the Sebes and the Mures Rivers generates a convertible hydroelectric potential, having an average power exceeding 60,000 kW" />

  2. Neutron resonance averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs

  3. Obesity in Family Practice: Is Treatment Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanborn, Margaret D.; Manske, Stephen R.; Schlegel, Ronald P.

    1983-01-01

    Obesity is a common condition which has important effects on health status and longevity. This review examines the efficacy of treatments for both moderate and severe obesity. A plan of treatment combining diet, exercise, and behavioral strategies is outlined. Surgery and its complications are reviewed. Eight management issues, including rate of weight loss, self-help groups, and fringe therapies, are presented. Management recommendations are based on a critical review of the weight loss lite...

  4. Redshift and redshift-drift in $\\Lambda = 0$ quasi-spherical Szekeres cosmological models and the effect of averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Since the advent of the accelerated expanding homogeneous universe model, some other explanations for the supernova Ia dimming have been explored, among which there are inhomogeneous models constructed with exact $\\Lambda = 0$ solutions of Einstein's equations. They have been used either as one patch or to build Swiss-cheese models. The most studied ones have been the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. However, these models being spatially spherical, they are not well designed to reproduce the large scale structures which exhibit clusters, filaments and non spherical voids. This is the reason why Szekeres models, which are devoid of any symmetry, have recently come into play. In this paper, we give the equations and an algorithm to compute the redshift-drift for the most general quasi-spherical Szekeres (QSS) models with no dark energy. We apply it to a QSS model recently proposed by Bolejko and Sussman (BSQSS model) who averaged their model to reproduce the density distribution of the Alexander and collab...

  5. SU-C-304-01: Investigation of Various Detector Response Functions and Their Geometry Dependence in a Novel Method to Address Ion Chamber Volume Averaging Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraclough, B; Lebron, S [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, J; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, C; Yan, G [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A novel convolution-based approach has been proposed to address ion chamber (IC) volume averaging effect (VAE) for the commissioning of commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). We investigate the use of various convolution kernels and its impact on the accuracy of beam models. Methods: Our approach simulates the VAE by iteratively convolving the calculated beam profiles with a detector response function (DRF) while optimizing the beam model. At convergence, the convolved profiles match the measured profiles, indicating the calculated profiles match the “true” beam profiles. To validate the approach, beam profiles of an Elekta LINAC were repeatedly collected with ICs of various volumes (CC04, CC13 and SNC 125) to obtain clinically acceptable beam models. The TPS-calculated profiles were convolved externally with the DRF of respective IC. The beam model parameters were reoptimized using Nelder-Mead method by forcing the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. We evaluated three types of DRFs (Gaussian, Lorentzian, and parabolic) and the impact of kernel dependence on field geometry (depth and field size). The profiles calculated with beam models were compared with SNC EDGE diode-measured profiles. Results: The method was successfully implemented with Pinnacle Scripting and Matlab. The reoptimization converged in ∼10 minutes. For all tested ICs and DRFs, penumbra widths of the TPS-calculated profiles and diode-measured profiles were within 1.0 mm. Gaussian function had the best performance with mean penumbra width difference within 0.5 mm. The use of geometry dependent DRFs showed marginal improvement, reducing the penumbra width differences to less than 0.3 mm. Significant increase in IMRT QA passing rates was achieved with the optimized beam model. Conclusion: The proposed approach significantly improved the accuracy of the TPS beam model. Gaussian functions as the convolution kernel performed consistently better than Lorentzian and

  6. Effectiveness of Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Nocturnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Arthur C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assesses overall effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments, relative effectiveness of specific treatments, and moderators of treatment effectiveness for nocturnal enuretic children via quantitative integration of research. Findings confirm that more children benefit from psychological than from pharmacological interventions and…

  7. On the average temperature of airless spherical bodies and the magnitude of Earth’s atmospheric thermal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Volokin, Den; ReLlez, Lark

    2014-01-01

    The presence of atmosphere can appreciably warm a planet’s surface above the temperature of an airless environment. Known as a natural Greenhouse Effect (GE), this near-surface Atmospheric Thermal Enhancement (ATE) as named herein is presently entirely attributed to the absorption of up-welling long-wave radiation by greenhouse gases. Often quoted as 33 K for Earth, GE is estimated as a difference between planet’s observed mean surface temperature and an effective radiating temperature calcul...

  8. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) load in serum on average daily weight gain during the postweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soria, S; Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; Calsamiglia, M; Manzanilla, E G; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Mínguez, A; Serrano, J M; Marín, O; Joisel, F; Charreyre, C; Segalés, J

    2014-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous virus that mainly affects nursery and fattening pigs causing systemic disease (PCV2-SD) or subclinical infection. A characteristic sign in both presentations is reduction of average daily weight gain (ADWG). The present study aimed to assess the relationship between PCV2 load in serum and ADWG from 3 (weaning) to 21 weeks of age (slaughter) (ADWG 3-21). Thus, three different boar lines were used to inseminate sows from two PCV2-SD affected farms. One or two pigs per sow were selected (60, 61 and 51 piglets from Pietrain, Pietrain×Large White and Duroc×Large White boar lines, respectively). Pigs were bled at 3, 9, 15 and 21 weeks of age and weighted at 3 and 21 weeks. Area under the curve of the viral load at all sampling times (AUCqPCR 3-21) was calculated for each animal according to standard and real time quantitative PCR results; this variable was categorized as "negative or low" (10(5.3)). Data regarding sex, PCV2 antibody titre at weaning and sow parity was also collected. A generalized linear model was performed, obtaining that paternal genetic line and AUCqPCR 3-21 were related to ADWG 3-21. ADWG 3-21 (mean±typical error) for "negative or low", "medium" and "high" AUCqPCR 3-21 was 672±9, 650±12 and 603±16 g/day, respectively, showing significant differences among them. This study describes different ADWG performances in 3 pig populations that suffered from different degrees of PCV2 viraemia. PMID:25448444

  9. Monitoring the effects of wastewater treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J A; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Giménez-Casalduero, F; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater disposal in coastal waters causes widespread environmental problems. Secondary treatment is expected to reduce the adverse effects of insufficiently treated wastewater. The environmental impact of sewage disposal via 18 wastewater treatment plants was analysed using the benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods (BOPA) index. In previous studies this index proved to be an effective tool for monitoring sewage pollution. The impact of these discharges was highly related to treatment level, which ranged from pre-treatment to biological, as well as to flow rates and outfall position. Locations affected by pre-treated wastewater showed environmental degradation, especially marked near outfalls with higher flow rates. At most locations, biologically treated wastewater did not cause a significant impact and an improvement in ecological integrity was detected after this secondary treatment had been implemented. The impact of discharge was highly related to chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids and nutrient concentrations, which are all lower in biologically treated wastewater. A 'moderate' ecological status was observed not only near sewage outfalls with high wastewater flow rates (>1,500,000 m(3)/month) with a COD over 200 mg/l but also near those with lower flow rates but with a COD over 400 mg/l. To reduce the impact of sewage disposal, it is necessary to carry out adequate treatment, have site outfalls deep enough, and implement water recycling. PMID:26801153

  10. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Romeo B.; Baring, Rito V.; Sta. Maria, Madelene A.

    2016-01-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relatio...

  11. Effectiveness of psychopharmacology in Anorexia Nervosa treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadka Lukasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The eating disorder that generates the highest death rate is that of anorexia nervosa, and current treatment is a combination of equalization of somatic state and patient education. Moreover, psychical symptoms occurring in the course of anorexia nervosa are thought to have a crucial influence on the course of the disease. Hence, in medical literature, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions is also widely described. Still, the implementation of appropriate psychopharmacology is now considered an additional method of treatment, rather than a therapy of choice. Yet, in spite of many years of research, there are no absolute recommendations given, nor are instructions within the scope of psychopharmacological treatment proffered, although the selection of psychopharmacological items must respect both the patient’s psychic and somatic states. In recent years, the popularity of psychopharmacological treatment has increased; therefore, we feel that it is justified to present the latest scientific information in this respect.

  12. Reading and Writing from Multiple Source Documents in History: Effects of Strategy Instruction with Low to Average High School Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Paz, Susan; Felton, Mark K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of historical reasoning strategy instruction on 11th-grade students. Students learned historical inquiry strategies using 20th Century American history topics ranging from the Spanish-American war to the Gulf of Tonkin incident. In addition, students learned a pre-writing strategy for composing argumentative essays…

  13. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lee A James

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families) was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs) was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the impor...

  14. Bad Apples, Goody Two Shoes and Average Joes: The Role of Peer Group Definitions in Estimation of Peer Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Halliday; Sally Kwak

    2007-01-01

    The potential influence of peers and social networks on individual outcomes is important to a variety of educational policy debates including school vouchers, special education, middle school grade configurations and tracking. Researchers usually address the identification problems associated with credibly estimating peer effects in these settings but often do not account for ad-hoc definitions of peer-groups. In this paper, we use extensive information on peer groups to demonstrate that accu...

  15. EFFECT OF WATER CONTENT, TEMPERATURE AND AVERAGE DROPLET SIZE ON THE SETTLING VELOCITY OF WATER-IN-OIL EMULSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. Souza; K. M. C. Santos; Cruz, A A; E. Franceschi; C. Dariva; Santos, A. F.; Santana, C C

    2015-01-01

    AbstractWater-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are complex mixtures generally found in crude oil production in reservoirs and processing equipment. Sedimentation studies of water-oil emulsions enable the analysis of the fluid dynamic behavior concerning separation of this system composed of two immiscible liquids. Gravitational settling was evaluated in this article for a model emulsion system consisting of water and a Brazilian crude oil diluted in a clear mineral oil as organic phase. The effects of ...

  16. The influence of end-effects upon gamma knife treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the influence of the end-effects upon practical gamma knife treatment. The subjects are 213 cases treated from June 1997 to June 1999. The values of the end-effects of 18, 14, 8, 4 mm diameter collimator helmets are +4.7, +4.2, +3.6, +3.5%, respectively. Those values are under an acceptable limit of ±5%. Total exposure time per patient is 75.0 minutes on the average and 13.3 shots are used on the average. This reflects well that many patients, about 70%, have brain metastases. The estimated actual end-effects for each patient is +0.9%, which is considered to be negligible when taking into account the usage rate of different collimators. This value will drop more in future as we need to prolong exposure time to deliver the same dose according to radioactive disintegration. We have to set the exposure time thinking over the end-effects at every shot. But it is necessary to cope with the present situation deliberately that bone correction and so on have not been done. The measurement of dose difference between 1 x 2 min and 2 x 1 min irradiation is one of the ways to obtain the end-effects in a short time and the results were almost the same as the ones by the least square method. (author)

  17. The effect of average cycling current on total energy of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Widanalage, W. D.; McGordon, Andrew; Jennings, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the remaining range of a battery reliably, accurately and simply is imperative for effective power management of electrified vehicles and reducing driver anxiety resulting from perceived low driving range. Techniques for predicting the remaining range of an electric vehicle exist; in the best cases they are scaled by factors that account for expected energy losses due to driving style, environmental conditions and the use of on-board energy consuming devices such as air-conditioning. In this work, experimental results that establish the dependence of remaining electrical energy on the vehicle battery immediate cycling history are presented. A method to estimate the remaining energy given short-term cycling history is presented. This method differs from the traditional state of charge methods typically used in battery management systems by considering energy throughput more directly.

  18. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A James

    2010-01-01

    This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families) was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs) was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW) Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup. PMID:20602764

  19. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A James

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  20. Twelve cases of the pectoralis major muscle tendon rupture with surgical treatment an average of 6.7-year follow-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhen-ming; AO Ying-fang; WANG Jian-quan; HU Yue-lin; YIN Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background Pectoralis major tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury leading to both functional and cosmetic deficiency. The peak torque of the pectoralis major is significantly decreased after conservational treatment of a total rupture. We suppose that surgical intervention is better choice.Methods We retrospectively evaluated 12 patients who were diagnosed with distal pectoralis major muscle rupture and underwent operation in our institute from 1993 to 2007. All patients were male with a mean age of 32 (19-54) years. In 4 patients, tendon reconstruction was accomplished by fixing the tendon to the humerus using sutures passed through predrilled humeral bone tunnels. In 8 patients, tendon reconstruction was accomplished by directly suturing the muscle to the tendon. All patients followed an accelerated rehabilitation protocol. Treatment results were evaluated according to the following criteria: (1) visual analogue pain scale, (2) isokinetic strength measurements, (3) range of motion of shoulder joint, (4) cosmetic result, and (5) postoperative sports activity performance. In this study, we aimed to describe our surgical technique of reconstruction of the rupture of pectoralis major muscle and to summarize the clinical results of the operative treatment.Results At the final follow-up examination (6.5 years postoperatively), only nine patients were available for evaluation. Three of them had excellent results, and five had good results, while one had poor results. Eight of the patients were able to return to their preinjury level of sporting activity. In summary, 89% of the patients achieved excellent or good results. Conclusion Surgical treatment by anatomic tendon repair and accelerated rehabilitation can make recovery of strength and function of the pectoralis major muscle.

  1. Average partial effects in multivariate probit models with latent heterogeneity: Monte Carlo experiments and an application to immigrants' ethnic identity and economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bruno; Orietta Dessy

    2014-01-01

    We extend the univariate results in Wooldridge (2005) to multivariate probit models, proving the following. 1) Average partial effects (APEs) based on joint probabilities are consistently estimated by conventional multivariate probit models under general forms of conditionally independent latent heterogeneity (LH) as long as the only constraints beyond normalization, if any, are within-equation homogenous restrictions. The normalization of choice is not neutral to consistency in models with c...

  2. Effect of beef heifer development system on average daily gain, reproduction, and adaptation to corn residue during first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Weber, S P; Lardner, H A; Funston, R N

    2014-06-01

    Postweaning heifer development systems were evaluated at 2 locations in a 4-yr study for their effect on performance and subsequent adaptation to grazing corn residue as a pregnant heifer. In Exp. 1, heifers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to graze winter range (WR) or graze winter range and corn residue (CR). In Exp. 2, heifers were assigned to graze winter range and corn residue (CR) or graze winter range and placed in a drylot (DL). Artificial insemination and natural mating were used at breeding on the basis of location. In Exp. 1, heifers developed on corn residue tended (P = 0.11) to have reduced ADG compared with WR heifers. Subsequently, BW at the end of the 82-d corn residue grazing period tended (P = 0.09) to be lower for CR compared with WR heifers. However, the proportion of heifers attaining puberty before the breeding season and pregnancy rates were similar (P ≥ 0.29) for CR and WR heifers. Developing heifers on winter range tended (P = 0.09) to reduce heifer development costs $36/pregnant heifer compared with CR heifers. In Exp. 2, DL heifers had greater (P heifers, resulting in greater (P heifers compared with CR heifers (355 vs. 322 ± 9 kg). At pregnancy diagnosis BW remained greater (P = 0.02) for DL compared with CR heifers (423 vs. 406 ± 7 kg). Corn-residue-developed heifers had increased (P = 0.03) AI conception rates compared with DL heifers (78% vs. 67% ± 6%). However, there was no difference (P ≥ 0.21) in percent pubertal before the breeding season or final pregnancy rates for CR and DL heifers. Developing heifers on corn residue reduced (P = 0.02) heifer development costs $38/pregnant heifer compared with DL-developed heifers. A subset of pregnant heifers from both experiments grazed corn residue fields in late gestation. As pregnant heifers grazing corn residue, WR heifers (Exp. 1) tended to have reduced ADG compared with CR heifers (0.34 vs. 0.43 ± 0.08 kg/d, P = 0.07). Furthermore, in Exp. 2 CR heifers had greater (0

  3. Average-energy games

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyer, Patricia; Markey, Nicolas; Randour, Mickael; Larsen, Kim G.; Laursen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this ...

  4. Determination of the average residence time in an anaerobic digester of Barueri wastewater treatment by using radioactive tracer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas production in the Barueri Wastewater Treatment Plant digesters shows lower values than projected. This fact conducted to the hypothesis that there could be dead zones caused by homogenization deficiencies. In order to verify this hypothesis a full scale essay was conducted with Iodine - 131 as tracer. A Mutual Cooperation Agreement was signed between the Sao Paulo Basic Sanitation Company (SABESP) and the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) to conduct these essays. The results showed that the active volume was almost 88% of the nominal capacity. (author)

  5. Effectiveness of Acupuncture Treatment in Cervical Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ríos García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study is performed, longitudinal, prospective, descriptive in patients who attended the consultation of The Health Center With Beds (CSCC of Torbeck, in the Southern Department of Haiti, in order to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment in patients with cervical pain, in the period between January and June 2011. We studied a universe of 73 patients and a sample of 60 patients, from these persons 30 used drug therapy (Group B and 30 patients which used acupuncture (Group A. We note that in both groups, the females were the most affected, with a prevalence between 31 and 60. The main symptom for both groups was pain (100%. Patients who were administered the acupuncture successfully evolved between the second and fourth days of starting treatment and patients in group B between 5 and 6 days. Acupuncture is an effective therapy in the management of neck pain, with few adverse reactions of the patient and drug zero cost.

  6. Female urinary incontinence: effective treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R A; Arruda, R M; Bortolini, M A T

    2015-04-01

    Urinary incontinence is a dysfunction that tremendously affects women's quality of life, involving social, emotional and economic aspects. Although various treatments for urinary incontinence have been described, it is important to know which of them are truly effective. This review seeks to determine the current available therapies for women with stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome, based on the best scientific evidence. PMID:25307986

  7. Effectiveness of psychopharmacology in Anorexia Nervosa treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zadka Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    The eating disorder that generates the highest death rate is that of anorexia nervosa, and current treatment is a combination of equalization of somatic state and patient education. Moreover, psychical symptoms occurring in the course of anorexia nervosa are thought to have a crucial influence on the course of the disease. Hence, in medical literature, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions is also widely described. Still, the implementation of appropriate psychopharmacology is ...

  8. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... natural approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  9. Average Angular Velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Essen, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to th...

  10. On the Averaging Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Fibich, Gadi; Gavious, Arieh; Solan, Eilon

    2012-01-01

    Typically, models with a heterogeneous property are considerably harder to analyze than the corresponding homogeneous models, in which the heterogeneous property is replaced with its average value. In this study we show that any outcome of a heterogeneous model that satisfies the two properties of differentiability and interchangibility is O(\\epsilon^2) equivalent to the outcome of the corresponding homogeneous model, where \\epsilon is the level of heterogeneity. We then use this averaging pr...

  11. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... natural approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  12. Averaged extreme regression quantile

    OpenAIRE

    Jureckova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Various events in the nature, economics and in other areas force us to combine the study of extremes with regression and other methods. A useful tool for reducing the role of nuisance regression, while we are interested in the shape or tails of the basic distribution, is provided by the averaged regression quantile and namely by the average extreme regression quantile. Both are weighted means of regression quantile components, with weights depending on the regressors. Our primary interest is ...

  13. The Effect of System and Amplifier Parameters on the Performance of Average Soliton Transmission System Using PSA as In-Line Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong-rong; YANG Ai-xia; QIAN Sheng; LI Yue-hui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of system and amplifier parameters on the performance of soliton transmission system using Phase Sensitive Amplifier (PSA) as in-line amplifier has been researched theoretically by computer simulation.Since in PSA soliton system the performance of average soliton regime is much better than that of dynamic soliton regime,in our simulation we only considered average soliton regime. Our simulation results show that although using PSA as inline amplifiers in soliton system can not only overcome Gordon-Haus restriction but also suppress solitons interaction,lengthen soliton stable transmission distance significantly, the system and amplifier parameters have to be chosen carefully in order to get a better system performance.

  14. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Sheila

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with a variety of different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient\\'s lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis this process is considerably accelerated to approximately 4 days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be triggers. Disease management depends on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient\\'s lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis.

  15. Identification of treatment effects on the treated with one-sided non-compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, Markus; Melly, Blaise

    2008-01-01

    Traditional instrumental variable estimators do not generally estimate effects for the treated population but for the unobserved population of compliers. They do identify effects for the treated when there is one-sided perfect non-compliance. However, this property is lost when covariates are included in the model. In this case, we show that the effects for the treated are still identified but require modified estimators. We consider both average and quantile treatment effects and allow the i...

  16. Taking a New Look at Empirical Models of Adoption: Average Treatment Effect Estimation of Adoption Rates and their Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, Aliou

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows that the observed sample adoption rate does not consistently estimate the population adoption rate even if the sample is random. It is proved that instead the sample adoption rate is a consistent estimate of the population joint exposure and adoption rate, which does not inform about adoption per se. Likewise, it is shown that a model of adoption with observed adoption outcome as dependent variable and where exposure to the technology is not observed and controlled for cannot...

  17. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R Kilburn

    Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.

  18. PROBIOTIC: AS EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Neha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic are defined as live organisms, which confer benefits to the host. Their efficiency was demonstrated for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections, and allergic symptoms, but their use is mostly limited to bacterial and viral diseases. During the last decade, probiotic as means for the control of parasite infections were reported covering mainly intestinal diseases but also some nongut infections that are all of human and veterinary importance. In most cases, evidence for a beneficial effect was obtained by studies using animal models. In a few cases, cellular interactions between probiotic and pathogens or relevant host cells were also investigated using in vitro culture systems. WHO have given special guidelines for probiotic. Bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy in the prevention and treatment of a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gastrointestinal disorders, such as colonic transit disorders, intestinal infections, and colonic adenomas and cancer.

  19. Average Angular Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Essén, H

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.

  20. On sparsity averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in Carrillo et al. (2012) and Carrillo et al. (2013) introduced a novel regularization method for compressive imaging in the context of compressed sensing with coherent redundant dictionaries. The approach relies on the observation that natural images exhibit strong average sparsity over multiple coherent frames. The associated reconstruction algorithm, based on an analysis prior and a reweighted $\\ell_1$ scheme, is dubbed Sparsity Averaging Reweighted Analysis (SARA). We review these advances and extend associated simulations establishing the superiority of SARA to regularization methods based on sparsity in a single frame, for a generic spread spectrum acquisition and for a Fourier acquisition of particular interest in radio astronomy.

  1. CNS effects following the treatment of malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rane, N., E-mail: rane@cantab.net [Department of Neuroradiology, The West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom); Quaghebeur, G. [Department of Neuroradiology, The West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Corporeal and central nervous system (CNS) axis chemotherapy and radiotherapy have long been used for the effective treatment and prophylaxis of CNS, body malignancies, and leukaemias. However, they are not without their problems. Following the proliferation of magnetic resonance neuroimaging in recent years it has become clear that the spectrum of toxicity that these therapies produce ranges from subclinical white matter changes to overt brain necrosis. The effects are both direct and indirect and via different pathological mechanisms. Chronic and progressive changes can be detected many years after the initial intervention. In addition to leucoencephalopathic changes, grey matter changes are now well described. Changes may be difficult to distinguish from tumour recurrence, though may be reversible and remediable, and are thus very important to differentiate. In this review toxic effects are classified and their imaging appearances discussed, with reference to specific syndromes.

  2. 基于平均能流密度的趋肤效应诠释%Study on the Skin Effect Based on the Average Energy Flow Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘细阳; 马伏花; 陈羡美

    2014-01-01

    The essence of the skin effect is a kind of propagation behavior of electromagnetic wave.The explanation about the skin effect in the existing teaching materials is only based on the skin depth.In this paper,through the analysis of the reflection wave and transmission wave formed when the electromagnetic wave is passing different media interface,the expressions of the electromagnetic field and the average energy flow density are given for two kinds of medium.According to different conductivity of the medium,the cal-culating formula of corresponding average energy flow density is derived,and the nature of the skin effect of the average energy flow density is explained.%趋肤效应的实质是一种电磁波的传播行为。一般研究仅从趋肤深度的角度理解趋肤效应。通过分析电磁波经过不同媒质界面时会形成的反射波和透射波,给出了两种媒质中的电磁场表达式及平均能流密度的表达式。根据媒质电导率的不同,推导出相应的平均能流密度的计算公式,从平均能流密度的角度,诠释了趋肤效应的本质。

  3. Treatment conditions and biochemical processes influencing seed priming effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Girolamo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the scientific literature indicates osmotic priming (osmopriming as the principal method of seed priming and polyethylene glycol (PEG as the principal osmotic agent. An analysis of the available data across experiments carried out with different species under varying conditions showed an average 11% increase in percent germination and 36% shorter mean germination time (MGT in primed vs. unprimed seeds. Moreover, in primed seeds MGT was less dependent on temperature, which is consistent with the effects expected from the treatment. Priming effects are mainly influenced by osmotic potential, temperature and time; major biochemical processes (repair of damaged DNA and RNA, preparation for cell division and increased antioxidant activity are involved in treatment effects to an extent which is not fully ascertained in literature. A reduction of seed storage life is the major disadvantage of priming and the principal constraint to its diffusion, since dehydration to the initial moisture (drying-back is needed to allow seed storage. Seed behaviour during drying-back, the role of the raffinose family oligosaccharides in cell membrane integrity and the expression of antioxidant enzymes in germinating seeds need to be further elucidated in a sufficient number of species, to promote a more reliable use of this technique.

  4. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong to...

  5. Determination of x-ray to alpha ratio and average effective energy required in interpretation of x-ray counting data for internally deposited plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of plutonium in the lungs, several corrections must be made to X-ray counting data obtained from direct measurement of a person inhaled plutonium aerosol. X/α ratio varying with isotopic composition is one of the important correction factors required in interpretation of the counting data. This paper describes a method of determination of X/α ratio of plutonium, using X-ray - alpha coincidence counter consisted of a proportional counter and a thin NaI-detector, and also describes an empirical method for estimating average effective energy of plutonium which has different isotopic composition. (author)

  6. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  7. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a number of organizational memberships, (b number of social networking sites (SNS, and (c grade-point average (GPA on global social responsibility (GSR; and in the indirect effects of (a and of (b through (c on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  8. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito V; Sta Maria, Madelene A

    2016-02-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students. PMID:27247700

  9. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B.; Baring, Rito V.; Sta. Maria, Madelene A.

    2016-01-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  10. Covariant approximation averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  11. The averaging principle

    OpenAIRE

    Fibich, Gadi; Gavious, Arieh; Solan, Eilon

    2012-01-01

    Typically, models with a heterogeneous property are considerably harder to analyze than the corresponding homogeneous models, in which the heterogeneous property is replaced with its average value. In this study we show that any outcome of a heterogeneous model that satisfies the two properties of \\emph{differentiability} and \\emph{interchangibility}, is $O(\\epsilon^2)$ equivalent to the outcome of the corresponding homogeneous model, where $\\epsilon$ is the level of heterogeneity. We then us...

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography: The effect of average heart rate, heart rate variability, and calcium score in a clinical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA) has been used to detect coronary artery disease; however, the factors with potential to affect its diagnostic accuracy remain to be defined. Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of dual-source CTCA in diagnosing coronary artery stenosis according to conventional coronary angiography (CAG), and the effect of average heart rate, heart rate variability, and calcium score on the accuracy of CTCA. Material and Methods: A total of 113 patients underwent both dual-source CTCA and CAG. The results were used to evaluate the findings in dual-source CTCA to assess the accuracy in the diagnosis of =50% (significant stenosis) and >75% (severe stenosis) of coronary artery according to those by CAG. Patients were divided into subgroups according to their heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and calcium score, and the accuracy of CTCA was further evaluated. The chi-square test was used to analyze the difference in sensitivity and specificity for the detection of =50% and >75% coronary stenosis among subgroups. The generalized estimation equation method was used in per-vessel analysis to adjust for within-patient correlation. Results: In all, 113 patients had 338 vessels and 1661 segments evaluated by CAG. Dual-source CTCA displayed 1527 segments (91.9%). Among them, 1468 segments (calcium score by CAG score 1, n=1018; score 2, n=270; score 3, n=180) were assessable in CTCA. On a per-patient analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of CTCA were 93.9% and 93.5% for significant stenosis and 86.9% and 98.1% for severe stenosis. On a per-vessel basis, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2% and 97.1% for significant and 83.3% and 98.1% for severe stenosis. On a per-segment analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2% and 97.1% for significant and 83.3% and 98.1% for severe stenosis. Average HR had no effect on the sensitivity and specificity of CTCA (P>0.05); whereas HRV and calcium score had some effect on

  13. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  14. Robust Averaging Level Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rosander, Peter; Isaksson, Alf; Löfberg, Johan; Forsman, Krister

    2011-01-01

    Frequent inlet flow changes typically cause problems for averaging level controllers. For a frequently changing inlet flow the upsets do not occur when the system is in steady state and the tank level at its set-point. For this reason the tuning of the level controller gets quite complicated, since not only the size of the upsets but also the time in between them relative to the hold up of the tank have to be considered. One way to obtain optimal flow filtering while directly accounting for futur...

  15. A randomization-based perspective of analysis of variance: a test statistic robust to treatment effect heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Peng; Dasgupta, Tirthankar

    2016-01-01

    Fisher randomization tests for Neyman's null hypothesis of no average treatment effects are considered in a finite population setting associated with completely randomized experiments with more than two treatments. The consequences of using the F statistic to conduct such a test are examined both theoretically and computationally, and it is argued that under treatment effect heterogeneity, use of the F statistic can severely inflate the type I error of the Fisher randomization test. An altern...

  16. [Effectiveness of dietetic treatment in nephrotic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja Fernández, A; López Gómez, J J; Vidal Casariego, A; Cano Rodríguez, I; Ballesteros Pomar, M D

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a male patient suffering from a primary amyloidosis and a nephrotic syndrome who came to dietotherapy clinic. In the first visit we made a nutritional record including an anthropometric evaluation, body composition, biochemistry, and food intake. The patient had an excess of body water, proteinuria, low plasma protein, albumin, prealbumin and HDL cholesterol levels, and high concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides. The consumption of protein and sodium was higher than the recommendation. An individualized diet was made. Six months later, his weight and the excess of body water decreased, but the fat free mass remained unchanged. The levels of albumin and prealbumin increased, the proteinuria decreased. Total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides decreased until normal levels. Dietetary treatment in nephrotic syndrome is effective to decrease proteinuria, improve cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and to prevent malnutrition. PMID:20049380

  17. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  18. The effect of wind shielding and pen position on the average daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of grower/finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan B.; Toft, Nils; Cornou, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are known to be particularly sensitive to heat and cold. If the temperature becomes too low, the pigs will grow less efficiently and be more susceptible to diseases such as pneumonia. If the temperature is too high, the pigs will tend to foul the pen, leading to additional risks of infection....... Furthermore, unpublished data show that the temperature within a single section of grower/finisher pigs can vary considerably from pen to pen, and previous studies have shown that pigs can be significantly affected by wind, even when not directly exposed to it. To address this latter concern, some pig...... of the effects of wind shielding, linear mixed models were fitted to describe the average daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of 1271 groups (14 individuals per group) of purebred Duroc, Yorkshire and Danish Landrace boars, as a function of shielding (yes/no), insert season (winter, spring...

  19. Effects of a dressed quark-gluon vertex in vector heavy-light mesons and theory average of the Bc* meson mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rocha, M.; Hilger, T.; Krassnigg, A.

    2016-04-01

    We extend earlier investigations of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons to the vector case, using a simple model in the context of the Dyson-Schwinger-Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the effects of a dressed quark-gluon vertex in a systematic fashion and illustrate and attempt to quantify corrections beyond the phenomenologically very useful and successful rainbow-ladder truncation. In particular we investigate the dressed quark-photon vertex in such a setup and make a prediction for the experimentally as yet unknown mass of the Bc* , which we obtain at 6.334 GeV well in line with predictions from other approaches. Furthermore, we combine a comprehensive set of results from the theoretical literature. The theoretical average for the mass of the Bc* meson is 6.336 ±0.002 GeV .

  20. Average nuclear surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of the nuclear surface energy is discussed for semi-infinite matter. This definition is extended also for the case that there is a neutron gas instead of vacuum on the one side of the plane surface. The calculations were performed with the Thomas-Fermi Model of Syler and Blanchard. The parameters of the interaction of this model were determined by a least squares fit to experimental masses. The quality of this fit is discussed with respect to nuclear masses and density distributions. The average surface properties were calculated for different particle asymmetry of the nucleon-matter ranging from symmetry beyond the neutron-drip line until the system no longer can maintain the surface boundary and becomes homogeneous. The results of the calculations are incorporated in the nuclear Droplet Model which then was fitted to experimental masses. (orig.)

  1. Effective Treatments of Atrophic Acne Scars

    OpenAIRE

    Gozali, Maya Valeska; ZHOU, BINGRONG

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic scarring is often an unfortunate and permanent complication of acne vulgaris. It has high prevalence, significant impact on quality of life, and therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. The treatment of atrophic acne scars varies depending on the types of acne scars and the limitations of the treatment modalities in their ability to improve scars. Therefore, many options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, laser treatment, punc...

  2. Non-adiabatic effects within a single thermally-averaged potential energy surface: Thermal expansion and reaction rates of small molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, J L; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Echenique, P; Mazo, J J; Polo, V; Rubio, A; Zueco, D

    2012-01-01

    At non-zero temperature and when a system has low-lying excited electronic states, the ground-state Born--Oppenheimer approximation breaks down and the low-lying electronic states are involved in any chemical process. In this work, we use a temperature-dependent effective potential for the nuclei which can accomodate the influence of an arbitrary number of electronic states in a simple way, while at the same time producing the correct Boltzmann equibrium distribution for the electronic part. With the help of this effective potential, we show that thermally-activated low-lying electronic states can have a significant effect in molecular properties for which electronic excitations are oftentimes ignored. We study the thermal expansion of the Manganese dimer, Mn$_2$, where we find that the average bond length experiences a change larger than the present experimental accuracy upon the inclusion of the excited states into the picture. We also show that, when these states are taken into account, reaction rate const...

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Cu-Zn Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Tao; Zhang Hailong; Xiao Nianxin; Zhao Xiangling

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure of Cu-Zn alloy with different heat treatment conditions in 3.5% NaCl + NH3 solution were observed, and the average corrosion rates and electrochemical data of Cu-Zn alloy were measured, as well as the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and corrosion resistance of Cu-Zn alloy was analyzed. The results show that the microstructure of Cu-Zn alloy has been changed due to the heat treatment. As a results, the better corrosion resistance can be obtained for the Cu-Zn alloy quenched from 900℃ for 0.5h followed by tempered at 100℃ for 2h.

  4. Instrumental variable estimation of treatment effects for duration outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we propose and implement an instrumental variable estimation procedure to obtain treatment effects on duration outcomes. The method can handle the typical complications that arise with duration data of time-varying treatment and censoring. The treatment effect we defi

  5. Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to discuss and compile methods and results of irradiation experiments carried out on 54 plant and animal foodstuffs in order to obtain a survey on chemical changes, in particular as regards the reduction of nutritional value and savoriness of irradiated foodstuffs. According to this task, microbiological aspects as well as an interpretation of the experimental results as to the physiology of nutrition and toxicology were not included. The results published by the authors of the original papers were compiled in a kind of dictionary which contains all relevant information such as radiation sources, irradiation conditions, investigation methods, results of chemical or organoleptical changes etc. The most important results were summarized in tables and can be found at the end of this study. Because of the abundance of existing literature the series 'Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs' will be continued in Part IV, and the final discussion of the results will be published separately after further data have been included. (orig.)

  6. The Effect of Minimum Wage on Average Wage and Employment%最低工资对中国就业和工资水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马双; 张劼; 朱喜

    2012-01-01

    本文以1998--2007年全国各市(地区、自治州、盟)最低工资标准随时间变化的外生差异来识别最低工资上涨与企业平均工资、企业雇佣人数的关系。利用1998—2007年规模以上制造业企业报表数据进行的分析显示,最低工资每上涨10%,制造业企业平均工资将整体上涨0.4%-0.5%。借助2006--2007年福建省最低工资上涨的“准自然实验”本文也证实了该结论。对于不同行业、不同入均资本水平的企业,最低工资上涨的影响也存在异质性。最低工资将更多地增加劳动密集型或人均资本较低企业的平均工资。研究还发现,最低工资每增加10%,制造业企业雇佣人数将显著减少0.6%左右。政府在制定最低工资时应权衡其在收入分配上的积极效果以及其对就业的负面影响。%This paper evaluates the relationship among minimum wage, average wage and employment in Chinese manufacturing firms based on the exogenous variation of city-level minimum wages from 1998--2007. It is found that if the minimum wages increase by 10% , then the average wages in firms would pick up by 0.4% --0.5% , though there are some heterogeneity in the effect of minimum wage on various firms in different industries and asset per capita levels. The minimum wage policy would contribute more to the average wages hikes of labor intensive firms or firms with lower asset per capita than to other firms. With regard to the employment, it is shown that every raise of minimum wage by 10% would lead to significant employment loss by 0. 6% or so. The policy makers should balance the positive effect of minimum wage on the income distribution and its negative effect on the employment as far as the labor regulation is concerned.

  7. Nilotinib Effective and Safe in Initial Treatment of CML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results from a phase III trial testing nilotinib (Tasigna) against imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) as first-line treatment for chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) indicate that nilotinib is effective and safe as initial treatment for

  8. The treatment of resonance interference effects in the subgroup method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → In this paper, we propose to first remedy the inaccurate treatment of the interference effect between resonance isotopes in conventional subgroup method. → In our work we use group averaged cross section instead of resonance integrals in the objective function for generating subgroup weights. This is much more effective since group average cross sections are the parameters which will be used in transport calculation. We have shown that the subgroup group weights generated with this method improves the accuracy of the resonance integration. → We solved the least squares optimization problem with the penalty method for constraints. The Krylov subspace method, CGNR, was found to be very efficient method for solving this type of optimization problem. → In addition to U-238, which was used as resonance isotope in previous work on lambda factors, U-235 was also treated as a resonance isotope in the lambda calculation developed here. This improves the accuracy of the subgroup method since we are able to provide lambdas for the groups in which U-238 has no significant resonance. - Abstract: This paper describes the development of a method to treat resonance interference effects within the framework of the subgroup method. The new procedure provides for the treatment of multiple resonance absorbers in which the subgroup weights are determined using a least squares technique and based on the cross sections generated from a mixture of multiple resonance isotopes and a suitably wide range of background cross sections. The method was implemented in the Method of Characteristics code DeCART and validated using MCNP. In order to implement the new method, the NJOY code was used for the calculation of neutron spectra and resonance parameters in for each representative LWR mixture. The resonance parameters, lambda, of the scattering isotopes are computed not just with U-238 as the resonance isotope as in previous applications of the subgroup method

  9. The treatment of resonance interference effects in the subgroup method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Zhenjia [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Xu Yunlin [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Downar, Thomas J., E-mail: downar@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > In this paper, we propose to first remedy the inaccurate treatment of the interference effect between resonance isotopes in conventional subgroup method. > In our work we use group averaged cross section instead of resonance integrals in the objective function for generating subgroup weights. This is much more effective since group average cross sections are the parameters which will be used in transport calculation. We have shown that the subgroup group weights generated with this method improves the accuracy of the resonance integration. > We solved the least squares optimization problem with the penalty method for constraints. The Krylov subspace method, CGNR, was found to be very efficient method for solving this type of optimization problem. > In addition to U-238, which was used as resonance isotope in previous work on lambda factors, U-235 was also treated as a resonance isotope in the lambda calculation developed here. This improves the accuracy of the subgroup method since we are able to provide lambdas for the groups in which U-238 has no significant resonance. - Abstract: This paper describes the development of a method to treat resonance interference effects within the framework of the subgroup method. The new procedure provides for the treatment of multiple resonance absorbers in which the subgroup weights are determined using a least squares technique and based on the cross sections generated from a mixture of multiple resonance isotopes and a suitably wide range of background cross sections. The method was implemented in the Method of Characteristics code DeCART and validated using MCNP. In order to implement the new method, the NJOY code was used for the calculation of neutron spectra and resonance parameters in for each representative LWR mixture. The resonance parameters, lambda, of the scattering isotopes are computed not just with U-238 as the resonance isotope as in previous applications of the subgroup method, but also

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder: The development of effective psychological treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has only relatively recently been introduced into the diagnostic classification of mental disorders. Building on advances in the treatment of other anxiety disorders, a range of effective psychological treatments for PTSD has been developed. The most effective of these treatments focus on the patient’s memory for the traumatic event and its meaning. This paper briefly reviews the currently available evidence for these treatments. It then illustrates the pr...

  11. Effect of the averaging volume and algorithm on the in situ electric field for uniform electric- and magnetic-field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study quantified the volume-averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissues of anatomically based numeric Japanese male and female models for exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. A quasi-static finite-difference time-domain method was applied to analyze this problem. The motivation of our investigation is that the dependence of the electric field induced in nerve tissue on the averaging volume/distance is not clear, while a cubical volume of 5 x 5 x 5 mm3 or a straight-line segment of 5 mm is suggested in some documents. The influence of non-nerve tissue surrounding nerve tissue is also discussed by considering three algorithms for calculating the averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissue. The computational results obtained herein reveal that the volume-averaged electric field in the nerve tissue decreases with the averaging volume. In addition, the 99th percentile value of the volume-averaged in situ electric field in nerve tissue is more stable than that of the maximal value for different averaging volume. When including non-nerve tissue surrounding nerve tissue in the averaging volume, the resultant in situ electric fields were not so dependent on the averaging volume as compared to the case excluding non-nerve tissue. In situ electric fields averaged over a distance of 5 mm were comparable or larger than that for a 5 x 5 x 5 mm3 cube depending on the algorithm, nerve tissue considered and exposure scenarios. (note)

  12. The Negative Effect of School-Average Ability on Science Self-Concept in the UK, the UK Countries and the World: The Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect for PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the relation between students' achievement (ACH) and their academic self-concept (ASC) has consistently shown a Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect (BFLPE); ASC is positively affected by individual ACH, but negatively affected by school-average ACH. Surprisingly, however, there are few good UK studies of the BFLPE and few anywhere in the world…

  13. Estimation of radionuclides concentration and average annual committed effective dose due to ingestion for some selected medicinal plants of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandrashekara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight medicinal plants and soil samples from the Malnad area of Karnataka in South India (N 13°29′35.4″; E 75°18′02.4″ were analysed for activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The average annual committed effective dose (AACED due to the ingestion of radionuclides from medicinal plants were also estimated. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, and 40K were found to vary in the range of 32.27–60.12 Bqkg−1, 56.09–160.56 Bqkg−1, 49.61–98.46 Bqkg−1, and 241.57–712.85 Bqkg−1, respectively, in the soil samples and 2.66–11.27 Bqkg−1, BDL to 87.03 Bqkg−1, 2.42–8.72 Bqkg−1, and 93.79–6831.40 Bqkg−1, respectively, in the medicinal plants corresponding to the soil samples. The activity concentration of artificially produced radionuclide 137Cs was BDL to 12.34 Bqkg−1 in the soil and it was below detectable level (BDL in all the plant samples. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF varied from 0.07 to 0.27, BDL to 0.80, 0.04 to 0.13 and 0.17 to 23.80, respectively, for 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, and 40K. The AACED due to the ingestion of radionuclides from the medicinal plants varied from 0.0075 to 0.1067 mSvy−1. The AACED values reported in this study are much below the world average value of 0.30 mSvy−1 for an individual. This indicates that there is no radiological health risk in using these plants for medicinal purposes. This study may also contribute data on local medicinal plants to formulate regulations related to radiological healthcare.

  14. Steroid Treatments Equally Effective Against Sudden Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Services Search the NIH Website NIH Employee Intranet Staff Directory En Español Site Menu Home Health ... with sudden deafness should discuss the risks and benefits of both treatments with their doctor.” Related Links ...

  15. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT treatment in the epithermal neutron beam at THOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as equivalent doses of several organs of an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom according to the definition of ICRP Publication 60 for BNCT treatments of brain tumors in the epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used for the calculation of the average absorbed dose of each organ. The effective doses for a typical brain tumor treatment with a tumor treatment dose of 20 Gy-eq were evaluated to be 0.59 and 0.35 Sv for the LLAT and TOP irradiation geometries, respectively. In addition to the stochastic effect, it was found that it is also likely to produce deterministic effects, such as cataracts and depression of haematopoiesis.

  16. Virtual Averaging Making Nonframe-Averaged Optical Coherence Tomography Images Comparable to Frame-Averaged Images

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Developing a novel image enhancement method so that nonframe-averaged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images become comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Methods Twenty-one eyes of 21 healthy volunteers were scanned with noneye-tracking nonframe-averaged OCT device and active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT device. Virtual averaging was applied to nonframe-averaged images with voxel resampling and adding amplitude deviation with 15-time repetitions. Signal-to...

  17. Early onset of treatment effects with oral risperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naber Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dogma of a delayed onset of antipsychotic treatment effects has been maintained over the past decades. However, recent studies have challenged this concept. We therefore performed an analysis of the onset of antipsychotic treatment effects in a sample of acutely decompensated patients with schizophrenia. Methods In this observational study, 48 inpatients with acutely decompensated schizophrenia were offered antipsychotic treatment with oral risperidone. PANSS-ratings were obtained on day 0, day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 14. Results Significant effects of treatment were already present on day 1 and continued throughout the study. The PANSS positive subscore and the PANSS total score improved significantly more than the PANSS negative subscore. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the growing number of studies suggesting an early onset of antipsychotic treatment effects. However, non-pharmacological effects of treatment also need to be taken into consideration.

  18. Effect of particle size on the average heat-transfer rate from a cylinder in a liquid-penetrated granular bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, V. V.; Rzaev, A. I.

    1992-08-01

    Experimental results on the average heat transfer from a cylinder in a liquid-penetrated granular bed are presented and the dependence of the heat transfer rate on the particle size in the bed is found.

  19. Steady and Unsteady Flow Effects of Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment in a Transonic Compressor Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill

    2011-01-01

    The current paper reports on an investigation of steady and unsteady flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment in a transonic compressor rotor. Circumferential grooves casing treatment is used mainly to increase stall margin in axial compressors with a relatively small decrease in aerodynamic efficiency. It is widely believed that flow mechanisms of circumferential grooves casing treatment near stall conditions are not yet well understood even though this treatment has been used widely in real engines. Numerical analysis based on steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) has been the primary tool used to understand flow mechanism for circumferential grooves casing treatment. Although steady RANS explains some flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment, it does not calculate all the measured changes in the compressor characteristics. Therefore, design optimization of circumferential grooves with steady RANS has not been very successful. As a compressor operates toward the stall condition, the flow field becomes transient. Major sources of self-generated flow unsteadiness are shock oscillation and interaction between the passage shock and the tip leakage vortex. In the present paper, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is applied to study the effects of circumferential grooves in a transonic compressor. The results from URANS are compared with the results from RANS and measured data. The current investigation shows that there are significant unsteady flow effects on the performance of the circumferential grooves casing treatment. For the currently investigated rotor, the unsteady effects are of the same magnitude as the steady effects in terms of extending the compressor stall margin.

  20. Cost Effectiveness of Treatments for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Ginsberg; Serena Lowe

    2002-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a difficult to diagnose, fatal, progressive degenerative disease with an average survival time of 2 to 5 years. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy (PEG) and bi-level intermittent positive pressure (BIPAP) ventilation may be the major interventions leading to longer survival of patients with ALS. Riluzole has been shown to have modest effects on survival (as opposed to functional) gains and is currently the only drug approved for the treatment of ALS. The...

  1. Assessment of the effects of CT dose in averaged x-ray CT images of a dose-sensitive polymer gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signal-to-noise ratio achievable in x-ray computed tomography (CT) images of polymer gels can be increased by averaging over multiple scans of each sample. However, repeated scanning delivers a small additional dose to the gel which may compromise the accuracy of the dose measurement. In this study, a NIPAM-based polymer gel was irradiated and then CT scanned 25 times, with the resulting data used to derive an averaged image and a ''zero-scan'' image of the gel. Comparison between these two results and the first scan of the gel showed that the averaged and zero-scan images provided better contrast, higher contrast-to- noise and higher signal-to-noise than the initial scan. The pixel values (Hounsfield units, HU) in the averaged image were not noticeably elevated, compared to the zero-scan result and the gradients used in the linear extrapolation of the zero-scan images were small and symmetrically distributed around zero. These results indicate that the averaged image was not artificially lightened by the small, additional dose delivered during CT scanning. This work demonstrates the broader usefulness of the zero-scan method as a means to verify the dosimetric accuracy of gel images derived from averaged x-ray CT data

  2. Making and breaking the sediment record - characterising effects of tsunamis, storms and average conditions on dune erosion and recovery: a forward modelling exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelvink, Dano; Costas, Susana

    2015-04-01

    Geological records contain a wealth of information about accretionary episodes in the life of a coastal profile, such as age and type of the deposits and circumstances during which the accretion took place; of erosional events mainly the final limit of the erosion and circumstances under which the erosion took place can be estimated. To obtain a more complete picture of the events shaping the sedimentary record and transport processes involved, process-based modelling can be a useful tool (e.g. Apotsos et al., 2011). However, application of such modelling to different types of events remains a challenge. In our presentation we intend to show examples of the effects of different events on the stratigraphic record and to discuss the challenges related to the modelling of each of these types of events. The test site chosen is the Costa da Caparica, south of Lisbon, Portugal. The stratigraphic record and progradation rates of the coastal were obtained combining geophysical (Ground Penetrating Radar) and dating (Optically Stimulating Luminescence) techniques, which document very recent ages for the preserved coastal barrier. Within the record, we focus on a period around the big tsunami of 1755, during which the shoreline experienced a long-term prograding trend with evidence of severe erosion events. Rather than trying to exactly reproduce the stratigraphy observed here, we will carry out exploratory simulations to create 'building blocks' of stratigraphy related to the different types of events, which we can loosely compare with observations reported in Rebelo et al. (2013). The model applied for all simulations is XBeach (Roelvink et al., 2009), which is used in three different modes (no short waves, time-varying wave action balance, stationary wave action balance, respectively) to accommodate the impact of tsunamis, storms, and average conditions; for the latter we include the dune and associated processes in a simplified aeolian transport and response model. In all

  3. PET imaging of thin objects: measuring the effects of positron range and partial-volume averaging in the leag of Nicotiana Tabacum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexoff, D.L.; Alexoff, D.L.; Dewey, S.L.; Vaska, P.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Ferrieri, R.; Schueller, M.; Schlyer, D.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-03-01

    PET imaging in plants is receiving increased interest as a new strategy to measure plant responses to environmental stimuli and as a tool for phenotyping genetically engineered plants. PET imaging in plants, however, poses new challenges. In particular, the leaves of most plants are so thin that a large fraction of positrons emitted from PET isotopes ({sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N) escape while even state-of-the-art PET cameras have significant partial-volume errors for such thin objects. Although these limitations are acknowledged by researchers, little data have been published on them. Here we measured the magnitude and distribution of escaping positrons from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum for the radionuclides {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N using a commercial small-animal PET scanner. Imaging results were compared to radionuclide concentrations measured from dissection and counting and to a Monte Carlo simulation using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Simulated and experimentally determined escape fractions were consistent. The fractions of positrons (mean {+-} S.D.) escaping the leaf parenchyma were measured to be 59 {+-} 1.1%, 64 {+-} 4.4% and 67 {+-} 1.9% for {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N, respectively. Escape fractions were lower in thicker leaf areas like the midrib. Partial-volume averaging underestimated activity concentrations in the leaf blade by a factor of 10 to 15. The foregoing effects combine to yield PET images whose contrast does not reflect the actual activity concentrations. These errors can be largely corrected by integrating activity along the PET axis perpendicular to the leaf surface, including detection of escaped positrons, and calculating concentration using a measured leaf thickness.

  4. PET imaging of thin objects: measuring the effects of positron range and partial-volume averaging in the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexoff, David L., E-mail: alexoff@bnl.gov; Dewey, Stephen L.; Vaska, Paul; Krishnamoorthy, Srilalan; Ferrieri, Richard; Schueller, Michael; Schlyer, David J.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: PET imaging in plants is receiving increased interest as a new strategy to measure plant responses to environmental stimuli and as a tool for phenotyping genetically engineered plants. PET imaging in plants, however, poses new challenges. In particular, the leaves of most plants are so thin that a large fraction of positrons emitted from PET isotopes ({sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N) escape while even state-of-the-art PET cameras have significant partial-volume errors for such thin objects. Although these limitations are acknowledged by researchers, little data have been published on them. Methods: Here we measured the magnitude and distribution of escaping positrons from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum for the radionuclides {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N using a commercial small-animal PET scanner. Imaging results were compared to radionuclide concentrations measured from dissection and counting and to a Monte Carlo simulation using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Results: Simulated and experimentally determined escape fractions were consistent. The fractions of positrons (mean{+-}S.D.) escaping the leaf parenchyma were measured to be 59{+-}1.1%, 64{+-}4.4% and 67{+-}1.9% for {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N, respectively. Escape fractions were lower in thicker leaf areas like the midrib. Partial-volume averaging underestimated activity concentrations in the leaf blade by a factor of 10 to 15. Conclusions: The foregoing effects combine to yield PET images whose contrast does not reflect the actual activity concentrations. These errors can be largely corrected by integrating activity along the PET axis perpendicular to the leaf surface, including detection of escaped positrons, and calculating concentration using a measured leaf thickness.

  5. Neutron spectrum perturbations due to scattering materials and their effect on the average neutron energy, the spectral index, and the hardness parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been performed on the perturbing effect of a number of scattering materials by the 'free-field' neutron leakage spectrum from a Godiva Type Critical Assembly (White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor). The results of these measurements are interpreted in relation to some of the general parameters characterizing a neutron environment, namely, the average neutron energy >10 KeV, the spectral index and the hardness parameter. Three neutron spectrum measurements have been performed, each under different experimental configurations of scattering materials. Results from these measurements show the following with relation to the spectral index: (1) The neutron environment on the core surface and at 12-inches from the core surface (free-field) yield a spectral index of 6.8, (2) The neutron environment behind a 4.75-inch Plexiglas plate yield 4.6 for the spectral index and (3) The neutron environment behind a 2-inch aluminum plate yield 6.7 for the spectral index. It is concluded that the core surface and the 12-inch from core surface neutron environment are identical with the 'free-field' neutron environment at 20-inches when considering only those neutrons with energy >10 KeV. On the other hand, it appears that the 4.75 inches of Plexiglas severely perturbs the 'free-field' neutron environment, i.e., a much harder neutron spectrum >10 KeV. In the situation where 2-inches of aluminum is used as the perturbing medium, essentially no change in the neutron spectrum >10 KeV is noted

  6. Effective Treatment in Home-Based Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simboli, Tim; Darou, Wes G.

    The use of home-based treatment programs has become increasingly popular over the last few years. Such a program is offered by the Youth Services Bureau of Ottawa-Carleton through its Detached Worker Program. This program uses paraprofessionals who employ an eclectic combination of behavioral, client-centered, family and reality therapies. Two…

  7. Shungite carbon catalytic effect on coal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorieva, E.N.; Rozhkova, N.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute for High Temperature

    1999-07-01

    The catalytic ability of shungite carbon in reactions of coal organic matter models appeared to be due to its fullerene structure only. Transition metal sulphides present in shungite carbon are not active in the conditions of coal treatment. Shungite carbon was shown to exhibit an acceleration of thermolysis of coal and organic matter models, mainly dehydrogenation. 5 refs., 1 tabs.

  8. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any new symptoms or a change in symptoms. Treatments for lymphedema are designed to reduce swelling, prevent it from ... the head and neck, you may need physical therapy. Reducing your risk of lymphedema Research continues to look into what factors cause ...

  9. Effect of coconut oil and defaunation treatment on methanogenesis in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Machmüller, Andrea; Soliva, Carla; Kreuzer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo the role of rumen ciliate protozoa with respect to the methane-suppressing effect of coconut oil. Three sheep were subjected to a 2 $\\times$ 2 factorial design comprising two types of dietary lipids (50 g$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$ coconut oil vs. 50 g$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$ rumen-protected fat) and defaunation treatment (with vs. without). Due to the defaunation treatment, which reduced the rumen ciliate protozoa population by 94% on average, total tract fib...

  10. Effectiveness of Iontophoresis Treatment on Knee Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Leman Ege; Neslihan Soran; Metin Erçin; Özlem Altındağ

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease causing disability. The primary goals for osteoarthritis therapy are to relieve pain, maintain or improve functional status, and minimize deformity. Many treatment options, including non-pharmacological and pharmacological measures, have been recommended in the management of osteoarthritis. Among the non-pharmacological approaches is physiotherapy, which involves the use of physical modalities like heat therapy, exercise therapy, elec...

  11. Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Treatment on the Number and Intensity of Migraine Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bakhshipour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a common headache with an unknown cause. Migraine is about three times more common in women (18.2% than in men (6.2%. The recent studies have posed the possible relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection and migraine headache. This study tries to analyze the effect of treating H. pylori infection on number and severity of migraine attacks.Materials and Methods: In this clinical pilot study, a number of 60 patients with migraine were examined in terms of infecting with H. pylori. Patients with the infections were treated by H. pylori eradication treatment standard triple regimen and the frequency and severity of their migraine attacks were measured for three months and finally the average of frequency and severity of attacks before and after treatment were compared. Results: The average frequency of the migraine attacks in patients with the H.pylori infection who have been treated was 7.1 before treatment and 2.7 after treatment (p=0.001. Likewise, the severity rate of such attacks in such patients was 9 which decreased to 4.5 after treatment (p=0.002. Conclusion: According to our study, patients with migraine attacks are preferred to be examined tested in terms of infecting with H. pylori. Thus, and eradication of this infection can be effective in decreasing of the migraine attacks.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of Dabigatran exilate in treatment of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Galvani; Alberto Grassetto; Stefania Sterlicchio; Sakis Themistoclakis; Andrea Venturini; Giampaolo Zoffoli; Domenico Mangino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background— Dabigatran exilate has emerged as a highly effective tool in treating atrial fibrillation, AF. Its relative convenience in terms of cost and overall utility with respect to other anti-coagulants, however, has not been explored in much detail yet. Methods and Results— We run a Markovian disease simulation model based on a cohort of 1000 randomly generated patients which were sub-grouped by average risk of hemorrhage and average risk of stroke to compare treatments with Aspirin, Warfarin and Dabigatran. Quality-adjusted life-year, QALYs for the patients were projected over up to 30 years with mortality statistics database and properly adjusted after every 5-year survival from the starting date. If managed within the prescribed range, Warfarin offers the highest outcome in terms of QALYs: 7.93 versus 7.61 for the Aspirin treatment and 7.57 for highest dose treatment with Dabigatran. Dabigatran outperformed the other treatments in patients at high risk of major stroke, provided Warfarin was not managed optimally. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for Dabigatran versus sub-optimally managed Warfarin was €7,759.48/QALY meaning that every year in perfect health earned with Dabigatran cost less than €8,000 more than the alternative treatment with Warfarin. Conclusions— The therapy with high-dose Dabigatran proved the most clinically safe solution for patients at high risk of stroke unless Warfarin therapy was excellent.

  13. Effect of 3 postmortem electrical stimulation treatments on the quality of early deboned broiler breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M; Lawrence, K

    2010-08-01

    The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) immediately prescalding (PS), ES immediately postdefeathering (PD), or PS combined with PD (PSPD) on the quality of early deboned (2 h) broiler breast muscles, pectoralis major (fillets), and pectoralis minor (tenders). No stimulation, early-deboned (2 h), and 24-h deboned (24 h) fillets were used for the comparison. The 42-d-old broiler carcasses were electrically stimulated with pulsed current at 200 V for 30 s over a 90-s time interval (total of 1 min over 180 s for PSPD), and breast meat was deboned 2 h postmortem. Quality indicators evaluated were CIE L*, a*, and b* color and pH of the raw fillets and cook yields and Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force of the fillets and tenders. There were no differences in raw fillet color, pH, and cook yields of both the fillets and tenders between the 3 ES treatments. Effects of different ES treatments on meat WB shear force values varied with breast muscles. For the fillets, the average WB shear force values of both the PS and PSPD samples, which were not different from each other, were significantly lower than those of the PD samples. For the tenders, there were no differences in the average shear force values between the 3 ES treatments. Regardless of ES treatment and breast muscle, early deboned broiler breast meat from ES carcasses required significantly less force to shear than the 2-h control. These results indicate that ES can tenderize early deboned poultry breast muscles; however, the effectiveness of ES tenderization varies with ES treatments for the fillets. The PS treatment is more effective in reducing fillet shear values than PD, and there is no further reduction in shear values with PSPD compared with the PS treatment. PMID:20634531

  14. Experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the phase averaged performance characteristics of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.

  15. Labour Turnover Costs and Average Labour Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Bertola, Giuseppe

    1991-01-01

    The effect of labour turnover costs on average employment in a partial equilibrium model of labour demand, depends on the form of the revenue function, on the rates of discount and labour attrition, and on the relative size of hiring and firing costs. If discount and attrition rates are strictly positive, firing costs may well increase average employment even when hiring costs reduce it.

  16. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 – 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial was...... Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment was...... followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced the...

  17. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  18. Inmate attitudes toward treatment: mental health service utilization and treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lucas B; Morgan, Robert D

    2011-08-01

    This study examined inmate attitudes toward treatment, mental health treatment utilization, and treatment effects that maximize treatment effectiveness. Participants consisted of 278 incarcerated male adult offenders from the Kansas Department of Corrections. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that inmate attitudes toward treatment were predictive of the number of mental health treatment sessions (dosage) inmates received. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated positive help-seeking attitudes were associated with institutional behavior (decreased number and severity of disciplinary infractions) and scores on a measure assessing risk for future criminal behavior; however, the amount of mental health treatment an inmate received (treatment dosage) was associated with problematic institutional behavior (i.e., increased severity and number of disciplinary infractions). These results indicated that treatment dosage and behavioral outcomes were impacted by inmate attitudes toward treatment. As a result, correctional psychologists may be better able to predict which inmates will receive the most benefit from services. Implications of these findings for practitioners and policy makers are discussed. PMID:20499269

  19. Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, C G

    2004-01-01

    It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient's condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future. PMID:15062718

  20. Coping with Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coping with the most common cosmetic side effects. Hair Loss Hair thinning or hair loss is often ... a mild soap or shampoo. Avoid those with dyes, perfumes, or alcohol. Especially avoid acne soaps and ...

  1. Clinical effectiveness of primary and secondary headache treatment by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry ePinchuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effectiveness of headache treatment by transcranial direct current stimulation with various locations of stimulating electrodes on the scalp was analyzed retrospectively. The results of the treatment were analyzed in 90 patients aged from 19 to 54 years (48 patients had migraine without aura, 32 – frequent episodic tension-type headaches, 10 – chronic tension-type headaches and in 44 adolescents aged 11 – 16 years with chronic posttraumatic headaches after a mild head injury. Clinical effectiveness of tDCS with 70 – 150 µA current for 30 – 45 minutes via 6.25 cm2 stimulating electrodes is comparable to that of modern pharmacological drugs, with no negative side effects. The obtained result has been maintained on average from 5 to 9 months. It has been demonstrated that effectiveness depends on localization of stimulating electrodes used for different types of headaches.

  2. Infantile pyknocytosis: effectiveness of erythropoietin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Buzzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Infantile pyknocytosis is a rare form of neonatal haemolytic anaemia with unusual red cell morphology. Anaemia is mostly severe and red blood cells transfusion is often needed. In this report, we have described a male child aged 10 days, born at 37 weeks + 3 days, who presented neonatal jaundice and severe anaemia. After a careful peripheral blood smear examination, infantile pyknocytosis was diagnosed. A treatment with recombinant subcutaneous erythropoietin (1,000 UI/prokg/week in conjunction with iron supplementation (6 mg/kg/day was started. The therapy was reduced 6 weeks after the beginning and discontinued 4 weeks after the reaching of a steady state of the haemoglobin values. After 12 months of follow up, the patient showed no anaemia and pyknocytosis.

  3. Effects of alkali treatments on Ag nanowire transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunho; Kang, Jun-gu; Eom, Tae-yil; Moon, Bongjin; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we employ various alkali materials (alkali metals with different base strengths, and ammonia gas and solution) to improve the conductivity of silver nanowire (Ag NW)-networked films. The alkali treatment appears to remove the surface oxide and improve the conductivity. When applied with TiO2 nanoparticles, the treatment appears more effective as the alkalis gather around wire junctions and help them weld to each other via heat emitted from the reduction reaction. The ammonia solution treatment is found to be quick and aggressive, damaging the wires severely in the case of excessive treatment. On the other hand, the ammonia gas treatment seems much less aggressive and does not damage the wires even after a long exposure. The results of this study highlight the effectiveness of the alkali treatment in improving of the conductivity of Ag NW-networked transparent conductive films.

  4. Effects of chemical treatments on fresh-cut papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Silvana; Lai Reyes, Andrés Enrique; Trigo, Juliana Moreno; Sarriés, Gabriel Adrián; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-01-01

    Four treatments (control, 0.1% cinnamaldehyde, 0.75% calcium chloride and combination of 0.1% cinnamaldehyde and 0.75% calcium chloride) were used to evaluate chemical effects on shelf life, quality and sensory acceptability of fresh-cut papaya (Carica papaya L.). Papaya slices were packed and covered with polypropylene film, stored at 5 °C; and evaluated after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days for microbiological and physicochemical changes. A sensory evaluation was performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days. There was no occurrence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli or psychotropic bacteria. The cinnamaldehyde alone and a combination of cinnamaldehyde and calcium chloride treatments yielded better control of the total coliforms. The combination treatment decreased the CO2 concentration and increased the maintenance of papaya firmness. All the treatments had acceptability. The combination treatment was the most effective treatment for flavor, taste, and preservation until day 12. PMID:26213093

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Voriconasole in treatment of invasive aspregillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Climko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is widespread infectious implication in immunodeficient patients, characterized by severe clinical manifestations and high mortality. This article presents the first case of pharmacoeconomical analysis of Voriconasole in treatment of IA compared with alternative therapies in Russia. Using mathematic modeling methods, we evalued total costs (including costs of IA treatment, clinical effectiveness and IA-related mortality in each therapy group. Obtained results showed the dominating of Voriconasole because of its high effectiveness and lower costs compared with caspofungine or amphotericine B. Total costs of therapy with Voricinasole were up to 30% lower compared with caspofungine and up to 70% lower compared with amphotericine B. Performed univariate sensitivity analysis showed that cost-effectiveness of anti-IA treatment depends mostly on clinical effectiveness of antimycotics rather than drug costs. Thus, treatment with Voriconasole is cost-effective in IA patients.

  6. Treatment effects in randomized longitudinal trials with different types of nonignorable dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Manshu; Maxwell, Scott E

    2014-06-01

    Randomized longitudinal designs are commonly used in psychological and medical studies to investigate the treatment effect of an intervention or an experimental drug. Traditional linear mixed-effects models for randomized longitudinal designs are limited to maximum-likelihood methods that assume data are missing at random (MAR). In practice, because longitudinal data are often likely to be missing not at random (MNAR), the traditional mixed-effects model might lead to biased estimates of treatment effects. In such cases, an alternative approach is to utilize pattern-mixture models. In this article, a Monte Carlo simulation study compares the traditional mixed-effects model and 2 different approaches to pattern-mixture models (i.e., the differencing-averaging method and the averaging-differencing method) across different missing mechanisms (i.e., MAR, random-coefficient-dependent MNAR, or outcome-dependent MNAR) and different types of treatment-condition-based missingness. Results suggest that the traditional mixed-effects model is well suited for analyzing data with the MAR mechanism whereas the proposed pattern-mixture averaging-differencing model has the best overall performance for analyzing data with the MNAR mechanism. No method was found that could provide unbiased estimates under every missing mechanism, leading to a practical suggestion that researchers need to consider why data are missing and should also consider performing a sensitivity analysis to ascertain the extent to which their results are consistent across various missingness assumptions. Applications of different estimation methods are also illustrated using a real-data example. PMID:24079928

  7. Estimation of effective SSDs for Elekta's precise treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electron beam therapy, the final collimation device is either a treatment cone, a fixed collimator, or a variable collimator, which defines the treatment field at some fixed distance from its end. Though the ideal would be the standard treatment condition in some circumstances it becomes essential to treat with non-standard distances due an anatomical restriction, for example shoulder in neck treatment, or an irregular skin surface and in addition, extended SSDs can be used to obtain larger field sizes or increased penumbra. The decrease in output due to air gaps can be characterized by an inverse square factor from an effective source and is a position of source selected for the best fit. Effective SSDs for all electron energies and applicators for an extended SSD can be determined and used in order to account for the change in output, depth dose and penumbra as these effects has specificity to machine, energy, and field size and treatment conditions

  8. Costs and water quality effects of wastewater treatment plant centralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    The costs and water quality impacts of two regional configurations of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Northeastern Illinois are compared. In one configuration, several small treatment plants are consolidated into a smaller number of regional facilities. In the other, the smaller plants continue to operate. Costs for modifying the plants to obtain various levels of pollutant removal are estimated using a simulation model that considers the type of equipment existing at the plants and the costs of modifying that equipment to obtain a range of effluent levels for various pollutants. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine the water quality effects of the various treatment technologies and pollutant levels. Cost and water quality data are combined and the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment configurations is compared. The regionalized treatment-plant configuration is found to be the more cost-effective.

  9. Psychotherapy: The Humanistic (and Effective) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well established that psychotherapy is remarkably effective, the change process in psychotherapy is not well understood. Psychotherapy is compared with medicine and cultural healing practices to argue that critical aspects of psychotherapy involve human processes that are used in religious, spiritual, and cultural healing practices.…

  10. Improved treatment of radiation effects on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment concept developed by K.H. Kaercher was extended by a therapy using Elasten S cream. In the course of a highvoltage therapy using fast electrons or cobalt-60, interesting aspects in the treatment and progression of the radiation reactions of the skin were established. The dermato-therapeutic principles layed down by K.H. Kaercher with the treatment palette used hitherto, have without doubt invariably proven their value. The exclusive powder treatment, however, may be made more practical by application of the new treatment cream in accordance with the intervals in radiation treatment or as a basic treatment towards the end of therapy. Furthermore it is ideally suited for the care and after-treatment of skin, strained by radiation. It reduces considerably the remaining visible radiation reactions. The treatment with powder and emulsion has for more than 10 years proven effective. After the excellent results of the new cream during radiation treatment, additional positive effects are expected in a long-term trial which will be reported on separately. (orig.)

  11. Effect of cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and wear behavior of a T-42 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryogenic treatment process is carried out at sub-zero temperatures down to -184 C to modify the microstructure and properties of the material. This process is an extension of heat treatment which further improves the properties of the material. This publication focuses on the effect of cryogenic treatment on high speed steel (HSS) T-42 tool material. In this research, cryogenic treatment at -184 C is conducted and the properties of the material compared with them of untreated material. As the temperature is decreased, microstructure of material is refined and a higher number of carbide precipitates appeared on the surface after the treatment. The microstructural changes result in improvement of properties of HSS, (T-42) tool material. Pin-on-disc wear test is conducted on untreated (UT) HSS and cryogenic treated (CT) HSS specimens. It is observed that the average wear rate of UT-HSS and CT-HSS samples is 6.8 x 10-8 mm3/Nm and 4.1 x 10-8 mm3/Nm, respectively. The average wear rate has been improved by 39.71 % for CT-HSS compared to UT-HSS tool material.

  12. Effect of cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and wear behavior of a T-42 tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Singh, Jagtar [Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-05-01

    The cryogenic treatment process is carried out at sub-zero temperatures down to -184 C to modify the microstructure and properties of the material. This process is an extension of heat treatment which further improves the properties of the material. This publication focuses on the effect of cryogenic treatment on high speed steel (HSS) T-42 tool material. In this research, cryogenic treatment at -184 C is conducted and the properties of the material compared with them of untreated material. As the temperature is decreased, microstructure of material is refined and a higher number of carbide precipitates appeared on the surface after the treatment. The microstructural changes result in improvement of properties of HSS, (T-42) tool material. Pin-on-disc wear test is conducted on untreated (UT) HSS and cryogenic treated (CT) HSS specimens. It is observed that the average wear rate of UT-HSS and CT-HSS samples is 6.8 x 10{sup -8} mm{sup 3}/Nm and 4.1 x 10{sup -8} mm{sup 3}/Nm, respectively. The average wear rate has been improved by 39.71 % for CT-HSS compared to UT-HSS tool material.

  13. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-12-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series. PMID:6198739

  14. Assessing and reporting heterogeneity in treatment effects in clinical trials: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent David M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mounting evidence suggests that there is frequently considerable variation in the risk of the outcome of interest in clinical trial populations. These differences in risk will often cause clinically important heterogeneity in treatment effects (HTE across the trial population, such that the balance between treatment risks and benefits may differ substantially between large identifiable patient subgroups; the "average" benefit observed in the summary result may even be non-representative of the treatment effect for a typical patient in the trial. Conventional subgroup analyses, which examine whether specific patient characteristics modify the effects of treatment, are usually unable to detect even large variations in treatment benefit (and harm across risk groups because they do not account for the fact that patients have multiple characteristics simultaneously that affect the likelihood of treatment benefit. Based upon recent evidence on optimal statistical approaches to assessing HTE, we propose a framework that prioritizes the analysis and reporting of multivariate risk-based HTE and suggests that other subgroup analyses should be explicitly labeled either as primary subgroup analyses (well-motivated by prior evidence and intended to produce clinically actionable results or secondary (exploratory subgroup analyses (performed to inform future research. A standardized and transparent approach to HTE assessment and reporting could substantially improve clinical trial utility and interpretability.

  15. The Effect of Temperature Treatment on the Structure of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Zerball

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the effect of thermal treatment on the internal structure of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs. In order to get insight into the internal structure of PEMs, Neutron Reflectometry (NR was used. PEMs with a deuterated inner block towards the substrate and a non-deuterated outer block were prepared and measured in 1% RH and in D2O before and after a thermal treatment. Complementarily, PEMs with the same number of layers but completely non-deuterated were investigated by ellipsometry. The analysis for the overall thickness (d, the average scattering length density (SLD and the refractive index (n indicate a degradation of the PEM. The loss in material is independent of the number of layers, i.e., only a constant part of the PEM is affected by degradation. The analysis of the internal structure revealed a more complex influence of thermal treatment on PEM structure. Only the outermost part of the PEM degenerates, while the inner part becomes denser during the thermal treatment. In addition, the swelling behavior of PEMs is influenced by the thermal treatment. The untreated PEM shows a well pronounced odd—even effect, i.e., PDADMAC-terminated PEMs take up more water than PSS-terminated PEMs. After the thermal treatment, the odd-even effect becomes much weaker.

  16. Tiotropium's cost-effectiveness for the treatment of COPD: a cost-utility analysis under real-world conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Nancy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tiotropium is reimbursed since March 2004 in Belgium for the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. Questions however remain on this product's value for money. The purpose of this study is to calculate tiotropium's cost-effectiveness under real-world conditions. Methods Strengths of both observational and RCT data were combined in a model. A large longitudinal (2002-2006 observational dataset of regular tiotropium users (56 321 patients was analysed to retrieve the baseline risk for exacerbations and exacerbation-related hospitalisations the year before the first delivery of tiotropium. The relative treatment effect from the UPLIFT (Understanding Potential Long-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium trial was then applied to this baseline risk to reflect the effect of tiotropium treatment and calculate the intervention's incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER. Results After 1000 Latin Hypercube simulations, the incremental benefit expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALY gained is on average 0.00048 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.00009 - 0.00092. In combination with a substantial mean incremental cost of €373 per patient (95% CI 279 - 475, this results in an unfavourable average ICER of €1 244 023 (95% CI 328 571 - 4 712 704 per QALY gained. Results were most sensitive to the treatment effect on hospitalisations. Based on our large observational database, up to 89% of the patients were not hospitalised for COPD in the year before the first tiotropium delivery. Conclusions The main cause for tiotropium's unfavourable cost-effectiveness ratio is a combination of a relative high price for tiotropium, a low number of hospitalisations without tiotropium treatment (on average 0.14/year and a non-significant treatment effect (on average 0.94 with respect to avoiding exacerbation-related hospitalisations. From an economic point of view, a revision of reimbursement modalities (e.g. with a lower price

  17. The effective field theory treatment of quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    John F. Donoghue

    2012-01-01

    This is a pedagogical introduction to the treatment of quantum general relativity as an effective field theory. It starts with an overview of the methods of effective field theory and includes an explicit example. Quantum general relativity matches this framework and I discuss gravitational examples as well as the limits of the effective field theory. I also discuss the insights from effective field theory on the gravitational effects on running couplings in the perturbative regime.

  18. Effect of particle size on the average heat-transfer rate from a cylinder in a liquid-penetrated granular bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data of heat transfer of bodies submerged in a fixed liquid-penetrated granular bed are important for the development of efficient catalytic and helium reactors an hydrogen accumulators based on porous intermetallics. In this work, experimental results on the average heat transfer from a cylinder in a liquid-penetrated granular bed are presented and the dependence of the heat-transfer rate on the particle size in the bed is found. The results of these experiments are important for practical estimation and design of catalytic reactors

  19. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.

  20. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Stockman, Lauren J.; Richard Bellamy; Paul Garner

    2006-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a virus; the main symptoms are pneumonia and fever. The virus is usually passed on when people sneeze or cough. SARS became a much-talked about disease in 2003, when over 8,000 cases and 774 deaths occurred worldwide. The situation was alarming, because the first-ever cases had only just appeared in 2002, in China, so the best way to treat this new disease was unknown. Not many drugs are effective against virus...

  1. Apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease: Any Effective Treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Rea; Anna Carotenuto; Fasanaro, Angiola M.; Enea Traini; Francesco Amenta

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This review has evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment of apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted on published clinical trials assessing the effects of pharmacological treatment on apathy in AD over the last 10 years. Results. Fourteen studies considered of good quality were included in the analysis (4 randomized controlled trials, 9 open-label studies, and 1 retrospective analysis). Cholinesterase in...

  2. The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H0, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions

  3. Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus it is more directly applicable to our observations. Unlike previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all possible non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Sweese-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein - de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Despite the well known argument for photon flux conservation, the average distance modulus correction at low redshifts is not zero due to the peculiar velocities. A form...

  4. The effect of cancer treatment on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Arash; Myers, Jamie S

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is an increasingly recognized complication of cancer and its treatment. Most research in this arena has found that a subset of patients appear to be vulnerable to this complication even after treatment has ended, and often have difficulties with multitasking, short-term memory, word-finding, attention, or concentration. The mechanisms underlying these cognitive changes are not fully elucidated but may include direct neurotoxic effects of therapy, oxidative damage, and genetic predisposition. Compelling evidence has accumulated for the role of immune dysregulation and neurotoxicity from inflammatory cytokines. A gold standard for subjective or objective assessment of cancer treatment-related cognitive changes has yet to be established. Current options to assess cognitive function include neuropsychological testing, functional neuroimaging, and subjective assessments. Pharmacologic treatment options for this clinical problem are modest and limited. Nonpharmacologic treatments, including cognitive rehabilitation programs, are an emerging area of research for the management of cancer treatment-related cognitive changes. PMID:26353040

  5. "Pricing Average Options on Commodities"

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichiro Shiraya; Akihiko Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approximation formula for pricing average options on commodities under a stochastic volatility environment. In particular, it derives an option pricing formula under Heston and an extended lambda-SABR stochastic volatility models (which includes an extended SABR model as a special case). Moreover, numerical examples support the accuracy of the proposed average option pricing formula.

  6. Towards a framework for treatment effectiveness in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juckel G

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Georg Juckel,1 Andrea de Bartolomeis,2 Philip Gorwood,3 Sergey Mosolov,4 Luca Pani,5 Alessandro Rossi,6 Julio Sanjuan7 1Department of Psychiatry, LWL-University Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry and Unit of Treatment Resistant Psychosis, University School of Medicine of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy; 3Groupe Hospitalier Sainte-Anne (CMME, Paris-Descartes University, Paris, France; 4Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia; 5Institute of Translational Pharmacology, Italian National Research Council, Rome, Italy; 6Università de L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy; 7Clinic Hospital, Spanish Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain Introduction: Prompt administration of antipsychotic treatment that is adhered to is essential for the optimal treatment of schizophrenia. Many patients have benefited from the advent of second-generation antipsychotics, which can offer good symptomatic control with reduced incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms, although with higher risk of metabolic side effects. It is unsurprising that accounts as to whether first- and second-generation antipsychotics differ in their efficacy vary, since treatment effectiveness is a broad notion and difficult to define. Objectives: Numerous factors may be used to gauge treatment effectiveness and, while it has largely been defined in terms of improvements in four domains (symptoms of disease, treatment burden, disease burden, and health and wellness, the real-world clinical utility of this consensus is unclear. Therefore, this article aims to provide a framework that can aid psychiatrists in making assessments about treatment effectiveness. Methods and results: A panel of 12 psychiatrists and psychopharmacologists convened to develop and propose an accessible and globally-applicable framework for assessing the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments in patients with schizophrenia

  7. Is acupuncture effective in the treatment of pain in endometriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Iréne; Lundeberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometriosis is a multifactorial, estrogen-dependent, inflammatory gynecological condition – often with long-lasting visceral pelvic pain of different origin, and infertility among women. Current management options for patients’ are often inadequate, with side effects for many for whom acupuncture techniques could be an alternative. Earlier studies have discussed the efficacy of acupuncture, but not its methodological aspects. Objectives To summarize the documented clinical effects of acupuncture on rated visceral pelvic endometriosis-related pain, and associated variables among individuals, within and between studied groups, and to discuss the methodological treatment aspects. Methods Published full text clinical studies, case reports, and observational studies with abstracts written in English were searched by using the keywords “Acupuncture and Endometriosis” in databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL. The reporting guidelines, Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture was used for the methodological report. Results Three studies were found including 99 women, 13–40 years old, with diagnosed endometriosis. The studies were different in research design, needle stimulation techniques, and evaluation instruments. Methodological similarities were seven to12 needle insertions per subject/session, and 15–25 minutes of needle retention time. The needles were placed in lower back/pelvic-abdominal area, in the shank, feet, and hands. Treatment numbers varied from nine to 16 and patients received one to two treatments per week. Similarity in reported treatment effects in the quoted studies, irrespective of research design or treatment technique, was reported decrease of rated pain intensity. Discussion Meta-analysis is the standard procedure for the evaluation of evidence of treatment effects, ie, on a group level, usually without analysis of the individual responses even with obvious spread in the

  8. Effect of ozone treatment on different cariogenic microorganisms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrell, Tobias G; Dietz, Wolfram; Lingström, Peter; Steiniger, Frank; Norén, Jörgen G

    2008-01-01

    Ozone treatment has been presented and discussed in the literature, as one of the "new" ways to treat dental caries. The aim of this paper was to study the in vitro effect of ozone on some common oral microorganisms related to dental caries using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of ozone was tested on three different strains of mutans streptococci and one Lactobacillus strain. After exposure of bacteria to ozone treatment for 0 to 60 sec, cultivation on different chair side strips and agar plates took place. Preparation and performance of scanning electron analyses in a field emission scanning electron microscope at 10 kV was then carried out. It was found that gaseous ozone treatment for 20 seconds or more was effective to kill the different microorganisms in vitro. Treatment of 20, 40 and 60 seconds of ozone prevented the bacteria to grow on the different media. Treatment times shorter than 20 seconds resulted in varying results with a limited effect on bacterial growth for treatments of 5-10 sec, respectively. The difference between ozone-treated and untreated specimens was macroscopically readily discernable. None of the strains treated with ozone for 60 seconds showed any bacterial growth. Only samples with untreated bacteria could be found in the SEM analyses in form of large and high colonies. This study presents a clear result of the bactericide effect of ozon (in vitro) on four different strains of bacteria associated with dental caries. PMID:18973084

  9. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  10. Preliminary observations on the effects of vector-averaged gravity on the embryonic and larval development of the gastropod mollusk, Ilyanassa obsoleta Stimpson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, G. W.; Stephens, A. P.; Conrad, A. H.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Fertilized eggs of Ilyanassa obsoleta Stimpson were collected immediately after their deposition in egg capsules. Unopened egg capsules then were affixed to glass slides, and incubated either statically (controls) or on a clinostat (experimentals). After incubation for 9-14 days, hatching occurred sooner and in a higher percentage of clinostated capsules than in controls. Embryos that hatched while undergoing clinostat incubation were abnormal in morphology, whereas other embryos present in non-hatched capsules in the same tubes appeared normal, as did embryos in the control tubes. Although the results are compatible with a conclusion that vector-averaged gravity in the experimental tubes caused the altered development, some other aspects of how the incubations were done may have contributed to the differences between the control and experimental results.

  11. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods:Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC). The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata). Results:Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00) mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67) mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67) mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67) mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P Conclusions:To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  12. A passive acoustic monitor of treatment effectiveness during extracorporeal lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedele, F; Coleman, A J [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, SE1 7EH, London (United Kingdom); Thomas, K; Ryves, S; Phillips, D [Urology Department, Guy' s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, Great Maze Pond, SE1 9RT, London (United Kingdom); Leighton, T G, E-mail: fiammetta.fedele@gstt.nhs.uk [Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Highfield, S017 1BJ, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has now been in the clinic for at least three decades, there has been little advance in efforts (i) to estimate the efficacy of the treatment whilst it is in progress, or (ii) to determine the end-point of a treatment session in terms of the degree of stone fragmentation achieved. Previous in vitro experimentation and clinical trials have shown that a passive acoustic monitor has the potential to provide evidence of the effectiveness and end-point of lithotripsy. The system exploits secondary emissions generated during shock-tissue interaction, whose features depend on the quality of tissue at the beam focus. This prototype was developed into the first commercially available clinical ESWL treatment monitor (Precision Acoustic Ltd, Dorchester, UK), and a unit has been acquired and tested in the clinical routine by urologists at Guy's and St Thomas NHS Trust in March 2009. This paper critically assesses the performance of the new system for the first 25 treatments monitored. The ESWL monitor correctly predicted the treatment outcome of 15 of the 18 treatments that were followed-up clinically. In addition, it was noted that the measure of treatment effectiveness provided by the monitor after 500 shocks was predictive of the final treatment outcome (p < 0.001). This suggests that the system could be used in pre-assessment; indicating if the stone is susceptible to ESWL or if the patient should be sent for surgery.

  13. Averaged Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Isidro, Eddy G Chirinos; Piattella, Oliver F; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological backreaction effects in Buchert's averaging formalism on the basis of an explicit solution of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dynamics which is linear in the LTB curvature parameter and has an inhomogeneous bang time. The volume Hubble rate is found in terms of the volume scale factor which represents a derivation of the simplest phenomenological solution of Buchert's equations in which the fractional densities corresponding to average curvature and kinematic backreaction are explicitly determined by the parameters of the underlying LTB solution at the boundary of the averaging volume. This configuration represents an exactly solvable toy model but it does not adequately describe our "real" Universe.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of Squeezed State Quantum Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2010-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The harmonic mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of fragile squeezed light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean outperforms the standard arithmetic mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested both for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources with sub-Poissonian shot noise or super-Poissonian shot noise characteristics.

  15. Effects of surface performance on bamboo by microwave plasma treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanben DU; Zhaobin SUN; Linrong HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Surface treatment of bamboo was carried out by microwave plasma (MWP), surface contact angle of the sample was measured using glycerin and urea-form-aldehyde resin (UFR) liquid, and the effects on the surface performance of the bamboo sample was evaluated. The results show that the surface contact angle of the sample presented a generally decreasing trend when prolonging the MWP treatment time and shortening the distance between the sample and the resonance cavity. The surface contact angle of the sample decreased by 49%-59% under the following conditions: MWP treatment for 30 s, the distance between the sample and resonance cavity at 40 mm, and measurement at 15 s after dripping with gly-cerin. The surface contact angle of the sample measured with the glycerin was lower than that with UFR. No mat-ter whether we used glycerin or UFR, the contact angle of the sample at 15 s after dripping was lower than that at 5 s after dripping. The grinding treatment had little effect on the surface contact angle of the sample after MWP treat-ment, and the modification effect of MWP treatment after grinding was better than that of sole MWP treatment.

  16. Telemedicine diabetes consultations are cost-effective, and effects on essential diabetes treatment parameters are similar to conventional treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Klaus; Madsen, Jette R; Petersen, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    been offered expert diabetes care using teleconsultations. This article describes the impact of the telemedicine solution on essential diabetes treatment parameters, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Telemedicine consultations were conducted with the patient and nurse specialist...... transportation time (7 h). Reductions in traveling costs and saved working days were the most important factors in making the telemedicine set-up economically efficient. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine consultation for remote outpatient diabetes control is feasible, and the interdisciplinary interventions achieved high...... treatment quality results in essential diabetes treatment parameters. In addition, the telemedicine set-up was associated with improved cost-effectiveness and patient satisfaction....

  17. The Effect of Mannitol Treatment on Renal Functions in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Eşkut

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic agent and reduces intracranial pressure. The most serious side effect of mannitol is kidney dysfunction. In this study, renal functions in acute stroke patients treated with mannitol were evaluated. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two patients followed in the neurology intensive care unit with the diagnosis of stroke and treated with fractionated mannitol for 5 days were evaluated retrospectively. Ninety-six patients had ischemic and 26 had hemorrhagic stroke. Mean age was 69.9 ± 11.8 (18-91 years. Serum urea, creatinine and electrolyte levels measured before and on the second, third, fourth, fifth and tenth days of treatment were compared statistically with paired sample t test. RESULTS: The average urea and creatinine levels on the second, third, fourth and fifth days of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline (p< 0.05. On the other hand, mannitol treatment did not change average sodium, potassium and chlorine levels. The creatinine levels had returned to the normal range on the tenth day of treatment, but the urea levels, although decreased, did not fall to the normal range. CONCLUSION: Our results support the view that close monitoring of renal function is necessary in patients treated with mannitol.

  18. A 4D treatment planning tool for the evaluation of motion effects on lung cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a 4D treatment planning tool using an analytical model accounting for breathing motion is investigated to evaluate the motion effect on delivered dose for lung cancer treatments with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). The Monte Carlo EGS4/MCDOSE user code is used in the treatment planning dose calculation, and the patient CT data are converted into respective patient geometry files for Monte Carlo dose calculation. The model interpolates CT images at different phases of the breathing cycle from patient CT scans taken at end inspiration and end expiration phases and the chest wall position. Correlation between the voxels in a reference CT dataset and the voxels in the interpolated CT datasets at any breathing phases is established so that the dose to a voxel can be accumulated through the entire breathing cycle. Simulated lung tumors at different locations are used to demonstrate our model in 3DCRT for lung cancer treatments. We demonstrated the use of a 4D treatment planning tool in evaluating the breathing motion effect on delivered dose for different planning margins. Further studies are being conducted to use this tool to study the lung motion effect through large-scale analysis and to implement this useful tool for treatment planning dose calculation and plan evaluation for 4D radiotherapy

  19. EEG neurofeedback effects in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Skliris, Dimitris; Shaheen, Sandra; Dunitz-Scheer, Marguerite; Wood, Guilherme; Scheer, Peter Jaron Zwi; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Neuper, Christa

    2016-01-01

    A pre-post design including 22 females was used to evaluate the effectiveness of neurofeedback in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa. Resting EEG measures and a psychological test-battery assessing eating behavior traits, clinical symptoms, emotionality, and mood were obtained. While both the experimental (n = 10) and control group (n = 12) received their usual maintenance treatment, the experimental group received 10 sessions of individual alpha frequency training over a period of 5 weeks as additional treatment. Significant training effects were shown in eating behavior traits, emotion regulation, and in relative theta power in the eyes closed condition. Although the results are limited due to the small sample size, these are the first empirical data demonstrating the benefits of neurofeedback as a treatment adjunct in individuals with anorexia nervosa. PMID:27027700

  20. Late effects of X-ray treatment of warts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five to 22 years after warts on hands and feet were treated by X ray, 1122 patients with a total of 3675 warts were re-examined. X-Ray therapy had been given as one dose of 3000 r using 29 kV with a 0.3-mm Al filter; 19% of the warts had been given two treatments. Sequelae were seen in 4.8% of the sites where warts had been given one X-ray treatment and in 12.2% of the sites after two treatments. These side effects include hyperkeratosis in the pressure areas of palms and soles and atrophy primarily in areas with a thin cutis. There was no evidence of malignant transformation in any treatment site, and there were no deep-seated side effects such as ostitis or tendinitis

  1. Late effects of X-ray treatment of warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veien, N.K.; Norholm, A.; Hattel, T.; Justesen, O.

    1982-04-01

    Five to 22 years after warts on hands and feet were treated by X ray, 1122 patients with a total of 3675 warts were re-examined. X-Ray therapy had been given as one dose of 3000 r using 29 kV with a 0.3-mm Al filter; 19% of the warts had been given two treatments. Sequelae were seen in 4.8% of the sites where warts had been given one X-ray treatment and in 12.2% of the sites after two treatments. These side effects include hyperkeratosis in the pressure areas of palms and soles and atrophy primarily in areas with a thin cutis. There was no evidence of malignant transformation in any treatment site, and there were no deep-seated side effects such as ostitis or tendinitis.

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of radiation side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Many reports show that late complications of radiotherapy can be successfully treated by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). This synopsis attempts to review the literature to identify areas of clinical use and further research. Patients and Methods: Clinical and experimental data about HBO treatment of radiation late effects are analysed. Mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of late radiation side effects are discussed. Results: There is evidence in the literature that HBO is beneficial in the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteoradionecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits. The prophylactic use of HBO has shown to prevent the development of osteoradionecrosis after tooth removal and the loss of titanium implants in irradiated facial bones. The physiologic basis of HBO can be referred to induction of neoangiogenesis and revascularisation. Conclusions: Clinicians can be encouraged to use hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteonecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits following radiation therapy. (orig.)

  3. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy: II. Numerical predictions and experimental tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new depth-averaged mathematical model that is designed to simulate all stages of debris-flow motion, from initiation to deposition. A companion paper shows how the model’s five governing equations describe simultaneous evolution of flow thickness, solid volume fraction, basal pore-fluid pressure, and two components of flow momentum. Each equation contains a source term that represents the influence of state-dependent granular dilatancy. Here we recapitulate the equations and analyze their eigenstructure to show that they form a hyperbolic system with desirable stability properties. To solve the equations we use a shock-capturing numerical scheme with adaptive mesh refinement, implemented in an open-source software package we call D-Claw. As tests of D-Claw, we compare model output with results from two sets of large-scale debris-flow experiments. One set focuses on flow initiation from landslides triggered by rising pore-water pressures, and the other focuses on downstream flow dynamics, runout, and deposition. D-Claw performs well in predicting evolution of flow speeds, thicknesses, and basal pore-fluid pressures measured in each type of experiment. Computational results illustrate the critical role of dilatancy in linking coevolution of the solid volume fraction and pore-fluid pressure, which mediates basal Coulomb friction and thereby regulates debris-flow dynamics.

  4. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m3/hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H2SO4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  5. Power convergence of Abel averages

    OpenAIRE

    Kozitsky, Yuri; Shoikhet, David; Zemanek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are presented for the Abel averages of discrete and strongly continuous semigroups, $T^k$ and $T_t$, to be power convergent in the operator norm in a complex Banach space. These results cover also the case where $T$ is unbounded and the corresponding Abel average is defined by means of the resolvent of $T$. They complement the classical results by Michael Lin establishing sufficient conditions for the corresponding convergence for a bounded $T$.

  6. High-average-power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the High-Average-Power Laser Program at LLNL are to develop a broad technology base for solid state lasers and to demonstrate high-average-power laser operation with more efficiency and higher beam quality than has been possible with current technology. Major activities are the zig-zag laser testbed and the gas-cooled-slab laser test bed. This section describes these activities as well as discussion of material development; nonlinear optics; laser materials, and applications

  7. Effect of 82% Lactic Acid in Treatment of Melasma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rashmi; Goyal, Sapna; Ahmed, Qazi Rais; Gupta, Narendra; Singh, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired, chronic, and symmetrical hypermelanosis, characterized by brown patches of variable darkness on sun exposed areas of body. There are numerous modalities of treatment currently in use for this disease, of which the chemical peeling is very commonly used. Therefore, the present work was done to see the effect of 82% lactic acid peel in the treatment of melasma. A total number of 20 patients of either sex attending the OPD of dermatology department with clinically evident...

  8. Clinical Supervision in Treatment Transport: Effects on Adherence and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Chapman, Jason E.

    2009-01-01

    This non-experimental study used Mixed-Effects Regression Models (MRMs) to examine relations among supervisor adherence to a clinical supervision protocol, therapist adherence, and changes in the behavior and functioning of youth with serious antisocial behavior treated with an empirically supported treatment (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 clinicians across 45 provider organizations in North America. Four dimens...

  9. Developing of effective treatment technology of the phenolic wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Klymenko, Irina; Yelatontsev, Dmytro; Ivanchenko, Anna; Dupenko, Olga; Voloshyn, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    It is found that a high degree of purification from emulsified coal tar is achieved in the phenolic wastewater treatment using 88 mg/dm3 of sodium bentonite with the addition of 8 mg/dm3 of cationic flocculant in conditions the closest to industrial. This innovative method of phenolic wastewater treatment is cost­effective because of the low cost of bentonite. It is shown that the deposit formed during the wastewater treatment with bentonite floats to the liquid surface and can be separated b...

  10. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M B; Nennich, T D; Doane, P H; Brink, G E

    2015-06-01

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between [VFA] and VFA pool size (VFAmol) possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg) indicate potential issues with the use of [VFA]. We investigated relationships among [VFA], VFAmol, and LIQ measured 2 h postfeeding using individual lactating cow data (n=175) from 7 separate feeding studies. Regression analyses were performed using mixed models with "study" as a discrete random variable. The mean across studies and average range of values within studies, respectively, were 151 and 75 for [VFA], 11.2 and 9.8 for VFAmol, 73.3 and 41.0 for LIQ, and 289 and 83 mmol/kg for rumen fluid osmolality. Liquid amount changed with VFAmol (3.76 VFAmol+31.2; average within-study R2=0.69), but the relationship was weak between [VFA] and LIQ (0.524 LIQ+112.8; average within-study R2=0.12). The relationship between LIQ and VFAmol was likely a function of the osmotic gradient between rumen liquid and blood. The VFA are a major ruminal solute; VFAmol amounts can affect water flux in the rumen as similar tonicities of rumen fluid and blood are maintained. This also has a damping effect on ruminal solute concentration, creating the weak relationship between [VFA] and LIQ. Within studies, similar [VFA] were found in LIQ differing by 30 kg or more. The difference between minimum and maximum LIQ within cow within study was 12.7 kg (standard deviation=7.1), so inclusion of "cow" in analyses did not correct for the variation in LIQ. To allow valid comparisons of experimental treatments, responses must be on an equivalent basis; concentrations in different LIQ are not on an equivalent basis and so are not valid to use for comparing treatment effects. The [VFA] changed with VFAmol (5.80 VFAmol+86.3; average within-study R2=0.56). However, the ratio of [VFA] to VFAmol ranged from 9.0 to 24

  11. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT brain tumor treatment based on voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For BNCT treatments, in addition to tumor target doses, non-negligible doses will result in all the remaining organs of the body. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as the average absorbed doses of each of organs of patients with brain tumor treated in the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The effective doses were evaluated according to the definitions of ICRP Publications 60 and 103 for the reference male and female computational phantoms developed in ICRP Publication 110 by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code with the THOR-Y09 beam source. The effective dose acquired in this work was compared with the results of our previous work calculated for an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom. It was found that the effective dose for the female voxel phantom is larger than that for the male voxel phantom by a factor of 1.2–1.5 and the effective dose for the voxel phantom is larger than that for the mathematical phantom by a factor of 1.3–1.6. For a typical brain tumor BNCT, the effective dose was calculated to be 1.51 Sv and the average absorbed dose for eye lenses was 1.07 Gy. - Highlights: • For a typical brain tumor BNCT, the effective dose was calculated to be 1.51 Sv. • The average absorbed dose for eye lenses was 1.07 Gy. • The effective doses for both male and female voxel phantoms were calculated. • The effective doses were compared between voxel and mathematical phantoms

  12. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone treatment in men with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. While current medication reduces relapses and inflammatory activity, it has only a modest effect on long-term disability and gray matter atrophy. Here, we have characterized the potential neuroprotective effects of testosterone on cerebral gray matter in a pilot clinical trial. Ten men with relapsing–remitting MS were included in this open-label phase II trial. Subjects were observed without treatment for 6 months, followed by testosterone treatment for another 12 months. Focal gray matter loss as a marker for neurodegeneration was assessed using voxel-based morphometry. During the non-treatment phase, significant voxel-wise gray matter decreases were widespread (p≤ 0.05 corrected. However, during testosterone treatment, gray matter loss was no longer evident. In fact, a significant gray matter increase in the right frontal cortex was observed (p≤ 0.05 corrected. These observations support the potential of testosterone treatment to stall (and perhaps even reverse neurodegeneration associated with MS. Furthermore, they warrant the investigation of testosterone's neuroprotective effects in larger, placebo controlled MS trials as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of gray matter increase as the result of treatment in MS.

  13. EFFECT OF DEEP COLD TREATMENT ON TWO CASE HARDENING STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.H. Surberg; P. Stratton; K. Lingenh(o)le

    2008-01-01

    Although cold treatments have been used to reduce the retained austenite in the cases of carburised steel for many years, there is little data on deep cold temperatures below -70℃ or treatment times longer than an hour or two. This study set out to determine the effects of such deep cold treatments at temperatures -150℃ C for 24 h.The study investigated the effects of deep cold on the microstructure, hardness profile, residual stress and internal oxidation on two typical carburising steels, 16MnCr5 and 21NiCrMo2. The study found that for both 16MnCr5 and 21NiCrMo2 carburised to a case depth of approximately 0.8 mm, the longer and colder the deep cold treatment, the more the austenite retained in the case was converted to martensite and the harder it became. After low temperature tempering, the hardness difference was smaller, but still significant. In both steels, the case appeared more refined and homogeneous after deep cold treatment. Deep cold treatment had a negligible effect on the core properties of either steel.

  14. Parameter Trajectory Analysis to Identify Treatment Effects of Pharmacological Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemann, Christian A.; Vanlier, Joep; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Albert K Groen; Hilbers, Peter A. J.; Natal A W van Riel

    2013-01-01

    The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological) treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT), to analyze the long-t...

  15. The effect of three different head-neck positions on the average EMG activity of three important neck muscles in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienapfel, K

    2015-02-01

    The Knowledge of muscle activity in common head-neck positions (HNPs) is a necessary precondition for making judgements on HNPs. The aim of the study was to record the surface electromyography activities of important muscles of the horse's neck in various HNPs. The electrical activities of the m. splenius, brachiocephalicus and trapezius were recorded on both sides. Five horses, both with and without a rider, were examined in all three gaits on both hands in three different HNPs: a 'free' position, a 'gathered' (head higher, neck more flexed) position with the noseline in front of the vertical and a 'hyperflexed' position. Averages of ten consecutive gait cycles in each HNP were evaluated and compared by standard statistical methods. No difference between ridden and unridden horses could be detected. The m. brachiocephalicus was in the hyperflexed position in all gaits significantly (p free position, which were not significantly different. By contrast, the m. splenius was in the hyperflexed position less active than in the free position (p free and gathered positions deviated significantly (p free (p free position. Again, the free and gathered positions differed significantly (p < 0.01). In trot, the same pattern occured, although the gathered and hyperflexed positions did not differ significantly. In the canter, the activities of the m. trapezius showed no differences between HNPs. In HNPs with the noseline in front of the vertical, the muscles of the topline (m. splenius, m. trapezius) are activated and trained. In the hyperflexed position, however, a major muscle of the lower topline (m. brachiocephalicus) is activated and trained. PMID:24954642

  16. Effects of Respiration-Averaged Computed Tomography on Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Quantification and its Potential Impact on Gross Tumor Volume Delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patient respiratory motion can cause image artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET) from PET/computed tomography (CT) and change the quantification of PET for thoracic patients. In this study, respiration-averaged CT (ACT) was used to remove the artifacts, and the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV) and gross tumor volume (GTV) were quantified. Methods and Materials: We incorporated the ACT acquisition in a PET/CT session for 216 lung patients, generating two PET/CT data sets for each patient. The first data set (PETHCT/HCT) contained the clinical PET/CT in which PET was attenuation corrected with a helical CT (HCT). The second data set (PETACT/ACT) contained the PET/CT in which PET was corrected with ACT. We quantified the differences between the two datasets in image alignment, maximum SUV (SUVmax), and GTV contours. Results: Of the patients, 68% demonstrated respiratory artifacts in the PETHCT, and for all patients the artifact was removed or reduced in the corresponding PETACT. The impact of respiration artifact was the worst for lesions less than 50 cm3 and located below the dome of the diaphragm. For lesions in this group, the mean SUVmax difference, GTV volume change, shift in GTV centroid location, and concordance index were 21%, 154%, 2.4 mm, and 0.61, respectively. Conclusion: This study benchmarked the differences between the PET data with and without artifacts. It is important to pay attention to the potential existence of these artifacts during GTV contouring, as such artifacts may increase the uncertainties in the lesion volume and the centroid location

  17. Effectiveness of sex offender treatment for psychopathic sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, Dennis M; Yates, Pamela M

    2008-04-01

    Meta-analyses have suggested that sexual offender treatment (SOT) completion is associated with lowered sexual recidivism rates for convicted sexual offenders. The paucity of properly designed studies allows for the alternative explanation of less recidivism among treated samples as reflecting that lower risk offenders disproportionately self-select into treatment. A test of the "self-selection explanation" can occur by investigating treatment effect on known high-risk offenders. Psychopathy correlates with increased sexual recidivism risk, such that an exploration of the SOT effect on psychopathic offenders could clarify the accuracy of the self-selection hypothesis. Additionally, the debated degree to which psychopaths are treatable might obtain clarification by a research review. This article examines empirical findings concerning the effectiveness of SOT for psychopathic sexual offenders. Ten studies were found to meet the minimal quality standards used, stemming from only four data sources. Shortcomings of existing research precluded clear conclusions, though trends in the data are delineated. PMID:17615428

  18. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy

  19. The Effect of Laser Treatment as a Weed Control Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Mathiassen, Solvejg K.; Christensen, Svend; Kudsk, Per

    2006-01-01

    for weed control, however, require a systematic investigation of the relationship between energy density and the biological effect on different weed species, growth stages, etc. This paper investigates the effect of laser treatment directed towards the apical meristems of selected weed species at the...... chickweed), Tripleurospermum inodorum (scentless mayweed) and Brassica napus (oilseed rape). The experiment showed that laser treatment of the apical meristems caused significant growth reduction and in some cases had lethal effects on the weed species. The biological efficacy of the laser control method...... was related to wavelength, exposure time, spot size and laser power. The efficacy also varied between the weed species. The results indicate that the efficacy of laser treatments can be improved by a more precise pointing of the laser beam towards the apical meristems and optimisation of the energy...

  20. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  1. Effect of drug treatment on hyperplastic gastric polyps infected with Helicobacter pylori: A randomized, controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ji; Zi-Wei Wang; Jian-Wen Ning; Qun-Yan Wang; Jian-Yong Chen; You-Ming Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of drug treatment on hyperplastic gastric polyps infected with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori).METHODS: Forty-eight patients with hyperplastic gastric polyps (3-10 mm in diameter) infected with H pylori were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 24) which received proton-pump inhibitor (omeprazole or lansoprazole), clarithromycin, bismuth citrate and tinidazole, and a control group (n = 24) which received protective agent of gastric mucosa (tepretone) . Patients underwent endoscopy and H pylori examination regularly before enrollment and 1-12 mo after treatment.RESULTS: Twenty-two patients in the treatment group and 21 in the control group completed the entire test protocol. In the treatment group, polyps disappeared 1-12 mo (average, 6.5 ± 1.1 mo) after the treatment in 15 of 22 patients (68.2%) and H pylori infection was eradicated in 19 of the 22 patients (86.4%). However, 12 months after the study, no change in polyps or H pylori status was seen in any controls (bp < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Most hyperplastic gastric polyps disappear after eradication of H pylori.

  2. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.)

  3. Averaging procedure in variable-G cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Vincenzo F

    2008-01-01

    Previous work in the literature had built a formalism for spatially averaged equations for the scale factor, giving rise to an averaged Raychaudhuri equation and averaged Hamiltonian constraint, which involve a backreaction source term. The present paper extends these equations to include models with variable Newton parameter and variable cosmological term, motivated by the non-perturbative renormalization program for quantum gravity based upon the Einstein--Hilbert action. The coupling between backreaction and spatially averaged three-dimensional scalar curvature is found to survive, and all equations involving contributions of a variable Newton parameter are worked out in detail. Interestingly, under suitable assumptions, an approximate solution can be found where the universe tends to a FLRW model, while keeping track of the original inhomogeneities through two effective fluids.

  4. Effectiveness of permethrin standard and modified methods in scabies treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Sungkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permethrin is the drug of choice for scabies with side effects such as erythema, pain, itching and prickling sensation. Whole-body (standard topical application of permethrin causes discomfort; thus, modified application of permethrin to the lesion only, followed with baths twice daily using soap was proposed. The objective of the study is to know the effectiveness of standard against lesion-only application of permethrin in scabies treatment.Methods: An experimental study was conducted in pesantren in East Jakarta and data was collected in May-July 2012. Diagnosis of scabies was made through anamnesis and skin examination. Subjects positive for scabies were divided into three groups: one standard method group (whole-body topical application and two modified groups (lesion-only application followed by the use of regular soap and antiseptic soap group. The three groups were evaluated weekly for three consecutive weeks. Data was processed using SPSS 20 and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test.Results: Total of 94 subjects was scabies positive (prevalence 50% but only 69 subjects were randomly picked to be analyzed. The cure rate at the end of week III of the standard method group was 95.7%, modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 91.3%, and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 78.3% (p = 0.163. The recurrence rate of standard treatment was 8.7%,  modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 13% and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 26.1% (p = 0.250.Conclusion: The standard scabies treatment was as effective as the modified scabies treatment.

  5. Late effects of treatment of cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, owing to advances in surgical techniques, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, there has been dramatic improvement in the survival of children with malignancies. Children cured of cancer will soon form a significant fraction of our adult population. As we follow such survivors, we have become more aware of long-term side effects of treatment. Therapy should not be withheld. Instead, careful follow-up of oncology patients is needed to document the adverse late effects, to identify the etiologic agents, and to alter treatment to give the least toxic therapy without sacrificing the quality or duration of survival. 229 references

  6. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.)

  7. Effect of treatment temperature on the microstructure of asphalt binders: insights on the development of dispersed domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, I; Masad, E; Bhasin, A

    2016-04-01

    This paper offers important insights on the development of the microstructure in asphalt binders as a function of the treatment temperature. Different treatment temperatures are useful to understand how dispersed domains form when different driving energies for the mobility of molecular species are provided. Small and flat dispersed domains, with average diameter between 0.02 and 0.70 μm, were detected on the surface of two binders at room temperature, and these domains were observed to grow with an increase in treatment temperature (up to over 2 μm). Bee-like structures started to appear after treatment at or above 100°C. Moreover, the effect of the binder thickness on its microstructure at room temperature and at higher treatment temperatures was investigated and is discussed in this paper. At room temperature, the average size of the dispersed domains increased as the binder thickness decreased. A hypothesis that conciliates current theories on the origin and development of dispersed domains is proposed. Small dispersed domains (average diameter around 0.02 μm) are present in the bulk of the binder, whereas larger domains and bee-like structures develop on the surface, following heat treatment or mechanical disturbance that reduces the film thickness. Molecular mobility and association are the key factors in the development of binder microstructure. PMID:26540203

  8. The Long Term Effects of Social Skills Training in Elevating Overall Academic Grade Point Average, School Attendance, Health Level, and Resistance to Drug Use and Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Nancy; Smith, Manuel J.

    Project STAR (Social Thinking and Reasoning Program) is a classroom-based social skills program for students in grades 5-8. To assess the long-term effectiveness of this program, students participated in the project (N=331) were compared with control students (N=191) during 1980-83. The hypothesis that there are significant differences in current…

  9. Comparing the treatment effectiveness of body acupuncture and auricular acupuncture in preoperative anxiety treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shengjun Wu; Jie Liang; Xia Zhu; Xufeng Liu; Danmin Miao

    2011-01-01

    Background: Preoperative anxiety has become more frequent in preoperative patients and can bring negative impact on operation outcomes. Many studies have reported the effect of body acupuncture in reducing anxiety syndromes. The aim of this study is to compare the treatment effect of body acupuncture and auricular acupuncture in preoperative pa-tients with preoperative anxiety. Methods: Thirty five elective ambulatory surgery patients were selected in the randomized and blinded trial. Subj...

  10. Microsieving in primary treatment: effect of chemical dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, J; Cimbritz, M; la Cour Jansen, J

    2016-01-01

    Primary and chemically enhanced primary wastewater treatment with microsieving (disc or drum filtration) was studied at the large pilot scale at seven municipal wastewater treatment plants in Europe. Without chemical dosing, the reduction of suspended solids (SS) was (on average) 50% (20-65%). By introducing chemically enhanced primary treatment and dosing with cationic polymer only, SS removal could be controlled and increased to >80%. A maximum SS removal of >90% was achieved with a chemical dosing of >0.007 mg polymer/mg influent SS and 20 mg Al(3+)/L or 30 mg Fe(3+)/L. When comparing sieve pore sizes of 30-40 μm with 100 μm, the effluent SS was comparable, indicating that the larger sieve pore size could be used due to the higher loading capacity for the solids. Phosphorus removal was adjusted with the coagulant dose, and a removal of 95-97% was achieved. Moreover, microsieving offers favourable conditions for automated dosing control due to the low retention time in the filter. PMID:27438249

  11. Leishmania amazonensis: effects of oral treatment with copaiba oil in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Costa, Marco Antonio; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; da Veiga-Júnior, Valdir Florêncio; de Souza Lima, Marli Miriam; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a severe public-health problem, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Efforts to find new, effective and safe oral agents for the treatment of leishmaniasis have been ongoing for several decades, in order to avoid the problems with the currently used antimonials. In the present study, we found that a copaiba oil oral treatment (Group IV) caused a significant reduction in the average lesion size (1.1±0.4mm) against Leishmania amazonensis lesions compared with untreated mice (Group I) (4.4±1.3mm). To prove the safety of the oil, the toxicity and genotoxicity were also determined. Histopathological evaluation did not reveal changes in the copaiba oil-treated animals compared to the control animals. In the mutagenicity evaluation, (micronucleus test) the dose tested (2000mg/kg) showed no genotoxic effects. Morphological and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated notable changes in parasite cells treated with this oleoresin. The main ultrastructural effect was mitochondrial swelling. We also demonstrated that in vitro copaiba oil treatment of L. amazonensis led to an increase in plasma membrane permeability, and depolarization in the mitochondrial membrane potential in parasite cells. Although the mechanism of action of the oleoresin is still unclear, these findings indicate that copaiba oil is a possible new drug, which would provide a safer, shorter, less-expensive, and more easily administered treatment for leishmaniasis. PMID:21771592

  12. Alcohol use disorder: pathophysiology, effects, and pharmacologic options for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wackernah RC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robin C Wackernah,1 Matthew J Minnick,1 Peter Clapp2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Rueckert-Hartman College for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Alcohol use disorders (AUD continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence. Keywords: abuse, alcohol, alcoholism, craving, dependence, relapse

  13. Rebound effect of drugs: fatal risk of conventional treatment and pharmacological basis of homeopathic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The homeopathic model applies the secondary action or vital reaction of the organism as a therapeutic method and thus prescribes treatment by similitude, which consists in administering to ill individuals substances that cause similar symptoms in healthy individuals. The vital, homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism might be explained scientifically by means of the rebound effect of modern drugs, which might cause fatal iatrogenic events after discontinuation of antipathic (a term used in alternative medicine for palliative treatment, also known as enantiopathic treatment. Although the rebound effect is studied by modern pharmacology, it is poorly communicated to and discussed among healthcare professionals, who are thus deprived of information needed for the safe management of modern drugs. This article presents an up-to-date review on the rebound effect of modern drugs that grounds the homeopathic principle of healing and calls the attention of doctors to this type of adverse effect that is usually unnoticed. The rebound effect of modern palliative drugs, which was pointed out by Hahnemann more than two centuries ago, might cause fatal adverse events and is illustrated by the examples of acetylsalicylic acid, anti-inflammatory agents, bronchodilators, antidepressants, statins, proton-pump inhibitors, etc. Although the rebound effect is expressed by a small fraction of (susceptible individuals and might be avoided by gradual tapering of antipathic drugs, it exhibits epidemiologic importance as a function of the massive use of such palliative drugs and the lack of knowledge in its regard.

  14. Sparsity Averaging for Compressive Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Wiaux, Yves

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel regularization method for sparse image reconstruction from compressive measurements. The approach relies on the conjecture that natural images exhibit strong average sparsity over multiple coherent frames. The associated reconstruction algorithm, based on an analysis prior and a reweighted $\\ell_1$ scheme, is dubbed Sparsity Averaging Reweighted Analysis (SARA). We test our prior and the associated algorithm through extensive numerical simulations for spread spectrum and Gaussian acquisition schemes suggested by the recent theory of compressed sensing with coherent and redundant dictionaries. Our results show that average sparsity outperforms state-of-the-art priors that promote sparsity in a single orthonormal basis or redundant frame, or that promote gradient sparsity. We also illustrate the performance of SARA in the context of Fourier imaging, for particular applications in astronomy and medicine.

  15. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Properties of Wool Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C. W.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, M. P.

    Wool fiber is commonly used in textile industry, however, it has some technical problems which affect the quality and performance of the finished products such as felting shrinkage, handle, lustre, pilling, and dyeability. These problems may be attributed mainly in the presence of wool scales on the fiber surface. Recently, chemical treatments such as oxidation and reduction are the commonly used descaling methods in the industry. However, as a result of the pollution caused by various chemical treatments, physical treatment such as low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment has been introduced recently because it is similarly capable of achieving a comparable descaling effect. Most of the discussions on the applications of LTP treatment on wool fiber were focused on applying this technique for improving the surface wettability and shrink resistance. Meanwhile, little discussion has been made on the mechanical properties, thermal properties, and the air permeability. In this paper, wool fabric was treated with LTP treatment with the use of a non-polymerizing gas, namely oxygen. After the LTP treatment, the fabrics low-stress mechanical properties, air permeability, and thermal properties were evaluated and discussed.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on high strength aluminium silicon alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the mechanical properties of domestically manufactured motor cycle pistons, the modification of structure by heat treatment has been studied. Pistons were subjected to different heat treatment cycles and optimum parameters were determined. Optical microscopic techniques and mechanical testing have been employed to study the effect of heat treatment o the microstructure and mechanical properties. A comparison of the properties of the domestically manufactured and imported pistons has also been made. Aluminum Silicon based alloys have been widely used for the production of automobile pistons due to their promising features like low coefficient of thermal expansion, high strength and favorable tribological characteristics. These properties can be further modified by alloying and heat treatment. (author)

  17. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On generalized averaged Gaussian formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalevic, Miodrag M.

    2007-09-01

    We present a simple numerical method for constructing the optimal (generalized) averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas which are the optimal stratified extensions of Gauss quadrature formulas. These extensions exist in many cases in which real positive Kronrod formulas do not exist. For the Jacobi weight functions w(x)equiv w^{(alpha,beta)}(x)D(1-x)^alpha(1+x)^beta ( alpha,beta>-1 ) we give a necessary and sufficient condition on the parameters alpha and beta such that the optimal averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas are internal.

  19. Effects of Heat Treatment on Microstructural Modification of As-Cast Gamma-TiAl Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Rahman; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Effects of normalizing and annealing treatments on the microstructure of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%) were investigated. Normalizing processes were done at 1385 ± 5 °C in α-phase domain with the heating rate of 10 °C/min, the average cooling rate of 30 °C/min, and the holding times of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min. The annealing process was done at the same temperature and heating rate, the holding time of 15 min, and the average cooling rate of 2 °C/min. Microstructures, phases, and hardness levels were studied by optical and field emission electron microscopic observations, x-ray diffractometry (XRD), and microhardness testing, respectively. Also, crystallographic texture variations were analyzed by means of texture coefficient and XRD results. Experimental results showed a linear direct relationship between treatment time and grain size, up to 15 min. A linear reversed behavior was observed for longer times. The untreated alloy consisted of γ and α2 phases with a columnar morphology with the length of about 300 μm. A near-lamellar microstructure with equiaxed gamma grains, Widmansttäten, and laminar γ + α2 colonies was obtained by the normalizing process. The maximum reduction of the grain size was about 70%, as achieved by normalizing with the 15 min holding time. A texture-free microstructure was acquired by normalizing treatment in comparison with strong texture of the as-cast and annealed alloys.

  20. Treatment Modifications and Treatment-Limiting Toxicities or Side Effects: Risk Factors and Temporal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Nikos; Psichogiou, Mina; Paparizos, Vassilios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Chini, Maria; Protopapas, Konstantinos; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Panos, George; Chrysos, George; Sambatakou, Helen; Katsarou, Olga; Touloumi, Giota

    2015-07-01

    Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) modifications are often required due to treatment failure or side effects. We investigate cART regimens' durability, frequency of treatment-limiting adverse events, and potential risk factors and temporal trends. Data were derived from the Athens Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (AMACS). Statistical analyses were based on survival techniques, allowing for multiple contributions per individual. Overall, 2,756 individuals, aged >15 years, initiated cART. cART regimens were grouped by their initiation date into four calendar periods (1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007+). Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] time to first treatment modification was 2.11 (1.95-2.33) years; cumulative probabilities at 1 year were 31.6%, 29.0%, 33.1%, and 29.6% for the four periods, respectively. cART modifications were less frequent in more recent years (adjusted HR=0.96 per year; pnonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens or triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based cART regimens. Treatment modifications have become less frequent in more recent years. This could be partly attributed to the lower risk for side effects of NNRTI-based cART regimens and mainly to the improved efficacy of newer drugs. However, the rate of drugs substitutions due to adverse events remains substantially high. PMID:25950848

  1. Competing risk and heterogeneity of treatment effect in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsheikh-Ali Alawi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been demonstrated that patients enrolled in clinical trials frequently have a large degree of variation in their baseline risk for the outcome of interest. Thus, some have suggested that clinical trial results should routinely be stratified by outcome risk using risk models, since the summary results may otherwise be misleading. However, variation in competing risk is another dimension of risk heterogeneity that may also underlie treatment effect heterogeneity. Understanding the effects of competing risk heterogeneity may be especially important for pragmatic comparative effectiveness trials, which seek to include traditionally excluded patients, such as the elderly or complex patients with multiple comorbidities. Indeed, the observed effect of an intervention is dependent on the ratio of outcome risk to competing risk, and these risks – which may or may not be correlated – may vary considerably in patients enrolled in a trial. Further, the effects of competing risk on treatment effect heterogeneity can be amplified by even a small degree of treatment related harm. Stratification of trial results along both the competing and the outcome risk dimensions may be necessary if pragmatic comparative effectiveness trials are to provide the clinically useful information their advocates intend.

  2. Effectiveness of improved treatment of inflamatory bowel disiseases in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actually is required to improve the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in infants on the principles of safety of therapeutic interventions and the impact on the basic pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the formation of the pathology of the bowel. Purpose — to evaluate the effectiveness of improved treatment of chronic non"specific non"ulcered colitis in infants using functional foods (pro", prebiotics, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, L-carnitine, hepatoprotectors and alternative formulas. Patients and methods. A total of 114 infants (from 9 months up to 3 years of life with chronic non-specific non-ulcerated (unidentified colitis were studded. Researched the effectiveness of improved treatment using pro-, prebiotics, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, L-carnitine, hepatoprotectors and semi-elemental formula of chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis on the basis of clinical and laboratory research methods, including bacteriological and immunological (TNF-α, ITF in serum, SIgA in coprofiltrates. Were used chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis activity index and the index of endoscopic changes of the intestinal mucosa during the treatment in infants. Results. It is shown that the use of functional foods as multiprobiotics, prebiotics, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and enhancing cellular energy provitamins as well as hepatoprotectors and alternative formulas in the treatment of chronic colitis in infants contributes to a significant improvement in the results of chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis treatment, more rapidly elimination of main symptoms and increase the number of positive results of treatment in infants with chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis (80.4% versus 55.2%. Conclusions. Results of the study allow us to recommend the use of elaborated improved treatment in infants with chronic non-specific non-ulcerated colitis on different levels of child healthcare.

  3. Is acupuncture effective in the treatment of pain in endometriosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund I

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iréne Lund,1 Thomas Lundeberg21Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 2Rehabilitation Medicine University Clinic Stockholm, Danderyds Hospital AB, Stockholm, SwedenIntroduction: Endometriosis is a multifactorial, estrogen-dependent, inflammatory gynecological condition – often with long-lasting visceral pelvic pain of different origin, and infertility among women. Current management options for patients’ are often inadequate, with side effects for many for whom acupuncture techniques could be an alternative. Earlier studies have discussed the efficacy of acupuncture, but not its methodological aspects.Objectives: To summarize the documented clinical effects of acupuncture on rated visceral pelvic endometriosis-related pain, and associated variables among individuals, within and between studied groups, and to discuss the methodological treatment aspects.Methods: Published full text clinical studies, case reports, and observational studies with abstracts written in English were searched by using the keywords “Acupuncture and Endometriosis” in databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL. The reporting guidelines, Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture was used for the methodological report.Results: Three studies were found including 99 women, 13–40 years old, with diagnosed endometriosis. The studies were different in research design, needle stimulation techniques, and evaluation instruments. Methodological similarities were seven to12 needle insertions per subject/session, and 15–25 minutes of needle retention time. The needles were placed in lower back/pelvic-abdominal area, in the shank, feet, and hands. Treatment numbers varied from nine to 16 and patients received one to two treatments per week. Similarity in reported treatment effects in the quoted studies, irrespective of research design or treatment technique, was reported decrease of rated pain intensity

  4. Binding energies of the 1g sub(9/2) and 1h sub(11/2) neutron and average two-body effective interactions V sub(pn) and V sub(nn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding energies of the single particle or hole orbitals of the 1g sub(9/2) and 1h sub(11/2) neutron shells are given as a simple linear function of the active valence proton and neutron numbers. This function is derived theoretically by the assumption of constant two-body effective interactions average V sub(ph) and average V sub(nn) in the relevant proton and neutron shell spaces. These values appearing in the function as the coefficients of the proton and neutron numbers are determined from the experimental binding energies by a least-squares fit. The good quality of fit between the experimental and fitted binding energies implies the plausibility of the formula and the assumption. The determined average V sub(pn) and average V sub(nn) have the absolute values and the signs consistent with those in the literature. The effective interactions in the case of the 1g sub(9/2) hole is found to decrease with increasing mass number. (author)

  5. [Treatment of overactive bladder in older women increased doses of antimuscarinic drugs safe and effective alternative to existing methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, K V; Loparev, S A; Krasnykh, M A; Kosilova, L V

    2014-01-01

    The study included 95 female patients of 65 to 74 years (average age 67,1 years), who previously (more than 6 months before this study) took a course of monotherapy with hydrochloride trospium in higher dosages with unstable or weak effect. In this study, all patients were divided into three groups and were treated with two antimuscarinic drugs. The majority of older women suffering from OAB and treatment-resistant taking one antimuscarinic drug in high doses showed a significant positive progress in a state by adding a second antimuscarinic agent. The received side effects do not exceed thereof in comparison with treatment with a single drug. PMID:25051773

  6. Neuroimaging the Effectiveness of Substance Use Disorder Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Wiers, Corinde E; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e.g., naltrexone, bupropion hydrochloride, baclofen, methadone, varenicline) and that improve cognitive control (e.g., modafinil, N-acetylcysteine), of behavioral treatments for substance use disorders (e.g., cognitive bias modification training, virtual reality, motivational interventions) and neuromodulatory interventions such as neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation. A consistent finding for the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions identifies the improvement of executive control networks and the dampening of limbic activation, highlighting their values as targets for therapeutic interventions in substance use disorders. PMID:27184387

  7. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods: Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC. The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata. Results: Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00 mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67 mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67 mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67 mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P<0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that the TPC and colour is not correlated with the antimycotic capacity. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  8. Mistletoe treatments for minimising side effects of anticancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 200,000 persons died in 2002 in Germany as a consequence of cancer diseases. Cancer (ICD-9: 140-208, ICD-10: C00-C97 accounted for 28% of all male deaths and for 22% of all female deaths. Cancer treatment consists on surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. During chemotherapy patients may experience a wide variety of toxic effects (including life-threatening toxicity which require treatment. The type and the intensity of chemotherapy toxicity are one of the limiting factors in cancer treatment. Toxic effects are also one of the factors affecting health related quality of life (HRQOL during chemotherapy. Mistletoe extracts belong to the group of so called „unconventional methods“ and are used in Germany as complementary cancer treatments. It has been postulated that the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes could help reduce chemotherapy-induced toxicity and enhance treatment tolerability. The German social health insurance covers the prescription of ML I standardized mistletoe extracts when those are prescribed as palliative cancer treatments with the aim of improving HRQOL. Research questions: * Does the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes reduce their toxicity? * Does the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes contribute to improve quality of life? * Has the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes any effects on survival? * Has the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes any effects on tumor-remission? Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in following databases: The Cochrane Library, DIMDI Superbase and Dissertation Abstracts. We included systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCT. Appraisal of literature was done by two authors independently. Checklists were used to guide literature appraisal. The Jadad-Score was used to score quality of RCT. Evidence was summarized in tables and in narrative form. Results and discussion: The

  9. Effects of storage on water treatment plant sludges

    OpenAIRE

    Cumbie, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of in-basin storage of sludge on the iron, manganese, and TOC removal of water treatment plant (WTP) clarifiers and on the dewatering characteristics of sludge were examined. The use of chlorine dioxide as a preoxidant to retard observed detrimental effects was also investigated. Sludge samples that were stored over a period of 120 days were found to release up to ten times the original supernatant concentration of iron and manganese from the sludge into the o...

  10. Effectiveness of Urban Wastewater Treatment Policies in Selected Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Smith, Carey; Kristensen, Peter;

    This pilot study examines the effectiveness of wastewater policies and measures in six Member States in order to identify and understand the reasons for both the successes and the shortfalls in implementation. Two of these countries have almost fully implemented the directive, two have yet to do ......-effectiveness. The report focuses on the extension of sewage plants with appropriate levels of treatment (biological or advanced) and trends in discharges to surface waters....

  11. Radiation treatment effect on sensibility of lead azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One presents the results of the radiation treatment effect on probability of lead azide explosion. Dependence of explosion probability on preliminary irradiation dose is shown to be of nonmonotonic nature: growth in the field of low doses and drop under high doses. The obtained experimental results agree with a divacancy model of initiation of heavy metal azides

  12. Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G.; Boswell, James F.; Constantino, Michael J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Hill, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on…

  13. Clinical Supervision in Treatment Transport: Effects on Adherence and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Chapman, Jason E.

    2009-01-01

    This nonexperimental study used mixed-effects regression models to examine relations among supervisor adherence to a clinical supervision protocol, therapist adherence, and changes in the behavior and functioning of youths with serious antisocial behavior treated with an empirically supported treatment (i.e., multisystemic therapy [MST]) 1 year…

  14. Violent Juvenile Delinquents: Treatment Effectiveness and Implications for Future Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, David C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Considers the research in addressing how society should reasonably invest in the treatment of violent juvenile offenders. The authors first examine the problems of evaluating interventions with violent youth, then explore various intervention options. The use of multisystemic therapy is offered as a cost-effective program for reducing juvenile…

  15. Apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease: Any Effective Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Rea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This review has evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment of apathy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted on published clinical trials assessing the effects of pharmacological treatment on apathy in AD over the last 10 years. Results. Fourteen studies considered of good quality were included in the analysis (4 randomized controlled trials, 9 open-label studies, and 1 retrospective analysis. Cholinesterase inhibitors were investigated in 9 studies, monoaminergic compounds such as methylphenidate and modafinil in two trials and one trial, respectively, and Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761 extract and citalopram in one study each. Cholinesterase inhibitors did not show statistical significant effect in 1 RCT study but were associated to improvement in 3 open-label studies. Methylphenidate elicited a small but significant activity accompanied by relevant side effects such as high blood pressure, cough, and osteoarticular pain. EGb 761 was well tolerated and countered apathy. Other treatments induced modest improvements or were ineffective. Conclusions. Apathy treatment remains a challenge and there is no evident advantage of any specific pharmacotherapy tested so far. The development of controlled studies according to updated guidelines for the diagnosis of apathy in patients with AD is desirable.

  16. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was estimat

  17. On T-matrix averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The T-matrix averaging procedure advocated by Burke, Berrington and Sukumar [1981, J. Phys. B. At. Mol. Phys. 14, 289] is demonstrated to hold in a class of soluble models for two different L2 basis expansions. The convergence rates as the bases are extended to completeness are determined. (author)

  18. Study of Convective Flow Effects in Endwall Casing Treatments in Transonic Compressor Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Mueller, Martin W.; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The unsteady convective flow effects in a transonic compressor rotor with a circumferential-groove casing treatment are investigated in this paper. Experimental results show that the circumferential-groove casing treatment increases the compressor stall margin by almost 50% for the current transonic compressor rotor. Steady flow simulation of the current casing treatment, however, yields only a 15% gain in stall margin. The flow field at near-stall operation is highly unsteady due to several self-induced flow phenomena. These include shock oscillation, vortex shedding at the trailing edge, and interaction between the passage shock and the tip clearance vortex. The primary focus of the current investigation is to assess the effects of flow unsteadiness and unsteady flow convection on the circumferential-groove casing treatment. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques were applied in addition to steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to simulate the flow field at near-stall operation and to determine changes in stall margin. The current investigation reveals that unsteady flow effects are as important as steady flow effects on the performance of the circumferential grooves casing treatment in extending the stall margin of the current transonic compressor rotor. The primary unsteady flow mechanism is unsteady flow injection from the grooves into the main flow near the casing. Flows moving into and out of the grooves are caused due to local pressure difference near the grooves. As the pressure field becomes transient due to self-induced flow oscillation, flow injection from the grooves also becomes unsteady. The unsteady flow simulation shows that this unsteady flow injection from the grooves is substantial and contributes significantly to extending the compressor stall margin. Unsteady flows into and out of the grooves have as large a role as steady flows in the circumferential grooves. While the

  19. Experimental Study of the Effects of Blade Treatments on the Tip Vortex Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchenko, Vera

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigates the effects of blade tip treatments on the characteristics of a wind turbine blade tip vortex. Three blade tip shapes including a blunt edge, leading edge comb, and a winglet were designed and tested in a low speed wind tunnel. The rotor with a blunt edge was considered to be a baseline case corresponding to an untreated blade tip. The leading-edge comb rotor was designed with leading edge tubercles extending from the tip of the blade inward, 6 percent of rotor diameter. The winglet located at the tip of the winglet rotor had a cant angle of 45 degrees. The wind turbine operated at a tip speed ratio of 5 and a tip Reynolds number of 14,000. The tip treatments were intended to weaken the tip vortices by encouraging dissipation (leading edge comb) or promoting the formation of weaker vortices (winglet). Time-resolved and phase-averaged PIV was used to measure the velocity field behind the rotor. The time-averaged velocity field was subtracted from the phase-averaged velocity field to isolate the time-varying components of the flow. The vorticity of the phase-averaged time-varying field was calculated, and the tip vortices were identified using a vortex identification method. Vortex characteristics such as core radius and vortex strength were calculated and compared for the three rotors. The analysis of the vorticity showed that the winglet rotor had weaker tip vortices with a larger core radius, while the serrated tip rotor had strong tip vortices with the same core radius as the baseline case.

  20. Effectiveness of a sex offender treatment programme: a risk band analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Anna C; Bright, David A

    2011-02-01

    This article reports an evaluation of a New South Wales Department of Corrective Services custody-based treatment programme for adult male sexual offenders. A risk band analysis was used to compare observed and predicted sexual and violent recidivism rates in a sample of 117 treated and released offenders. Risk bands and predicted recidivism were determined using the Static-99 risk assessment measure. Results demonstrated that during an average follow-up period of 3.75 years, observed sexual recidivism rates were lower than Static-99 predictions for the overall sample (8.5% vs. 26%). The same pattern was observed for violent recidivism (12.8% vs. 36%). At each Static-99 level of risk (low, low-moderate, moderate-high, and high), observed sexual and violent recidivism rates were lower than predicted rates. These findings were consistent with the general consensus that well-implemented cognitive-behavioural treatment can have a positive effect on offending behaviour. PMID:20081095

  1. [Effectiveness of Portable Thoracic Drainage Kit for Outpatient Treatment of Spontaneous Pneumothorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Abe, Koutaro; Ishibashi, Naoya; Imai, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The demand for outpatient management of spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) has been increased, therefore we evaluated the effectiveness of Thoracic Egg(TE), a portable thoracic drainage kit for SP. We studied 43 SP patients who had received TE treatment between May 2008 and October 2010. Ages were ranged 12~73 years (mean:29.1), with 39 males, 4 females, 25 had primary, 18 had recurrent, pneumothorax. Of the 43 patients, 23 were treated outpatient therapy with TE only, 20 were required hospitalization for persistent air leakage, poor expansion or intent to surgery. Surgical intervention was undergone in 18 patients for persistent air leaks or recurrent pneumothorax. The average length of treatment was 8.4 days for outpatient therapy only cases. Of 25 patients who had primary SP, 18( 72%) were not required hospitalization. Outpatient therapy using TE was considered very useful for SP, especially for primary cases. PMID:27246123

  2. An investigation of the effectiveness of blending (averaging) brown coal for state regional electric power plants (GRES). Issledovaniye effektivnosti usredneniya burykh ugley dlya GRES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The variability of the ash content of coal effects the specific expenditure of fuel by a state regional electric power plant for producing electric power. The studies were conducted at the Aleksandriyskiy thermal power plant (TeTs) number three and at the Zaporozhye, Yermakovskiy and Nazarovskiy state regional thermal power plants. It is established that a reduction in the mean square deviation of the hourly volumes of coal from 3 to 0.5 leads to a savings of 3.2 to 3.8 percent of coal and 2.4 to 2.9 percent brown coal. Regression equations are acquired. Correlation factors are calculated which do not exceed 0.7 percent of the reliable association between indicators.

  3. A time dependent zonally averaged energy balance model to be incorporated into IMAGE (Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect). Collaborative Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is placing increasing emphasis on the use of time-dependent impact models that are linked with energy-emission accounting frameworks and models that predict in a time-dependent fashion important variables such as atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, surface temperature and precipitation. Integrating these tools (greenhouse gas emission strategies, atmospheric processes, ecological impacts) into what is called an integrated assessment model will assist policymakers in the IPCC and elsewhere to assess the impacts of a wide variety of emission strategies. The Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE; developed at RIVM) represents such an integrated assessment model which already calculates historical and future effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global surface temperature, sea level rise and other ecological and socioeconomic impacts. However, to be linked to environmental impact models such as the Global Vegetation Model and the Timber Assessment Model, both of which are under development at RIVM and IIASA, IMAGE needs to be regionalized in terms of temperature and precipitation output. These key parameters will then enable the above environmental impact models to be run in a time-dependent mode. In this paper we lay the scientific and numerical basis for a two-dimensional Energy Balance Model (EBM) to be integrated into the climate module of IMAGE which will ultimately provide scenarios of surface temperature and precipitation, resolved with respect to latitude and height. This paper will deal specifically with temperature; following papers will deal with precipitation. So far, the relatively simple EBM set up in this paper resolves mean annual surface temperatures on a regional scale defined by 10 deg latitude bands. In addition, we can concentrate on the implementation of the EBM into IMAGE, i.e., on the steering mechanism itself. Both reasons justify the time and effort put into

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Guided Mastery and Exposure Treatments for Intractable Phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Lloyd; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared two models of phobia treatment. Severe height and driving phobics (N=32) were assigned to either mastery-oriented treatment based on self-efficacy theory, exposure treatment, or no treatment. Mastery treatment proved to be significantly more effective. Results indicated that treatments effect behavioral change through their intervening…

  5. The effects of isotretinoin treatment on sensory nerves: Electromyographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Canpolat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isotretinoin, a first generation retinoid, has been reported to cause a variety of side effects on the neuromuscular system. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral isotretinoin on electromyographic findings.Material and Method: Fifteen patients (9 males, 6 females, aged 21.0 ± 3.1 years with no evident neurological and neurophysiological findings planned to be treated with oral isotretinoin for nodulocystic acne were enrolled in this study. All the patients underwent some laboratory investigations before treatment to exclude the other causes of peripheral neuropathy. Patients with normal findings in the first exam were prescribed 0.5 mg/kg/day oral isotretinoin. Before and after 6th months of isotretinoin treatment, neurological examination and electromyographic studies were performed.Results: Clinical examinations and electromyographic evaluations before and after treatment disclosed no abnormalities in any of the patients. Although the motor conduction parameters did not show any difference, a significant decrease in the mean sensory conduction velocities of median, ulnar and sural nerves and the mean amplitude of sensory action potential of ulnar nerve were detected 6 months after onset of treatment compared with pre-treatment values (p=0.04, p=0.03, p=0.01, p<0.01, respectively.Conclusion: Systemic administration of isotretinoin may cause electromyographic changes.

  6. A cost/effectiveness evaluation of lay therapy treatment for child abusing and high risk parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, J P; Clarke, M E

    1986-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation tested the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of a lay therapy treatment program in comparison with a standard social work treatment approach. A pretest-extended posttest research design was used to follow a group of child abusing and high risk mothers who received lay therapy (N = 27) and a randomized control group of similar clients (N = 28) over a 12-month period. Outcome data were obtained through interview and direct observation of the parents and children at six-month intervals. A variety of standardized instruments were used including Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Test, Coopersmith's Self-Opinion Form, and the Nurturance and Parent Observation Scales, adapted from Baumrind. Treatment success was defined as progression toward the mean scores of a matched comparison group (N = 21) obtained from the general population of the community during the pretest. The results indicated a trend toward improvement on the outcome measures for both treatment groups. The group receiving lay therapy treatment improved only slightly more than the group receiving standard treatment; however, there was also significantly less attrition with the lay therapy group. Analysis of time budget study data indicated that the lay therapists spent an average of 17.46 hours per month with each of their clients thus permitting the social workers to spend considerably less time with lay therapy clients. Analysis of the direct costs of the programs, based on time budget information, indicated that the lay therapy treatment involved more direct client contact than the standard treatment approach and was also substantially more costly. The high cost of the program was attributed to low caseloads and redundancy in supervision. This study presents several practical program and research recommendations. PMID:3091196

  7. Effects of Bright Light Treatment on Psychomotor Speed in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MikkoPaavoTulppo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days. A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both treatment was given every morning between 8–12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time x group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024 but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308. Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year.

  8. Mistletoe treatments for minimising side effects of anticancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Reinhard; Velasco Garrido, Marcial; Lange-Lindberg, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: More than 200,000 persons died in 2002 in Germany as a consequence of cancer diseases. Cancer (ICD-9: 140-208, ICD-10: C00-C97) accounted for 28% of all male deaths and for 22% of all female deaths. Cancer treatment consists on surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. During chemotherapy patients may experience a wide variety of toxic effects (including life-threatening toxicity) which require treatment. The type and the intensity of chemotherapy toxicity are one of the limiting factors ...

  9. Measuring and understanding treatment effectiveness in hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Christopher J; Thoma, Achilleas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-08-01

    Incorporating evidence-based medicine into practice is now an expectation for hand surgeons. Hand surgeons need to be able to assess associated benefits, risks, cost, and applicability of a treatment option when providing care to their patients. Using a clinical example, this article takes the reader through the three-step approach when using a publication from the medical literature on therapy. The focus of this article is primarily the second and third steps, which involve measuring and understanding treatment effectiveness. PMID:25066847

  10. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after the...... 15 min air corona treatment. A significant reduction in anodic and cathodic reactivities was observed starting from 1 min exposure, which further decreased with prolonged exposure (15 min) and after delayed testing (after 30 days). The reduction in surface reactivity is due to the formation of...

  11. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kotb El-Sayed, Mohamed-I; Amin, Hatem-K

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients. Patients and methods In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10) or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10). Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment i...

  12. Effectiveness of steroid treatment in myasthenia gravis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosi, V; Citterio, A; Lombardi, M; Piccolo, G; Romani, A; Erbetta, A

    1991-07-01

    The records of 142 patients with generalized autoimmune myasthenia gravis who had been treated with steroids as the single immunosuppressive agent, collected at regular intervals, were employed for a retrospective evaluation. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed after 24 months; the data from the 6th and 12th months were also considered. After 24 months, 63.4% of the whole sample had improved (33.8% were in clinical or pharmacological remission); 13.4% were unchanged or had worsened and 22.3% had moved to a different immunosuppressive treatment. The rate of positive outcome was higher in patients over the age of 40 at disease onset. PMID:1927259

  13. Reformulation of Ensemble Averages via Coordinate Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Andrew J; Moustafa, Sabry G; Lin, Weisong; Weinstein, Steven J; Kofke, David A

    2016-04-12

    A general framework is established for reformulation of the ensemble averages commonly encountered in statistical mechanics. This "mapped-averaging" scheme allows approximate theoretical results that have been derived from statistical mechanics to be reintroduced into the underlying formalism, yielding new ensemble averages that represent exactly the error in the theory. The result represents a distinct alternative to perturbation theory for methodically employing tractable systems as a starting point for describing complex systems. Molecular simulation is shown to provide one appealing route to exploit this advance. Calculation of the reformulated averages by molecular simulation can proceed without contamination by noise produced by behavior that has already been captured by the approximate theory. Consequently, accurate and precise values of properties can be obtained while using less computational effort, in favorable cases, many orders of magnitude less. The treatment is demonstrated using three examples: (1) calculation of the heat capacity of an embedded-atom model of iron, (2) calculation of the dielectric constant of the Stockmayer model of dipolar molecules, and (3) calculation of the pressure of a Lennard-Jones fluid. It is observed that improvement in computational efficiency is related to the appropriateness of the underlying theory for the condition being simulated; the accuracy of the result is however not impacted by this. The framework opens many avenues for further development, both as a means to improve simulation methodology and as a new basis to develop theories for thermophysical properties. PMID:26950263

  14. Stochastic Approximation with Averaging Innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Laruelle, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish a convergence theorem for multi-dimensional stochastic approximation in a setting with innovations satisfying some averaging properties and to study some applications. The averaging assumptions allow us to unify the framework where the innovations are generated (to solve problems from Numerical Probability) and the one with exogenous innovations (market data, output of "device" $e.g.$ an Euler scheme) with stationary or ergodic properties. We propose several fields of applications with random innovations or quasi-random numbers. In particular we provide in both setting a rule to tune the step of the algorithm. At last we illustrate our results on five examples notably in Finance.

  15. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Travers

    2010-11-01

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.

  16. Parameter trajectory analysis to identify treatment effects of pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Tiemann

    Full Text Available The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT, to analyze the long-term effects of a pharmacological intervention. A concept of time-dependent evolution of model parameters is introduced to study the dynamics of molecular adaptations. The progression of these adaptations is predicted by identifying necessary dynamic changes in the model parameters to describe the transition between experimental data obtained during different stages of the treatment. The trajectories provide insight in the affected underlying biological systems and identify the molecular events that should be studied in more detail to unravel the mechanistic basis of treatment outcome. Modulating effects caused by interactions with the proteome and transcriptome levels, which are often less well understood, can be captured by the time-dependent descriptions of the parameters. ADAPT was employed to identify metabolic adaptations induced upon pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor (LXR, a potential drug target to treat or prevent atherosclerosis. The trajectories were investigated to study the cascade of adaptations. This provided a counter-intuitive insight concerning the function of scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a receptor that facilitates the hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Although activation of LXR promotes cholesterol efflux and -excretion, our computational analysis showed that the hepatic capacity to clear cholesterol was reduced upon prolonged treatment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by immunoblotting measurements of SR-B1

  17. Synergistic Effects of Gold Nanocages in Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-Wei; Guo, Wei-Hua; Qi, Ya-Fei; Wang, Jian-Zhen; Ma, Xiang-Xing; Yu, De-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Gold nanocages (GNCs) are a promising material that not only converts near infrared (NIR) light to heat for the ablation of tumors but also acts as a radiosensitizer. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has a synergistic effect that can lead to significant tumor cell necrosis. In the current study, we synthesized GNCs that offered the combined effects of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. This combination strategy resulted in increased tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor tissue necrosis. We propose that GNCs can be used for clinical treatment and to potentially overcome resistance to radiotherapy by clearly increasing the antitumor effect. PMID:27255899

  18. Synergistic Effects of Gold Nanocages in Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-wei; Guo, Wei-hua; Qi, Ya-fei; Wang, Jian-zhen; Ma, Xiang-xing; Yu, De-xin

    2016-06-01

    Gold nanocages (GNCs) are a promising material that not only converts near infrared (NIR) light to heat for the ablation of tumors but also acts as a radiosensitizer. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has a synergistic effect that can lead to significant tumor cell necrosis. In the current study, we synthesized GNCs that offered the combined effects of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. This combination strategy resulted in increased tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor tissue necrosis. We propose that GNCs can be used for clinical treatment and to potentially overcome resistance to radiotherapy by clearly increasing the antitumor effect.

  19. Prevalence of Side Effects Treatment with Carbamazepine and Other Antiepileptics in Patients with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliqi, Rozafa; Polidori, Carlo; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This paper reveals the studies of carbamazepine monitoring in the manifestation of side effects during clinical use. It is important to realize that these ranges are derived statistically, with most patients who have high levels suffering side effects and some with poor control having low levels. Broadly, the newer agents have advantages of lower risk of side effects and less drug interaction. At the presence they are more expensive than the, than “older” agents. Current recommendations and practice are to use newer agents as second line drugs, although in some countries there are gaining favour as potential first line agents. Methods: In the study 91 patients with epilepsy were involved from which 53 or 58.2% were female and 38 or 41.8% were male with no great significant difference between two genders (X2=2.47, P=0.116). However, according to the study results female patients had slightly greater prevalence of epilepsy than man. Average age of epileptic patients was 23.2 years (SD ± 16.4 years), in the range 1–66 years. Patient distribution was present within all age-groups, but 59.4% of all patients were up to 20 years old. The highest prevalence of epilepsy was in the group age 6-15 years old: 33.0%. There were also children 1 – 5 years old with 7 or 7.7% of the patients, and the patients older than 60 years with 4 or 4.4% of the patients. Patient distribution according to the age and gender results with no female patient over 60 year old and more female patients in the age group 1-5 years. However statistically this did not produce a highly significant difference (T-test= 0.72, P=0.437) between average age according to the gender. The average age of the female gender was 22.1 year (SD ± 14.2 years), with the range 2-55 years, while the average age of the male patients was 24.6 year (SD ±19.2 years), with the range 1-66 years. Conclusion: Unwanted side effects of antiepileptic drugs analyzed in the study are frequent, but not so severe as

  20. Factors Associated with Effectiveness of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients with Thin Endometrium Undergoing Estrogen Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Miao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Thinner EMT before estrogen treatment requires longer treatment duration and predicts poorer treatment outcomes. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the duration of estrogen administration. Assisted reproductive outcomes of patients whose treatment is successful (i.e., achieves an EMT ≥8 mm are similar to those of controls. The quality of embryos transferred is an important predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes in patients treated successfully with exogenous estrogen.

  1. Estimating treatment effects with treatment switching via semicompeting risks models: an application to a colorectal cancer study

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Donglin; Chen, Qingxia; Chen, Ming-Hui; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment switching is a frequent occurrence in clinical trials, where, during the course of the trial, patients who fail on the control treatment may change to the experimental treatment. Analysing the data without accounting for switching yields highly biased and inefficient estimates of the treatment effect. In this paper, we propose a novel class of semiparametric semicompeting risks transition survival models to accommodate treatment switches. Theoretical properties of the proposed model...

  2. Comparison of therapeutic effects of Finasteride jel and tablet in treatment of Androgenic Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hajheydari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Finasteride, a type П– selective 5α– reductase inhibitor, that causes decreasing Dihydrotestestrone (DHT levels, is effective in treatment of male androgenic alopecia.The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of local finasteride on androgenic alopecia treatment in comparison with oral finasteride.Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial including 45 male patients involved with androgenetic alopecia according to history and physical examination and possessing the study criteria selected among patients reffered to private clinics and departments of dermatology in Sari city.Patients were divided into two groups: patients in group A (finasteride jel and placebo tablet and patients in group B (finastride tablet and pelacebo jel and the eligible reffered patients were gradually and randomly entered the two groups. The treatment period was 6 months. In order to evaluate the drug effects and progressive state of the patients and assessment of drug complications, the patients were followed up by clinical observation and recording of side effects before study and at the end of the first week and then every month after starting the treatment. The variables used to evaluate the therapeutic response were: size of defect, hair count and terminal hair count. The analysis was done using descriptive and X² statistical methods.Results: Of the 45 patients enrolled, 38 completed the entire study period. The average period since the onder of hair loss was 18.8 ± 23.10 months. Every month the size of alopecia area, hair count and terminal hair count between the two groups were compared and there were on significant statistical differences. In the third month of treatment, an increase in terminal hair count were observed in group A (P=0.001, this phenomenon was observed in second months in group B (P=0.015. During the therapeutic period, the size of alopecia area did not significantly

  3. Effect of combined treatments on viscosity of whey dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whey proteins, enriched protein fractions from milk, are of great interest as ingredients due to nutritional value associated with its functional properties. These proteins could have their structural properties improved when some treatments are applied, such as thermal and gamma irradiation or when some compounds are added. The current work aimed to study the viscometer behavior of whey dispersions submitted to two different combined treatments: (1) thermal plus irradiation and (2) thermal plus vacuum and N2 plus irradiation. Dispersions of whey protein in water (5% and 8% protein (w/v) base) and containing proteins and glycerol at ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein:glycerol) were submitted to both combined treatments. The irradiation doses were 0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy. The viscosity of the two combined treatments and for four levels of absorbed doses is presented and the combined effects are discussed. The thermal treatment combined with gamma irradiation contributed to increase the viscosity as irradiation doses increases for both (5% and 8%) concentrations of proteins (p<0.05). For protein and glycerol solutions, the irradiation dose seemed to result in a slightly increase. The vacuum applied before the irradiation showed a small contribution

  4. Effect of combined treatments on viscosity of whey dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camillo, A.; Sabato, S. F.

    2004-09-01

    Whey proteins, enriched protein fractions from milk, are of great interest as ingredients due to nutritional value associated with its functional properties. These proteins could have their structural properties improved when some treatments are applied, such as thermal and gamma irradiation or when some compounds are added. The current work aimed to study the viscometer behavior of whey dispersions submitted to two different combined treatments: (1) thermal plus irradiation and (2) thermal plus vacuum and N 2 plus irradiation. Dispersions of whey protein in water (5% and 8% protein (w/v) base) and containing proteins and glycerol at ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein:glycerol) were submitted to both combined treatments. The irradiation doses were 0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy. The viscosity of the two combined treatments and for four levels of absorbed doses is presented and the combined effects are discussed. The thermal treatment combined with gamma irradiation contributed to increase the viscosity as irradiation doses increases for both (5% and 8%) concentrations of proteins ( p<0.05). For protein and glycerol solutions, the irradiation dose seemed to result in a slightly increase. The vacuum applied before the irradiation showed a small contribution.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on stainless steel orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido; Kasbergen, Geraldo Francisco; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos; Mendonça, Marcos Rogério de; Tondelli, Pedro Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on CrNi stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Half of forty archwires of each thickness - 0.014" (0.35 mm), 0.016" (0.40 mm), 0.018" (0.45 mm) and 0.020" (0.50 mm) (totalling 160 archwires) - were subjected to heat treatment while the remainder were not. All of the archwires had their individual thickness measured in the anterior and posterior regions using AutoCad 2000 software before and after compressive and tensile strength testing. The data was statistically analysed utilising multivariance ANOVA at a 5% significance level. All archwires without heat treatment that were subjected to tensile strength testing presented with anterior opening, which was more accentuated in the 0.020" archwires. In the posterior region, the opening produced by the tensile force was more accentuated in the archwires without heat treatment. There was greater stability in the thermally treated archwires, especially those subjected to tensile strength testing, which indicates that the heat treatment of orthodontic archwires establishes a favourable and indispensable condition to preserve the intercanine width. PMID:21359492

  6. The effect of dose calculation accuracy on inverse treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraj, Robert; Keall, Paul J.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2002-02-01

    The effect of dose calculation accuracy during inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was studied in this work. Three dose calculation methods were compared: Monte Carlo, superposition and pencil beam. These algorithms were used to calculate beamlets, which were subsequently used by a simulated annealing algorithm to determine beamlet weights which comprised the optimal solution to the objective function. Three different cases (lung, prostate and head and neck) were investigated and several different objective functions were tested for their effect on inverse treatment planning. It is shown that the use of inaccurate dose calculation introduces two errors in a treatment plan, a systematic error and a convergence error. The systematic error is present because of the inaccuracy of the dose calculation algorithm. The convergence error appears because the optimal intensity distribution for inaccurate beamlets differs from the optimal solution for the accurate beamlets. While the systematic error for superposition was found to be ~1% of Dmax in the tumour and slightly larger outside, the error for the pencil beam method is typically ~5% of Dmax and is rather insensitive to the given objectives. On the other hand, the convergence error was found to be very sensitive to the objective function, is only slightly correlated to the systematic error and should be determined for each case individually. Our results suggest that because of the large systematic and convergence errors, inverse treatment planning systems based on pencil beam algorithms alone should be upgraded either to superposition or Monte Carlo based dose calculations.

  7. Effect of high-pressure treatment on hard cheese proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabel, Luciana M; Bergamini, Carina; Vaudagna, Sergio R; Cuatrin, Alejandra L; Audero, Gabriela; Hynes, Erica

    2016-06-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has been proposed to reduce the ripening time of cheese via modifications in the enzymatic activities or the substrate reactivity. Investigations on the effect of HHP on cheese proteolysis have been undertaken with either encouraging results or little effect according to the treatment conditions and the type of cheese, but information concerning the effect of HHP on the ripening of hard cooked cheese is still lacking. In this report, we describe the effect of HHP treatment on Reggianito cheese proteolysis. For that purpose, 1-d-old miniature cheeses (5.5-cm diameter and 6-cm height) were treated at 100 or 400MPa and 20°C for 5 or 10min, and control cheeses in the trial were not pressurized. All cheeses were ripened at 12°C during 90d. The HHP did not affect gross composition of the cheeses, but microbial load changed, especially because the starter culture count was significantly lower at the beginning of the ripening of the cheeses treated at 400MPa than in controls and cheeses treated at 100MPa. Cheeses treated at 400MPa for 10min had significantly higher plasmin activity than did the others; the residual coagulant activity was not affected by HHP. Proteolysis assessment showed that most severe treatments (400MPa) also resulted in cheeses with increased breakdown of αS1- and β-CN. In addition, nitrogen content in soluble fractions was significantly higher in cheeses treated at 400MPa, as well as soluble peptides and free AA production. Peptide profiles and individual and total content of free AA in 60-d-old treated cheese were as high as in fully ripened control cheeses (90d). Holding time had an effect only on pH-4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction and plasmin activity; cheese treated for 10min showed higher values than those treated for 5min, at both levels of pressure assayed. We concluded that HHP treatments at 400MPa applied 1d after cheesemaking increased the rate of proteolysis, leading to an

  8. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons onMontakhab El-Kanaterguavas andHachiyapersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in Montakhab El-Kanaterguavas and Hachiyapersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments

  9. Michel Parameters averages and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new measurements of Michel parameters in τ decays are combined to world averages. From these measurements model independent limits on non-standard model couplings are derived and interpretations in the framework of specific models are given. A lower limit of 2.5 tan β GeV on the mass of a charged Higgs boson in models with two Higgs doublets can be set and a 229 GeV limit on a right-handed W-boson in left-right symmetric models (95 % c.l.)

  10. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  11. Antibiogram Pattern of Shigella flexneri: Effect of Bio Field Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Alice Branton; Dahryn Trivedi; Gopal Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. fle...

  12. Lifetime health effects and costs of diabetes treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Niessen, Louis Wilhelmus; Dijkstra, R.; Hutubessy, Raymond; Rutten, Guy; Casparie, Anton

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This article presents cost-effectiveness analyses of the major diabetes interventions as formulated in the revised Dutch guidelines for diabetes type 2 patients in primary and secondary care. The analyses consider two types of care: diabetes control and the treatment of complications, each at current care level and according to the guidelines. METHODS: A validated probabilistic diabetes model describes diabetes and its complications over a lifetime in the Dutch populat...

  13. Effect of Preharvest Calcium Treatments on Sweet Cherry Fruit Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz EROGUL

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different foliar calcium compounds on fruit cracking and quality of sweet cherry variety ‘0900 Ziraat’ were investigated. Calcium caseinate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide and calcium nitrate were used as foliar sprays. Calcium applications reduced the cracking index 38% to 66% compared to cherries that did not receive foliar treatment. The most efficient applications for decreasing cracking were calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride. Calcium chloride and c...

  14. Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; Navar, Ann Marie; Halsey, Neal A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The current strategy utilized by WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to reach the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy 2010 measles reduction goal includes increasing coverage of measles vaccine, vitamin A treatment and supplementation in addition to offering two doses of vaccine to all children. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental (QE) studies in order to determine effect estimates of measles v...

  15. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was estimated in a one-year observational study. It was concluded that herds in the Netherlands varied substantially in their mastitis occurrence, indicating room for improvement of udder health. The relation...

  16. Weightbath hydrotraction treatment: application, biomechanics, and clinical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Kurutz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Márta Kurutz1, Tamás Bender21Department of Structural Mechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary; 2Department of Physical Medicine, Polyclinic and Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers of St. John of God, Budapest, Medical University of Szeged, HungaryBackground and purpose: Weightbath hydrotraction treatment (WHT is a simple noninvasive effective method of hydro- or balneotherapy to stretch the spine or lower limbs, applied successfully in hospitals and health resort sanitaria in Hungary for more than fifty years. This study aims to introduce WHT with its biomechanical and clinical effects. History, development, equipment, modes of application, biomechanics, spinal traction forces and elongations, indications and contraindications of WHT are precented.Subjects and methods: The calculation of traction forces acting along the spinal column during the treatment is described together with the mode of suspension and the position of extra weight loads applied. The biomechanics of the treatment are completed by in vivo measured elongations of lumbar segments using a special underwater ultrasound measuring method. The clinical effects, indications, and contraindications of the treatment are also presented.Results: In the underwater cervical suspension of a human body, approximately 25 N stretching load occurs in the cervical spine, and about 11 N occurs in the lumbar spine. By applying extra weights, the above tensile forces along the spinal column can be increased. Thus, the traction effect can be controlled by applying such loads during the treatment. Elongations of segments L3–L4, L4–L5, and L5–S1 were measured during the usual WHT of patients suspended cervically in water for 20 minutes, loaded by 20–20 N lead weights on the ankles. The mean initial elastic elongations of spinal segments were about 0.8 mm for patients aged under 40 years, 0.5 mm between 40–60 years, and 0.2 mm for patients over 60 years. The mean

  17. Construction of average adult Japanese voxel phantoms for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted the adult reference voxel phantoms based on the physiological and anatomical reference data of Caucasian on October, 2007. The organs and tissues of these phantoms were segmented on the basis of ICRP Publication 103. In future, the dose coefficients for internal dose and dose conversion coefficients for external dose calculated using the adult reference voxel phantoms will be widely used for the radiation protection fields. On the other hand, the body sizes and organ masses of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian. In addition, there are some cases that the anatomical characteristics such as body sizes, organ masses and postures of subjects influence the organ doses in dose assessment for medical treatments and radiation accident. Therefore, it was needed to use human phantoms with average anatomical characteristics of Japanese. The authors constructed the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms by modifying the previously developed high-resolution adult male (JM) and female (JF) voxel phantoms. It has been modified in the following three aspects: (1) The heights and weights were agreed with the Japanese averages; (2) The masses of organs and tissues were adjusted to the Japanese averages within 10%; (3) The organs and tissues, which were newly added for evaluation of the effective dose in ICRP Publication 103, were modeled. In this study, the organ masses, distances between organs, specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and dose conversion coefficients of these phantoms were compared with those evaluated using the ICRP adult reference voxel phantoms. This report provides valuable information on the anatomical and dosimetric characteristics of the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms developed as reference phantoms of adult Japanese. (author)

  18. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Abdissa, Alemseged; Kæstel, Pernille;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months...... by patients with undetectable viral load at three months. Patients receiving delayed supplementation had higher weight gain but lower gains in functional outcomes. Conclusions: Lipid based nutritional supplements improved gain of weight, lean body mass, and grip strength in patients with HIV starting...

  19. No-waste-measurement method with a LSC. Effects of surface treatment for plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic scintillator (PS) sheets were treated with dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) or by fluorine gas (F-gas) to become its surface hydrophilicity. A hydrophobic PS-sheet changed by these treatments and contact area of sample solution became wide, so measurement efficiency of beta-rays became higher than before treatment. Surface treatment was effective, especially for low energy beta-rays. Average measurement efficiency was approx. 35% for 5 μL tritium samples with 1 min. plasma treatment, and count rate showed good linearity with activity (Bq) from 2 to 400 Bq/5 μL. Little radioactive waste was generated by the PS-sheets method because the PS-sheets were measured by a conventional liquid scintillation counter (LSC) without liquid scintillator and they were possible to reuse by simple rinsing. Also unquenching spectra was gotten by the PS-sheets. The PS-sheets method is possible both of qualitative and quantitative analysis without radioactive wastes. (author)

  20. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie R. Schover

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options.

  1. Assessment of psychological effects of dental treatment on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of present study is to investigate the various psychological effects on children due to dental treatment. Materials and Methods : One hundred and eighty school going children, age range between six and twelve years, were recruited into the study and divided into two groups (Group I included six to nine-year-olds and Group II included nine-to-twelve year olds. Only those children were included who underwent a certain dental treatment seven days prior to the investigation. Each child was asked a preformed set of questions. The child was allowed to explain and answer in his own way, rather than only in yes or no. The answers were recorded. After interviewing, the child was asked either to draw a picture or to write an essay related to his experience regarding the dentist and dental treatment. Results : A majority of the children (92.22% had a positive perception. The number of children having negative and neutral perceptions was comparatively much less. Younger children (Group I had a more negative experience than the older children (Group II. Only one-fourth of the children complained of some pretreatment fear (23.83%; 72.09% of the children did not have any pain during dental treatment and a majority of children (80.23% remembered their dental treatment. Conclusion : A majority of children had a positive perception of their dental treatment and the children in the younger age group had more negative perceptions than the children in the older age group.

  2. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, Leslie R; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2014-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options. PMID:26217165

  3. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm-1 of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P < 0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  4. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei, E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang Quanying; Wu Danya [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-12-30

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm{sup -1} of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P < 0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  5. Is immunotherapy an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga

    2015-11-27

    Immunotherapy has a great potential of becoming a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs. It may be used to treat addiction but also to prevent neurotoxic complications of drug overdose. In preclinical studies two immunological methods have been tested; active immunization, which relies on the administration of vaccines and passive immunization, which relies on the administration of monoclonal antibodies. Until now researchers have succeeded in developing vaccines and/or antibodies against addiction to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and phencyclidine. Their effectiveness has been confirmed in preclinical studies. At present, clinical studies are being conducted for vaccines against nicotine and cocaine and also anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. These preclinical and clinical studies suggest that immunotherapy may be useful in the treatment of addiction and drug overdose. However, there are a few problems to be solved. One of them is controlling the level of antibodies due to variability between subjects. But even obtaining a suitable antibody titer does not guarantee the effectiveness of the vaccine. Additionally, there is a risk of intentional or unintentional overdose. As vaccines prevent passing of drugs through the blood/brain barrier and thereby prevent their positive reinforcement, some addicted patients may erroneously seek higher doses of psychoactive substances to get "high". Consequently, vaccination should be targeted at persons who have a strong motivation to free themselves from drug dependency. It seems that immunotherapy may be an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction if directed to adequate candidates for treatment. For other addicts, immunotherapy may be a very important element supporting psycho- and pharmacotherapy. PMID:26432911

  6. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with acute episodes of mania were enrolled in this study, and they were randomly assigned into a risperidone group of 24 cases and an aripiprazole group of 26 cases. In group A, aripiprazole with a dose of 5-30 mg/day and in group B, risperidone with a dose of 2-8 mg/day was given to patients. The average dose of aripiprazole was 27 mg/day, and the average dose of risperidone was 6 mg/day. The effects of each drug for the treatment of acute mania were assessed on the 1 st day of admission and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 after therapy using the young mania rating scale (YMRS and at the baseline and on weeks 3 and 6 after admission using the clinical global impression (CGI scale. Results: The mean age of the group of risperidone was 34 ± 8.6 years and in a group of aripiprazole it was 34 ± 9.1 years (P = 0.83. Comparison of YMRS scores over the period of 6 weeks revealed a statistically significant difference in both groups (P < 0.0001.There was also a statistically significant difference in YMRS scores between risperidone and aripiprazole at day 8 (P = 0.026 and weeks 2 (P = 0.035 and 4 (P = 0.042. There was also a statistically significant difference in CGI-Severity scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.003 and 6 (P = 0.000 and in CGI-Improvement scale score at weeks 3 (P = 0.005 and 6 (P = 0.002. The most common side-effect observed in both groups was headache (0%15/4 in aripiprazole vs. %16/7 in risperidone Conclusion: Aripiprazole that is readily

  7. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on progression of incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    The aim of the study was to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment with a selective beta blocker would have an effect on the progression rate of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six male patients with juvenile-onset diabetes with incipient nephropathy (urinary...... albumin excretion above 15 micrograms/min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 hr) were treated with metoprolol (200 mg daily). At the start of the antihypertensive treatment the mean age was 32 years +/- 4.2 (SD). The patients were followed a mean 5.4 years +/- 3.1 (SD) with repeated measurements...... of urinary albumin excretion before and during 2.6 years +/- 1.0 (SD) of treatment. The blood pressure was depressed by the treatment (systolic blood pressure from 135 mm Hg +/- 8.6 to 124 mm Hg +/- 6.2, NS; mean blood pressure from 107 mm Hg +/- 7.6 to 97 mm Hg +/- 3.4, 2p less than 0.05; diastolic...

  8. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewertz, Marianne (Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)); Bonde Jensen, Anders (Inst. of Clinical Research, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  9. Effect of Ursodeoxycolicacid in Treatment of Bile Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazem Nezam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bile gastritis (gastropathy is a kind of gastritis which is caused by reflux of bile contents through duodenum on stomach. It can occur spontaneously without any former gastric surgeries which affect sphincter of pylorus. The positive impact of some certain drugs such as prokinetic agents e.g. metoclopramide, Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs, cholestyramine and sucralfate in treating bile gastritis has been confirmed. This study has been conducted in order to analyze the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, which is a harmless drug, on patients with the bile gastritis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, all patients with dyspepsia who were qualified to undertake endoscopy were enrolled and then 60 patients with bile gastritis were selected for the study. The patients were divided into two groups; a group was treated by UDCA, omeprazole and sucralfate and another one was treated with placebo, omeprazole and sucralfate for two weeks. Finally, at the end of the third week of treatment patients were examined.Results: A total of sixty 19-70 year-old patients (Mean: 46 years old included in this study. At the end of the study, there was not found any meaningful difference between the two groups in terms of pain intensity, heartburn intensity, severity of bloating, vomiting and early satiety; however, each group independently showed improvement of the mentioned indices after termination of the treatment (p=0.0005.Conclusion: Adding UDCA to the standard treatment (sucralfate is not clinically effective in curing the bile gastritis.

  10. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  11. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plafki, C. [Center for Hyperbaric Medicine, Luebeck (Germany); Carl, U.M.; Glag, M.; Hartmann, K.A. [Department for Radiotherapy, University Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Radiogene Spaeteffekte koennen die Lebensqualitaet der betroffenen Patienten erheblich beeintraechtigen. Bei vielen Erscheinungsformen fehlen standardisierte Therapieschemata. Die hyperbare Sauerstofftherapie (HBO) hat sich als hilfreiche Methode in der Behandlung radiogener Spaeteffekte erwiesen. Material und Methode: Die wesentlichen Grundlagen und klinischen

  12. Yoga as a Complementary Treatment of Depression: Effects of Traits and Moods on Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shapiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary findings support the potential of yoga as a complementary treatment of depressed patients who are taking anti-depressant medications but who are only in partial remission. The purpose of this article is to present further data on the intervention, focusing on individual differences in psychological, emotional and biological processes affecting treatment outcome. Twenty-seven women and 10 men were enrolled in the study, of whom 17 completed the intervention and pre- and post-intervention assessment data. The intervention consisted of 20 classes led by senior Iyengar yoga teachers, in three courses of 20 yoga classes each. All participants were diagnosed with unipolar major depression in partial remission. Psychological and biological characteristics were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and participants rated their mood states before and after each class. Significant reductions were shown for depression, anger, anxiety, neurotic symptoms and low frequency heart rate variability in the 17 completers. Eleven out of these completers achieved remission levels post-intervention. Participants who remitted differed from the non-remitters at intake on several traits and on physiological measures indicative of a greater capacity for emotional regulation. Moods improved from before to after the yoga classes. Yoga appears to be a promising intervention for depression; it is cost-effective and easy to implement. It produces many beneficial emotional, psychological and biological effects, as supported by observations in this study. The physiological methods are especially useful as they provide objective markers of the processes and effectiveness of treatment. These observations may help guide further clinical application of yoga in depression and other mental health disorders, and future research on the processes and mechanisms.

  13. A Characterization of the average tree solution for tree games

    OpenAIRE

    Debasis Mishra; Dolf Talman

    2009-01-01

    For the class of tree games, a new solution called the average tree solution has been proposed recently. We provide a characterization of this solution. This characterization underlines an important difference, in terms of symmetric treatment of the agents, between the average tree solution and the Myerson value for the class of tree games.

  14. Sample Size Bias in Judgments of Perceptual Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul C.; Kimura, Nicole M.; Smith, Andrew R.; Marshall, Lindsay D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative,…

  15. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment for different wastewaters requires new approaches to quantify performance, and the establishment of specific procedures and parameters to characterize the outcome of fed-batch treatability tests. It is shown here that Coulombic efficiency can be used to directly calculate energy consumption relative to wastewater treatment in terms of COD removal, and that the average current, not maximum current, is a better metric to evaluate the rate of the bioelectrochemical reactions. The utility of these methods was demonstrated using simulated current profiles and actual wastewater tests. Industrial and domestic wastewaters were evaluated using small volume MECs, and different inoculation strategies. The energy needed for treatment was 2.17kWhkgCOD-1 for industrial wastewater and 2.59kWhkgCOD-1 for domestic wastewater. When these wastewaters were combined in equal amounts, the energy required was reduced to 0.63kWhkgCOD-1. Acclimation of the MEC to domestic wastewater, prior to tests with industrial wastewaters, was the easiest and most direct method to optimize MEC performance for industrial wastewater treatment. A pre-acclimated MEC accomplished the same removal (1847 ± 53 mg L-1) as reactor acclimated to only the industrial wastewater (1839 ± 57 mg L-1), but treatment was achieved in significantly less time (70 h versus 238 h). © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dollar-Cost Averaging: An Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Dollar-cost Averaging (DCA) is a common and useful systematic investment strategy for mutual fund managers, private investors, financial analysts and retirement planners. The issue of performance effectiveness of DCA is greatly controversial among academics and professionals. As a popularly recommended investment strategy, DCA is recognized as a risk reduction strategy; however, the advantage was claimed as the expense of generating higher returns. The dissertation is to intensively inves...

  17. Effects of alkalinity on membrane bioreactors for reject water treatment: Performance improvement, fouling mitigation and microbial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dalong; Zhou, Zhen; Shen, Xuelian; Wei, Haijuan; Jiang, Lu-Man; Lv, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Two submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for reject water treatment were operated to investigate effects of sodium bicarbonate (SB) addition on enhancing process performance and mitigating membrane fouling. Results showed that SB addition enhanced average removal efficiencies of COD and NH4-N by 14.6% and 38.3%, respectively. With SB addition, the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in activated sludge increased, but those in membrane foulants greatly decreased. Gel permeation chromatography analysis demonstrated that EPS in MBRs for reject water treatment had much larger molecular weight (MW) and broader MW distribution than those in MBRs for municipal wastewater treatment. The fouling mitigation by SB was attributed to a deprotonation mechanism reduced EPS adsorption on negatively charged membrane surfaces, and improvement of degradation efficiency of macromolecular organic matters. SB addition into MBRs for reject water treatment increased microbial abundance, enriched nitrifying bacteria, and converted predominant AOB genus from Nitrosomonas to Nitrosospira. PMID:26340030

  18. Effects of Treatment Duration and Cooling Rate on Pure Aluminum Solidification Upon Pulse Magneto-Oscillation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edry, Itzhak; Mordechai, Tomer; Frage, Nachum; Hayun, Shmuel

    2016-03-01

    The effect of pulse magneto-oscillation (PMO) treatment on casting grain size has been widely investigated. Nevertheless, its mechanism remains unclear, especially when PMO is applied at different periods during solidification, namely when only applied above the melting point. In the present work, the effect of PMO treatment applied at different segments during solidification was investigated. It was found that the dendrite fragmentation model may well explain the effect of PMO applied during the dendrite growth stage. However, only the cavities activation model may account for the effect when PMO is conducted above the melting point. In current study, the effect of PMO treatment on grain size was also investigated at various cooling rates. It was established that the cooling rate had only a slight effect on grain size when PMO treatment was applied. Thus, PMO treatment may provide homogeneous grain size distribution in castings with different wall thicknesses that solidified with various cooling rates.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on bioactivity of anodic titania films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anodic oxidation could be employed to produce crystalline titania films on Ti6Al4 V surfaces for inducing apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF). In this work, the effect of further heat treatment on the bioactivity of anodic titania films was researched. The surface constitution, morphology, crystal structure and apatite-forming ability of titania films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated the apatite formation on the Ti6Al4 V surfaces could be attributed to abundance of Ti-OH groups formed via anodic oxidation, but subsequent heat treatment would decrease the amount of surface hydroxyl (OH) groups and result in the loss of the apatite-forming ability.

  20. Towards Effective Photothermal/Photodynamic Treatment Using Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucharskaya, Alla; Maslyakova, Galina; Terentyuk, Georgy; Yakunin, Alexander; Avetisyan, Yuri; Bibikova, Olga; Tuchina, Elena; Khlebtsov, Boris; Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Tuchin, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different size and shape are widely used as photosensitizers for cancer diagnostics and plasmonic photothermal (PPT)/photodynamic (PDT) therapy, as nanocarriers for drug delivery and laser-mediated pathogen killing, even the underlying mechanisms of treatment effects remain poorly understood. There is a need in analyzing and improving the ways to increase accumulation of AuNP in tumors and other crucial steps in interaction of AuNPs with laser light and tissues. In this review, we summarize our recent theoretical, experimental, and pre-clinical results on light activated interaction of AuNPs with tissues and cells. Specifically, we discuss a combined PPT/PDT treatment of tumors and killing of pathogen bacteria with gold-based nanocomposites and atomic clusters, cell optoporation, and theoretical simulations of nanoparticle-mediated laser heating of tissues and cells. PMID:27517913

  1. Effect of multiple austenitizing treatments on HT-9 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of multiple austenitizing treatments on the toughness of an Fe-12Cr-1.0Mo-0.5W-0.3V (HT-9) steel was studied. The resulting microstructures were characterized by their mechanical properties, precipitated carbide distribution, and fracture surface appearance. It was proposed that multiple transformations would refine the martensite structure and improve toughness. Optical and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that the martensite packet structure was somewhat refined by a second austenite transformation. Transmission electron microscopy studies of carbon extraction replicas showed that this multiple step treatment had eliminated grain boundary carbide films seen in single treated specimens on prior austenite grain boundaries. The 0.2% yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation were relatively unchanged, but the toughness measured by fatigue pre-cracked Charpy impact tests increased for the multiple step specimens

  2. Effect of yeast antagonist in combination with heat treatment on postharvest blue mold decay and Rhizopus decay of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyin; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Dong, Ying

    2007-04-01

    The potential of using heat treatment alone or in combination with an antagonistic yeast for the control of blue mold decay and Rhizopus decay of peaches caused by Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer respectively, and in reducing natural decay development of peach fruits, as well as its effects on postharvest quality of fruit was investigated. In vitro tests, spore germination of pathogens in PDB was greatly controlled by the heat treatment of 37 degrees C for 2 d. In vivo test to control blue mold decay of peaches, heat treatment and antagonist yeast, as stand-alone treatments, were capable of reducing the percentage of infected wounds from 92.5% to 52.5% and 62.5%, respectively, when peach fruits stored at 25 degrees C for 6 d. However, in fruit treated with combination of heat treatment and Cryptococcus laurentii, the percentage of infected wounds of blue mold decay was only 22.5%. The test of using heat treatment alone or in combination with C. laurentii to control Rhizopus decay of peaches gave a similar result. The application of heat treatment and C. laurentii resulted in low average natural decay incidences on peaches after storage at 4 degrees C for 30 days and 20 degrees C for 7 days ranging from 40% to 30%, compared with 20% in the control fruit. The combination of heat treatment and C. laurentii was the most effective treatment, and the percentage of decayed fruits was 20%. Heat treatment in combination with C. laurentii had no significant effect on firmness, TSS, ascorbic acid or titratable acidity compared to control fruit. Thus, the combination of heat treatment and C. laurentii could be an alternative to chemicals for the control of postharvest decay on peach fruits. PMID:17140691

  3. Effective post-exposure treatment of Ebola infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Feldmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viruses are highly lethal human pathogens that have received considerable attention in recent years due to an increasing re-emergence in Central Africa and a potential for use as a biological weapon. There is no vaccine or treatment licensed for human use. In the past, however, important advances have been made in developing preventive vaccines that are protective in animal models. In this regard, we showed that a single injection of a live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing the Ebola virus glycoprotein completely protected rodents and nonhuman primates from lethal Ebola challenge. In contrast, progress in developing therapeutic interventions against Ebola virus infections has been much slower and there is clearly an urgent need to develop effective post-exposure strategies to respond to future outbreaks and acts of bioterrorism, as well as to treat laboratory exposures. Here we tested the efficacy of the vesicular stomatitis virus-based Ebola vaccine vector in post-exposure treatment in three relevant animal models. In the guinea pig and mouse models it was possible to protect 50% and 100% of the animals, respectively, following treatment as late as 24 h after lethal challenge. More important, four out of eight rhesus macaques were protected if treated 20 to 30 min following an otherwise uniformly lethal infection. Currently, this approach provides the most effective post-exposure treatment strategy for Ebola infections and is particularly suited for use in accidentally exposed individuals and in the control of secondary transmission during naturally occurring outbreaks or deliberate release.

  4. Effective palliative treatment of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Response to treatment was placed into five categories: complete response, partial response, stable, progression or recurrence. A separate review was performed on the 43 treated sites with documentation of response at the completion of radiation treatments and the 35 treated sites with documentation of acute toxicity. RESULTS: The overall response rate for the 40 evaluable sites was 90% with a complete response rate of 78% at a median follow-up of 7 months. The 43 treated sites immediately evaluated at the completion of treatment had a complete response rate of only 16% with an overall response rate of 63%. Of the 35 sites noted to have acute toxicity, 63% experienced discomfort from radiation therapy. This discomfort usually resolved without intervention within 2 weeks of completion of irradiation. For patients with and without opportunistic infections noted at the initiation of radiation treatments, complete responses were observed in (8(12)) sites (67%) and (21(23)) sites (91%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation therapy for EKS of the foot yields excellent response rates, comparable to responses in other cutaneous sites with EKS. The presence of opportunistic infections appears to be a poor prognosticator of response to radiation treatments. Empathy and support are required in this group of patients since initial responses to radiation therapy are often disappointing and pedal discomfort can be exaccerbated. Fortunately, the discomfort resolves and complete response is achievable in the majority of patients. The 3.5 Gy tri-weekly fractionation schedule is a convenient and effective regimen, lessening treatment visits for patients with ambulatory discomfort

  5. New cost-effective treatment strategies for acute emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subani; Chong, David H

    2014-01-01

    In an era of ever-increasing healthcare costs, new treatments must not only improve outcomes and quality of care but also be cost-effective. This is most challenging for emergency and critical care. Bigger and better has been the mantra of Western medical care for decades, leading to costlier but not necessarily better care. Recent advances focused on new implementation processes for evidence-based best practices such as checklists and bundles have transformed medical care. We outline recent advances in medical practice that have positively affected both the quality of care and its cost-effectiveness. Future medical care must be smarter and more effective if we are to meet the increasing demands of an aging patient population in the context of ever more limited resources. PMID:24160941

  6. Effect of blood vessel segmentation on the outcome of electroporation-based treatments of liver tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Marčan

    Full Text Available Electroporation-based treatments rely on increasing the permeability of the cell membrane by high voltage electric pulses applied to tissue via electrodes. To ensure that the whole tumor is covered with sufficiently high electric field, accurate numerical models are built based on individual patient anatomy. Extraction of patient's anatomy through segmentation of medical images inevitably produces some errors. In order to ensure the robustness of treatment planning, it is necessary to evaluate the potential effect of such errors on the electric field distribution. In this work we focus on determining the effect of errors in automatic segmentation of hepatic vessels on the electric field distribution in electroporation-based treatments in the liver. First, a numerical analysis was performed on a simple 'sphere and cylinder' model for tumors and vessels of different sizes and relative positions. Second, an analysis of two models extracted from medical images of real patients in which we introduced variations of an error of the automatic vessel segmentation method was performed. The results obtained from a simple model indicate that ignoring the vessels when calculating the electric field distribution can cause insufficient coverage of the tumor with electric fields. Results of this study indicate that this effect happens for small (10 mm and medium-sized (30 mm tumors, especially in the absence of a central electrode inserted in the tumor. The results obtained from the real-case models also show higher negative impact of automatic vessel segmentation errors on the electric field distribution when the central electrode is absent. However, the average error of the automatic vessel segmentation did not have an impact on the electric field distribution if the central electrode was present. This suggests the algorithm is robust enough to be used in creating a model for treatment parameter optimization, but with a central electrode.

  7. Effect of treatment time on characterization and properties of nanocrystalline surface layer in copper induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farzad Kargar; M Laleh; T Shahrabi; A Sabour Rouhaghdam

    2014-08-01

    Nanocrystalline surface layers were synthesized on pure copper by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) at various treatment times. The microstructural features of the surface layers produced by SMAT were systematically characterized by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness and surface roughness measurements were also carried out. It is found that the thickness of the deformed layer increased from 50 to 500 m with increasing treatment time from 10 to 300 min, while the average grain size of the top surface layer decreased from 20 to 7 nm. Hardness of the all SMATed samples decreased with depth. Furthermore, the hardness of the top surface layer of the SMATed samples was at least two times higher than that of the un-treated counterpart. Surface roughness results showed different trend with treatment time. Amounts of PV and a values first sharply increased and then decreased.

  8. Effects of waste treatment technique and quality of waste on bioaerosols in Finnish waste treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolvanen, O.

    2004-07-01

    The last fifteen years have seen immense changes in waste treatment in Finland. The number of landfill sites has been reduced and new waste treatment plants have been constructed; source separation of the various waste fractions has been become increasingly effective. At the same time, considerable attention has been paid to environmental factors such as odour problems. Another important factor at waste treatment plants is the working conditions of employees. Earlier, there were numerous problems with occupational hygiene in sewage treatment plants and landfills. The present study was undertaken to determine whether serious problems with bioaerosols still exist now that there are new waste treatment techniques and waste is sorted. The concentrations of dust, microbes and endotoxins were investigated at one windrow composting site in 1993-1994 and at eight waste treatment plants in 1998-2003. The best environment in regard to occupational hygiene was the combined drum and tunnel composting plant in Heinola. The most problematic area in the plant was the storage room (tunnel) for compost, but the concentrations of bioaerosols were low even there. At the composting plant in Hyvinkaeae, where the same kind of technique was in use, there were problems with bioaerosols in all working areas investigated. The same problems were encountered in dirty working areas in a drum composting plant in Oulu; in the control room number of bioaerosols was low. Conditions were worst in the dry waste treatment plant in Tampere, where viable microbes were a particular problem in the processing hall. As well, the concentrations of dust and endotoxin were occasionally increased to a level harmful to human health. The dry waste was most affected with microbes, while the treatment of wood waste caused problems with dust. In the other plants of the study, sorting and crushing of waste caused the highest concentrations of bioaerosols. The two most common air-borne fungi at every plant were

  9. Targeting therapy to minimize antimicrobial use in preweaned calves: effects on health, growth, and treatment costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, A C B; Moore, D A; Besser, T E; Sischo, W M

    2009-09-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial use in food animals is questioned because of the potential for development of resistant bacteria and future inability to use some antimicrobials for human or animal disease. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of raising preweaned dairy calves without antimicrobials in the milk and minimizing therapeutic antimicrobial treatment on morbidity, mortality, weight gain, and treatment costs. Newborn calves (n = 358) were allocated to 1 of 4 groups, housed outdoors in individual hutches, and monitored for 28 d. Calves in the conventional therapy (CT) group were treated as per dairy protocol with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, spectinomycin, penicillin, and bismuth-pectin for diarrhea. The targeted therapy (TT) group included bismuth-pectin for diarrhea and antimicrobial treatment only in cases of fever or depressed attitude. Within CT and TT groups, calves were equally assigned to receive neomycin and tetracycline in their milk for the first 2 wk of life (AB-milk) or no antimicrobials (NoAB-milk). Daily health evaluations included fecal consistency, respiratory disease, attitude, and hydration status as well as milk and grain consumption. A negative binomial model evaluated the total number of days with diarrhea days in each group. General linear models were used to assess average daily weight gain and grain consumption. Conventionally treated calves had 70% more days with diarrhea than TT calves, and AB-milk calves had 31% more days with diarrhea compared with NoAB-milk calves. The TT calves tended to have a higher average daily gain by 28 d and consumed more grain compared with CT calves. If antimicrobials were used only for diarrhea cases with fever, inappetence, or depression and no in-milk antimicrobials were used, a $10 per calf savings could be realized. Targeting antimicrobial therapy of calf diarrhea cases is prudent not only to save the drugs for future use but also to prevent the potential for

  10. Averaging along Uniform Random Integers

    CERN Document Server

    Janvresse, Élise

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by giving a meaning to "The probability that a random integer has initial digit d", we define a URI-set as a random set E of natural integers such that each n>0 belongs to E with probability 1/n, independently of other integers. This enables us to introduce two notions of densities on natural numbers: The URI-density, obtained by averaging along the elements of E, and the local URI-density, which we get by considering the k-th element of E and letting k go to infinity. We prove that the elements of E satisfy Benford's law, both in the sense of URI-density and in the sense of local URI-density. Moreover, if b_1 and b_2 are two multiplicatively independent integers, then the mantissae of a natural number in base b_1 and in base b_2 are independent. Connections of URI-density and local URI-density with other well-known notions of densities are established: Both are stronger than the natural density, and URI-density is equivalent to log-density. We also give a stochastic interpretation, in terms of URI-...

  11. Heavy Metal Mobility in Polluted Soils: Effect of Different Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Marta. S. Zubillaga; Emiliano Bressan; Raul S.  Lavado

    2008-01-01

    The effects of biosolid compost and phytoremediation applied on the leaching of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc, through the different horizons of a superficially polluted soil were determined. The soil was from the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was contaminated with cadmium copper, lead and zinc. Leaching columns were used with three different horizons: A: 0.12 m A horizon, B: 0.12 m horizon A+0.15 Bt horizon and C: 0.12 m A horizon+0.15 m Bt horizon+0.13 m BC horizon. The treatment...

  12. Effect of alkaline treatment on the ultrastructure of starch granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch is a plant polysaccharide that occurs as discrete and partially crystalline microscopic granules. The development of different extraction methods to isolate granules with high purity and well-defined physical properties has increased due to the wide utilization of starch as an ingredient in the food industry. Alternatives to the pattern alkaline extraction protocol have been investigated in order to improve the extraction yield while maintaining the functional properties of the starch granules. In this work, we focused our efforts on the evaluation of the effect of alkaline treatments on the ultrastructure of Araucaria angustifolia (pinhao) starch granules during their extraction. (author)

  13. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa

  14. Effects Of High Carbon Dioxide Treatment On Tomato Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Batu, Ali

    1996-01-01

    In this research, the effect of short term high C02 treatment on ripening quality of tomatoes were investigated. Tomatoes were harvested at mature green stage and stored at 13°C in controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions for 5 days. The CA conditions were 8 and 30 % C02 all with 3 % 02 plus air as control. The tomatoes were then stored at either 13°C or 20°C in air for 40 days but control fruits were stored for 45 days. At during storage colour, firmness, titratable acidity and total soluble so...

  15. Gatifloxacin for short, effective treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C-Y; Van Deun, A; Rieder, H L

    2016-09-01

    The 9-month regimen for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) piloted in Bangladesh and used, with modifications, in Cameroon and Niger, has achieved treatment success in a very large proportion of patients; gatifloxacin (GFX) is likely to have played a critical role in this success. Two months after the publication of a study reporting that GFX and not moxifloxacin (MFX) was associated with dysglycaemia, the manufacturer announced the withdrawal of GFX from the market. The findings of that study may have less significance for the majority of MDR-TB patients living in high-incidence countries who are much younger, have a lower risk of dysglycaemia and suffer from a highly fatal condition. The problem of dysglycaemia is not limited to GFX use and may occur with other fluoroquinolones; furthermore, GFX-associated dysglycemia was manageable among those MDR-TB patients in Bangladesh and Niger in whom it occurred. GFX has now become unavailable in Bangladesh, Cameroon, Niger and other countries piloting the shorter MDR-TB regimens, depriving resource-poor countries of an efficacious, effective and inexpensive drug with a demonstrated good safety profile for the given indication. There is little reason not to make GFX available for MDR-TB treatment as long as the superiority of non-GFX-based MDR-TB regimens is not demonstrated. PMID:27510237

  16. Thermal treatment effects on laser surface remelting duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Alex M.; Ierardi, Maria Clara F.; Aparecida Pinto, M.; Tavares, Sérgio S. M.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper the microstructural changes and effects on corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels UNS S32304 and UNS S32205, commonly used by the petroleum industry, were studied, following the execution of laser surface remelting (LSM) and post-thermal treatments (TT). In this way, data was obtained, which could then be compared with the starting condition of the alloys. In order to analyze the corrosion behaviour of the alloys in the as-received conditions, treated with laser and after post-thermal treatments, cyclic polarization tests were carried out. A solution of 3.5% NaCl (artificial sea water) was used, as duplex stainless steels are regularly used by the petroleum industry in offshore locations. The results obtained showed that when laser surface treated, due to rapid resolidification, the alloys became almost ferritic, and since the level of nitrogen in the composition of both alloys is superior to their solubility limit in ferrite, a precipitation of Cr2N (chromium nitrides) occurred in the ferritic matrix, causing loss of corrosion resistance, thus resulting in an increase in surface hardness. However, after the post-thermal treatment the alloys corrosion resistance was restored to values close to those of the as-received condition.

  17. Fiber Treatment Effects on Bioreactor Bulk Fluid Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ronald II

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate the exploration of worlds beyond the borders of our planet, it is necessary to maintain sustainable levels of clean water. The remediation of water via Membrane Aerated Bioreactors (MABRs) is one such method, and the focus of this study. MARRs rely on healthy biofilms grown on hollow fiber membranes to clean non-potable water. These biofilms can take weeks to months to establish. Therefore, various fiber treatments and two inoculums were evaluated for their effect on rapid biofilm formation. Fiber treatments are as follows: sanding of the fibers with 1500 and 8000 grit sandpaper, immersion of the fibers in a 1% hydrofluoric acid solution for 12 seconds and 15 minutes, and the immersion of the fibers in a Fluoroetch® solution for 18 seconds and 5 minutes. The two inoculums utilized were sourced from healthy, established MARRs; Texas Tech University (TTU) MABR "TRL5" and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) MABR "R3". Data attained from direct bacterial cell counts of the reactor bulk fluids via fluorescent microscopy, suggests that the fluoroetching treatment combined with the TTU inoculum show the greatest biofilm creation.

  18. Treatment of neuroblastoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine: results and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between April 1984 and December 1985 we treated ten children suffering from neuroblastoma in a total of 25 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) courses. Five had had a relapse of neuroblastoma stage III or IV, three had never achieved a remission in spite of intensive chemotherapy, and two were treated with an unstable remission. The children were each administered from 1 to 5 courses with a dosage per course of between 1295 and 9065 MBq. The sum of the single doses during the whole course of therapy ranged between 3145 and 21,904 MBq per child. Five of five children suffering from bone pain and fever became free of complaints during the first three treatment days. Six of eight children with manifest tumor at onset of therapy responded well to the treatment: response extended from transitory decrease in elevated catecholamine levels in serum and urine to complete disappearance of large abdominal tumor masses. We also observed a decrease in bone marrow involvement and a stabilization of osteolytic lesions. Seven of these eight children died in spite of a good response from 55 to 350 days after the first MIBG treatment course. The only side effect we witnessed was a reversible bone marrow depression. In three children we combined the MIBG therapy with bone marrow transplantation

  19. Effects of heat treatment on properties of boron nitride fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Duan; ZHANG ChangRui; LI Bin; CAO Feng; WANG SiQing

    2012-01-01

    The boron nitride fibers were heated at the range of 600-1400°C in flowing nitrogen and air,respectively,and the effects of heat treatment on the structure,composition and morphology of BN fibers were studied.The results showed that BN fibers exhibited smooth surfaces,and that t-BN was the main phase with a little B2O3 included.After heat treatment at 1400°C in nitrogen atmosphere,the fibers displayed rough surfaces with little change in mass.Better crystallinity was obtained with the increasing temperature.During heat treatment in air,the fibers were oxidized severely as the temperature went up,especially at 1400°C.The volatilization of B2O3,HBO2 and H3BO3 led to the pores on the surfaces of the fibers,while the boron oxide glaze and nitrogen gas produced during the oxidation process protected the fibers from further oxidation.

  20. [Effect of sanatorium treatment on endothelial function in children with primary arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianina, T Iu

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of sanatorium treatment (ST) using sodium chloride baths and metabolic drug mildronat on the dynamics of the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), markers of endothelial function in children with primary arterial hypertension (PAH). ABPM and held defined level of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum of 114 children with PAH aged 12-17. The positive dynamics of ABPM in all groups, but significantly (P metabolic therapy, but significantly (P metabolic therapy. Analysis of ET-1 and ADMA at ST in conjunction with therapy and metabolic rate of sodium chloride baths there was a significant (P metabolic therapy helps to reduce average daily blood pressure, normalization of functional activity of the endothelium as a normalization of the synthesis of NO (P < 0.,001), a significant decrease of ET-1 (P < 0.01) and ADMA (P < 0.01). PMID:24908958

  1. Effectiveness of shock wave therapy as an alternative to the rotator cuff injury treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Joaquín Del Gordo-D´Amato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rotator cuff injuries are reason for consultation frequent in elderly patients. Most of the time there are no background traumatic acute generating progressive limitations in activities of daily living (ADLS. The objective of this study is to show results in tendonitis of the rotator cuff, in patients treated with extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT. It is a prospective descriptive observational study which presents clinical and functional outcomes in patients with described lesion, treated with ESWT with poor response to conventional treatments and clinical pictures of longstanding through implementing visual analog scale (VAS of pain and evaluation of range of motion. The greater presence of lesion is present in women 63.6%. Mostly affected shoulder was right in a 63.6%. Found significant changes in VAS pre and post treatment with averages of 7.9 and 0.5 respectively and different statistical p < 0.001. We were conclude that the ESWT is an effective method in the treatment of the tendonitis of the rotator cuff with relief from pain and return to functional levels.

  2. Health effects on nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the health status of nearby residents of a wood treatment plant who had sustained prolonged low-level environmental exposure to wood processing waste chemicals. Methods: A population of 1269 exposed residents who were plaintiffs or potential plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the wood treatment plant were evaluated by questionnaire for a health history and symptoms. A representative sample of 214 exposed subjects was included in the analysis. One hundred thirty-nine controls were selected from 479 unexposed volunteers and matched to the exposed subjects as closely as possible by gender and age. Subjects and controls completed additional questionnaires and were evaluated by a physician for medical history and physical examination, blood and urine testing, neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies, and respiratory testing. Environmental sampling for wood processing waste chemicals was carried out on soil and drainage ditch sediment in the exposed neighborhood. Results: The exposed subjects had significantly more cancer, respiratory, skin, and neurological health problems than the controls. The subjective responses on questionnaires and by physician histories revealed that the residents had a significantly greater prevalence of mucous membrane irritation, and skin and neurological symptoms, as well as cancer. (Exposed versus unexposed, cancer 10.0% versus 2.08%, bronchitis 17.8% versus 5.8%, and asthma by history 40.5% versus 11.0%) There were significantly more neurophysiologic abnormalities in adults of reaction time, trails A and B, and visual field defects. Conclusions: Adverse health effects were significantly more prevalent in long-term residents near a wood treatment plant than in controls. The results of this study suggest that plant emissions from wood treatment facilities should be reduced

  3. From cellular doses to average lung dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitive basal and secretory cells receive a wide range of doses in human bronchial and bronchiolar airways. Variations of cellular doses arise from the location of target cells in the bronchial epithelium of a given airway and the asymmetry and variability of airway dimensions of the lung among airways in a given airway generation and among bronchial and bronchiolar airway generations. To derive a single value for the average lung dose which can be related to epidemiologically observed lung cancer risk, appropriate weighting scenarios have to be applied. Potential biological weighting parameters are the relative frequency of target cells, the number of progenitor cells, the contribution of dose enhancement at airway bifurcations, the promotional effect of cigarette smoking and, finally, the application of appropriate regional apportionment factors. Depending on the choice of weighting parameters, detriment-weighted average lung doses can vary by a factor of up to 4 for given radon progeny exposure conditions. (authors)

  4. Effects of enzymatic treatment and refining on the properties of recycled pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Pala, Helena; Mota, Manuel; Gama, Francisco Miguel

    1998-01-01

    The effect of refining and enzymatic treatment on secondary fibre properties is shown. The following treatment sequences were studied: (i) refining; (ii) refining + enzymatic treatment; (iii) enzymatic treatment + refining; (iv) enzymatic treatment. The effectiveness of the methods was evaluated by measuring physical and mechanical properties of pulp and paper (drainage rate, burst, tensile and tear indexes). The obtained data revealed that combined refining and enzymatic treatment can be con...

  5. Effects of Triclabendazole and Al bendazole on treatment of Fascioliasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, a liver fluke. It affect numerous species mainly ruminants. Its usual hosts are sheep or cattle, in which it causes a disease of economic importance. The prevalence of human infection has been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different anthelmintic drugs against Fasciola hepatica infestation. Twenty parasite-free rabbits were divided into four groups, group I: non-infected non- treated rabbits, kept as negative control. Rabbits of group II, III and IV were intended for infection with 20 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae per animal. Group II received no treatment and kept as positive control. Animals of group III administered Triclabendazole (TCBZ) treatment orally in a single dose (0.45 mg/Kg b. wt.) 60 days after infection. Consistent with group III, animals of group IV administered a bendazole (ABZ) treatment orally in a single dose (0.52 mg/Kg b.wt.) The comparisons between the anthelmintic efficacy of TCBZ and ABZ were done throughout (1): parasitological evaluation of egg counts; (2): biochemical evaluation of serum AST and ALT; (3): histopathological examination of liver and (4): scanning electron microscope of host worms. Data represented showed that the egg count was highly significant reduced in rabbits treated with TCBZ as compared with those of positive control group. But, rabbits treated with ABZ revealed slightly reduction as compared with those of positive control group. Also, the results illustrated that infection of rabbits with Fasciola hepatica induced a highly significant increased in serum (AST and ALT) activities compared to control group. In response to treatment with TCBZ and ABZ, it was revealed a significant decrease in the enzyme activity of both serum AST and ALT levels compared to those of control negative group as well as control positive group. However, histopathological examination showed a significant

  6. The Effect of Lithium Carbonate in the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of antithyroid effect of lithium carbonate, it was administered to the 17 hyperthyroid and 5 euthyroid patients, who visited the Seoul National University Hospital from Jan. to Aug., 1977. Thyroid function tests were performed just before the administration of Lithium carbonate, 2 weeks and 2 months after lithium treatment. The results were as follows; 1) In the 5 euthyroid patients, no significant changes in thyroid function tests were obtained before and after lithium treatment. 2) In the 17 hyperthyroid patients, the values of the T3RIA were 370±121 ng/dl 2 weeks after lithium treatment as compared with 506±121 ng/dl before the administration, of which the mean percentage fall was 26.9%. T3RU was varied from 56.8±8.0% to 47.3±8.1% (16.7% in mean percentage fall), T4 was changed from 24.2±2.4 ug/dl to 22.0±4.2 ug/dl (9.1% in meanfall), and T7, from 13.82±2.25 to 10.55±3.12 (23.7% in mean fall). 3) In the 5 hyperthyroid patients, serial thyroid function tests were performed 2 weeks and 2 months later. The mean percentage falls of T3RIA were 36.6 and 61.3%, 2 weeks and 2 months after lithium treatment respectively. Those of T3RU were 17.5 and 35.1%, those of T4 were 20.4 and 44.0%, T7, 35.0 and 60.7%. 4) Approximately 45-60% of mean fall in thyroid function tests were obtained within the second week. Normal thyroid function tests were observed in 2 among 17 patients within the second week, and 2 among 5 patients within the second month. 18 patients, however, became clinically euthyroid within the 4th week. 5) Single case of hypothyroidism was experienced, and 5 patients (29.4%) complained mild side effect. Lithium salts could be safely administered to hyperthyroid patients who are allergic to thioamides or iodine. Its use is indicated in cases of acute thyrotoxicosis in which it's necessary to reduce hormone levels very rapidly, and lithium-thioamides drug combination is a highly effective and safe means of initial routine control of

  7. Fluoride glass starting materials - Characterization and effects of thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, William; Dunn, Bruce; Shlichta, Paul; Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The production of heavy metal fluoride (HMF) glasses, and the effects of thermal treatments on the HMF glasses are investigated. ZrF4, BaF2, AlF3, LaF3, and NaF were utilized in the synthesis of zirconium-barium-lanthanum-aluminum-sodium fluoride glass. The purity of these starting materials, in particular ZrF4, is evaluated using XRD analysis. The data reveal that low temperature heating of ZrF4-H2O is effective in removing the water of hydration, but causes the production of ZrF4 and oxyfluorides; however, dehydration followed by sublimation results in the production of monoclinic ZrFe without water or oxyfluoride contaminants.

  8. Operative treatment of aneurysms and Coanda effect: a working hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J L; Roberts, A

    1972-12-01

    The Coanda effect has been known to mechanical engineers for many decades. Consideration of this effect both by a neurosurgeon and a mechanical engineer revealed that it might be of importance during the operative treatment of intracranial aneurysms. If a jet effect were produced in the stream of blood after clipping an aneurysm, most of the flow of blood might be directed down only one limb of a bifurcation occurring in a vessel near to a clipped aneurysm. Blood might also be entrained from the other limb of the bifurcation. This boundary wall effect, which can occur without the rate of flow through the vessel being altered appreciably, could explain some of the unfortunate sequelae of aneurysm surgery which occur in the absence of any obvious cause such as postoperative thrombosis, etc. A possible mechanism for some of the complications after gradual occlusion of the common carotid artery in the neck is also proposed on this basis. Other details of how this data might be of clinical significance, together with suggestions for how to avoid fluidic effects during aneurysm surgery, are presented. PMID:4647852

  9. Characterizing individual painDETECT symptoms by average pain severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadosky, Alesia; Koduru, Vijaya; Bienen, E Jay; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    Background painDETECT is a screening measure for neuropathic pain. The nine-item version consists of seven sensory items (burning, tingling/prickling, light touching, sudden pain attacks/electric shock-type pain, cold/heat, numbness, and slight pressure), a pain course pattern item, and a pain radiation item. The seven-item version consists only of the sensory items. Total scores of both versions discriminate average pain-severity levels (mild, moderate, and severe), but their ability to discriminate individual item severity has not been evaluated. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional, observational study of six neuropathic pain conditions (N=624). Average pain severity was evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, with severity levels defined using established cut points for distinguishing mild, moderate, and severe pain. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was followed by ridit analysis to represent the probability that a randomly selected subject from one average pain-severity level had a more favorable outcome on the specific painDETECT item relative to a randomly selected subject from a comparator severity level. Results A probability >50% for a better outcome (less severe pain) was significantly observed for each pain symptom item. The lowest probability was 56.3% (on numbness for mild vs moderate pain) and highest probability was 76.4% (on cold/heat for mild vs severe pain). The pain radiation item was significant (P<0.05) and consistent with pain symptoms, as well as with total scores for both painDETECT versions; only the pain course item did not differ. Conclusion painDETECT differentiates severity such that the ability to discriminate average pain also distinguishes individual pain item severity in an interpretable manner. Pain-severity levels can serve as proxies to determine treatment effects, thus indicating probabilities for more favorable outcomes on pain symptoms.

  10. Treatment effects of sleep apnoea: where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buyse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article summarises some of the topics of discussion held during one of the workshops in preparation for the 7th International Symposium of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven on "Respiratory somnology: a clinical update; March 2006". Participants discussed the effectiveness of treatment in obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS. Of the topics discussed, the following are considered in the present article. 1 Sleepiness and attention deficit, as well as higher cognitive/executive defects in OSAHS, and the closely related clinical dilemma of "how to deal with the car-driving-ability problem in OSAHS". 2 Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP in post-stroke patients. The most important data discussed during the workshop for 1 and 2 are presented in the present article. 3 The effects of CPAP on metabolic outcome. One metabolic dysfunction of OSAHS is the change in leptin and ghrelin levels, which represent the "yin and yang" of an appetite regulatoion system that has developed to inform the brain about the current energy balance state. Data on the impact of sleep loss, either behavioural or OSAHS-related, on this neuroendocrine regulation of appetite are also presented. The participants ended the workshop with a discussion session on the results of more "controversial" treatment strategies for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome, such as cardiac pacing, hyoid bone expansion (a preliminary surgical technique, drug treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome, female hormone replacement therapy and the role of stimulants for refractory sleepiness in already treated obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome patients.

  11. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensi

  12. Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkali and heat treatments were first introduced by Kim et al. to prepare a bioactive surface on titanium. This method has been proven very effective and widely used in other studies to promote titanium osteointegration. This study aims to investigate further the effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of high purity titanium. High purity titanium foils were immersed in NaOH aqueous solutions of 0.5 M, 5 M and 15 M at 60°C and 80 °C for 1, 3 and 7 days. The surface morphology was examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The obtained phases were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the spectra range of 4000-600 cm−1 at 4 cm−1 resolution and 50 scans. At the same soaking temperature and soaking time, a thicker porous network was observed with increasing concentration of NaOH. At the same soaking temperature, a much porous structure was observed with increasing soaking time. At constant alkali concentration, more homogenously distributed porous surface structure was observed with increasing soaking temperature

  13. New Effective Treatment of Liver Fibrosis by Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁

    2002-01-01

    @@ Liver fibrosis is an abnormal proliferation pathologic process of intrahepatic fibrous connective tissue that occurs after liver cells have been necrotized and stimulated by inflammatory factors. It is called fibrosis when the pathological change is mild, and liver cirrhosis when the change becomes so severe as to reconstruct the liver lobuli to form pseudolobuli and nodule(1). Liver fibrosis is an important pathological characteristic of chronic hepatopathy and the chief intermediate link to further develop of liver cirrhosis. No ideal remedy for treatment of chronic hepatitic cirrhosis has been found so far. Although some drugs, such as colchicine and penicillamine, had been reported to have the effect of fibrosis inhibition, their clinical application is still limited for the rather severe toxic-side effects. Certain progress have been made from the clinical and experimental studies on anti-fibrosis treatment by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) carried out widely in China in recent ten years. And here is a general review of the drugs used.

  14. A Comparative Dosimetric Analysis of the Effect of Heterogeneity Corrections Used in Three Treatment Planning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Andrea Celeste

    Successful treatment in radiation oncology relies on the evaluation of a plan for each individual patient based on delivering the maximum dose to the tumor while sparing the surrounding normal tissue (organs at risk) in the patient. Organs at risk (OAR) typically considered include the heart, the spinal cord, healthy lung tissue, and any other organ in the vicinity of the target that is not affected by the disease being treated. Depending on the location of the tumor and its proximity to these OARs, several plans may be created and evaluated in order to assess which "solution" most closely meets all of the specified criteria. In order to successfully review a treatment plan and take the correct course of action, a physician needs to rely on the computer model (treatment planning algorithm) of dose distribution to reconstruct CT scan data to proceed with the plan that best achieves all of the goals. There are many available treatment planning systems from which a Radiation Oncology center can choose from. While the radiation interactions considered are identical among clinics, the way the chosen algorithm handles these interactions can vary immensely. The goal of this study was to provide a comparison between two commonly used treatment planning systems (Pinnacle and Eclipse) and their associated dose calculation algorithms. In order to this, heterogeneity correction models were evaluated via test plans, and the effects of going from heterogeneity uncorrected patient representation to a heterogeneity correction representation were studied. The results of this study indicate that the actual dose delivered to the patient varies greatly between treatment planning algorithms in areas of low density tissue such as in the lungs. Although treatment planning algorithms are attempting to come to the same result with heterogeneity corrections, the reality is that the results depend strongly on the algorithm used in the situations studied. While the Anisotropic Analytic Method

  15. Effect of coconut oil and defaunation treatment on methanogenesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmüller, Andrea; Soliva, Carla R; Kreuzer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo the role of rumen ciliate protozoa with respect to the methane-suppressing effect of coconut oil. Three sheep were subjected to a 2 x 2 factorial design comprising two types of dietary lipids (50 g x kg(-1) coconut oil vs. 50 g x kg(-1) rumen-protected fat) and defaunation treatment (with vs. without). Due to the defaunation treatment, which reduced the rumen ciliate protozoa population by 94% on average, total tract fibre degradation was reduced but not the methane production. Feeding coconut oil significantly reduced daily methane release without negatively affecting the total tract nutrient digestion. Compared with the rumen-protected fat diet, coconut oil did not alter the energy retention of the animals. There was no interaction between coconut oil feeding and defaunation treatment in methane production. An interaction occurred in the concentration of methanogens in the rumen fluid, with the significantly highest values occurring when the animals received the coconut oil diet and were subjected to the defaunation treatment. Possible explanations for the apparent inconsistency between the amount of methane produced and the concentration of methane-producing microbes are discussed. Generally, the present data illustrate that a depression of the concentration of ciliate protozoa or methanogens in rumen fluid cannot be used as a reliable indicator for the success of a strategy to mitigate methane emission in vivo. The methane-suppressing effect of coconut oil seems to be mediated through a changed metabolic activity and/or composition of the rumen methanogenic population. PMID:12785449

  16. Effect of urea treatment on digestibility and utilization of sorghum straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianogo A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine male goats and nine castrated lambs were randomly divided into three groups of six animals to receive one of three experimental diets in a digestion trial. Diet S, provided chopped sorghum straw (SS, 28/ concentrate (C and 10/ Dolichos lablab hay (D. Diet Su1 provided SS containing 2/ urea, 24/ C and 12/ D, and diet Sue1 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 25/ C and 14/ D. Twenty four lambs were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals to receive one of three diets in a 56-day growth trial; diet S2 provided SS plus 60/ C; diet Su2 provided SS containing 2/ urea plus 60/ C, and diet Sue2 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 60/ C. The digestion trial showed higher (P<.05 daily intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber for S, than for Sue1 and Su1. Dry matter intake was 55.93; 39.42 and 42.34 g[kgE0.75E-1 for S1, Su1 and Sue1, respectively. Dry matter intake was slightly higher for lambs [50 g[kgE0.75E-1] than for goats [42 g[kE0.75E-1]. There was no effect of dietary treatments on apparent nutrient digestibility. During the growth trial, intake of straw varied from 17.97 (S2 to 24.78 g[kgE0.75E-1 (Sue2, but differences were not significant. Daily gain did not differ between treatments. Total feed intake and feed efficiency were only slightly affected by dietary treatments. Average feed intake was 4.36/ of body weight. High concentrate intakes may have upset the effect of urea treatment and silo fermentation in this study.

  17. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR ZONATION PURPOSES, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ja. Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Cu/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are 10 more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15,1991 «On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant». The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: – The average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; – Soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Cu/km2. The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2014. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the

  18. Preliminary effect of proximal femoral nail antirotation on emergency treatment of senile patients with intertrochanteric fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xin; LIU Lei; YANG Tian-fu; TU Chong-qi; WANG Guang-lin; FANG Yue; DUAN Hong; ZHANG Hui; PEI Fu-xing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyse the clinical outcome of emergency treatment of senile intertrochanteric fractures with proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA).Methods: From September 2008 to March 2009, 35 senile patients with intertrochanteric fracture, aged from 65 to 92 years with an average age of 76.5 years, were treated with PFNA within 24 hours after injury. There were 10 type Ⅰ fractures, 19 type Ⅱ and 6 type Ⅲ according to upgraded Evans-Jensen classification system. All patients were complicated with osteoporosis, and 19 patients had preexisting internal medical diseases. According to the rating scale of disease severity by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), there were 9 grade Ⅰ, 14 grade Ⅱ, 8 grade Ⅲ, and 4 grade Ⅳ.Results: The duration for operation ranged from 45 to 73 minutes with an average of 57.6 minutes. The volume of blood loss during operation ranged from 50 to 120 ml with an average of 77.5 ml. Patients could ambulate 2-4 days after operation (mean 3.5 days). Hospital stay was 4-7 days (mean 5.3 days). Full weight bearing time was 10-14 weeks (mean 12.8 weeks). During hospitalization period, there was no regional or deep infection, hypostatic pneumonia, urinary tract infection and bedsore except for 2 cases of urine retention. All cases were followed up with an average period of 12.3 months, and bone healing achieved within 15-18 weeks (mean 16.6 weeks). No complications such as delayed union, coxa vara or coxa valga, screw breakage or backout occurred and only 2 cases had trochanter bursitis because of thin body and overlong end of the antirotated nail. According to the Harris grading scale, the results were defined as excellent in 21 cases, good in 9 cases and fair in 5 cases, with the excellent and good rates of 85.7%.Conclusion: The emergency treatment of senile intertrochanteric fracture with proximal femoral nail antirotation has the advantages of minimal invasion, easy manipulation,less blood loss

  19. Electromagnetic modes induced by averaged geodesic curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Kinetic theory of geodesic acoustic and related modes is developed with emphasis on the electromagnetic effects due to electron parallel motion, higher order dispersion and drift effects. In general, dispersion of GAM is determined by the ion sound Larmor radius, ion Larmor radius, and electron inertia. Relative contribution of these effects depends on the particular regime and mode localization. It is shown that there are exist new type of electromagnetic (Alfven) modes induced by averaged geodesic curvature. It is shown that the fluid limit of the kinetic dispersion relation is exactly recovered by the extended MHD (Grad hydrodynamics) exactly recovers the kinetic dispersion relation for geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs). The coupling of modes of different polarization is investigated within the extended MHD and kinetic models. The role of drift effects, in particular, electron temperature gradient on GAMs and related modes is investigated. (author)

  20. Efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose Effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Nazareth Fernandes da Paz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as estratégias que influenciam a efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose em Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS. MÉTODOS: Levantamento epidemiológico, descritivo, retrospectivo, envolvendo os prontuários médicos de 588 pacientes com tuberculose cadastrados no programa de controle da tuberculose, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2008, em duas UBS - Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM e UBS da Pedreira (UBSP - localizadas na cidade de Belém (PA. Os critérios de exclusão foram ter idade 59 anos e ter alta por transferência ou mudança de diagnóstico. Os dados coletados foram idade, sexo, tipo de tratamento (autoadministrado ou supervisionado, coinfecção por HIV e desfecho do tratamento. Os profissionais de saúde envolvidos no programa da tuberculose das duas UBS foram entrevistados quanto às estratégias utilizadas no controle da doença e à rotina de atendimento. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas quanto a idade, sexo e coinfecção com HIV nas duas UBS. A utilização de tratamento supervisionado foi significativamente maior no CSEM que na UBSP, assim como a taxa de cura, enquanto a taxa de abandono foi maior na UBSP que no CSEM. CONCLUSÕES: Para pacientes cadastrados em programas de controle da tuberculose em UBS no Brasil, o tratamento supervisionado provavelmente é uma estratégia de extrema importância para se alcançar uma menor taxa de abandono.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the treatment strategies that influence the effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment at primary care clinics (PCCs in Brazil. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective epidemiological survey based on the medical records of 588 tuberculosis patients enrolled in the tuberculosis control programs at two PCCs located in the city of Belém, Brazil: Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM and Unidade Básica de Saúde da Pedreira (UBSP. The survey was limited to patients enrolled between January of 2004 and December of 2008

  1. Fenton's treatment as an effective treatment for elderberry effluents: economical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Silva, Nuno; Martins, Rui C; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2016-05-01

    The utilization of Fenton's oxidation for the depuration of elderberry juice wastewater was studied. The aim was to select the adequate cost-effective operating conditions suitable to lead to an effluent within the legal thresholds to be discharged into the natural water courses. The treatment efficacy was assessed by chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, phenolic content and total solids removal besides its ability to improve biodegradability (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD). Moreover, the costs of the applied reactants were also considered. Fenton's reaction was able to abate at least 70% of COD (corresponding to a final value below 150 mg O2 L(-1)). Besides, total phenolic content degradation was always achieved. Within these conditions, the resulting effluent is able to be directly discharged into the natural hydric channels. Fenton oxidation could be successfully applied as a single treatment method with a reactant cost of 4.38 € m(-3) ([Fe(2+)] = 20 mmol L(-1), [H2O2] = 100 mmol L(-1), pH = 3 and 4 h of oxidation procedure). PMID:26507382

  2. Effect of cryogenic treatment and aging treatment on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Kaixuan, E-mail: gukaix@126.com [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, TIPC, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Hong [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, TIPC, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhao, Bing [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Wang, Junjie, E-mail: wangjunjie@vip.sina.com [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, TIPC, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, TIPC, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Zhiqiang [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The effects of cryogenic treatment and aging treatment on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ti–6Al–4V were experimentally investigated in the present work. Different treatments contained cryogenic treatment, aging treatment and the combination of the two treatments were conducted on the commercial annealed Ti–6Al–4V alloy. The results of tensile test show that both cryogenic treatment alone and cryogenic treatment prior to aging can improve the plasticity of Ti–6Al–4V alloy, the maximum improvement is by the extent of 22.7% which is obtained by the execution of cryogenic treatment prior to aging at 650 °C. However, all the treatments reduce the strength of this alloy except for cryogenic treatment prior to aging at 400 °C, but these variations in strength are no more than 5.5%. Meanwhile, there is no obvious change in microhardness. The methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the changes of microstructure after different treatments. The execution of cryogenic treatment reduces the quantities of β phases by transforming the metastable β phases into stable β phases and α phases while the aging treatment at 550 °C and 650 °C increases the β phase particles to a small extent. The examinations of TEM show that dislocation networks generate after cryogenic treatment which resulted from the movement and interaction of dislocations. Aging treatment after cryogenic treatment increases the density of dislocations and promotes the formation of twins in the microstructure of Ti–6Al–4V alloy.

  3. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  4. Treatment of reindeer with ivermectin - effect on dung insect fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C. Nilssen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug widely used in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (L. in Fennoscandia and North America. Most of the ivermectin injected in the animal is excreted unchanged in the faeces. Several reports show that ivermectin in cattle dung disrupts colonisation and survival of beneficial dung breeding insects. The present study investigated the effect of ivermectin on the reindeer dung fauna. Four reindeer calves (males, 6 months of age were injected subcutaneously with standard doses of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg body weight in early December. The daily produced faeces was collected until day 30 after treatment, and the concentration of ivermectin was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest concentration measured (mean 1632 ng/g faeces (dry weight, range 907 to 2261 ng/g among the animals was on day 4 after treatment. The concentration decreased gradually to 28 ng/g (range 6 to 58 ng/g on day 30. Faeces portions from day 4 and from untreated reindeer were placed in the field on 2-4 July and recollected on 13-22 September in order to detect possible differences in decomposition fauna between the samples. The most important coprophilous beetles (Apbodius spp. and flies (Scatbophaga spp. were not detected in this winter dung whether it contained ivermectin or not, probably because of the dry consistency and small size of the pellets. On the other hand, these insects (larvae and imagines were common in summer dung, which had been deposited naturally in the field and later placed together with the ivermectin-containing winter dung for comparison. The summer dung has a more soft and lumpy consistency. Treatment in autumn or early winter implies that the bulk of the ivermectin from the animal will be present in faeces with winter consistency, since this bulk portion is excreted during the first 30 days after treatment. This dry and pelleted faeces is not utilized by the important

  5. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A

    2006-03-01

    risks of major surgery, a 6 to 29% chance of requiring re-operation, and the remote possibility of developing a pain management problem. Knowledge of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis natural history and long-term treatment effects is and will always remain somewhat incomplete. However, enough is know to provide patients and parents the information needed to make informed decisions about management options.

  6. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Onychomycosis is the most frequent cause of nail disease and the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis in Bangladesh. The humid and warm climate of this tropical country is congenial for the growth of fungi. Therapeutic limitations of conventional antimycotic agents in respect of low cure rates, high relapse rate, inherent side effects, long duration of treatment and high cost in treating onychomycosis have provided clear incentives to explore alternative forms of treatment procedure. The objectives of the present thesis work were: (i) To use beta radiation as a curative therapy for Onychomycosis, optimisation of its dosages and to promote an innovative clinical development in the field of therapeutic application of nuclear medicine; (ii) To assess the efficacy of beta radiation either alone or in combination with conventional antifungal therapy; and (iii) To reduce the duration of drug exposure and cost of treatment for onychomycosis. This is a PhD research work under the University of Dhaka and was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology, Government of the people's republic of Bangladesh. This study is an open, randomised and controlled trial to verify the efficacy of beta radiation in patients with onychomycosis. Using the appropriate statistical formula, sample size of the study population was determined and in each group 92 patients were assigned. With an assumption of patients drop out and for better statistical analysis, a total of 330 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criterion having diagnosed to have onychomycosis clinically and mycological were randomly allocated to enter in therapeutic regimen. Study population was randomised in three groups. Group A (n =110) received griseofulvin orally 500 mg once daily for 12-16 weeks; Group B (n=110) received beta radiation, 500 rads bi-weekly for 3 weeks (total 2500 rads); and Group C (n=110) received combined beta radiation (total 2500 rads in 3 weeks) and

  7. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser in the treatment of alveolar osteitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Alveolar osteitis (AO is the extraction wound healing disorder with a presence of severe pain. Low level laser therapy stimulates cell metabolism and microcirculation, have has pronounced analgesic, antiedematous and anti-inflammatory effect and speeds up wound healing process. The aim of this study was to present results of clinical research that examined the effectiveness of low level laser in pain relief and healing of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the lower jaw which was formed on the second day after tooth extraction. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects divided into the study and the control group. In both groups extraction wounds were processed in similar way, except that in the study group was applied daily treatment of low level laser with a total of eight sessions of radiation, while in the control group extraction wounds were dressed with zinc oxide eugenol paste, which was changed every 48 hours up to the pain cessation. Measurement of pain intensity was done with a visual analogue scale (VAS 10 min prior to processing of extraction wounds and daily for the next eight days. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser on healing of extraction wounds was performed on the day eight of the treatment. Results. On the day five after beginning of the treatment of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the patients of the study group a lower average value of pain as compared to the control group was registered. This difference was increased within the following days. Extraction wounds healing in the study group was more successful and faster than in the control group. Conclusion. This study suggested that the reduction of pain was more pronounced in the patients with alveolar osteitis whose extraction wounds were subjected to low level laser radiation in comparison to those in which extraction wounds were treated with zinc oxide eugenol paste.

  8. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.; Larsen, Rasmus; Brixen, K.; Hougaard, D. M.; Richelsen, B.; Bruun, J. M.; Andersen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  9. The effects of heat treatment and environment on corrosion fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy X-750 is a nickel-base alloy used extensively in Light Water Reactor (LWR) nuclear power systems due to its excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. In spite of alloy X-750's exceptional high temperature properties, it has been found to be susceptible to environmentally assisted fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in relatively low temperature aqueous environments such as those that exist in LWR systems. In order to develop a better understanding of the role that microstructure plays in the fatigue behavior of alloy X-750, three thermal treatments were studied. The treatments used were as hot worked + : (1) 24 h at 885 degree C + 20 h at 704 degree C (AH), (2) lh at 982 degree C + 20 h at 704 degree C (BH), and (3) 1 h at 1093 degree C + 20 h at 704 degree C (HTH). Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted at frequencies of 0.1 and 10 Hz in the following aqueous environments: (1) high purity, air saturated water (8 ppM O2) at 93 degree C and 288 degree C, (2) high purity, deoxygenated water (5 ppb O2) at 93 degree C, and (3) simulated BWR water chemistry with hydrogen additions at 288 degree C. Crack growth rate data was collected at constant values of stress intensity factor range (ΔK). The results show that crack growth rates and morphology are a function of ΔK, frequency, thermal treatment and environment. Frequency effects were most significant for the AH material. Crack growth rates generally decrease, for a given value of ΔK, in the BH and HTH materials with the HTH material showing the lowest growth rate

  10. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics

  11. African American Cocaine Users’ Preferred Treatment Site: Variations by Rural/Urban Residence, Stigma, and Treatment Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    To encourage access, policy makers and providers need information about variations in drug users’ treatment preferences. This study examined how rural/urban residence, stigma surrounding drug use, and perceived treatment availability and effectiveness are associated with African American cocaine users’ preferences for the site of treatment (local, or in one’s home town; nearby, or in a town nearby; and distant, or in a town farther away). Two hundred rural and 200 urban cocaine users were recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed in-person interviews. Multinomial logit regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relative odds of preferring local vs. nearby and local vs. distant treatment. Rural cocaine users preferred distant (58%) and urban users preferred local (57%) treatment. Rural residence and a lifetime history of treatment were associated with higher odds of preferring nearby vs. local treatment; older age and greater perceived local treatment effectiveness were associated with lower odds of preferring nearby vs. local treatment. Rural residence, access to an automobile, higher rejection/discrimination stigma scores, and higher Brief Symptom Inventory-Global Severity Index scores were associated with higher odds of preferring distant vs. local treatment; older age, lower educational attainment, and greater perceived discrimination after treatment were associated with lower odds of preferring distant vs. local treatment. The findings from this study suggest that a regional approach to organizing drug use treatment services could better satisfy the preferences of rural African American cocaine users, whereas local treatment services should be expanded to meet the needs of urban cocaine users. PMID:25456092

  12. Effects of in situ plasma treatment on optical and electrical properties of index-matched transparent conducting oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effects of in situ plasma-treatment on optical and electrical properties of index-matched indium tin oxide (IMITO) thin film. To render the IMITO-coated surface hydrophilic and study the optical and electrical characteristics, we performed in situ oxygen plasma post-treatment without breaking vacuum. The 94.6% transmittance in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm) increased on average to 96.4% and the maximum transmittance reached 98% over a broad wavelength range. The surface roughness and sheet resistance improved from 0.9 nm and 200 Ω/sq to 0.0905 nm and 100 Ω/sq, respectively, by in situ plasma post-treatment. We confirmed by contact angle measurement that the hydrophobic IMITO surface was altered to hydrophilic. The improved optical and electrical characteristics of in situ plasma-treated IMITO makes it adequate for high-resolution liquid crystal on silicon displays.

  13. The effect of surface treatments on the field emission characteristics of patterned carbon nanotubes on KOVAR substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsoo; Lee, Yang Doo; Kang, Byung Hyun; Dong, Ki-Young; Baek, Jinho; Fai, Vincent Lau Chun [Korea University, Display and Nanosystem Laboratory, College of Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won-Seok [Electronic Materials Research Group, Hyosung Corporation, R and D Business Laboratory (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Cheol-Min [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Byeong-Kwon, E-mail: bkju@korea.ac.kr [Korea University, Display and Nanosystem Laboratory, College of Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The field emission characteristics of patterned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) the average diameter of which is 16 nm cathodes on substrates with different surface treatments were investigated. The surface treatments of the substrate were performed by nickel electroless plating and palladium coating, which is an activation procedure of electroless plating. CNTs were patterned on the surface-treated substrate with radius of 200 {mu}m through conventional photolithography process. Two deposition methods, electrophoresis deposition and spray deposition, were used to investigate the effects of deposition methods on field emission characteristics of the cathodes. It was revealed that the two deposition methods showed similar turn-on field trends, which means that the different surface morphologies of the substrates have more influence on the field emission characteristics than the different deposition methods performed in this study. Through the surface treatments, the roughness of the surface increased and cathodes with a high roughness factor showed better field emission characteristics compared to non-treated ones.

  14. Effect of chronic (-)-nicotine treatment on rat cerebral benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of (-)-nicotine on cerebral benzodiazepine receptors (BzR) with radiotracer methods. The effect of (-)-nicotine on BzR was examined in in vitro studies using chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats using 3H-diazepam. The in vitro radioreceptor assay showed a 14% increase in the maximum number of binding sites of BzR in chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats in comparison with the control rats. Moreover, a convenient in vivo uptake index of 125I-iomazenil was calculated and a higher uptake of the radioactivity was observed in the chronic (-)-nicotine-treated group than in the control group. Although further studies of the mechanism of (-)-nicotine on such BzR changes are required, an increase in the amount of BzR in the cerebral cortex was found in rats that underwent chronic (-)-nicotine treatment, and this result contributed to the understanding of the effects of (-)-nicotine and smoking on neural functions

  15. Effect of silane treatment on microstructure of sisal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisal fibers were modified using silane coupling agents to determine the mechanism of the chemical reaction between the fiber and silane. A combination of scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and TG/mass spectrometry (TG/MS) were used to investigate the effects of chemical treatment on sisal fibers systemically. The results showed that a layer of film was formed on the fiber surface by silane adsorption. The layer consisted of siloxane and polysiloxane. FTIR spectroscopy indicated that chemical bonds were formed between the silane coupling agent and the fiber. It was further verified by TG-DSC and TG/MS analysis that the decomposition properties of the sisal fibers were changed by the formation of chemical bonds between the silane and the sisal fiber surface.

  16. Effect of periodontal treatment on adipokines in type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi; Ogawa; Teerasak; Damrongrungruang; Sayaka; Hori; Kaname; Nouno; Kumiko; Minagawa; Misuzu; Sato; Hideo; Miyazaki

    2014-01-01

    The association between adipokines and inflammatory periodontal diseases has been studied over the last two decades. This review was intended to explore the observation that periodontal therapy may lead to an improvement of adipokines in diabetic patients. In summary, substantial evidence suggests that diabetes is associated with increased prevalence, extent and severity of periodontitis. Numerous mechanisms have been elucidated to explain the impact of diabetes on the periodontium. However, current knowledge concerning the role of major adipokines indicates only some of their associations with the pathogenesis of periodontitis in type 2 diabetes. Conversely, treatment of periodontal disease and reduction of oral inflammation may have positive effects on the diabetic condition, although evidence for this remains somewhat equivocal.

  17. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of soybean products in animal feeds is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF. Proper heat processing is required to destroy ANF naturally present in raw soybeans and to remove solvent remaining from the oil extraction process. Over and under toasting of soybean causes lower nutritional value. Excessive heat treatment causes Maillard reaction which affects the availability of lysine in particular and produces changes to the chemical structure of proteins resulting in a decrease of the nutritive value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating time on the protein solubility. The investigation of the heating time on protein solubility in soybean meal (SBM revealed a negative correlation (r = -0.9596. Since the urease index is suitable only for detecting under processed SBM, the protein solubility is an important index for monitoring SBM quality.

  18. How does wireless phones effect communication and treatment in hospitals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    phones can compromise patient safety, both by disturbing the practitioners’ concentration, causing mistakes, and by transporting bacteria between patients. This qualitative Ph.D.-study wishes to further investigate the effect of wireless phones on communication and treatment in hospital units, using......The use of wireless phones in hospital units are increasing, inducing practitioners to carry a working phone each. A study performed in a medical hospital unit demonstrates that wireless phones can impair communication between health care practitioners and patients (Paasch, in press). Also wireless...... participant observations, ethnographic interviews and video observations. The study will explore how wireless phones mediate and is mediated by practitioners communication with each other and patients. As hospitals are constructed and reconstructed by all communication within, this insight will enable...

  19. How does wireless phones effect communication and treatment in hospitals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    2013-01-01

    phones can compromise patient safety, both by disturbing the practitioners’ concentration, causing mistakes, and by transporting bacteria between patients. This qualitative Ph.D.-study wishes to further investigate the effect of wireless phones on communication and treatment in hospital units, using......The use of wireless phones in hospital units are increasing, inducing practitioners to carry a working phone each. A study performed in a medical hospital unit demonstrates that wireless phones can impair communication between health care practitioners and patients (Paasch, in press). Also wireless...... participant observations, ethnographic interviews and video observations. The study will explore how wireless phones mediate and is mediated by practitioners communication with each other and patients. As hospitals are constructed and reconstructed by all communication within, this insight will enable...

  20. The effect of reminder systems on patients' adherence to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenerty SD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah D Fenerty1, Cameron West1, Scott A Davis1, Sebastian G Kaplan3, Steven R Feldman1,2,41Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, 4Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USABackground: Patient adherence is an important component of the treatment of chronic disease. An understanding of patient adherence and its modulating factors is necessary to correctly interpret treatment efficacy and barriers to therapeutic success.Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to systematically review published randomized controlled trials of reminder interventions to assist patient adherence to prescribed medications.Methods: A Medline search was performed for randomized controlled trials published between 1968 and June 2011, which studied the effect of reminder-based interventions on adherence to self-administered daily medications.Results: Eleven published randomized controlled trials were found between 1999 and 2009 which measured adherence to a daily medication in a group receiving reminder interventions compared to controls receiving no reminders. Medication adherence was measured as the number of doses taken compared to the number prescribed within a set period of time. Meta-analysis showed a statistically significant increase in adherence in groups receiving a reminder intervention compared to controls (66.61% versus 54.71%, 95% CI for mean: 0.8% to 22.4%. Self-reported and electronically monitored adherence rates did not significantly differ (68.04% versus 63.67%, P = 1.0. Eight of eleven studies showed a statistically significant increase in adherence for at least one of the reminder group arms compared to the control groups receiving no reminder intervention.Limitations: The data are limited by imperfect measures of adherence due to variability in data collection methods. It is also likely

  1. Historical perspective on effects and treatment of sulfur mustard injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John S; Schoneboom, Bruce A

    2013-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide; SM) is a potent vesicating chemical warfare agent that poses a continuing threat to both military and civilian populations. Significant SM injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in long-term complications affecting the skin, eyes, and lungs. This report summarizes initial and ongoing (chronic) clinical findings from SM casualties from the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), with an emphasis on cutaneous injury. In addition, we describe the cutaneous manifestations and treatment of several men recently and accidentally exposed to SM in the United States. Common, chronic cutaneous problems being reported in the Iranian casualties include pruritis (the primary complaint), burning, pain, redness, desquamation, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, erythematous papular rash, xerosis, multiple cherry angiomas, atrophy, dermal scarring, hypertrophy, and sensitivity to mechanical injury with recurrent blistering and ulceration. Chronic ocular problems include keratitis, photophobia, persistent tearing, sensation of foreign body, corneal thinning and ulceration, vasculitis of the cornea and conjunctiva, and limbal stem cell deficiency. Chronic pulmonary problems include decreases in lung function, bronchitis with hyper-reactive airways, bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis, stenosis of the trachea and other large airways, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, decreased total lung capacity, and increased incidences of lung cancer, pulmonary infections, and tuberculosis. There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management; current treatment strategy consists of symptomatic management and is designed to relieve symptoms, prevent infections, and promote healing. New strategies are needed to provide for optimal and rapid healing, with the goals of (a) returning damaged tissue to optimal appearance and normal function in the shortest period of time, and (b) ameliorating chronic

  2. Environmental Effects of Sewage Sludge Carbonization and Other Treatment Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fong Huang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization is a newly developed process that converts sewage sludge to biocoal, a type of solid biomass that can partially substitute for coal during power generation. This study presents an assessment of the environmental effects of various sewage sludge treatment processes, including carbonization, direct landfills, co-incineration with municipal solid waste, and mono-incineration in Taiwan. This assessment was conducted using the life cycle assessment software SimaPro 7.2 and the IMPACT2002+ model. Results show that carbonization is the best approach for sewage sludge treatment, followed in descending order by co-incineration with municipal solid waste, direct landfills, and mono-incineration. The carbonization process has noticeable positive effects in the environmental impact categories of terrestrial ecotoxicity, aquatic ecotoxicity, land occupation, ionizing radiation, aquatic eutrophication, non-renewable energy, and mineral extraction. For the emission quantity of greenhouse gases, landfilling has the greatest impact (296.9 kg CO2 eq./t sludge, followed by mono-incineration (232.2 kg CO2 eq./t sludge and carbonization (146.1 kg CO2 eq./t sludge. Co-incineration with municipal solid waste has the benefit of reducing green house gas emission (–15.4 kg CO2 eq./t sludge. In the aspect of energy recovery, sewerage sludge that has been pretreated by thickening, digestion, and dewatering still retains a high moisture content, and thus requires a significant amount of energy use when used as a substitute solid fuel. Therefore, the carbonization of sewage sludge would be a more sustainable option if the energy delivery and integration processes are made more efficient.

  3. Radiotherapy effect in conservation treatment for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy (RT) in conservative treatment for breast cancer (CT-BC) has been proven to be determinant for the local control of the disease. Radiation therapy was described by several authors as the most important factor affecting the cosmetic results of this treatment. Technical progress in RT, use of filters and wedges and an increased knowledge of the influence of fraction size total dose and irradiated volume on breast tissues contributed to avoid major radiotherapeutic side effects in the CT-BC. Cosmetic outcome from 2 groups of patients (pts) with breast cancer in stage T 1-2(T> = 2,5 cm) N 0-1 M o0 of the prospective trial Milan III were compared. Both groups pts (n=89) were treated with quadrantectomyand axillary dissection. 49 pts received complementary RT with a dose of 50 Gy over 5 weeks with a daily fraction of 2 Gy and a further boost of 10 Gy (10 MeV electrons) on the scar. Remaining 40 pts did not receive RT. Cosmetic results were subjectively and objectively (asymmetry index) evaluated. No significant cosmetic differences were observed between the 2 study groups. A good or excellent symmetry was observed in 59% of irradiated pts and 64% of non irradiated pts. Negative results were observed in 4% and 2% respectively. Subjective ovulation showed similar results, with a good or excellent symmetry in 57% of irradiated pts and 72.5% of non irradiated pts. Poor results were observed in 16.3% and 27.5% respectively. Telangiectasia were observed in 4% of irradiated pts, while hypertrophied scars were only noted in non irradiated pts (15%). No acute side effects of RT, as erythema or ulceration of breast skin, were recorded. In our experience, the standard dose of 50 Gy administered by two opposite tangential fields plus a 10 Gy boost did not affect the cosmetic results of CT.BC, whereas it provided a better local control of disease. The possibility to avoid RT in selected group of pts should be justified by the discomfort of this treatment for the pt, cost

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Of The Injury Treatment On Diabetes Based On The Leg Between Modern Treatment Method With Conventional Treatment Method Of Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Basri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyze cost effectiveness of the injury on diabetic leg based on the difference between modern treatment method and conventional method. The research was a quasi experimental study conducted in nurse independent practice and Tenriawaru hospital of bone. The sample was determined using purposive sampling method based on inclusive criteria. The data were obtained using instrument on the study of Bates-Jensen and record sheets of material cost of injury treatment. The difference of cost effectiveness between modern method and conventional method was examined using indenpendent t-tes with a confident level of 95. The results of indevendent t-tes indicate that there is a difference of cost effectiveness between modern treatment method and conventional method with a value of p 0001. Therefore health service institution need to develop treatment method of injury on diabetic leg using modern treatment method.

  5. Calculating High Speed Centrifugal Compressor Performance from Averaged Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Fangyuan; Fleming, Ryan; Key, Nicole L.

    2012-12-01

    To improve the understanding of high performance centrifugal compressors found in modern aircraft engines, the aerodynamics through these machines must be experimentally studied. To accurately capture the complex flow phenomena through these devices, research facilities that can accurately simulate these flows are necessary. One such facility has been recently developed, and it is used in this paper to explore the effects of averaging total pressure and total temperature measurements to calculate compressor performance. Different averaging techniques (including area averaging, mass averaging, and work averaging) have been applied to the data. Results show that there is a negligible difference in both the calculated total pressure ratio and efficiency for the different techniques employed. However, the uncertainty in the performance parameters calculated with the different averaging techniques is significantly different, with area averaging providing the least uncertainty.

  6. Effect sizes of non-surgical treatments of non-specific low-back pain

    OpenAIRE

    A. Keller; Hayden, J; Bombardier, C; Tulder, M. van

    2007-01-01

    Numerous randomized trials have been published investigating the effectiveness of treatments for non-specific low-back pain (LBP) either by trials comparing interventions with a no-treatment group or comparing different interventions. In trials comparing two interventions, often no differences are found and it raises questions about the basic benefit of each treatment. To estimate the effect sizes of treatments for non-specific LBP compared to no-treatment comparison groups, we searched for r...

  7. Effect of treatment duration on surface nanocrystallization induced by fast multiple rotation rolling and its thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Effect of treatment time on surface nanocrystallization of a low carbon steel. ► The grain size decreases gradually with the increase of treatment duration. ► The microhardness of FMRR treated sample reaches 284 HV. ► The nanocrystalline layer is stable during annealing treatment up to 400 °C. - Abstract: A nanocrystalline surface layer of low carbon steel induced by fast multiple rotation rolling (FMRR) was determined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the grain size decreases gradually with the increase of treatment duration. Equiaxed nanocrystalline with the average grain size about 20 nm is obtained in the top surface layer after FMRR treatment for 30 min. With the increase of treatment duration (60 min), the average grain size further reduces to about 9 nm. At the same time, the microhardness of surface layer for treated sample is improved correspondingly owing to grain refinement and work-hardening. Compared with original sample, the microhardness of FMRR treated sample is increased by more than 200%. After annealing treatment, the investigation of thermal stability of nanocrystalline layer indicates that the grains begin to grow obviously at annealing for 400 °C, and abnormal grain growth also occurs in individual grains. Due to grain growth and stress relaxation during annealing, the microhardness slightly decreases at 400 °C. In spite of this, the majority of grains are still nanocrystalline, ranging from about 30 to 60 nm. It demonstrates that the nanocrystalline layer has high thermal stability.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of new oral anticoagulants in the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the cost-effectiveness of apixaban in the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE compared with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH/warfarin and other new oral anticoagulants (NOACs. Material and methods. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using a Markov model, developed on the basis of the results of AMPLIFY AMPLIFY-Ext trials, and network meta-analyzes on the use of antithrombotic drugs in acute VTE and long-term administration after VTE. Markov cycle duration was 3 months. The duration of therapy in the simulation was 6 and 12 months. The time horizon of the study was 5 years. Life expectancy and costs were discounted by 3.5% per year. The costs on drugs were estimated based on the registered marginal cost price. Besides, the analysis was performed to the weighted average auctions prices for NOACs. The costs of monitoring and treatment of complications were calculated on the basis of the collective agreement of compulsory health insurance system (St. Petersburg, 2015. Results. Apixaban provided significant cost savings compared with other modes of anticoagulant therapy for hospital treatment. Apixaban provided cost savings compared with other NOACs with a minimal increase in life expectancy with regard to quality in long-term analysis. Apixaban provided an increase in life expectancy compared with the appointment of LMWH/warfarin, but required some increase in costs. At therapy duration of 6 months, the costs per one additional year of life with regard to quality and to one additional calendar year of life were 309.8-403.7 and 481.6-627.4 thousand rubles, respectively; at therapy duration of 12 months – 1254.4-1476.9 and 649.0-764.1 thousand rubles, respectively. Conclusion. Apixaban provided a reduction in the incidence of bleeding compared with other NOACs and LMWH/warfarin with comparable efficacy in treatment and secondary prevention of VTE. Apixaban therapy costs were lower than these

  9. Do time-averaged, whole-building, effective volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions depend on the air exchange rate? A statistical analysis of trends for 46 VOCs in U.S. offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackes, A; Waring, M S

    2016-08-01

    We used existing data to develop distributions of time-averaged air exchange rates (AER), whole-building 'effective' emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and other variables for use in Monte Carlo analyses of U.S. offices. With these, we explored whether long-term VOC emission rates were related to the AER over the sector, as has been observed in the short term for some VOCs in single buildings. We fit and compared two statistical models to the data. In the independent emissions model (IEM), emissions were unaffected by other variables, while in the dependent emissions model (DEM), emissions responded to the AER via coupling through a conceptual boundary layer between the air and a lumped emission source. For 20 of 46 VOCs, the DEM was preferable to the IEM and emission rates, though variable, were higher in buildings with higher AERs. Most oxygenated VOCs and some alkanes were well fit by the DEM, while nearly all aromatics and halocarbons were independent. Trends by vapor pressure suggested multiple mechanisms could be involved. The factors of temperature, relative humidity, and building age were almost never associated with effective emission rates. Our findings suggest that effective emissions in real commercial buildings will be difficult to predict from deterministic experiments or models. PMID:26010216

  10. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these interfere with how well the cancer treatment works? What proactive measures, like sperm banking or egg preservation, are possible for my child? Are any experimental options available? After treatment, how will we know ...

  11. Effectiveness of a pre-treatment snack on the uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne; Kiragga, Agnes N.; Nuwaha, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Background:School-based mass treatment with praziquantel is the cornerstone for schistosomiasis control in school-aged children. However, uptake of treatment among school-age children in Uganda is low in some areas. The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pre-treatment sn......Background:School-based mass treatment with praziquantel is the cornerstone for schistosomiasis control in school-aged children. However, uptake of treatment among school-age children in Uganda is low in some areas. The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pre...... addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. Four weeks after mass treatment, uptake of praziquantel was assessed among a random sample of 595 children in the snack schools and 689 children in the non-snack schools as the primary outcome. The occurrence...... of side effects and the prevalence and mean intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined as the secondary outcomes. Uptake of praziquantel was higher in the snack schools, 93.9% (95% CI 91.7%-95.7%), compared to that in the non-snack schools, 78.7% (95% CI 75.4%-81.7%) (p = 0.002). The...

  12. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensitivity of the anaerobic bacteria (ie. methanogenic bacteria) to toxic compounds. The anaerobic technologies were initially developed for the treatment of non-toxic organic wastewaters. As the techn...

  13. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

    2009-07-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  14. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O'Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11-15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals. PMID:27512253

  15. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  16. Renibacterium salmoninarum: effect of hypochlorite treatment, and survival in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu

    2004-04-21

    The effect of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on Renibacterium salmoninarum and the survival of the bacterium in autoclaved river water and groundwater were examined. The disinfection trial was performed using R. salmoninarum ATCC 33209. The concentrations of free chlorine were 10, 50, 100 and 200 mg 1(-1), the contact times were 5, 15, and 30 min and 24 h, and the test suspensions were subcultured both on Kidney disease medium (KDM2) agar and in 3 parallel KDM2 broths, which were then subcultured on KDM2 and selective KDM (SKDM) agar. The survival of the bacterium in river water and groundwater was studied using 4 isolates of R. salmoninarum including ATCC 33209. Treatment with sodium hypochlorite effectively reduced the number of culturable cells of R. salmoninarum, but use of the recovery broth showed that small numbers of cells remained viable at all concentrations of free chlorine. The numbers of R. salmoninarum decreased to an undetectable level after 4 wk incubation in the survival trials, but low numbers of colonies were again found in the subculture after 5 wk incubation. Viable cells of R. salmoninarum were still detected in subcultures of all strains after 20 wk of incubation in river water. PMID:15212289

  17. Childfood leukemia. Epidemiological investigation and effectiveness of treatment in Nagasaki over the past 12 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epidemiological investigation of childhood leukemia was performed in Nagasaki Prefecture. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the disease as a whole by studying the incidence classified by year, sex, area and disease type, age of onset, effectiveness of treatment, prognosis, and possible association with the atomic bombing in 1945. The annual incidence was 3.0 per 100000 children under 15 years of age, lower than the national average. There was no significant change in the annual incidence for 12 years. No increase in incidence was observed in Nagasaki City and its surrounding areas. There was no obvious difference in age of onset and incidence by sex from those previously reported. Acute lymphocytic leukemia accounted for a large part of childhood leukemia. There was no increase in the incidence of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, but its familial occurrence and accumulation were observed. The rate of first complete remission and the number of long-term survivors increased with the improvement of treatment for acute leukemia. The influence of the atomic bomb was not clear when the incidence of disease types was compared between areas. The comparison of the disease type ratio in patients of the second and third generations of atomic bomb victims with that of patients without a family history of atomic bomb exposure also did not show an obvious influence of the bomb. (author)

  18. Effect of thermal treatment on potato starch evidenced by EPR, XRD and molecular weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, Ewa; Michalec, Marek; Pawcenis, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Effect of heating of the potato starch on damages of its structure was investigated by quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and determination of the molecular weight distribution. The measurements were performed in the temperature range commonly used for starch modifications optimizing properties important for industrial applications. Upon thermal treatment, because of breaking of the polymer chains, diminishing of the average molecular weights occurred, which significantly influences generation of radicals, evidenced by EPR. For the relatively mild conditions, with heating parameters not exceeding temperature 230 °C and time of heating equal to 30 min a moderate changes of both the number of thermally generated radicals and the mean molecular weight of the starch were observed. After more drastic thermal treatment (e.g. 2 h at 230 °C), a rapid increase in the radical amount occurred, which was accompanied by significant reduction of the starch molecular size and crystallinity. Experimentally established threshold values of heating parameters should not be exceeded in order to avoid excessive damages of the starch structure accompanied by the formation of the redundant amount of radicals. This requirement is important for industrial applications, because significant destruction of the starch matrix might annihilate the positive influence of the previously performed intentional starch modification. PMID:26332295

  19. Experimental Simulation of the Effects of an Initial Antibiotic Treatment on a Subsequent Treatment after Initial Therapy Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Therapy failure of empirical antibiotic treatments prescribed by primary care physicians occurs commonly. The effect of such a treatment on the susceptibility to second line antimicrobial drugs is unknown. Resistance to amoxicillin was rapidly induced or selected in E. coli at concentrations expected in the patient’s body. Strains with reduced susceptibility outcompeted the wild-type whenever antibiotics were present, even in low concentrations that did not affect the growth rates of both strains. Exposure of E. coli to amoxicillin caused moderate resistance to cefotaxime. The combined evidence suggests that initial treatment by amoxicillin has a negative effect on subsequent therapy with beta-lactam antibiotics.

  20. The Effectiveness of Group Treatment for Female Adult Incest Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donalee; Reyes, Sonia; Brown, Brienne; Gonzenbach, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Very few clinicians receive training in the treatment of sexual abuse, yet during their careers many will encounter victims of sexual abuse. This article discusses the incidence of child sexual abuse, defines incest, and discusses treatment options. A review of group treatment is explored, with results being documented providing support for the…